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Sample records for abnormal illness behaviour

  1. "Abnormal" illness behaviour in chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Trigwell, P.; Hatcher, S.; Johnson, M.; Stanley, P.; House, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the presence of abnormal illness behaviour in patients with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. DESIGN--A cross sectional descriptive study using the illness behaviour questionnaire to compare illness behaviour scores and illness behaviour profiles of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and patients with multiple sclerosis. SETTING--A multidisciplinary fatigue clinic and a teaching hospital neurology outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS--98 patients satisfying the Oxford criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome and 78 patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Responses to the 62 item illness behaviour questionnaire. RESULTS--90 (92%) patients in the chronic fatigue syndrome group and 70 (90%) in the multiple sclerosis group completed the illness behaviour questionnaire. Both groups had significantly high scores on the general hypochondriasis and disease conviction subscales and significantly low scores on the psychological versus somatic concern subscale, as measured in relation to normative data. There were, however, no significant differences in the subscale scores between the two groups and the two groups had identical illness behaviour profiles. CONCLUSION--Scores on the illness behaviour questionnaire cannot be taken as evidence that chronic fatigue syndrome is a variety of abnormal illness behaviour, because the same profile occurs in multiple sclerosis. Neither can they be taken as evidence that chronic fatigue and multiple sclerosis share an aetiology. More needs to be known about the origins of illness beliefs in chronic fatigue syndrome, especially as they are important in determining outcome. PMID:7613314

  2. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  3. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  4. Somatic symptom disorders and illness behaviour: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J

    2013-02-01

    The behavioural aspects of somatic symptom disorders have received minimal research attention to date. The first section of this paper identifies key theoretical perspectives relevant to behavioural responses to illness. Specifically, the sociological concept of illness behaviour is offered as a general framework in which to consider the range of psychosocial factors associated with responses to perceived illness. Further, the potential relevance of the construct of abnormal illness behaviour and the cognitive behavioural conceptualization of health anxiety is explored. The second part of the paper describes various approaches to the operationalization of illness behaviour, with particular emphasis on the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire, an instrument with a rich history of application. Additional insight is provided into two contemporary instruments which aim to measure overt behavioural aspects of illness more specifically. The third and final section of the paper makes recommendations for how future research may advance the understanding of state- versus trait-based characteristics of illness behaviour. Suggestions are made for how adaptive forms of behaviour (e.g. self-management, appropriate coping) may reduce the risk of developing a somatic symptom disorder or alternatively, minimizing the potentially negative psychosocial implications of such a presentation.

  5. Illness behaviour in mental ill-health in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    el-Islam, M F; Abu-Dagga, S I

    1990-09-01

    Two hundred and eight individuals were interviewed in order to study the behaviour they adopt in relation to the most common somatic and emotional symptoms of mental ill-health. Illness behaviour included ignoring, brooding, self-help and consultation of others. Older individuals tended more frequently to resort to meditation, native healers and doctors. Males consulted doctors more than females. Brooding was more frequent in well educated subjects. A group of married expatriates who left their wives in their original countries were the most likely to consult doctors. Education and marital status were the most predictive of brooding and self-help behaviour. Self-help was the most commonly adopted illness behaviour. The results are explained in terms of the social and cultural background of the individuals studied because this influences their methods of expressing distress and their action in relation to symptoms.

  6. Alexithymia and illness behaviour among female Indian outpatients with multiple somatic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Chandra, Prabha

    2003-01-01

    Sixty Indian muslim women outpatients with multiple somatic complaints of nonorganic origin were assessed for alexithymia and abnormal illness behavior using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) and the Illness Behaviour Assessment Schedule (IBAS). Alexithymia represented by TAS scores correlated best with the IBAS variables of communication of affect, somatic illness causal beliefs and denial. Correlation with other IBAS variables was modest to poor.There was no correlation of IBAS variables with age of patient, duration of illness or nature of diagnosis: somatoform disorder or anxiety and depressive disorders, The study showed that alexithymia and illness behaviour are overlapping constructs and confirmed the usefulness of TAS as an instrument to discriminate between patients with anxiety/ depressive disorders and somatoform disorders PMID:21206863

  7. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  8. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  9. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R≥0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2012-02-06

    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these 'abnormal' behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal's biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours.

  11. Managing abnormal eating behaviours in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with topiramate.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Tsuno, Norifumi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal eating behaviours are specific to frontotemporal lobar degeneration and increase caregiver burden. Topiramate, an anticonvulsant, suppresses cravings for alcohol and other substances and is a potential treatment for binge eating. However, there are few reports on topiramate efficacy for abnormal eating behaviours in frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. We present three Japanese frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients with abnormal eating behaviours. Topiramate was effective, especially for compulsive eating, in cases with distinct lobar atrophy, but not for all abnormal eating behaviours.

  12. [An Autopsy Case of Abnormal Behaviour Induced by Zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. PMID:26306385

  13. [An Autopsy Case of Abnormal Behaviour Induced by Zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem.

  14. Ineffective chronic illness behaviour in a patient with long-term non-psychotic psychiatric illness: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare – which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this ‘difficult’ case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations. PMID:22798085

  15. Abnormal neurodevelopment, neurosignaling and behaviour in Npas3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Ehrman, Lisa A; Williams, Michael T; Klanke, Justin; Hammer, Daniel; Schaefer, Tori L; Sah, Renu; Dorn, Gerald W; Potter, S Steven; Vorhees, Charles V

    2005-09-01

    Npas3 is a member of the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors that is expressed broadly in the developing neuroepithelium. To study the function of this gene, mice deficient in Npas3 were generated and characterized. Npas3-/- mice were growth-retarded and exhibited developmental brain abnormalities that included a reduction in size of the anterior hippocampus, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and enlargement of the ventricles. A number of behavioural abnormalities were identified in Npas3-/- mice including locomotor hyperactivity, subtle gait defects, impairment of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, deficit in recognition memory and altered anxiety-related responses. Characterization of neurosignaling pathways using several pharmacological agents revealed dysfunctional glutamate, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter signaling. Consistent with these findings, we identified a significant alteration in cortical PSD-95 expression, a PDZ-containing protein that has been shown to be involved in postsynaptic signal transduction. Together, our observations indicate an important role for Npas3 in controlling normal brain development and neurosignaling pathways. PMID:16190882

  16. Illness Perception and Information Behaviour of Patients with Rare Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katavic, Snježana Stanarevic; Tanackovic, Sanjica Faletar; Badurina, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined possible correlations between health information behaviour and illness perception among patients with rare chronic diseases. Illness perception is related to coping strategies used by patients, and some health information behaviour practices may be associated with better coping and more positive perception of…

  17. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare

  18. Abnormal processing of irrelevant information in schizophrenia: the role of illness subtype.

    PubMed

    Carter, C S; Robertson, L C; Nordahl, T E; O'Shora-Celaya, L J; Chaderjian, M C

    1993-07-01

    In a study using a trial by trial version of the Stroop color naming task, we previously found that unmedicated patients with schizophrenia show a pattern of abnormal performance characterized by increased facilitation (speeding) of color-naming, color-congruent words but normal amounts of interference (slowing) of color-naming, color-incongruent words (Carter et al., 1992). Since a similar finding had recently been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease, we suggested that this finding was consistent with hypotheses about the neurobiological substrates of cognitive impairment that draw upon parallel patterns of cognitive performance in the two illnesses. We now report results from an enlarged group of unmedicated patients with schizophrenia that extend our original finding by allowing us to evaluate the role of illness subtype in abnormal performance on the Stroop task. We found that patients with the undifferentiated subtype of the disorder account for the increased Stroop facilitation effect. Patients with the paranoid subtype show their own pattern of abnormal performance, with normal amounts of facilitation and increased interference. These findings are consistent with the results of other studies which suggest that illness subtype is an important source of variability in studies of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  19. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  20. Factors Affecting Mothers' Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illnesses in a Rural Nigerian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Parakoyi, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factors affecting healthcare-seeking…

  1. Behavioural activation interventions for depressed individuals with a chronic physical illness: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is common in people with chronic physical illness and is associated with worse medical outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy and problem-solving improve depression, although usually have small to moderate effects among people with chronic physical illness. Behavioural activation interventions for depression, which aim to increase positive reinforcement from the environment by encouraging individuals to increase pleasant/rewarding activities, have been reported to be equivalent to cognitive behavioural therapy. However, the effectiveness of behavioural activation interventions for depression in individuals with chronic physical illness is unclear. The aims of this systematic review are to identify the extent to which different forms of behavioural activation have been used as a treatment for depression in this population, examine the effectiveness of the interventions, and identify any adaptations which have been made specifically to the interventions for individuals with a range of chronic physical illnesses. Methods/Design Electronic databases will be systematically searched using terms relevant to behavioural activation and depression, and the subset of studies in people with chronic physical illnesses will be identified by manual searching. References and citations of eligible studies will be searched and experts in this field will be contacted to identify additional papers. All study designs will be included in this review to allow for a more extensive identification of the extent of different forms of behavioural activation interventions. The different forms of behavioural activation and the specific chronic physical health conditions for which this intervention has been used will be reviewed narratively. For the effectiveness of the interventions, if sufficient randomised controlled trials have been undertaken the results will be meta-analysed. Non-randomised studies will be narratively synthesised and adaptations to the interventions

  2. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections—a European study

    PubMed Central

    Hordijk, Patricia M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; van Vugt, Saskia F; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients’ illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general practitioner (GP) and identify differences between European regions and types of health care system. Methods. Adult patients presenting with acute cough were included. GPs recorded co morbidities and clinical findings. Patients filled out a diary for up to 4 weeks on their symptoms, illness perception and related behaviour. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions between groups and the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare means. Results. Three thousand one hundred six patients from 12 European countries were included. Eighty-one per cent (n = 2530) of the patients completed the diary. Patients were feeling unwell for a mean of 9 (SD 8) days prior to consulting. More than half experienced impairment of normal or social activities for at least 1 week and were absent from work/school for a mean of 4 (SD 5) days. On average patients felt recovered 2 weeks after visiting their GP, but 21% (n = 539) of the patients did not feel recovered after 4 weeks. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 691) reported feeling anxious or depressed, and 28% (n = 702) re-consulted their GP at some point during the illness episode. Reported illness duration and days absent from work/school differed between countries and regions (North-West versus South-East), but there was little difference in reported illness course and related behaviour between health care systems (direct access versus gate-keeping). Conclusion. Illness course, perception and related behaviour in LRTI differ considerably between countries. These finding should be taken into account when developing International guidelines for LRTI and interventions for setting realistic expectations about illness course

  3. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Yue, Ying; Kong, Li; Wang, Jijun; Li, Chunbo; Tan, Ling; Su, Hui; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1) the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2) atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement. PMID:26789520

  4. Regional Abnormality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia: Effect from the Illness or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Yue, Ying; Kong, Li; Wang, Jijun; Li, Chunbo; Tan, Ling; Su, Hui; Xu, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment are known to modulate brain morphology. However, it is difficult to establish whether observed structural brain abnormalities are due to disease or the effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of illness and antipsychotic treatment on brain structures in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia based on a longitudinal short-term design. Twenty antipsychotic-naïve subjects with first-episode schizophrenia and twenty-four age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 3T MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the brain structural abnormality in patients compared to healthy controls. Nine patients were included in the follow-up examination after 8 weeks of treatment. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) was used to identify longitudinal brain structural changes. We observed significantly reduced grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients showed significantly increased grey matter volume primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, insula, right thalamus, left superior occipital cortex and the bilateral cerebellum. In addition, a greater enlargement of the prefrontal cortex is associated with the improvement in negative symptoms, and a more enlarged thalamus is associated with greater improvement in positive symptoms. Our results suggest the following: (1) the abnormality in the right superior temporal gyrus is present in the early stages of schizophrenia, possibly representing the core region related to schizophrenia; and (2) atypical antipsychotics could modulate brain morphology involving the thalamus, cortical grey matter and cerebellum. In addition, examination of the prefrontal cortex and thalamus might facilitate an efficient response to atypical antipsychotics in terms of symptom improvement.

  5. Behavioural changes observed in demyelination model shares similarities with white matter abnormalities in humans.

    PubMed

    Serra-de-Oliveira, Nathalia; Boilesen, Sabine Nunes; Prado de França Carvalho, Carolina; LeSueur-Maluf, Luciana; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Spadari, Regina Célia; Medalha, Carla Cristina; Monteiro de Castro, Gláucia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Further to the symptoms resulting from demyelination, new studies point to the involvement of neuroinflammation and white matter abnormalities in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Cuprizone, a model of MS, produces consistent demyelination and elicits behavioural, morphological and inflammatory changes in animals that share some similarities with those observed in humans. In this study, we used the cuprizone model in Lewis rats to evaluate clinical signs triggered by the demyelination process which could be comparable with the symptoms seen in white matter abnormalities in human beings. To induce the demyelination process, 0.6% cuprizone was added to the Lewis rats' diet for 4 weeks. We proceeded with behavioural, morphological and immunological analyses. Animals fed with cuprizone exhibited behavioural changes: higher scores in the neurotoxicity test, reduced exploratory and locomotion behaviour, and also an increase of permanency in the closed arm of the elevated plus maze test, were observed. In these analyses, the animals showed motor coordination impairment and anxiety-like behaviour. Demyelination also triggered changes in discrimination of objects identified by an increase in the time spent close to a familiar object. These behavioural alterations were associated with a significant increase in the levels of TNF-alpha and corticosterone, consistent with the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, the results of this work show the cuprizone/Lewis rat model demyelination as an attractive paradigm for studying the correlation between white matter abnormalities and behaviour.

  6. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: abnormalities of sleep and behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D J; Waters, J; CORBETT, J A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 32 adult females and 31 adult males with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) shows that sleep disorders (including excessive day and night time sleep) and behavioural abnormalities, (temper tantrums and deliberate picking of sores) are common. These abnormalities are not related to the degree of obesity or to each other. Speech disorders also occur. Intelligence quotients are often within the normal range. PMID:2629712

  7. Low knowledge of physical health behaviours is associated with poor diet and chronic illness in adults.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Governments invest heavily in health promotion strategies to improve physical health behaviours. However, the dietary and physical activity practices of many Australians fail to meet minimum levels for health, leading to the unacceptably high prevalence of chronic and complex illness. Health literacy is known to impact on health behaviour, and to be related to health knowledge; however, no studies have specifically examined knowledge of physical health behaviours in an Australian context. We assessed knowledge of physical health behaviours in 1244 adults in Queensland, Australia. Almost two-thirds of respondents had a 'Good' knowledge of physical health behaviour. People with 'Good' knowledge of physical health behaviours were more likely to be female, educated beyond secondary school, be employed and have an annual household income of >$52000 (P<0.05). People with 'Low' knowledge of physical health behaviours were significantly more likely to report insufficient intake of vegetables and have at least one chronic illness (P<0.05). Binary logistic regression shows low daily intake of vegetables to have the strongest association with low knowledge of physical health behaviours. Given the association between health knowledge and health literacy, assessment of the knowledge of physical health behaviours may provide considerable insight into the effectiveness of future health promotion interventions.

  8. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Method: Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Results: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Conclusion: Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults. PMID:26381843

  9. Characteristic illness behaviour in assault patients: DATES syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J P; Peak, J D; Haria, S; Sleeman, F

    1995-01-01

    Violent crime has become a public health issue, not least because the needs of victims have been neglected in the criminal justice system. Since this group suffer more psychological distress than victims of accidents, we compared illness experience in 433 adult assault victims with paired victims of accidents in a case control study. In the 10 year period prior to injury, there was a significant excess of hospital contacts in the assault group in relation to trauma, elective surgery and drug abuse but not to other psychiatric or medical conditions. This spectrum of disorders constitutes a previously unrecognized syndrome in young adults, probably representing the manifestations of antisocial personality. PMID:7769600

  10. Quantification of abnormal repetitive behaviour in captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Brilot, Ben O; Asher, Lucy; Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-11-01

    Stereotypies are repetitive, unvarying and goalless behaviour patterns that are often considered indicative of poor welfare in captive animals. Quantifying stereotypies can be difficult, particularly during the early stages of their development when behaviour is still flexible. We compared two methods for objectively quantifying the development of route-tracing stereotypies in caged starlings. We used Markov chains and T-pattern analysis (implemented by the software package, Theme) to identify patterns in the sequence of locations a bird occupied within its cage. Pattern metrics produced by both methods correlated with the frequency of established measures of stereotypic behaviour and abnormal behaviour patterns counted from video recordings, suggesting that both methods could be useful for identifying stereotypic individuals and quantifying stereotypic behaviour. We discuss the relative benefits and disadvantages of the two approaches. PMID:19622388

  11. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.

  12. Suicide among young men: psychiatric illness, deviant behaviour and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Allebeck, P; Allgulander, C

    1990-06-01

    The role of psychiatric illness versus social and behavioural risk factors for suicide in young men was analysed in a longitudinal study of 50,465 conscripts. Data collected in 1969-1970 on social background, personality characteristics, use of alcohol and drugs, psychological assessment and psychiatric diagnosis were linked to records from the national psychiatric case register and the national cause-of-death register through 1983. A total of 247 deaths from suicide occurred in the cohort during the follow-up. By means of multivariate analysis, the role of different social and behavioural characteristics was assessed in relation to that of psychiatric diagnoses, with suicide as dependent variable. A psychiatric diagnosis in inpatient care (n = 2247) was the strongest predictor of suicide, with an odds ratio (OR) of 11.3 (8.3-15.4), controlling for social and behavioural risk factors. Schizophrenia was the diagnosis with the highest suicide risk: OR = 13.3 (8.2-21.6). A psychiatric diagnosis at conscription (n = 5877) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide. Several indicators of poor social background, deviant behaviour, substance abuse and disrupted interpersonal relations were associated with a significantly increased suicide risk, also after controlling for psychiatric illness. Although mental illness requiring inpatient treatment was the most powerful predictor of suicide, less than half the cohort had received such treatment. Social and behavioural risk factors are thus important for prevention on the population level. PMID:2378251

  13. [Abnormal behaviour with a focus on stereotypies--indicators of suffering and impaired welfare?].

    PubMed

    Düpjan, Sandra; Puppe, Birger

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviour is a potential indicator of pain, suffering and injury in captive animals. Especially stereotypies, i. e. repetitive invariant behavioural patterns without obvious function or goal, can be observed as a consequence of inadequate housing conditions. Hence, they are often considered indicators of impaired welfare. In context of the ongoing scientific debate on captive animal welfare, the number of publications on stereotypies has increased, most notably in veterinary and farm animal research. Based on biological principles and definitions, we present several examples of stereotypic behaviour in (mainly) farm animals, and discuss approaches of preventing or reducing them. The occurrence of abnormal behaviour is often, but not necessarily, associated with the fact that modern housing and management precludes various evolutionary emerged highly motivated behaviours, or poses challenges the animals are unable to cope with adequately. Numerous studies show that stereotypies can be indicative of (current or past) suffering and impaired welfare. They can be avoided or at least reduced by increasing the biological relevance of the housing environments through environmental enrichment which stimulates species-specific behaviour.

  14. Communication about parental illness with children who have learning disabilities and behavioural problems: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Kroll, L; Lee, J; Jones, A; Stein, A

    1998-11-01

    Parental illness can have a profound impact on family relationships and children's behaviour. The amount and nature of communication between parents and children about the illness can play an important role, both positively and negatively, in mediating the outcomes. When children have a disability, families can be reluctant to communicate with them about family difficulties. They are often concerned about the impact that parental unavailability may have on their child's life. This paper reports on three families in which the mother was diagnosed with breast cancer and one child in the family had a disability. The extent and specific characteristics of their communication about the maternal illness with their children, behavioural changes in the children, explanations of communication strategies and attributions of behavioural changes are described. Family coping strategies are examined with reference to Lazarus's process model of stress and coping and the use of either problem-focused or emotion-focused strategies. Implications for possible clinical interventions are proposed. In particular it is suggested that families be offered consultation about: what children might understand; ways in which to communicate effectively; and strategies for coping with the long-term implications of serious parental illness.

  15. Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism during Systemic Illness: The Low T3 Syndrome in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone abnormalities are common in critically ill patients. For over three decades, a mild form of these abnormalities has been described in patients with several diseases under outpatient care. These alterations in thyroid hormone economy are a part of the nonthyroidal illness and keep an important relationship with prognosis in most cases. The main feature of this syndrome is a fall in free triiodothyronine (T3) levels with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Free thyroxin (T4) and reverse T3 levels vary according to the underlying disease. The importance of recognizing this condition in such patients is evident to physicians practicing in a variety of specialties, especially general medicine, to avoid misdiagnosing the much more common primary thyroid dysfunctions and indicating treatments that are often not beneficial. This review focuses on the most common chronic diseases already known to present with alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels. A short review of the common pathophysiology of the nonthyroidal illness is followed by the clinical and laboratorial presentation in each condition. Finally, a clinical case vignette and a brief summary on the evidence about treatment of the nonthyroidal illness and on the future research topics to be addressed are presented. PMID:27803712

  16. Predictive value of an abnormal hepatobiliary scan in patients with severe intercurrent illness

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Froelich, J.W.; Lloyd, R.; Thrall, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients had severe intercurrent illness and the gallbladder could not be seen on a hepatobiliary scan. In 4, surgery and pathological examination showed that the gallbladder was normal; 1 had chronic cholecystitis and 5 had acute acalculous cholecystitis. This study indicates that a positive hepatobiliary scan may not be indicative of acute gallbladder disease in the seriously ill patient.

  17. A framework for the study of coping, illness behaviour and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the study of coping, illness attribution, health behaviour and outcomes. It is based upon models developed within health psychology and aims to provide a theoretical basis for nurse researchers to utilize psychosocial variables. It is an interactionist model which views outcomes as dependent upon both situation and person variables. The situation is viewed as the health threat or illness symptoms as well as the psychosocial context within which the person is operating. This context includes socio-economic factors, social support, social norms, and external factors such as the mass media. The experience of health threat is dependent upon individual appraisal, and the framework incorporates Folkman and Lazarus' transactional model of stress, as well as Leventhal's illness representation model. Behaviour and the perception of threat are also dependent upon outcome expectancies and the appraisal of one's own coping resources, and so the concepts of locus of control and self-efficacy are also incorporated. This framework allows one to identify determinants of behaviour and outcome, and will aid nurses in identifying areas for psycho-social intervention.

  18. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's illness-related behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. Sarah; Verhoef, Marja J.; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to (1) to describe the relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviour in women, aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of the existence of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. At present no empirical evidence is available regarding a relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviours. This study comprises the secondary analysis of a large survery of various health and health-related factors of urban women aged 20 49 years, carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary. The interview date was used to link behaviours to chinook conditions. We found no evidence of a significant relationship between the behaviours investigated and chinook conditions in the general population. However, the data strongly supported the concept of chinook sensitivity. Women with a history of chronic health problems were more likely to visit a health care professional on chinook days than healthy women and women in the subgroup aged less than 35 years cut down their usual daily activities during chinook conditions. Women with a history of recurring migraine headaches were less likely to take prescription medication on chinook days, and women with a history of emotional disorders were more likely to have higher scores on the accident scale and to report bursts of energy or excitement during chinook days. More research is needed to identify subgroups of susceptible persons, as well as to determine whether chinook sensitive persons are equally susceptible to weather changer of other types.

  19. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  20. The treatment of patients with hypothalamic hamartomas, epilepsy and behavioural abnormalities: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Palmini, André; Paglioli-Neto, Eliseu; Montes, Jose; Farmer, Jean-Paul

    2003-12-01

    The growing interest in the association between hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), epilepsy and behavioural abnormalities witnessed in recent years, has led to significant progress regarding the clinical presentations, pathophysiology and management of this entity. Patients with these lesions may occupy different points within a spectrum of severity of the epileptic and behavioural disorder, and may dynamically progress toward more malignant epilepsies with time. The role of the subcortical lesion in the generation of the gelastic seizures has been established, and encouraging results have been obtained with surgical resection, destruction or disconnection of the hamartoma. The present work highlights several aspects that should be taken into account for the selection of medical and surgical treatment for individual patients. We conclude with a reflection on what we still do not understand as regards in the genesis and surgical management of the neuropsychiatric disabilities related to this disorder. PMID:14975794

  1. [The effect of abnormal interests on social ability of mentally ill children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, I I; Deĭch, R V

    2011-01-01

    Authors have studied 62 patients, aged 4-16 years old, who were admitted to the Moscow Children's Psychiatric Hospital №6. Patients had the following types of pathological interests depending on their context: intellectual interests, creative modeling, passionate, animalistic and cult. Three clinical variants of pathological interests depending on their structure have been singled out: «narrow», «overvalued» and «overvalued-delusional». These variants differed by the frequency and severity of basic components: affective, ideatory, specific activity drive. The distinct social-maladaptation effect of abnormal interests in children and adolescents was found. Its intensity depended on above-mentioned variants. Narrow abnormal interests defined moderate social disability which was revealed in the family circle. Overvalued interests were characterized by a considerable disability which included disorders of both family and school life. Overvalued-delusional interests predetermined severe disability of children and adolescent.

  2. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478. PMID:22432138

  3. Transcriptomic analysis reveals abnormal muscle repair and remodeling in survivors of critical illness with sustained weakness

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Batt, Jane; Herridge, Margaret S.; Mathur, Sunita; Bader, Gary D.; Hu, Pingzhao; dos Santos, Claudia C.

    2016-01-01

    ICU acquired weakness (ICUAW) is a common complication of critical illness characterized by structural and functional impairment of skeletal muscle. The resulting physical impairment may persist for years after ICU discharge, with few patients regaining functional independence. Elucidating molecular mechanisms underscoring sustained ICUAW is crucial to understanding outcomes linked to different morbidity trajectories as well as for the development of novel therapies. Quadriceps muscle biopsies and functional measures of muscle strength and mass were obtained at 7 days and 6 months post-ICU discharge from a cohort of ICUAW patients. Unsupervised co-expression network analysis of transcriptomic profiles identified discrete modules of co-expressed genes associated with the degree of muscle weakness and atrophy in early and sustained ICUAW. Modules were enriched for genes involved in skeletal muscle regeneration and extracellular matrix deposition. Collagen deposition in persistent ICUAW was confirmed by histochemical stain. Modules were further validated in an independent cohort of critically ill patients with sepsis-induced multi-organ failure and a porcine model of ICUAW, demonstrating disease-associated conservation across species and peripheral muscle type. Our findings provide a pathomolecular basis for sustained ICUAW, implicating aberrant expression of distinct skeletal muscle structural and regenerative genes in early and persistent ICUAW. PMID:27411715

  4. Carbaryl-induced behavioural and reproductive abnormalities in the earthworm Metaphire posthuma: a sensitive model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shrawan K; Saxena, Prem N

    2003-12-01

    Carbaryl, an N-methyl carbamate insecticide, is used in India to control foliar insects, but, due to soil contamination, it also adversely affects non-target organisms such as earthworms. This paper deals with the toxic effects of carbaryl on the behavioural and reproductive profiles of the earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Locomotion and geotaxis were significantly affected, even after a 20-minute exposure to 0.125ppm carbaryl. The hatching of cocoons was altered at 0.5ppm, whereas cocoon production was retarded even at 0.125ppm carbaryl. No cocoon production was observed at 2.0ppm carbaryl. Sperm head abnormalities were reported even at the lowest test concentration of 0.125ppm. Wavy head abnormalities were observed at 0.125ppm carbaryl, whereas at 0.25ppm and 0.5ppm, the sperm heads became amorphous and the head nucleus was turned into granules deposited within the wavy head. It is concluded that the earthworm could be used as an ecosystem model for the initial toxicity testing of environmental pollutants. PMID:15560748

  5. Abnormal eye movement behaviour during text reading in neglect syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Huber, W

    1992-06-01

    The eye movement behaviour of a patient suffering from a right basal ganglia infarction with a left-sided hemineglect but without any visual field defects was investigated during reading. The eye movements were registered by means of an i.r. light technique (pupil-corneal reflection method). The main findings were abnormal return sweeps. Whereas in normal readers the end of one line of text is linked to the beginning of the new line by a long leftward saccade, the return sweeps of the hemineglect patient stereotypically ended in the middle of the next line. They were followed by sequences of short saccades indicating silent backward reading until a linguistically plausible continuation of sentences from the previous line was found, irrespective of the actual beginning of text. The shortened return sweeps could not be attributed to a general oculomotor disturbance. The spatial border for the occurrence of the patient's abnormal scanning pattern (left half of texts) clearly did not depend on a retinal coordinate frame of reference but rather has to be attributed to a different body-centred reference system.

  6. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-09-22

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed. PMID:27679767

  7. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-01-01

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed. PMID:27679767

  8. Neuroinflammation and cytokine abnormality in major depression: Cause or consequence in that illness?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong Ku

    2016-01-01

    Depression results from changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result from immunological abnormalities. The immune system affects the CNS through cytokines, which regulate brain activities and emotions. Cytokines affect two biological systems that are most associated with the pathophysiology of depression: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the catecholamine/sympathetic nervous system. Neuroinflammation and cytokines affect the brain signal patterns involved in the psychopathology of depression and the mechanisms of antidepressants, and they are associated with neurogenesis and neural plasticity. These observations suggest that neuroinflammation and cytokines might cause and/or maintain depression, and that they might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of depression. This psychoneuroimmunologic perspective might compensate for some of the limitations of the monoamine theory by suggesting that depression is a result of a failure to adapt to stress and that inflammatory responses and cytokines are involved in this process. In this review, the interactions of cytokines with the CNS, neuroendocrine system, neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration/neurogenesis, and antidepressants are discussed. The roles of cytokines in the etiology and psychopathology of depression are examined. The use of cytokine inhibitors or anti-inflammatory drugs in depression treatment is explored. Finally, the significance and limitations of the cytokine hypothesis are discussed.

  9. Trust versus paranoia: abnormal response to social reward in psychotic illness.

    PubMed

    Gromann, Paula M; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Fett, Anne-Kathrin; Joyce, Dan W; Shergill, Sukhi S; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-06-01

    Psychosis is characterized by an elementary lack of trust in others. Trust is an inherently rewarding aspect of successful social interactions and can be examined using neuroeconomic paradigms. This study was aimed at investigating the underlying neural basis of diminished trust in psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 20 patients with psychosis and 20 healthy control subjects during two multiple-round trust games; one with a cooperative and the other with a deceptive counterpart. An a priori region of interest analysis of the right caudate nucleus, right temporo-parietal junction and medial prefrontal cortex was performed focusing on the repayment phase of the games. For regions with group differences, correlations were calculated between the haemodynamic signal change, behavioural outcomes and patients' symptoms. Patients demonstrated reduced levels of baseline trust, indicated by smaller initial investments. For the caudate nucleus, there was a significant game × group interaction, with controls showing stronger activation for the cooperative game than patients, and no differences for the deceptive game. The temporo-parietal junction was significantly more activated in control subjects than in patients during cooperative and deceptive repayments. There were no significant group differences for the medial prefrontal cortex. Patients' reduced activation within the caudate nucleus correlated negatively with paranoia scores. The temporo-parietal junction signal was positively correlated with positive symptom scores during deceptive repayments. Reduced sensitivity to social reward may explain the basic loss of trust in psychosis, mediated by aberrant activation of the caudate nucleus and the temporo-parietal junction.

  10. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  11. Motor vehicle crashes and abnormal driving behaviours in patients with dementia in Mendoza, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zuin, D; Ortiz, H; Boromei, D; Lopez, O L

    2002-01-01

    Studies conducted in industrialized countries have shown that elderly demented subjects have increased risk of car accidents. However, there is no information about the effect of dementia on driving habits in non-industrialized countries. The number of motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and abnormal driving behaviours (ADB) (e.g. not recognizing traffic lights, driving in the middle of the road, etc.) were assessed with a semi-structured interview in 56 demented subjects and 31 elderly controls, all of whom were active drivers, at the Regional Registry of Dementia in Mendoza. Detailed neurological, psychiatric and neuropsychological examinations were also conducted on each subject. The presence of dementia and sex (male) predicted ADB, MVC and number of MVC (two or more). Among demented patients, ADB and MVC were associated with sex (male) and number of MVC was associated with sex (male) and Blessed Dementia Rating Scale for activities of daily living scores. Neither ADB, MCV, or number of MVC were associated with education level, or with cognitive or psychiatric measures. These findings showed that in developing countries, dementia has a significant contribution to MVC and ADB, as occurs in industrialized nations. Consequently, legislation to curb the risk of accidents caused by demented patients should be implemented. Furthermore, physicians must encourage demented patients (or their families) to discontinue driving, even those with mild dementia syndrome.

  12. The identification of abnormal behaviour and behavioural problems in stabled horses and their relationship to horse welfare: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Mason, G J

    1998-11-01

    Many behaviours in domestic animals, such as the 'stable vices' of horses, are treated because they are considered undesirable for economic or cultural reasons, and not because the activity affects the horse's quality of life. The impact of a behaviour on the human reporter is not a function of its impact on the animal performer, and an understanding of the causes and effects of the particular activity is necessary to assess the costs and benefits of treatment. Where the behaviour is a sign of poor welfare, such as an inadequate environment, treatment can best be achieved by removing these underlying causal factors. Pharmacological or physical prevention of a behaviour can be justified only if the behaviour causes harm to the performer or to others. In these cases, prevention of the behaviour without addressing its causes is no cure and may result in its perseverance in a modified form or the disruption of the animal's ability to adapt to its environment. Where the behavioural 'problem' causes no harm and is not related to poor housing, then the education of the reporter, rather than treatment of the performer, may be the best solution.

  13. A population study of the association between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Leng, Yue; Cosco, Theodore D

    2016-11-01

    Limited representative research has considered the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour among people with mental illness. We investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour across Part II interview of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCSR). The associations between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour (thoughts, plans and attempts) were investigated using logistic and multinomial logistic regressions and stratified across six mental disorder groups (depression, anxiety, substance use disorders (SUD), eating disorders (ED), bipolar disorders (BD) and early life disorders). From 5701 participants (mean age 43.4 years 58% women), people with any mental disorder experiencing sleep disturbance were at increased odds of suicidal thoughts (odds ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.6) and suicidal plans and attempts (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 2.7, 11.9) adjusting for age, sex and income. People with BD (OR: 8.9; 95 CI: 2.1, 38.1), early life disorders (OR 6.98, 95% ci 2.48, 19.67), depression (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.14, 3.11), anxiety (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.28, 2.85) and SUD (2.60, 95% CI 1.23, 5.49) but not ED, were at increased odds of suicidal thoughts in the presence of sleep disturbance. Adjusting for anti-depressant intake attenuated the effect sizes by up to 20% but the associations remained significant. In conclusion, sleep disturbance is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviours in people with mental illness. Monitoring and management of sleep disturbance in clinical practice might be an important strategy to mitigate suicidal behaviours in people with mental illness. PMID:27501141

  14. A population study of the association between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour in people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Leng, Yue; Cosco, Theodore D

    2016-11-01

    Limited representative research has considered the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour among people with mental illness. We investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour across Part II interview of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCSR). The associations between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour (thoughts, plans and attempts) were investigated using logistic and multinomial logistic regressions and stratified across six mental disorder groups (depression, anxiety, substance use disorders (SUD), eating disorders (ED), bipolar disorders (BD) and early life disorders). From 5701 participants (mean age 43.4 years 58% women), people with any mental disorder experiencing sleep disturbance were at increased odds of suicidal thoughts (odds ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.6) and suicidal plans and attempts (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 2.7, 11.9) adjusting for age, sex and income. People with BD (OR: 8.9; 95 CI: 2.1, 38.1), early life disorders (OR 6.98, 95% ci 2.48, 19.67), depression (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.14, 3.11), anxiety (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.28, 2.85) and SUD (2.60, 95% CI 1.23, 5.49) but not ED, were at increased odds of suicidal thoughts in the presence of sleep disturbance. Adjusting for anti-depressant intake attenuated the effect sizes by up to 20% but the associations remained significant. In conclusion, sleep disturbance is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviours in people with mental illness. Monitoring and management of sleep disturbance in clinical practice might be an important strategy to mitigate suicidal behaviours in people with mental illness.

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  16. A lack of functional NK1 receptors explains most, but not all, abnormal behaviours of NK1R-/- mice1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794

  17. Exposure to enriched environments during adolescence prevents abnormal behaviours associated with histone deacetylation in phencyclidine-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takenao; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Aoyama, Yuki; Toriumi, Kazuya; Suzuki, Shizuka; Nakajima, Azusa; Yamada, Takuma; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Enriched environments (EEs) during development have been shown to influence adult behaviour. Environmental conditions during childhood may contribute to the onset and/or pathology of schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear whether EE might prevent the development of schizophrenia. Herein, we investigated the effects of EE during adolescence on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced abnormal behaviour, a proposed schizophrenic endophenotype. Male ICR mice (3 wk old) were exposed to an EE for 4 wk and then treated with PCP for 2 wk. The EE potentiated the acute PCP treatment-induced hyperlocomotion in the locomotor test and prevented chronic PCP treatment-induced impairments of social behaviour and recognition memory in the social interaction and novel object recognition tests. It also prevented the PCP-induced decrease of acetylated Lys9 in histone H3-positive cells and increase of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)5 level in the prefrontal cortex. To investigate whether the histone modification during adolescence might be critical for the effect of EE, 3-wk-old mice were first treated with sodium butyrate (SB; an HDAC inhibitor) for 4 wk and then treated with PCP for 2 wk. Chronic SB treatment during adolescence mimicked the effects of EE, including potentiation of hyperlocomotion induced by acute PCP treatment and prevention of social and cognitive impairments, decrease of acetylated Lys9 in histone H3-positive cells and increase of the HDAC5 level in the prefrontal cortex associated with chronic PCP treatment. Our results suggest that EEs prevent PCP-induced abnormal behaviour associated with histone deacetylation. EEs during childhood might prove to be a novel strategy for prophylaxis against schizophrenia.

  18. Prediction of self-monitoring compliance: application of the theory of planned behaviour to chronic illness sufferers.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Conor; Prentice, Garry R; McLaughlin, Christopher G; Harkin, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes and asthma are chronic illnesses that affect a substantial number of people. The continued high cost of clinic- and hospital-based care provision in these areas could be reduced by patients self-monitoring their condition more effectively. Such a move requires an understanding of how to predict self-monitoring compliance. Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB) makes it possible to predict those clients who will comply with medical guidelines, prescription drug intake and self-monitoring behaviours (peak flow or blood sugar levels). Ninety-seven clients attending a medical centre located in a large urbanised area of Northern Ireland completed TPB questionnaires. Significant amounts of variance explained by the TPB model indicated its usefulness as a predictor of self-monitoring behaviour intentions in the sample. The results also highlighted the importance of subjective norm and perceived behavioural control within the TPB in predicting intentions. The utility of the TPB in this study also provides evidence for health promotion professionals that costly clinic/hospital treatment provision can be reduced, whilst also being satisfied with ongoing client self-monitoring of their condition. PMID:22111866

  19. Neuronal and behavioural abnormalities in striatal function in DARPP-32-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, N; Fienberg, A A; Haile, C N; Alburges, M; Hanson, G R; Greengard, P; Nestler, E J

    1999-03-01

    We investigated the role of the protein phosphatase inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), in the expression of striatal neuropeptides and in biochemical and behavioural responses to repeated cocaine administration, using DARPP-32 knock-out mice. The striatum of DARPP-32-mutant mice showed heightened substance-P-like immunoreactivity, but normal levels of other neuropeptides. Repeated cocaine administration increased levels of DeltaFosB, a Fos family transcription factor, in the striatum of wild-type mice, and this increase was abolished in DARPP-32-mutant mice. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) acutely induced the same level of locomotor activity in the mutant and wild-type mice, but the mutants showed a higher rate of locomotor sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures. These data show that DARPP-32 is involved in regulating substance P expression in the striatonigral pathway, and in biochemical and behavioural plasticity with chronic administration of cocaine. PMID:10103106

  20. LRRK2 phosphorylation level correlates with abnormal motor behaviour in an experimental model of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Jennifer; Mellone, Manuela; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Zianni, Elisa; Di Luca, Monica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2016-05-11

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. LRRK2 N-terminal domain encompasses several serine residues that undergo phosphorylation influencing LRRK2 function. This work aims at investigating whether LRRK2 phosphorylation/function may be involved in the molecular pathways downstream D1 dopamine receptor leading to LIDs. Here we show that LRRK2 phosphorylation level at serine 935 correlates with LIDs induction and that inhibition of LRRK2 induces a significant increase in the dyskinetic score in L-DOPA treated parkinsonian animals. Our findings support a close link between LRKK2 functional state and L-DOPA-induced abnormal motor behaviour and highlight that LRRK2 phosphorylation level may be implicated in LIDs, calling for novel therapeutic strategies.

  1. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older.

    PubMed

    Newson, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; McCarthy, Michael J; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2012-12-01

    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except those with diabetes and respiratory disease. The percentage reporting the recommended minimum fruit and vegetable intake did not increase significantly among any group.

  2. 3D culture model of fibroblast-mediated collagen creep to identify abnormal cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kureshi, A K; Afoke, A; Wohlert, S; Barker, S; Brown, R A

    2015-11-01

    Native collagen gels are important biomimetic cell support scaffolds, and a plastic compression process can now be used to rapidly remove fluid to any required collagen density, producing strong 3D tissue-like models. This study aimed to measure the mechanical creep properties of such scaffolds and to quantify any enhanced creep occurring in the presence of cells (cell-mediated creep). The test rig developed applies constant creep tension during culture and measures real-time extension due to cell action. This was used to model extracellular matrix creep, implicated in the transversalis fascia (TF) in inguinal hernia. Experiments showed that at an applied tension equivalent to 15% break strength, cell-mediated creep over 24-h culture periods was identified at creep rates of 0.46 and 0.38%/h for normal TF and human dermal fibroblasts, respectively. However, hernia TF fibroblasts produced negligible cell-mediated creep levels under the same conditions. Raising the cell culture temperature from 4 to 37 °C was used to demonstrate live cell dependence of this creep. This represents the first in vitro demonstration of TF cell-mediated collagen creep and to our knowledge the first demonstration of a functional, hernia-related cell abnormality. PMID:25862069

  3. The Recognition of and Care Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illness in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas Christie; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-Lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654). Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively). A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria) and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34%) was low. Conclusions Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes. PMID:24718483

  4. [Jinn possession as an explanation of mental illness influences the treatment-seeking behaviour].

    PubMed

    Shah, Amna; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    Jinn possession is used as an explanation of mental symptoms among Muslims around the world. Very few studies have examined the use of jinn as a religious explanation model for mental health problems and treatment-seeking behaviour. The majority of studies show a positive association between jinn explanations and preferred treatment by religious healers, but due to methodological limitations, results should be taken with precaution. There is a need for longitudinal studies focusing on improving cultural competence and exploring possible cooperation with healers.

  5. Hippocampal abnormalities of glutamate/glutamine, N-acetylaspartate and choline in patients with depression are related to past illness burden

    PubMed Central

    de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Portella, Maria J.; Gómez-Ansón, Beatriz; López-Moruelo, Olga; Serra-Blasco, Maria; Vives, Yolanda; Puigdemont, Dolors; Pérez-Egea, Rosario; Álvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Background Smaller hippocampal volumes in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been linked with earlier onset, previous recurrences and treatment refractoriness. The aim of our study was to investigate metabolite abnormalities in the hippocampus associated with past depressive illness burden. Methods Glutamate/glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho), potential markers of glial/neuronal integrity and membrane turnover, respectively, were measured in adults with depression and healthy controls using a 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanner. Voxels were placed in the head of the right and left hippocampus. We controlled for systematic differences resulting from volume-of-interest (VOI) tissue composition and total hippocampal volume. Results Our final sample comprised a total of 16 healthy controls and 52 adult patients with depression in different stages of the illness (20 treatment-resistant/chronic, 18 remitted-recurrent and 14 first-episode), comparable for age and sex distribution. Patients with treatment-resistant/chronic and remitted-recurrent depression had significantly lower levels of Glx and NAA than controls, especially in the right hippocampal region (p ≤ 0.025). Diminished levels of Glx were correlated with longer illness duration (left VOI r = −0.34, p = 0.01). By contrast, Cho levels were significantly higher in patients with treatment-resistant/chronic depression than those with first-episode depression or controls in the right and left hippocampus (up to 19% higher; all p ≤ 0.025) and were consistently related to longer illness duration (right VOI r = 0.30, p = 0.028; left VOI r = 0.38, p = 0.004) and more previous episodes (right VOI r = 0.46, p = 0.001; left VOI r = 0.44, p = 0.001). Limitations The cross-sectional design and the inclusion of treated patients are the main limitations of the study. Conclusion Our results support that metabolite alterations within the hippocampus are more pronounced in patients with a

  6. The Shared Decision Making Frontier: a Feasibility and Usability Study for Managing Non-Critical Chronic Illness by Combining Behavioural & Decision Theory with Online Technology.

    PubMed

    Russell, Amina; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if shared decisions for managing non-critical chronic illness, made through an online biomedical technology intervention, us feasible and usable. The technology intervention incorporates behavioural and decision theories to increase patient engagement, and ultimately long term adherence to health behaviour change. We devised the iheart web intervention as a "proof of concept" in five phases. The implementation incorporates the Vaadin web application framework, Drools, EclipseLink and a MySQL database. Two-thirds of the study participants favoured the technology intervention, based on Likert-scale questions from a post-study questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of think aloud feedback, video screen captures and open-ended questions from the post-study questionnaire uncovered six main areas or themes for improvement. We conclude that online shared decisions for managing a non-critical chronic illness are feasible and usable through the iheart web intervention. PMID:26262028

  7. [Do men and women in illness and stress situations show different measures of risk attitude and therapy behaviour?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, C

    2010-09-01

    We analyse which factors influence patient compliance decision. We built a simple therapy behaviour model reflecting the trade-off between perceived side effects and patient compliance behaviour. A total of 1,034 patients were included in the study utilising a clinical trial in Germany between 2007 and 2008. The separate evaluation of the behavioural model taking into account the variable gender led to the following result: The meaning of single parameters clearly differs for the explanation of patient's compliance behaviour between men and women. Men show more willingness to take a risk in dealing with their therapy and health than women. To do justice to the different behavioural strengths and deficits of men and women in therapy, it is indispensable to consider patient's gender by the development of risk-based health insurance rates. PMID:20865976

  8. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  9. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: a comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions.

    PubMed

    Wyke, Sally; Adamson, Joy; Dixon, Diane; Hunt, Kate

    2013-06-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of knowledge across disciplines. We present a critical review and detailed comparison of three process models of response to symptoms: the Illness Action Model, the Common Sense Model of the Self-Regulation of Health and Illness and the Network Episode Model. We suggest an integrated framework in which symptoms, responses and actions are simultaneously interpreted and evaluated in the light of accumulated knowledge and through interactions. Evaluation may be subconscious and is influenced by the extent to which the symptoms impose themselves, expectations of outcomes, the resources available and understanding of symptoms' salience and possible outcomes. Actions taken are part of a process of problem solving through which both individuals and their immediate social network seek to (re)achieve 'normality'. Response is also influenced by social structure (directly and indirectly), cultural expectations of health, the meaning of symptoms, and access to and understandings of the legitimate use of services. Changes in knowledge, in embodied state and in emotions can all be directly influential at any point. We do not underestimate the difficulty of operationalising an integrated framework at different levels of analysis. Attempts to do so will require us to move easily between disciplinary understandings to conduct prospective, longitudinal, research that uses novel methodologies to investigate response to symptoms in the context of affective as well as cognitive responses and interactions within social networks. While challenging such an approach would facilitate accumulation of knowledge across disciplines and enable movement beyond description to change in individual and

  10. Ectopic Cerebellar Cell Migration Causes Maldevelopment of Purkinje Cells and Abnormal Motor Behaviour in Cxcr4 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice. PMID:24516532

  11. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. PMID:26559786

  12. Early recognition and management of fabricated or induced illness in children.

    PubMed

    Bass, Christopher; Glaser, Danya

    2014-04-19

    Fabricated or induced illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy) takes place when a caregiver elicits health care on the child's behalf in an unjustified way. Although the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders specifies deception as a perpetrator characteristic, a far wider range is encountered clinically and is included in this Review. We describe the features of fabricated or induced illness, its effect on the child, and the psychosocial characteristics of caregivers and their possible motives. Present evidence suggests that somatoform and factitious disorders are over-represented in caregivers, with possible intergenerational transmission of abnormal illness behaviour from the caregiver to the child. Paediatricians' early recognition of perplexing presentations preceding fabricated or induced illness and their management might obviate the development of this disorder. In cases of fully developed fabricated or induced illness, as well as protection, the child will need help to return to healthy functioning and understand the fabricated or induced illness experience. Management of the perpetrator is largely dependent on their capacity to acknowledge the abusive behaviour and collaborate with helping agencies. If separation is necessary, reunification of mother and child is rare, but can be achieved in selected cases. More collaborative research is needed in this specialty, especially regarding close study of the characteristics of women with somatoform and factitious disorders who involve their children in abnormal illness behaviour. We recommend that general hospitals establish proactive networks including multidisciplinary cooperation between designated staff from both paediatric and adult mental health services. PMID:24612863

  13. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. PMID:26774444

  14. Interrelationships between diagnosed asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and abnormal airway behaviour in adolescence: the Odense Schoolchild Study.

    PubMed Central

    Siersted, H. C.; Mostgaard, G.; Hyldebrandt, N.; Hansen, H. S.; Boldsen, J.; Oxhøj, H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of asthma is based on several characteristics including symptoms and suitable tests of airway lability. However, it is neither clear to what degree various tests and symptoms identify the same subjects, nor how these characteristics are best combined to diagnose asthma. The interrelationships between physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and abnormal airway function, as defined by four commonly used tests, have therefore been assessed. METHODS: A population based sample of 495 Danish schoolchildren aged 12-15 years, comprising 292 randomly selected subjects and 203 subjects considered at risk of having or developing asthma, was examined. Symptoms and background information were recorded by questionnaire. The test panel consisted of baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%), provocation with treadmill exercise (EXE) and with inhaled methacholine (PD15), and monitoring of peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily for two weeks. RESULTS: The sensitivity for diagnosed asthma was highest for PD15 followed by PEF monitoring, whereas specificity for asthma or asthma-like symptoms was marginally higher with the other two tests. Most symptomatic subjects with any positive test were identified by PD15 alone (75%) or in combination with PEF monitoring (89%). PEF variability was more susceptible to treatment with inhaled steroids than the PD15 index. Although inter-test agreement was weak (kappa < 0.40 for all pairs), significant associations were found between PD15 and EXE, PEF and EXE, and FEV1% and PD15. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between the four tests was weak. In particular, PEF variability and methacholine responsiveness seem to identify different varieties of airway pathophysiology. The combined use of methacholine provocation testing and PEF monitoring may be helpful as an epidemiological screening tool for asthma. PMID:8711678

  15. Relationships of illness representation, diabetes knowledge, and self-care behaviour to glycemic control in incarcerated persons with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Louise A; Walsh, Stephen J; Shelton, Deborah

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine relationships of self-care behavior, illness representation and diabetes knowledge with A1C (level of glycemic control) in 124 incarcerated persons. Design/methodology/approach Using a cross-sectional design, summary scores and items from the self-care inventory revised, brief illness perception questionnaire and the spoken knowledge for low literacy in diabetes were evaluated using linear regression to assess their relationship to A1C. Findings Metabolic control was suboptimal for the majority of inmates with diabetes. The final regression model was statistically significant ( F (3, 120)=9.51, p=0.001, R(2)=19.2 percent). Higher log10 HbA1C (A1C) was associated with lower personal control beliefs ( B=-0.007, t (122)=-2.42, p=<0.02), higher self-report of diabetes understanding ( B=0.009, t (122)=3.12, p=0.00) and using insulin ( B=0.062, t (122)=2.45, p=0.02). Research limitations/implications Similar to findings with community dwelling participants, enhancing diabetes personal control beliefs among inmates may lead to lower A1C. Social implications Highly structured environments with limited options for self-care, personal choices and readily available health care may give some incarcerated persons with diabetes no motivation to improve diabetes control even if they have an understanding of what to do. Originality/value While there is abundant research in the community describing how these factors influence A1C levels, research of this nature with incarcerated persons with diabetes is limited. Findings will inform diabetes programming during incarceration to better prepare inmates for reentry. PMID:27548018

  16. Quality of helping behaviours of members of the public towards a person with a mental illness: a descriptive analysis of data from an Australian national survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Courses such as Mental Health First Aid equip members of the public to perform appropriate helping behaviours towards people experiencing a mental illness or mental health crisis. However, studies investigating the general public’s knowledge and skills in relation to assisting a person with a mental illness are rare. This study assesses the quality of mental health first aid responses by members of the Australian public using data from a national survey. Methods Participants in a national survey of mental health literacy were assigned one of six vignettes (depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, social phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder) and asked an open-ended question about how they would help the character in the vignette. The 6,019 respondents were also asked if and how they had helped a person in real life with a similar problem. Responses to these questions were scored using a system based on an action plan developed from expert consensus guidelines on mental health first aid. Results The quality of responses overall was poor, with participants scoring an average of 2 out of 12. The most commonly reported actions for both questions were listening to the person, providing support and information and encouraging them to seek appropriate professional help. Actions such as assessing and assisting with crisis were rarely mentioned, even for the depression with suicidal thoughts vignette. Conclusions The quality of the Australian public’s mental health first aid knowledge and skills requires substantial improvement. Particular attention should be given to helping people recognise that anxiety disorders such as social phobia require professional help and to improving responses to a suicidal person. PMID:24438434

  17. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  19. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  20. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Illness and Health Seeking Behaviour in Malaysian Population: Results from the Third National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006.

    PubMed

    Amal, N M; Paramesarvathy, R; Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Karuthan, C

    2011-03-01

    The third National Health Morbidity Survey was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia in order to obtain community-based data and information on the prevalence of chronic illness. Of 57,500 eligible respondents 56710 (98.6%) participated in the study. Estimated overall prevalence of chronic illness in the Malaysian population within a recall period of one year was 15.5% (95% CI 15.1% - 15.9%). Chronic illness was reported significantly higher among the females, 16.8% (16.3 - 17.3). The most common chronic illness was hypertension (7.9%, 7.6 - 8.2), followed by diabetes mellitus (4.0%, 3.8 - 4.2) and highest reported by the Indians (19.7%, 18.4 - 21.0). Among the respondents who had sought treatment for chronic illness from government health facilities, Malays (65.8%) and those with monthly household income of less than RM400 (76.6%) were the highest. Chinese (44.5%) and those with household income of RM5000 and above (54.3%) were the highest groups who sought treatment from the private health facilities. Most of the respondents reported mild illness was the main reason for not seeking treatment for their chronic illness. It is hoped that the results of this survey will help the Ministry of Health Malaysia to enhance health programmes and planning resource allocation in order to improve health status of the population.

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  4. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  5. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  6. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  7. Phospholipase D-mediated hypersensitivity at central synapses is associated with abnormal behaviours and pain sensitivity in rats exposed to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liting; Gooding, Hayley L; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Adverse events at critical stages of development can lead to lasting dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). To seek potential underlying changes in synaptic function, we used a newly developed protocol to measure alterations in receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluorescence responses of synaptoneurosomes, freshly isolated from selected regions of the CNS concerned with emotionality and pain processing. We compared adult male controls and offspring of rats exposed to social stress in late pregnancy (prenatal stress, PS), which showed programmed behavioural changes indicating anxiety, anhedonia and pain hypersensitivity. We found corresponding increases, in PS rats compared with normal controls, in responsiveness of synaptoneurosomes from frontal cortex to a glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist, and from spinal cord to activators of nociceptive afferents. Through a combined pharmacological and biochemical strategy, we found evidence for a role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1)-mediated signalling, that may involve 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation, at both levels of the nervous system. These changes might participate in underpinning the enduring alterations in behaviour induced by PS. PMID:23932932

  8. Neural predictive error signal correlates with depressive illness severity in a game paradigm.

    PubMed

    Steele, J D; Meyer, M; Ebmeier, K P

    2004-09-01

    Considerable experimental evidence supports the existence of predictive error signals in various brain regions during associative learning in animals and humans. These regions include the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, cerebellum and monoamine systems. Various quantitative theories have been developed to describe behaviour during learning, including Rescorla-Wagner, Temporal Difference and Kalman filter models. These theories may also account for neural error signals. Reviews of imaging studies of depressive illness have consistently implicated the prefrontal and temporal lobes as having abnormal function, and sometimes structure, whilst the monoamine systems are directly influenced by antidepressant medication. It was hypothesised that such abnormalities may be associated with a dysfunction of associative learning that would be reflected by different predictive error signals in depressed patients when compared with healthy controls. This was tested with 30 subjects, 15 with a major depressive illness, using a gambling paradigm and fMRI. Consistent with the hypothesis, depressed patients differed from controls in having an increased error signal. Additionally, for some brain regions, the magnitude of the error signal correlated with Hamilton depression rating of illness severity. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate hypothesised change in effective connectivity between prespecified regions of interest in the limbic and paralimbic system. Again, differences were found that in some cases correlated with illness severity. These results are discussed in the context of quantitative theories of brain function, clinical features of depressive illness and treatments. PMID:15325374

  9. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  10. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms range from mild to ... cramps Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Fever Dehydration Harmful bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illness. ...

  11. User charges in public health facilities in Tanzania: effect on revenues, quality of services and people's health-seeking behaviour for malaria illnesses in Korogwe district.

    PubMed

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Massaga, Julius; Kamugisha, Mathias; Mubyazi, J-Nyangoma; Magogo, Grace C; Mdira, K-Yahya; Gesase, Samuel; Sukwa, Tom

    2006-02-01

    User charges in public health facilities are aimed at improving efficiency and quality of health services. In Africa, evidence about their effect on patient attendance and community health-seeking behaviour are mixed. This paper reports a study of the effect of user charges on revenue collection, quality of services and people's health-seeking behaviour in relation to malaria in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Data were collected through focus-group discussions with community members, interviewing community leaders and health workers, field observations and review of patient registers. Generally, there was no distinct difference in the trends of patient attendances before and after user fee introduction. Public awareness about cost-sharing policy was high, but had low appreciation in the administration of exemptions and waivers. Shortage of drugs, laboratory facilities, and inhospitality of nurses lowered their confidence in the user-fee system. Autonomy to collect and prioritize expenditure of user-fee revenue at the health-facility level was appreciated by community leaders and health workers who, however, had reservations with funds being held at the district level and delays by the DMO's office in approving budgets submitted in request for expenditure of such revenues. Thus, despite the potential of user charges for revenue mobilization, problems with their administration lowers public confidence in the user-fee system improving quality and accessibility of services to the poor.

  12. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  13. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  14. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  15. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  16. [Emotional-psychiatric disorder and the illness concept].

    PubMed

    Bresser, P H

    1992-08-01

    Who is abnormal--who is sick? Illness is an abnormal state. Abnormal psychological states are manyfold and rich in variations. Therefore it is necessary to define what is insanity and what is personal problem, personal disorder, personal decompensation or only any form of suffering. The problem is important with regard to therapeutical and legal decisions.

  17. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set.

  18. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046

  19. [Mental illness and stigma or how to become mentally ill for life.].

    PubMed

    Massé, J C; T-Brault, M M

    1979-01-01

    In this article mental illness is presented in a sociological perspective, giving prominence to social-interaction factors which, in many cases, are responsable for the permanence of this type of illness. Its thereotical base comes !form the psychology of social-interaction developped by G.H. Mead and his disciples. This perspective defines the social human being as derived from successive interactions, beginning, at birth, with maternal contacts and extending progressively to the entirety of the members of the community of which the individual is a part. This interactional network is comprised of messages, of responses, and of expectations which make up the norms and values which in turn from the basis for the distribution of roles and statuses- From these roles and statuses derive the behaviours acceptable to a given collectivity. Among other theoretical developments, interactionist sociology gave birth to formulations on deviance which became known, in american terminology as "labelling theory". In the case of mental illness many sociologists interested in the phenomenon have studied it, using the framework elaborated by the proponents of this approach to deviance. Thus, rather than considering the deviant as abnormal in himself, deviance is viewed as a process; that is, as the result of a series of interactions confronting the individual who is not, or does not behave like the collectivity as a whole and the milieu in which he lives. When the reaction of the entourage is negative, the so-called deviant is subjected to sanctions such as avoidance, rejection, exclusion, confinement, etc... This process terminates generally in stigmatization which wraps the deviant in a label from which he will probably never free himself. The studies cited demonstrate this interactional process at different stages of mental illness, these being; d) at the point of medical diagnosis, b) during hospitalisation, c) on leaving We psychiatric institution, d) and after the return to

  20. Joint hypermobility: emerging disease or illness behaviour?

    PubMed

    Grahame, Rodney

    2013-12-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome is a common clinical entity which is much misunderstood, overlooked, misdiagnosed and mistreated. It was first described in the 1960s as a purely musculoskeletal condition due to joint laxity and hypermobility occurring in otherwise healthy individuals. Some four decades later it is now perceived to be a multi-systemic heritable disorder of connective tissue with manifestations occurring far beyond the confines of the locomotor system and with ramifications potentially affecting most, if not all, of the bodily systems in one way or another. Most authorities in the field find it clinically indistinguishable from the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome--hypermobility type (formerly, EDS type III). In >50% of patients the diagnosis is delayed for ≥10 years. Failure to diagnose and treat the condition correctly results in needless pain and suffering and in many patients to a progressive decline in their quality of life and in some to a loss of independence. PMID:24298184

  1. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  2. The genetics of mental illness: implications for practice.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the comfortable and relatively simple models of the nature of mental disorders, their causes and their neural substrates now appear quite frayed. Gone is the idea that symptom clusters, course of illness, family history and treatment response would coalesce in a simple way to yield valid diagnoses. Also too simple was the concept, born of early pharmacological successes, that abnormal levels of one or more neurotransmitters would satisfactorily explain the pathogenesis of depression or schizophrenia. Gone is the notion that there is a single gene that causes any mental disorder or determines any behavioural variant. The concept of the causative gene has been replaced by that of genetic complexity, in which multiple genes act in concert with non-genetic factors to produce a risk of mental disorder. Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice. The complex genetics of risk should reinvigorate research on the epidemiology and classification of mental disorders and explain the complex patterns of disease transmission within families. Knowledge of the timing of the expression of risk genes during brain development and of their function should not only contribute to an understanding of gene action and the pathophysiology of disease but should also help to direct the search for modifiable environmental risk factors that convert risk into illness. The function of risk genes can only become comprehensible in the context of advances at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in neuroscience and the behavioural sciences. Genetics should yield new therapies aimed not just at symptoms but also at pathogenic processes, thus permitting the targeting of specific therapies to individual patients. PMID:10885164

  3. Epigenetic Basis of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J; Peña, Catherine J; Kundakovic, Marija; Mitchell, Amanda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:26450593

  4. Dysphagia is a common and serious problem for adults with mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Kristy J; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-03-01

    Adults with mental illness may experience a higher incidence of dysphagia and choking due to factors such as medication side effects and behavioural abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of dysphagia and the most effective interventions for this population. Studies published up to August 2010 were sought via a comprehensive electronic database search (CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase). Studies reporting dysphagia frequency or dysphagia intervention outcomes in adults with mental illness were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and the results were synthesised descriptively. Ten studies were identified, each describing dysphagia frequency or death due to choking asphyxiation. No studies evaluating intervention effectiveness were identified. Study quality was limited by subjective assessment of outcomes. Six studies presented dysphagia frequencies ranging from 9 to 42% in varying subgroups. Four studies presented the frequency of choking asphyxiation death, including a large survey that concluded that adults with organic mental illness were 43 times more likely to die of this cause than the general population. Dysphagia is a common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with mental illness and our review found that there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention techniques.

  5. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Marks, Seth D

    2009-12-01

    Neuroendocrine changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during critical illness result in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) characterized by abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels. Studies looking at the natural history of neuroendocrine changes during critical illness have revealed the presence of NTIS. NTIS has been described in a variety of patient settings. Many studies have tried to uncover the pathophysiology behind NTIS and several theories are proposed. Whether NTIS requires treatment or intervention is still controversial and the results of the treatment studies are arguably mixed. Whether implicitly stated or not, the underlying purpose of all the natural history, pathophysiology, or treatment studies is to determine whether NTIS is adaptive or maladaptive. Some studies have illustrated a correlation between illness severity and the degree of NTIS but a cause and effect relationship is still elusive. The human studies can be divided between those with either adult or pediatric subjects, with much less data available in the latter. This review examines the available literature on NTIS with an emphasis on the pediatric literature.

  6. Mental abnormality and criminality--an uncertain relationship.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1990-07-01

    Some aspects of the uncertain relationship between mental abnormality and criminality are considered. Comments are offered on the contextual framework for such a relationship, studies of penal and other populations and the relationship between some specific mental abnormalities and criminal behaviour. Some implications for management are identified.

  7. Tarantism, dancing mania and demonopathy: the anthro-political aspects of 'mass psychogenic illness'.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, R E

    1994-05-01

    This study questions the widely held assumption that the phenomenon known as mass psychogenic illness (MPI) exists per se in nature as a psychiatric disorder. Most MPI studies are problematical, being descriptive, retrospective investigations of specific incidents which conform to a set of pre-existing symptom criteria that are used to determine the presence of collective psychosomatic illness. Diagnoses are based upon subjective, ambiguous categories that reflect stereotypes of female normality which assume the presence of a transcultural disease or disorder entity, underemphasizing or ignoring the significance of episodes as culturally conditioned roles of social action. Examples of this bias include the mislabelling of dancing manias, tarantism and demonopathy in Europe since the Middle Ages as culture-specific variants of MPI. While 'victims' are typified as mentally disturbed females possessing abnormal personality characteristics who are exhibiting cathartic reactions to stress, it is argued that episodes may involve normal, rational people who possess unfamiliar conduct codes, world-views and political agendas that differ significantly from those of Western-trained investigators who often judge these illness behaviours independent of their local context and meanings.

  8. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  9. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  10. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  11. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  12. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  13. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Complexin 1 knockout mice exhibit marked deficits in social behaviours but appear to be cognitively normal.

    PubMed

    Drew, Cheney J G; Kyd, Rachel J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Complexins are presynaptic proteins that modulate neurotransmitter release. Abnormal expression of complexin 1 (Cplx1) is seen in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed social behaviour is commonplace. These include Parkinsons's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, major depressive illness and bipolar disorder. We wondered whether changes in Cplx1 expression contribute to the psychiatric components of the diseases in which Cplx1 is dysregulated. To investigate this, we examined the cognitive and social behaviours of complexin 1 knockout mice (Cplx1(-/-)) mice. Cplx1(-/-) mice have a profound ataxia that limits their ability to perform co-ordinated motor tasks. Nevertheless, when we taught juvenile Cplx1(-/-) mice to swim, they showed no evidence of cognitive impairment in the two-choice swim tank. In contrast, although olfactory discrimination in Cplx1(-/-) mice was normal, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed in the social transmission of food preference task, another cognitive paradigm. This was due to abnormal social interactions rather than cognitive impairments, increased anxiety or neophobia. When we tested social behaviour directly, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to demonstrate a preference for social novelty. Further, in a resident-intruder paradigm, male Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to show the aggressive behaviour that is typical of wild-type males towards an intruder mouse. Together our results show that in addition to the severe motor and exploratory deficits already described, Cplx1(-/-) mice have pronounced deficits in social behaviours. Abnormalities in complexin 1 levels in the brain may therefore contribute to the psycho-social aspects of human diseases in which this protein is dysregulated.

  15. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  16. Treating nonthyroidal illness syndrome in the critically ill patient: still a matter of controversy.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Paliani, G; Annetta, M G; Pontecorvi, A; Antonelli, M

    2009-08-01

    The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a clinical condition of abnormal thyroid function tests observed in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine, with normal or low levels of thyroxine and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is still a matter of controversy whether the NTIS represents a protective adaptation of the organism to a stressful event or a maladaptive response to illness that needs correction. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in certain clinical situations, such as caloric restriction, cardiac disease, acute renal failure, brain-dead potential donors, and burn patients. Treating patients with NTIS seems not to be harmful, but there is no persuasive evidence that it is beneficial. The administration of hypothalamic releasing factors in patients with NTIS appears to be safe and effective in improving metabolism and restoring the anterior pituitary pulsatile secretion in the chronic phase of critical illness. However, also this promising strategy needs to be explored further. Anyhow, an extremely prudent approach is needed if treatment is given. Much of the data appearing in the literature on the treatment of NTIS encourage further randomized controlled trials on large number of patients. At present, however, we believe that there is no indication for treating thyroid hormone abnormalities in critically ill patients until convincing proof of efficacy and safety is provided.

  17. Managing Disruptive Behaviour in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Both faculty and students at many colleges and universities report numerous incidents of disruptive and uncivil behaviour. However, studies show that faculty are often reluctant to confront these situations, or they feel ill-equipped to intervene. If the behaviour escalates, a disproportionate amount of time and effort can be spent trying to…

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  19. MRI in decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, J; Tempka, A; Stroszczynski, C; Amodio, F; Hosten, N; Haas, J; Felix, R

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of decompression illness in which the patient developed paraparesis during scuba diving after rapid ascent. MRI of the spine revealed a focal intramedullary lesion consistent with the symptoms. The pathophysiological and radiological aspects of spinal decompression illness are discussed.

  20. Social networks and neurological illness.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Amar; Luke, Douglas A; Lang, Catherine E; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-10-01

    Every patient is embedded in a social network of interpersonal connections that influence health outcomes. Neurologists routinely need to engage with a patient's family and friends due to the nature of the illness and its social sequelae. Social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors. It would seem reasonable, therefore, to map and follow the personal networks of neurology patients. This approach reveals influential people, their habits, and linkage patterns that could facilitate or limit health behaviours. Personal network information can be particularly valuable to enhance risk factor management, medication adherence, and functional recovery. Here, we propose an agenda for research and clinical practice that includes mapping the networks of patients with diverse neurological disorders, evaluating the impact of the networks on patient outcomes, and testing network interventions. PMID:27615420

  1. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as “the forgotten electrolyte”, is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:26566403

  2. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  6. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  7. A PSYCHIATRIST'S PERSPECTIVES ON STRESS, STEROIDS AND MENTAL ILLNESS.

    PubMed

    Dunai, Magdolna

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between stress and mental illness has been extensively studied and there is a growing consensus that the occurrence of mental illness rather depends on a combination of factors than is caused by stressful external events. Significant hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis abnormalities were observed among others in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. In both disorders, the extent of change in cortisol level was related to the severity of illness and to cognitive changes. Exogenous use of synthetic steroids also frequently resulted in severe psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion changes in the level of steroid hormones may cause impairments in the brain.

  8. A review of the role of illness models in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Lobban, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine; Jones, Steve

    2003-03-01

    The ways in which people think about illness experiences have been associated with a variety of important behaviours and emotional responses in patients, carers, and professionals. Some of these responses have been shown to be related to outcome. Explicit models such as the self-regulation model (SRM) [Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D. R., & Steele, D. F. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In A. Baum & J. Singer (Eds.), A handbook of psychology and health. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 219-252.] have been shown to be useful in highlighting key beliefs across a wide range of different physical illnesses. The specific beliefs about mental illness that have been assessed have been varied and largely without a common theoretical framework. This has resulted in a literature from which it is difficult to draw firm conclusions. The central aim of this paper is to assess the applicability of the SRM to mental illness. To this end, we review studies to date that have examined the beliefs that people with a mental illness have about their experiences. In addition, we review studies that have examined the beliefs of relatives of people with a mental illness and professionals who work with this population. We assess to what extent these studies are consistent with the SRM before suggesting ways in which the model could be further developed and tested. The SRM is presented as a useful framework for more advanced investigations into the function of beliefs about mental illness and how these can be modified in order to effect outcome. Developing psychological theories common to both physical and mental health may eventually result in an integrated approach in which mental illness becomes less stigmatised within the treatment setting. PMID:12573669

  9. [Depression as chronobiological illness].

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Janos; Kálmán, Sára

    2009-06-01

    Chronobiological problems are always present as aetiological or pathoplastic conditions almost in all psychiatric disorders and considered as the greatest contributors to the mood and sleep disorders associated problems. The present review summarise the recent advances in the chronobiology research from the point of the clinician with particular emphasis on the psychobiology and pharmacotherapy of the depression. Human behaviour builds up from different length of circadian, ultradian and seasonal rhytms, strictly controlled by a hierarchical organisation of sub-cellullar, cellular, neuro-humoral and neuro-immunological clock systems. These internal clock systems are orchestrated at molecular level by certain clock genes and on the other hand--at neuro-humoral level--by the effect of the sleep hormone, melatonine, produced by the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Beside the biological factors, social interactions are also considered as important regulators of the biological clock systems. The pacemaker centers of the SCN receive efferents from the serotoninergic raphe nuclei in order to regulate stress responses and neuroimmunological functions. The direction and the level of the chronobiological desynchronisation could be totally divergent in the case of the different affective disorders. Different chronobiological interventions are required therefore in the case of the advanced and delayed sleep disorders. Sleeping disorders are considered as the most recognised signs of the chronobiological desynchronisation in depression, but these symptoms are only the tip of the iceberg, since other chronobiological symptoms could be present due to the hidden physiological abnormalities. The serum melatonine profile is considered to be characteristic to age, gender and certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The natural and synthetic agonist of the melatonine receptors could be used as chronobiotics. The recently marketed agomelatine with a highly selective receptor

  10. Illness prevention in the NHS five year forward view.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Illness prevention is a priority for the NHS Mandate and the Five Year Forward View, and offers a means to maintain sustainable health and social care services in the context of an ageing population and the growth of behaviour-related illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance recommends a structured approach to embedding behaviour change interventions into clinical care, and effective implementation requires organisational support. This article describes how nurse leaders, managers and commissioners can ensure this implementation through setting objectives for staff, training and development, as well as supporting staff to adopt healthier lifestyles. PMID:26014792

  11. [Nonthyroidal illness (NTI)].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2012-11-01

    Thyroxine (T4), a major secretory product of thyroid gland, needs to be converted to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by iodothyronine deiodinases to exert its biological effect. Nonthyroidal illness, also known as low T3 syndrome, is associated with low serum T3 concentrations, which are inversely correlated to the severity of the illness. The patients with nonthyroidal illness do not show compensatory rise in serum TSH concentrations, and sometimes develop low serum T4 and TSH concentrations. It has been postulated that decreased extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 is a responsible mechanism underlying low T3 syndrome. The roles of three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, D3) in the pathophysiology of nonthyroidal illness are discussed.

  12. High-Altitude Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... altitude illness: Acute mountain sickness High-altitude pulmonary edema (also called HAPE), which affects the lungs High-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brain These ...

  13. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  14. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Print this Page Air Pollution ...

  15. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  16. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  17. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  18. Prenatal exposure to the viral mimetic poly I:C alters fetal brain cytokine expression and postnatal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; LaRosa, Domenic A; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W

    2014-01-01

    An increased incidence of mental illness disorders is found in children and adolescents born to mothers who experienced an infection-based illness during pregnancy. Animal models to study the prenatal origin of such outcomes of pregnancy have largely used conventional rodents, which are immature (altricial) at birth compared with the human neonate. In this study, we used the precocial spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), whose offspring have completed organogenesis at birth, and administered a single subcutaneous injection of a 5 mg/kg dose of the viral mimetic poly I:C (polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid) at mid gestation (20 days; term is 39 days). Prenatal exposure to poly I:C caused a transient weight loss in the pregnant dam, produced a downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α in the fetal brain, and resulted in abnormalities in sensorimotor gating and reduced social interaction, memory and learning in juvenile offspring. No changes in exploratory activity or anxiety and fear behaviours were found between the treatment groups. This study provides evidence that, in a rodent model that more closely resembles human brain development, prenatal infection can lead to behavioural abnormalities in postnatal life. PMID:24863806

  19. Exploring Mental Illness through a Poetry Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    An atypical and challenging writing assignment for courses in general or abnormal psychology is to ask the students to write a poem about the experience of mental illness. The format, length, and topic are left entirely up to the student. While shocked at first, students rose to the challenge after being told they would be judged on content and…

  20. Neurobiological correlates of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Fleming, Jaclyn; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2012-05-01

    Some clinical aspects of affective illness progression, such as episode-, stress-, and substance-induced sensitization, have been well documented in the literature, but others have received less attention. These include cognitive deficits, treatment-refractoriness, and neurobiological correlates of illness progression, which are the primary focus of this paper. We review the evidence that cognitive dysfunction, treatment resistance, medical comorbidities, and neurobiological abnormalities increase as a function of the number of prior episodes or duration of illness in the recurrent unipolar and bipolar disorders. Substantial evidence supports the view that cognitive dysfunction and vulnerability to a diagnosis of dementia in old age increases as a function of number of prior mood episodes as does non-response to many therapeutic interventions as well as naturalistic treatment. Neurobiological abnormalities that correlate with the number of mood episodes or duration of illness include: anatomical, functional, and biochemical deficits in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as amygdala hyperactivity and cortisol hyper-secretion. Some neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may also change with greater illness burden. Causality cannot be inferred from these correlative relationships. Nonetheless, given the potentially grave consequences of episode recurrence and progression for morbidity and treatment non-responsiveness, it is clinically wise to assume episodes are causing some of the progressive cognitive and neurobiological abnormalities. As such, earlier and more sustained long-term prophylaxis to attempt to reduce these adverse outcomes is indicated.

  1. Environmental illness. A clinical review of 50 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Terr, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    A review of 50 patients with a clinical ecology diagnosis of environmentally induced illness is reported. Histories were extremely heterogeneous. Eight patients had no symptoms or disease, 11 had symptoms caused by preexisting nonenvironmental disease, and 31 had multiple subjective symptoms. No consistent physical findings or laboratory abnormalities were found. Serum levels of immunoglobulins and complement, and circulating lymphocyte, B-cell, T-cell, and T-cell subset counts were not significantly abnormal. The diagnostic provocation-neutralization procedure, environmental restrictions, and dietary advice of clinical ecology produced further symptoms and fear of environmental and food contaminants. The patients with chronic multisystem complaints had characteristic symptoms of psychosomatic illness, but this study does not support the clinical ecology theory that psychosomatic illness may be an expression of food and chemical sensitivities induced by the toxic effect of environmental chemicals on the immune system.

  2. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

  3. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Armond S; Schmalstieg, Frank C

    2007-05-01

    When Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, he was weak and dizzy; his face had a ghastly colour. That evening on the train to Washington, DC, he was febrile and weak, and suffered severe headaches. The symptoms continued; back pains developed. On the fourth day of the illness, a widespread scarlet rash appeared that soon became vesicular. By the tenth day, the lesions itched and peeled. The illness lasted three weeks. The final diagnosis, a touch of varioloid, was an old name for smallpox that was later used in the 20th century to denote mild smallpox in a partially immune individual. It was unclear whether Lincoln had been immunized against smallpox. Indeed, this review suggests that Lincoln had unmodified smallpox and that Lincoln's physicians tried to reassure the public that Lincoln was not seriously ill. Indeed, the successful conclusion of the Civil War and reunification of the country were dependent upon Lincoln's presidency.

  4. [Prophecy and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vishne, Tali; Harary, Eran

    2005-09-01

    It is a well known platitude that a mentally ill person may "think that he is God" or "believes that he is the Messiah". Despite the generalization and shallowness of this attitude, sometimes psychotic patients indeed have delusions with contents of divine revelation, messianic assignments or prophetic power. In this current article we examine the different connections between prophecy and mental condition, especially psychotic. We present sources that combine prophecy and insanity, and also possible psychiatric interpretation of these situations. Finally, we present the attitude of the Rambam to prophecy and the personality characteristics of the prophet, limiting the possibility of the mentally ill patient who pretends to be a prophet.

  5. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  6. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  7. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  8. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  9. The contribution of reproductive ill-health to the overall burden of perceived illness among women in southern India.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, J.; Cleland, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's perceptions of the overall burden of illness among a sample of women in southern India. METHODS: A community-based sample of 421 young married women in a subdistrict about 70 kilometres from Bangalore, Karnataka State, India, were interviewed monthly for one year. At each visit, information on the symptoms of all forms of illness they had experienced was elicited with the aid of a checklist. Details were obtained on the durations of episodes of illness and on health-seeking behaviour and costs. The symptoms were subsequently coded in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). FINDINGS: Reproductive ill-health accounted for half of all illness-days and for 31% of total curative health expenditure. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study estimated that 27.4% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in Indian women aged 15-44 years were attributable to reproductive ill-health. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that this dimension of morbidity, when measured in terms of women's subjective experiences, makes a larger contribution to the burden of illness than that suggested by the DALY approach. This lends justification to the high priority attached to reproductive ill-health in India. PMID:11731815

  10. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adler, Suzanne Myers; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article briefly summarizes thyroid function alterations generally seen in the euthyroid sick syndrome, provides an overview of specific thyroidal adaptations during several clinical conditions and secondary to specific pharmacologic agents, and discusses the current controversy in thyroid hormone treatment of nonthyroidal illness.

  11. Coping with Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... and independence. You may not be able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not understand why this is happening to them. These changes can cause stress, anxiety and anger. If they do, it is ...

  12. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  13. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  14. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  15. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  16. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment. PMID:26733803

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  20. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  1. Evaluating a Health Behaviour Model for Persons with and without an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Zigrovic, L.; Weber, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on the idea of the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations by Leventhal as well as Lohaus's concepts of health and illness, a health behaviour model was designed to explain health behaviours applied by persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). The key proposal of this model is that the way someone understands the…

  2. Early illness recognition using frequent motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Hajihashemi, Zahra; Popescu, Mihail

    2015-08-01

    Living alone in their own residence, older adults are at risk for late assessment of physical or cognitive changes due to many factors such as their impression that such changes are simply a normal part of aging or their reluctance to admit to a problem. This paper describes an early illness recognition framework using sensor network technology to identify the health trajectory of older adults reflected in patterns of day-today activities. Describing the behavior of older adults could help clinicians to identify those at the greatest risk for functional decline and adverse events. The proposed framework, denoted as Abnormal Frequent Activity Pattern (AFAP), is based on the identification of known past abnormal frequent activities in current sensor data. More specifically, AFAP declares a day abnormal when past frequent abnormal behavior patterns, not found during normal days, are discovered in the current activity data. While AFAP requires the labeling of past days as normal/abnormal, it doesn't need specific activity identification. Frequent activity patterns (FAP) are found using MEME, a bioinformatics motif detection algorithm. To validate our approach, we used data obtained from TigerPlace, an aging in place community situated in Columbia, MO, where apartments are equipped with sensor networks (motion, bed and depth sensors). A retrospective multiple case study (N=3) design was used to quantify the in-home older adult's daily routines, over a period of two weeks. Within-person variability of routine activities may be used as a new predictor in the study of health trajectories of older adults. PMID:26737096

  3. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  4. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  5. Darwin's illness revealed.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-04-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed--the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution. PMID:15811889

  6. Darwin's illness revealed.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-04-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed--the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution.

  7. Concepts of mental illness and medical pluralism in Harare.

    PubMed

    Patel, V; Musara, T; Butau, T; Maramba, P; Fuyane, S

    1995-05-01

    The Focus Group Discussions (FGD) described in this paper are the first step of a study aiming to develop an 'emic' case-finding instrument. In keeping with the realities of primary care in Zimbabwe, nine FGD were held with 76 care providers including 30 village community workers, 22 traditional and faith healers (collectively referred to as traditional healers in this paper), 15 relatives of patients and 9 community psychiatric nurses. In addition to the general facets of concepts of mental illness, three 'etic' case vignettes were also presented. A change in behaviour or ability to care for oneself emerged as the central definition of mental illness. Both the head and the heart were regarded as playing an important role in the mediation of emotions. The types of mental illness described were intimately related to beliefs about spiritual causation. Angered ancestral spirits, evil spirits and witchcraft were seen as potent causes of mental illness. Families not only bore the burden of caring for the patient and all financial expenses involved, but were also ostracized and isolated. Both biomedical and traditional healers could help mentally ill persons by resolving different issues relating to the same illness episode. All case vignettes were recognized by the care providers in their communities though many felt that the descriptions did not reflect 'illnesses' but social problems and that accordingly, the treatment for these was social, rather than medical. The data enabled us to develop screening criteria for mental illness to be used by traditional healers and primary care nurses in the next stage of the study in which patients selected by these care providers on the grounds of suspicion of suffering from mental illness will be interviewed to elicit their explanatory models of illness and phenomenology. PMID:7480429

  8. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  9. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  10. The course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological impairment and abnormalities in brain structure are commonly observed in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Shared deficits in neuropsychological functioning and abnormalities in brain structure suggest overlapping neuropathology between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which has important implications for psychiatric nosology, treatment, and our understanding of the etiology of psychotic illnesses. However, the emergence and trajectory of brain dysfunction in psychotic disorders is less well understood. Differences in the course and progression of neuropsychological impairment and brain abnormalities among psychotic disorders may point to unique neuropathological processes. This article reviews the course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  11. Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts. PMID:23173954

  12. "Remember the bubbles hurt you when you cook in the pan": young children's views of illness causality.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Caroline; Stephens, Christine; Lyons, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines four-year-old children's everyday understandings of illness causality. Research into young children's conceptualisation of illness has led to different expectations of children's comprehension and ongoing debate regarding the nature of children's knowledge. Awareness of preschoolers' spontaneous views of illness causality, rather than explanations restricted by predetermined response categories, is likely to assist practitioners to provide more appropriate interventions for young children. Adopting a socio-constructivist perspective of children's learning and development, and using a narrative methodology, we interviewed five preschoolers regarding their views of illness causality. As part of the interview process children were invited to construct their own storybooks about illness using photographs of children experiencing illness and a variety of art materials. Analysis of young children's narrative accounts revealed two major threads regarding children's illness causality constructions: (1) "behaviour-based explanations for illness", and (2) "illness prevention messages and behavioural rules". Findings suggest that four-year-olds' understanding may be more sophisticated than traditionally maintained, and that the illness prevention messages and behavioural rules within sociocultural contexts may significantly influence children's conceptualisation of illness causality.

  13. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  14. Advances in understanding illness anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harding, Kelli J; Skritskaya, Natalia; Doherty, Emily; Fallon, Brian A

    2008-08-01

    Illness anxiety, also known in its more severe form as hypochondriasis, is a debilitating and chronic condition in which normal bodily symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of serious medical illness. Patients suffer with the fear that they are ill despite reassurance to the contrary and often overuse medical services in the process. This article critically evaluates the recent literature on illness anxiety and related, medically unexplained symptoms, highlighting new and interesting findings in the areas of prevalence, classification/diagnosis, management, and evidence-based treatment and new frontiers in understanding illness anxiety, such as brain imaging, neuroimmunology, and cyberchondria. PMID:18627669

  15. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions. PMID:8231701

  16. The status of the mentally ill in Jewish law.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Y A

    1993-01-01

    The Jewish law goes into great detail discussing the status of the mentally ill. There are many aspects to this question over and above the legal aspects of such a person's rights, obligations, doing business, etc. What is the Halachic approach to a mentally ill person in general? Is this person subject to the code of Jewish law the same as the normal Jew? Should we make an effort to help this type of person fulfil the commandments and prevent him or her from transgressing them or perhaps since such a person is incapable of controlling his or her behaviour, there is no purpose in these efforts? Marriage and divorce are other serious issues to which the Jewish law gives special attention in this context. Marriage must be entered into by a rational and judicious person or the act will not be valid. A very serious problem arises when a husband is mentally ill and due to that halachically cannot divorce his wife and she remains an Agunah. The situation is more complicated as the definition of mentally ill encompasses a broader spectrum of cases. Which psychiatric disorders come under the definition of a mentally ill person who is unable to control his or her behaviour? Which symptoms attest the inability of a person to enter into marriage or to grant a divorce? The Talmud discusses these matters in several places and the Halacha bases its rulings on their conclusions.

  17. Abnormal Cerebral Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Ceschin, Rafael; Pruetz, Jay D.; Detterich, Jon A.; Del Castillo, Sylvia; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Kim, Richard; Painter, Michael J.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Williams, Roberta G.; Blüml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abnormal cerebral microstructure has been documented in term neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) portending risk for injury and poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate diffuse cerebral microstructural abnormalities when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between microstructural abnormalities, white matter injury (e.g., punctate white matter lesions, pWMLs) and other clinical variables, including heart lesion. Material and Methods Using Tract-Based-Spatial-Statistics (TBSS), an unbiased, voxel-wise method for analyzing diffusion tensor imaging data, we compared 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Results Compared to term neonates without CHD, preterm neonates with CHD had microstructural abnormalities in widespread regions of the central white matter. However, 42% of the preterm CHD neonates had pWMLs. When neonates with pWMLs were excluded, microstructural abnormalities remained only in the splenium. Preterms with CHD had similar microstructure to preterms without CHD. Conclusion Diffuse microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD, strongly associated with pWMLs. Independently, regional vulnerability of the splenium, a structure associated with visual spatial function, was observed in all preterm CHD neonates. PMID:23703146

  18. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  19. Fatherhood and emotional illness.

    PubMed

    Cavenar, J O; Butts, N T

    1977-04-01

    The authors describe four cases in which men developed emotional illnesses related to their wives' pregnancies. In all of the cases, the patients had experienced sibling rivalry at a significant time in their lives. This factor seemed to be more important dynamically in understanding their feelings about fatherhood than previously proposed factors, such as envy of the wife's childbearing capacity, dependence on the wife, and neurotic conflict with the oedipal father. The authors suggest that in men with neuroses, the issue of sibling rivalry is an important determinant of reactions to fatherhood.

  20. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  1. Anatomical Abnormalities of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schizophrenia: Bridging the Gap Between Neuroimaging and Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Fornito, Alex; Yücel, Murat; Dean, Brian; Wood, Stephen J.; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a functionally heterogeneous region involved in diverse cognitive and emotional processes that support goal-directed behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings over the past two decades have converged to suggest abnormalities in the region may represent a neurobiological basis for many of the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. However, while each approach offers complimentary information that can provide clues regarding underlying patholophysiological processes, the findings from these 2 fields are seldom integrated. In this article, we review structural neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of the ACC, focusing on the unique information they provide. The available imaging data suggest grey matter reductions in the ACC precede psychosis onset in some categories of high-risk individuals, show sub-regional specificity, and may progress with illness duration. The available post-mortem findings indicate these imaging-related changes are accompanied by reductions in neuronal, synaptic, and dendritic density, as well as increased afferent input, suggesting the grey matter differences observed with MRI arise from alterations in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue compartments. We discuss the potential mechanisms that might facilitate integration of these findings and consider strategies for future research. PMID:18436528

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  4. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  5. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  6. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

  7. Selective deletion of forebrain glycogen synthase kinase 3β reveals a central role in serotonin-sensitive anxiety and social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Latapy, Camille; Rioux, Véronique; Guitton, Matthieu J.; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is thought to underlie mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, depression, autism and schizophrenia. Independent studies have indicated that 5-HT or drugs acting on 5-HT neurotransmission regulate the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, GSK3β inhibition rescues behavioural abnormalities in 5-HT-deficient mice with a loss-of-function mutation equivalent to the human variant (R441H) of tryptophan hydroxylase 2. In an effort to define neuroanatomical correlates of GSK3β activity in the regulation of behaviour, we generated CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice in which the gsk3b gene is postnatally inactivated in forebrain pyramidal neurons. Behavioural characterization showed that suppression of GSK3β in these brain areas has anxiolytic and pro-social effects. However, while a global reduction of GSK2β expression reduced responsiveness to amphetamine and increased resilience to social defeat, these behavioural effects were not found in CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice. These findings demonstrate a dissociation of behavioural effects related to GSK3 inhibition, with forebrain GSK3β being involved in the regulation of anxiety and sociability while social preference, resilience and responsiveness to psychostimulants would involve a function of this kinase in subcortical areas such as the hippocampus and striatum. PMID:22826345

  8. Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.

    PubMed

    Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

    2014-07-01

    Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

  9. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  10. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  11. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  12. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  13. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  14. Between health and illness.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter G

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the connections between health and illness, and the processes of salutogenesis, pathogenesis, and homeostasis. Written from an understanding of human embodiment and the consequences this has for our experiences of health and disease, this essay moves towards a positive definition of health, as an on-going outcome from the processes of a life lived well. "Well" here is measured in terms of wealth, relationships, coherence, fitness, and adaptability. Mencken's criticism that "Hygiene is the corruption of medicine by morality" is answered; the search for health is, in part, a moral as well as a biological enterprise. Both generative processes and remedial measures contribute to health. The patients in my consulting room usually need remedial medicine, but they would also like to flourish as human beings. Doctors should be able to provide a balance of measures towards this end.

  15. Young People with Down Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation of Health Knowledge and Associated Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobling, Anne; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disability have a range of significant health problems. If they are to live independently, they need to engage in behaviours that are health promoting, as well as avoiding behaviours that might directly lead to ill health. There is very little research about health-related knowledge and behaviour in this group.…

  16. Gyrification brain abnormalities as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Manara, Renzo; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Gyrification brain abnormalities are considered a marker of early deviations from normal developmental trajectories and a putative predictor of poor outcome in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore cortical folding morphology in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A MRI brain study was conducted on 38 patients with AN, 20 fully recovered patients, and 38 healthy women. Local gyrification was measured with procedures implemented in FreeSurfer. Vertex-wise comparisons were carried out to compare: (1) AN patients and healthy women; (2) patients with a full remission at a 3-year longitudinal follow-up assessment and patients who did not recover. AN patients exhibited significantly lower gyrification when compared with healthy controls. Patients with a poor 3-year outcome had significantly lower baseline gyrification when compared to both healthy women and patients with full recovery at follow-up, even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and gray matter volume. No significant correlation has been found between gyrification, body mass index, amount of weight loss, onset age, and duration of illness. Brain gyrification significantly predicted outcome at follow-up even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and other clinical prognostic factors. Although the role of starvation in determining our findings cannot be excluded, our study showed that brain gyrification might be a predictor of outcome in AN. Further studies are needed to understand if brain gyrification abnormalities are indices of early neurodevelopmental alterations, the consequence of starvation, or the interaction between both factors.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  18. Responding to Students' Chronic Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Stern, Melissa; Sferdenschi, Corina; McCabe, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are long-term or permanent medical conditions that have recurring effects on everyday life. Large and growing number of students have chronic illnesses that affect their emotional development, physical development, academic performance, and family interactions. The primary error in educating those students is assuming that the…

  19. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  20. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  1. Chronic illness and Hmong shamans.

    PubMed

    Helsel, Deborah; Mochel, Marilyn; Bauer, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Among the challenges health care personnel in California's central valley face has been finding ways to help Hmong Americans manage chronic illness. Interviews were conducted with 11 Hmong shamans diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and were qualitatively analyzed to ascertain respondents' understanding and management of their illnesses. Hmong shamans are influential individuals within their communities and are often the resource persons to whom patients turn for information on health. Understanding the shamans' perspective on chronic illness was seen as a gateway to understanding how the broader Hmong American community perceived these conditions. The concept of chronic illness was not well understood, resulting in sporadic medication and dietary regimens, limited awareness of potential complications, and a persistent impression that these illnesses could be cured rather than managed. Suggestions for patient educators include family and community involvement in care regimens and the use of descriptive terminology to identify the disease.

  2. Determinants of parental reports of children's illnesses: empirical evidence from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Subhash

    2007-09-01

    Household surveys from the developing world consistently record a generally low level of illness reporting, but the evidence that substantial differences exist in illness reporting between income groups is scanty. In contrast, a huge gap in illness reporting exists between rich and poor countries. Medical anthropologists have highlighted the differential illness perception across income groups but little is known as to what extent economic variables do determine one's illness decision. In this paper, discrete choice theory is used to explain why some parents choose to report their children's illnesses more often than others in Nepal. An empirical model is developed that depicts illness-reporting decisions as a function of inter alia, price and income. Data are drawn from Phase I of the Nepal Living Standards Survey. The results suggest that income as well as the price that parents expect to pay on treatment of their children's non-chronic ailments determine their decision to report an illness, when controlling for other variables (price responsiveness =-1.16; income responsiveness=0.23; p-value=0.00). This behaviour is theoretically consistent as parents weigh the opportunity costs of their decision (here, choosing to report an illness). Its implications are broader and raise other questions, e.g., Can we explain the difference in illness-perception rates between rich and poor countries that have different mechanisms to finance health care? PMID:17582668

  3. Unemployment and ill health: understanding the relationship.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review research relevant to understanding the psychological, social, and biological pathways by which unemployment may affect health risk; to consider the importance of four specific mechanisms; and to indicate some directions for future research. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF PUBLISHED STUDIES--Studies were chosen to illustrate the development of four major hypotheses regarding the relationship between unemployment and ill health, as well as the present state of knowledge. The review therefore includes some much-cited "classics" drawn from a long time span. Where recent reviews already exist relevant to individual mechanisms, these are referred to. Recent (since 1987) reports were sought by searching the BIDS data base. Particular effort was made to locate studies which enabled alternative hypotheses to be evaluated, and to point out where existing evidence is inconsistent or incomplete, indicating the need for further research. CONCLUSIONS--To understand the relationship between unemployment and ill health and mortality, four mechanisms need to be considered: the role of relative poverty; social isolation and loss of self esteem; health related behaviour (including that associated with membership of certain types of "subculture"); and the effect that a spell of unemployment has on subsequent employment patterns. PMID:7964329

  4. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next") as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them. PMID:22292982

  5. Parenting interventions for childhood chronic illness: a review and recommendations for intervention design and delivery.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Calam, Rachel; Fraser, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Every day, thousands of children suffer the effects of chronic health conditions and families struggle with illness management and children's behavioural and emotional adjustment. Many parents experience difficulties with their caregiving role and lack confidence in their ability to manage their child's illness and ensure the child's well-being. While there is consistent evidence as to the extent and impact of childhood chronic illness, there is a paucity of evidence-based parenting approaches to help children with chronic health conditions and their families. This paper provides a narrative review of the current literature to examine relationships between chronic childhood illness, emotional and behavioural disorders and parenting. Key guidelines and recommendations for the development of evidence-based parenting programs for parents of children affected by chronic health conditions are provided.

  6. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Kim; Mullan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether mental representations, derived from the common-sense model of illness representations (CSM), were able to predict adherence in chronically ill patients. Electronic databases were searched for studies that used the CSM and measured adherence behaviour in chronically ill patients. Correlations from the included articles were meta-analysed using a random-size effect model. A moderation analysis was conducted for the type of adherence behaviour. The effect sizes for the different mental representations and adherence constructs ranged from -0.02 to 0.12. Further analyses showed that the relationship between the mental representations and adherence did not differ by the type of adherence behaviour. The low-effect sizes indicate that the relationships between the different mental representations of the CSM and adherence are very weak. Therefore, the CSM may not be the most appropriate model to use in predictive studies of adherence.

  7. Psychiatric labelling, sex role stereotypes and beliefs about the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Cormack, S; Furnham, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of two main variables on specific attitudes and beliefs about mental illness. The first variable tested the labelling theory proposal that the label of mental illness per se is stigmatizing for those so labelled. The second tested the proposal of Rosenfield (1982) that males and females receive a more severe societal reaction for deviance when the deviant behaviour is inconsistent with traditional sex role norms. Questionnaires with vignettes describing four behaviour types were given to young adult respondents. The expected effect of a psychiatric diagnosis and of deviance from sex role stereotypes were not confirmed. It was concluded that while several variables combine to influence specific attitudes and beliefs about the mentally ill, the type of behaviour displayed is the crucial factor. PMID:10459508

  8. A multidisciplinary network for the care of abnormal fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in the provinces of East and West Flanders in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tobback, E; Mariman, A; Heytens, S; Declercq, T; Bouwen, A; Spooren, D; Snoeck, P; Van Dessel, K; D'Hooghe, S; Rimbaut, S; Vogelaers, D

    2014-10-01

    The organization of care for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in tertiary care referral centres from 2002 onwards, was negatively evaluated by the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre on the endpoint of socio-professional reintegration. Subsequently, the federal health authorities asked for the elaboration of a new and innovative model of stepped care, aiming at improved integration of diagnosis and treatment into primary care and between levels of health care for patients with CFS. The reference centre of the University Hospital Ghent took the initiative of recruiting partners in the Belgian provinces of East and West Flanders to guarantee the care for patients with medically unexplained symptoms, in particular abnormal fatigue and CFS. A new and innovative care model, in which general practitioners play a central role, emphasizes the importance of early recognition of the patient 'at risk', correct diagnosis and timely referral. Early detection and intervention is essential in order to avoid or minimize illness progression towards chronicity, to safeguard opportunities for significant health improvement as well as to enhance successful socio-professional reintegration. This approach covers both the large sample of patients developing somatic complaints without obvious disease in an early phase as well as the more limited group of patients with chronic illness, including CFS. Cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exposure/exercise therapy are the evidence based main components of therapy in the latter. A biopsychosocial model underlies the proposed path of care.

  9. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  10. Progression of Amygdala Volumetric Abnormalities in Adolescents after Their First Manic Episode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Samantha M.; Mills, Neil P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although previous neuroimaging studies suggest that adolescents with bipolar disorder exhibit smaller amygdala volumes compared with healthy adolescents, whether these abnormalities are present at illness onset or instead develop over time remains unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective longitudinal investigation…

  11. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    PubMed

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  12. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    PubMed

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed. PMID:26671292

  13. Treatment of suspected heat illness.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1998-06-01

    1. Despite advances in the art and science of fluid balance, exertional heat illness -- even life-threatening heat stroke -- remains a threat for some athletes today. 2. Risk factors for heat illness include: being unacclimatized, unfit, or hypohydrated; certain illnesses or drugs; not drinking in long events; and a fast finishing pace. 3. Heat cramps typically occur in conditioned athletes who compete for hours in the sun. They can be prevented by increasing dietary salt and staying hydrated. 4. Early diagnosis of heat exhaustion can be vital. Early warning signs include: flushed face, hyperventilation, headache, dizziness, nausea, tingling arms, piloerection, chilliness, incoordination, and confusion. 5. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of heat illness include: confusion preventing self-diagnosis; the lack of trained spotters; rectal temperature not taken promptly; the problem of "seek not, find not;" and the mimicry of heat illness. 6. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Mainstays of therapy include: emergency on-site cooling; intravenous fluids; treating hypoglycemia as needed; intravenous diazepam for seizures or severe cramping or shivering; and hospitalizing if response is slow or atypical. 7. The best treatment is prevention. Tips to avoiding heat illness include: rely not on thirst; drink on schedule; favor sports drinks; monitor weight; watch urine; shun caffeine and alcohol; key on meals for fluids and salt; stay cool when you can; and know the early warning signs of heat illness.

  14. [Religious beliefs, illness and death: family's perspectives in illness experience].

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Poles, Kátia; Serafim, Taís de Souza; de Miranda, Mariana Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify predominant themes in religion, illness and death in the life histories of families and examine the relationship between religion creeds, illness and death in the discourse of families that have an ill person. The theoretical framework used in this study was Symbolic Interactionism and the method was Oral History. Participants were seventeen families with nine different religions, who had experienced the death of a relative. Data analysis showed that following a religion is a relevant part of the lives of many families and cannot be neglected in the illness context. Results point to the importance of understanding the meaning that religion has to the families in the health-disease process, so nurses can work on the promotion of health.

  15. Abnormal cerebellar volume in acute and remitted major depression.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal cortical volume is well-documented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but cerebellar findings have been heterogeneous. It is unclear whether abnormal cerebellar structure relates to disease state or medication. In this study, using structural MRI, we investigated cerebellar volume in clinically acute (with and without psychotropic treatment) and remitted MDD patients. High-resolution structural MRI data at 3T were obtained from acute medicated (n=29), acute unmedicated (n=14) and remitted patients (n=16). Data from 29 healthy controls were used for comparison purposes. Cerebellar volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Patients with an acute MDD episode showed increased volume of left cerebellar area IX, and this was true for both medicated and unmedicated individuals (p<0.05 cluster-corrected). Remitted patients exhibited bilaterally increased area IX volume. In remitted, but not in acutely ill patients, area IX volume was significantly associated with measures of depression severity, as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). In addition, area IX volume in remitted patients was significantly related to the duration of antidepressant treatment. In acutely ill patients, no significant relationships were established using clinical variables, such as HAMD, illness or treatment duration and number of depressive episodes. The data suggest that cerebellar area IX, a non-motor region that belongs to a large-scale brain functional network with known relevance to core depressive symptom expression, exhibits abnormal volume in patients independent of clinical severity or medication. Thus, the data imply a possible trait marker of the disorder. However, given bilaterality and an association with clinical scores at least in remitted patients, the current findings raise the possibility that cerebellar volume may be reflective of successful treatment as well.

  16. Recognising and managing decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Caton-Richards, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Seen primarily in scuba divers who have breathed compressed air, decompression illness is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Prompt recognition and treatment of the illness, and urgent referral of patients to hyperbaric chambers, can mean the difference between full recovery and paralysis or death. This article describes decompression illness and how to recognise it, and discusses the treatment that patients require for the best chance of recovery with no adverse effects. It also includes a case study of a patient who developed this condition after a dive. PMID:24219686

  17. Recognising and managing decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Caton-Richards, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Seen primarily in scuba divers who have breathed compressed air, decompression illness is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Prompt recognition and treatment of the illness, and urgent referral of patients to hyperbaric chambers, can mean the difference between full recovery and paralysis or death. This article describes decompression illness and how to recognise it, and discusses the treatment that patients require for the best chance of recovery with no adverse effects. It also includes a case study of a patient who developed this condition after a dive.

  18. Critical illness-induced dysglycaemia: diabetes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fang Gao; Sheehy, Ann M; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Coursin, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world. The disease is projected to continue to increase and double within the foreseeable future. Dysglycaemia develops in the form of hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia and marked glucose variability in critically ill adults whether they are known to have premorbid diabetes or not. Patients with such glucose dysregulation have increased morbidity and mortality. Whether this is secondary to cause and effect from dysglycaemia or is just related to critical illness remains under intense investigation. Identification of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with unrecognised diabetes remains a challenge. Further, there are few data regarding the development of type 2 diabetes in survivors after hospital discharge. This commentary introduces the concept of critical illness-induced dysglycaemia as an umbrella term that includes the spectrum of abnormal glucose homeostasis in the ICU. We outline the need for further studies in the area of glucose regulation and for follow-up of the natural history of abnormal glucose control during ICU admission and beyond. PMID:21067560

  19. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356) gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298). Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented through survey method is

  20. Life Events, Stress, and Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabkin, Judith G.; Struening, Elmer L.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively reviews the research literature on the relation of life events, stress, and the onset of illness; delineates trends in the development of this research, and evaluates the conceptual and methodological approaches employed. (MLH)

  1. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  2. Pertussis immunisation and serious acute neurological illnesses in children.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D; Madge, N; Diamond, J; Wadsworth, J; Ross, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine long term outcome in children who had a severe acute neurological illness in early childhood associated with pertussis immunisation. DESIGN--Follow up study of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Assessment of children at home and at school throughout Britain. SUBJECTS--Children recruited into the national childhood encephalopathy study in 1976-9 were followed up, with one of their two original matched controls, in 1986-9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Performance in educational attainment tests; behaviour problems reported by teachers and parents; continuing convulsions; evidence of other neurological or physical dysfunction. RESULTS--Over 80% of cases and controls were traced. Case children were significantly more likely than controls to have died or to have some form of educational, behavioural, neurological, or physical dysfunction a decade after their illness. The prevalence of one or more of these adverse outcomes in case children who had been immunised with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine within seven days before onset of their original illness was similar to that in case children who had not been immunised recently. The relative risk for recent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in children who had died or had any dysfunction in comparison with controls was 5.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 23.7). However, the number of cases associated with vaccine (12) was extremely small and statistically vulnerable, and other possible agents or predisposing factors could not be excluded. CONCLUSIONS--Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine may on rare occasions be associated with the development of severe acute neurological illnesses that can have serious sequelae. Some cases may occur by chance or have other causes. The role of pertussis vaccine as a prime or concomitant factor in the aetiology of these illnesses cannot be determined in any individual case. The balance of possible risk against known benefits from pertussis

  3. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  4. Heat Illness - A Practical Primer.

    PubMed

    Raukar, Neha; Lemieux, Renee; Finn, George; Stearns, Rebecca; Casa, Douglas J

    2015-07-01

    Heat stroke is one of the top three causes of death for athletes. Vigilance is required to prevent these illnesses and when faced with an individual who is suffering an exertional heat stroke, the goal is to aggressively cool the patient to 102°F within 30 minutes to optimize survival. The elderly are also at risk for heat illness and physicians caring for these patients should discuss prevention and treatment plans.

  5. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  6. Healthcare Disparities in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Graciela J.; Martin, Greg S.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. Data Sources MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Study Selection Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Data Extraction Study findings are presented according to their association with the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. Data Synthesis This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data is organized along the course of acute critical illness. Conclusions The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research. PMID:24121467

  7. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses.

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Facial Emotion Processing in Acutely Ill and Euthymic Patients with Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Pavuluri, Mani N.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Past investigations indicate facial emotion-processing abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) subjects. However, the extent to which these deficits represent state- and trait-related factors is unclear. We investigated facial affect processing in acutely ill and clinically stabilized children with PBD and matched healthy…

  10. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness. PMID:25064341

  11. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Lukhi, Manish M; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that inflammation, oxidative stress and altered level of neurotrophins are involved in the pathogenesis of depressive illness. Mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone is abundant in the stem and bark of Mangifera indica L. The compound has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of mangiferin pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide-induced increased proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) after 14 days of mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) pretreatment. Mangiferin pretreatment significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like behaviour as evident from the results of an elevated plus maze, light-dark box and open field test. Mangiferin pretreatment also improved the anhedonic behaviour as revealed by sucrose preference test and increased social interaction time. It also prevented the lipopolysaccharide-evoked depressive-like effect by reducing the immobility time in forced swim and tail suspension test. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated oxidative stress was decreased with mangiferin pretreatment due to its potential to increase reduced glutathione concentration, Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decrease lipid peroxidation and nitrite level in the hippocampus as well as in the prefrontal cortex. Mangiferin pretreatment also attenuated neuroinflammation by reducing the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) level in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that mangiferin possessed antidepressant and anti-anxiety properties due to its ability to attenuate IL-1β level and oxidative stress evoked by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of depressive and anxiety illness.

  12. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  13. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  14. Help-seeking behaviour: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornally, Nicola; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-06-01

    The concept 'help-seeking behaviour' has gained popularity in recent years as an important vehicle for exploring and understanding patient delay and prompt action across a variety of health conditions. The term is used interchangeably with health seeking and is described as part of both illness behaviour and health behaviour. Concept clarification is required to aid nurses and other health-care professionals understanding of the attributes of help-seeking behaviour and to guide theory development, practice and research. The Walker and Avant method of concept analysis was used to guide the analysis. Help-seeking behaviour was shown to be a complex decision-making process instigated by a problem that challenges personal abilities. According to the literature, the process is characterized by the following attributes: problem focused, intentional action and interpersonal interaction. Help-seeking behaviour for a health problem can therefore be defined as a problem focused, planned behaviour, involving interpersonal interaction with a selected health-care professional. PMID:21605269

  15. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near

  16. Psychosocial Illness in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Ghanshyam Singh; Sharma, Monika; Choudhary, Shyama; Nagaraj, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and psychosocial illness influence each other in multiple ways. The extent of psychosocial disorders in children with T1DM remains largely unstudied in India. Aim To assess the prevalence, severity, pattern and variables affecting psychosocial illness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods This observational study included 84 children (6-14 years of age) having T1DM at least for 1 year and 100 non diabetic children for comparison. “DSM-5 parent/guardian-Rated Level 1 & 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure –Child age 6-17” was used to assess psychosocial illness, specific domains and severity. Socio-demographic variables were studied and HbA1c levels were measured. Results Significantly higher prevalence of psychosocial illness was observed in children with T1DM as compared with non diabetic group (55.95% vs 20%; p<0.0001). The prevalence for mild, moderate and severe psychosocial illness was 8.33%, 27.38% and 20.24% respectively in diabetic children. Most common psychosocial abnormality was irritation (38.1%), followed by depression (36.9%) and anxiety (32.1%). The prevalence of psychosocial illness was significantly higher in T1DM patients with poorer metabolic control (HbA1c>7.5, p=0.014). Significant association of psychosocial illness was also noticed with poor dietary compliance (p=0.021) and higher mean HbA1c level (p<0.001). Conclusion This study established T1DM as a risk factor for development of psychosocial illness. Irritation, depression and anxiety were most common abnormalities. Significant association of psychosocial illness with poor dietary compliance and poor metabolic control was observed. Psychosocial assessment of every diabetic child is suggested for optimal management. PMID:27790539

  17. Cognitions and Procedures in Response to Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Michael A.; And Others

    Recent research in illness has stressed the importance of constructive processes as determinants for coping and appraisal with illnesses. The goal of this study was to construct a lexicon of cognitive and behavioral responses people employ to cope with illness. Undergraduate college students (N=105) were given two illness scenarios describing the…

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  19. The role of thyroid dysfunction in the critically ill: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Ceaichisciuc, I; Silva, S; Antonelli, M

    2010-11-01

    During critical illness, patients with no known history of thyroid disorders may experience multiple alterations in their serum thyroid hormone levels. Such alterations have been termed sick euthyroid syndrome or, more recently, non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), normal or low serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The magnitude of the alteration in thyroid function correlates with the severity of the illness and its outcomes in critically ill patients with NTIS. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in NTIS include a decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in extrathyroidal tissues and alterations in thyroid hormones' binding to serum proteins. In cases of protracted critical illness, a decrease in the pulsatile frequency of TSH secretion, resulting from reduced thyrotropin-re leasing hormone (TRH) release by the hypothalamus, may also occur. Several medications or clinical conditions that are commonly present in critically ill patients may be responsible for lowering serum concentrations of thyroid hormone. Among those who study the condition, the question of whether NTIS is a protective adaptation of the organism to illness or a maladaptive response to a stressful insult remains unanswered. In either case, thyroid hormone abnormalities are likely to play a role in the critically ill patient.However, there is currently no convincing evidence to suggest that restoring physiological thyroid hormone concentrations in unselected patients with NTIS would be beneficial.

  20. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  1. Can brain impairment be detected by in utero behavioural patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, N; Koyanagi, T; Maeda, H; Satoh, S; Takashima, T; Minami, T; Nakano, H

    1993-01-01

    Fetal behavioural patterns were examined to test whether they could be used to localise sites of brain damage antenatally. Decreased fetal movement, persistent nonreactive fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern, and/or central nervous system malformation were used as indicators of possible neurological impairment. Ten fetuses tested in this way underwent further ultrasound examination observing movement of the extremities, chest wall (breathing), and eye and mouth, and active/quiet FHR patterns. Eight of these 10 fetuses were found on postnatal examination to have a brain impairment. The fetuses having potential in utero brain impairment were divided into four groups: those with (1) lesion sites at, or caudal to, the pons-medulla that were specifically identified by fetal behaviour, (2) diffuse lesions in the brain which, although resulting in abnormal behaviour, could not be localised by this behaviour, (3) lesions localised in the cerebral hemisphere(s) but with no abnormal behaviour and (4) temporally abnormal behaviour in utero, finally changing over to a normal pattern with no neonatal neurological abnormality. A screening system for the antenatal assessment of brain impairment is thus proposed. PMID:8346949

  2. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  3. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children and Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Beena; Francis, Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Major physical illnesses usually have an impact on the psychological well-being of any individual. An illness of early onset, with necessity of frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can adversely affect the emotional balance and behavioural adaptation of children and adolescents. This is applicable for congenital heart disease,…

  4. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  5. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  6. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  7. Darwin's illness: a biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Pasnau, R O

    1990-01-01

    Throughout an illustrious scientific career, Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) suffered from a mysterious and disabling malady. The illness, which was characterized by depressed feelings and violent and uncomfortable cardiac palpitations, gastric upsets, and headaches, began shortly after Darwin returned from a five-year voyage to South America as the naturalist of the Beagle. One explanation for Darwin's symptoms is he suffered from Chagas' disease as a result of being bitten by an insect common to South America. More psychodynamically oriented theorists speculate that Darwin's illness was an expression of repressed anger toward his father. Others have noted a familial vulnerability to the symptoms Darwin described. The author examines these theories and suggests that they all may have validity in explaining the mysterious illness of Charles Darwin.

  8. Narcolepsy presenting as REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonakis, Anastasios; Howard, Robin S; Williams, Adrian

    2008-05-01

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a neurological condition well known to be associated with the synucleinopathies in middle-aged patients. However, there is much less data concerning its development, evolution, and association with other disorders in younger patients. We report two patients aged less than 33 years who presented with clinical and polysomnographical features of RBD, both of whom proved to have previously undiagnosed narcolepsy. Whilst the association of narcolepsy with RBD has been previously recognised, this is the first report of narcoleptic patients presenting with RBD. Narcolepsy should be included in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with abnormal behaviour during sleep compatible with RBD. PMID:18343568

  9. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  10. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  11. Pathogenesis and management of abnormal puberty.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, N J

    1985-01-01

    In the prepubertal child, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis is functional and extremely sensitive to negative feedback inhibition by low circulating levels of sex steroids. This feedback system may be under the control of unknown CNS inhibitory mechanisms. Clinical signs of puberty are preceded by increased pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropin secretion, particularly LH, increases in both sexes, especially during sleep, resulting in gonadal stimulation, secretion of sex steroids, and progressive physical maturation. When any phase of the H-P-G axis malfunctions, abnormal puberty can result. Abnormal puberty may be precocious or delayed. When puberty is precocious it may be isosexual or heterosexual, complete or partial, intermittent (unsustained), or progressive. True (central) precocious puberty is usually progressive, and hormonally reflective of normal puberty, although occurring at an earlier age, whereas intermittent or unsustained precocious puberty usually is associated with immature patterns of gonadotropin secretion, or with complete gonadotropin suppression as in precocious pseudopuberty (ovarian or adrenal tumors). Cranial axial tomography, gonadotropin response to GnRH, and pelvic ultrasound in girls are useful tools to aid in the differential diagnosis of these conditions. Intermittent, or unsustained, puberty in girls is usually self-limited, requiring no medical or surgical intervention. True progressive central precocity may now be managed with GnRH analogues, which effectively arrest pubertal changes as well as slow rapid linear growth and skeletal maturation. Although a maturation lag usually explains most patterns of delayed puberty, it is often challenging to exclude other conditions that may contribute to slow pubertal progression, such as chronic illness, excessive exercise, emotional stress, anorexia, or drug use. Elevated

  12. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  13. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  14. Upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities are strongly predictive of treatment response in patients with achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Simon C; Ciarleglio, Maria; Chavez, Yamile Haito; Clarke, John O; Stein, Ellen; Chander Roland, Bani

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between upper esophageal sphincter abnormalities achalasia treatment METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 41 consecutive patients referred for high resolution esophageal manometry with a final manometric diagnosis of achalasia. Patients were sub-divided by presence or absence of Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) abnormality, and clinical and manometric profiles were compared. Correlation between UES abnormality and sub-type (i.e., hypertensive, hypotensive or impaired relaxation) and a number of variables, including qualitative treatment response, achalasia sub-type, co-morbid medical illness, psychiatric illness, surgical history, dominant presenting symptom, treatment type, age and gender were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among all 41 patients, 24 (58.54%) had a UES abnormality present. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender or any other clinical or demographic profiles. Among those with UES abnormalities, the majority were either hypertensive (41.67%) or had impaired relaxation (37.5%) as compared to hypotensive (20.83%), although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.42). There was no specific association between treatment response and treatment type received; however, there was a significant association between UES abnormalities and treatment response. In patients with achalasia and concomitant UES abnormalities, 87.5% had poor treatment response, while only 12.5% had favorable response. In contrast, in patients with achalasia and no UES abnormalities, the majority (78.57%) had good treatment response, as compared to 21.43% with poor treatment response (P = 0.0001). After controlling for achalasia sub-type, those with UES abnormality had 26 times greater odds of poor treatment response than those with no UES abnormality (P = 0.009). Similarly, after controlling for treatment type, those with UES abnormality had 13.9 times greater odds of poor treatment response

  15. Obesity and Serious Mental Ill Health: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Tim; Mairs, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who experience serious mental ill health such as schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than others in the general population. This high prevalence of obesity and other associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, contribute to a reduced life expectancy of up to 25 years. Several reasons have been proposed for high levels of obesity including a shared biological vulnerability between serious mental ill health and abnormal metabolic processes, potentially compounded by unhealthy lifestyles. However, emerging evidence suggests that the most significant cause of weight gain is the metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medication, usual treatment for people with serious mental ill health. In this paper we review the prevalence of obesity in people with serious mental ill health, explore the contribution that antipsychotic medication may make to weight gain and discuss the implications of this data for future research and the practice of mental health and other professionals. PMID:27429268

  16. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  17. Parents' difficulties and information needs in coping with acute illness in preschool children: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and explore difficulties parents experience with acute illness in young children and the information they seek to help them. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semi-structured one t one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Parents felt disempowered when dealing with acute illness in their children because of difficulties making sense of the illness. Central to parents' difficulties were their experiences of inadequate information sharing by their general practitioners and variations in their doctors' decisions and behaviour. Disparity between parents' beliefs and expectations about illness and treatment and professionals' behaviour further frustrated parents' attempts to understand illness. Parents expressed a need for a range of accessible and specific information to support them through their negotiation of children's illness. CONCLUSIONS: Communication with parents requires greater recognition of parents' difficulties. Professionals have considerable potential to empower parents by sharing more information and skills. Such information should be consistent and address parents' concerns, beliefs, and expressed needs if this potential is to be realised. PMID:8892421

  18. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  19. Assessing illness- and non-illness-based motivations for violence in persons with major mental illness.

    PubMed

    Penney, Stephanie R; Morgan, Andrew; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2016-02-01

    Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.

  20. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  1. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  2. Marriage, mental illness and law.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-07-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  3. Family Therapy and Psychosomatic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the use of family therapy in dealing with illnesses such as childhood diabetes, asthma, pain, and anorexia nervosa. Marital and family therapy may be effective in treating some psychosomatic problems. Family assessment is helpful in the management of all psychosomatic problems. (Author/JAC)

  4. Chinese Children's Explanations for Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guangyi; Tardif, Twila

    2009-01-01

    The study explored how Chinese children spontaneously explained the causes of illness. Two groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds were recruited, with 30 children in each age group. A group of 30 college students were also recruited and their responses compared to those produced by the…

  5. Marriage, mental illness and law

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  6. Neuronal migration abnormalities and its possible implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Kazue; Tanigaki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25805966

  7. Life event, stress and illness.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Mohd Razali

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and suppressor T cells levels, which suppress the immune system. This suppression, in turn raises the risk of viral infection. Stress also leads to the release of histamine, which can trigger severe broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Stress increases the risk for diabetes mellitus, especially in overweight individuals, since psychological stress alters insulin needs. Stress also alters the acid concentration in the stomach, which can lead to peptic ulcers, stress ulcers or ulcerative colitis. Chronic stress can also lead to plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially if combined with a high-fat diet and sedentary living. The correlation between stressful life events and psychiatric illness is stronger than the correlation with medical or physical illness. The relationship of stress with psychiatric illness is strongest in neuroses, which is followed by depression and schizophrenia. There is no scientific evidence of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between the immune system changes and the development of cancer. However, recent studies found a link between stress, tumour development and suppression of natural killer (NK) cells, which is actively involved in preventing metastasis and destroying small metastases.

  8. Lunar phase and psychiatric illness in goa.

    PubMed

    Parmeshwaran, R; Patel, V; Fernandes, J M

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable research on the influence of the lunar cycle on mental illness with conflicting findings. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between full moon (FM), new moon (NM), and other moon (OM) days and the frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in patients seen at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Goa and to examine relationships with eclipses. Analysis of all new patients in two calendar years (1997 & 1993) was carried out. Diagnoses of interest were : Non affective psychoses; depression; and mania. The numbers of new patients seen at the OPD of the Institute of Psychiatry & Human Behaviour, Goa, with these diagnoses were compared between FM, NM and OM days. Numbers of patients with these diagnoses on eclipse days (lunar/solar) were also examined. A significant trend was observed for greater numbers of patients with non-affective psychoses on FM days, but no pattern was observed for mania or depression. The excess of non-affective psychoses was more marked on days of a visible lunar eclipse. A relationship between FM and non-affective psychoses has been demonstrated. Its implications for further research and the potential mechanism to explain these findings are discussed. PMID:21455355

  9. Oral disease in terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M P; Bagg, J; Baxter, W P; Aitchison, T C

    1998-03-01

    Xerostomia is common among patients with advanced cancer and is likely to contribute to oral disease. This study determined the prevalence of oral signs and symptoms among a group of 70 terminally ill cancer patients [25 male, 45 female; age range 42-88 (mean 66) years] complaining of oral dryness, and examined the associated oral microflora. Imprint cultures for yeasts, coliforms and staphylococci were collected from the tongue and, in denture wearers, from the plate and denture fitting surface. A swab was collected for culture of herpes simplex virus. 68 patients (97%) complained of oral dryness during the day and 59 patients (84%) complained of oral dryness at night. Oral soreness was reported by 22 patients (31%). 46 patients (66%) had difficulty talking and 36 (51%) reported difficulty eating. Of the 56 denture wearers, 40% complained of denture problems. On examination, 63 (90%) of the patients had clinically dry mouths. Oral mucosal abnormalities were detected in 45 patients (65%), most commonly erythema (20%), coated tongue (20%), atrophic glossitis (17%), angular cheilitis (11%) and pseudomembraneous candidosis (9%). 47 (67%) of the patients carried yeasts, 18 (26%) were carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and 13 (19%) carried coliforms. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from 5 patients, of whom 2 had herpetic stomatitis. Oral complications and abnormalities of the oral microflora can be detected among significant numbers of terminally ill cancer patients with xerostomia.

  10. A study of psychiatrists' concepts of mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Harland, R.; Antonova, E.; Owen, G. S.; Broome, M.; Landau, S.; Deeley, Q.; Murray, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are multiple models of mental illness that inform professional and lay understanding. Few studies have formally investigated psychiatrists' attitudes. We aimed to measure how a group of trainee psychiatrists understand familiar mental illnesses in terms of propositions drawn from different models. Method We used a questionnaire study of a sample of trainees from South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust designed to assess attitudes across eight models of mental illness (e.g. biological, psychodynamic) and four psychiatric disorders. Methods for analysing repeated measures and a principal components analysis (PCA) were used. Results No one model was endorsed by all respondents. Model endorsement varied with disorder. Attitudes to schizophrenia were expressed with the greatest conviction across models. Overall, the ‘biological’ model was the most strongly endorsed. The first three components of the PCA (interpreted as dimensions around which psychiatrists, as a group, understand mental illness) accounted for 56% of the variance. Each main component was classified in terms of its distinctive combination of statements from different models: PC1 33% biological versus non-biological; PC2 12% ‘eclectic’ (combining biological, behavioural, cognitive and spiritual models); and PC3 10% psychodynamic versus sociological. Conclusions Trainee psychiatrists are most committed to the biological model for schizophrenia, but in general are not exclusively committed to any one model. As a group, they organize their attitudes towards mental illness in terms of a biological/non-biological contrast, an ‘eclectic’ view and a psychodynamic/sociological contrast. Better understanding of how professional group membership influences attitudes may facilitate better multidisciplinary working. PMID:19091161

  11. Health within illness: experiences of chronically ill/disabled people.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, E

    1996-09-01

    The concept of health within illness is beginning to gain recognition in nursing. However, there has been little research to explore and describe this phenomenon. The results of a recent study investigating the meaning of the experience of feeling healthy for people living with a chronic illness and/or disability are presented. An interpretive phenomenological study was undertaken with eight participants living with a variety of different chronic conditions. The results provide a rich mosaic of themes describing the participants' health experiences. These themes include: (a) honouring the self; (b) seeking and connecting with others; (c) creating opportunities; (d) celebrating life; (e) transcending the self; and (f) acquiring a state of grace. The significance of these results is that they provide for a reconceptualization of health and illness. Such a reconceptualization calls for a transformation in nursing care, from a problem focus and a deficit perspective, to one which focuses on the client's capacity and the promotion of health and healing. PMID:8876405

  12. Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Colibazzi, Tiziano; Wexler, Bruce E.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Corcoran, Cheryl; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness. PMID:23418459

  13. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  14. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  15. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  18. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  19. Evaluation and treatment of heat-related illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Randell K

    2002-06-01

    The body's ability to regulate core temperature depends on both host (internal) and environmental (external) factors. Although athletes are commonly thought to be most at risk for heat illnesses, children and the elderly are particularly vulnerable. Heat cramps, which are caused by fluid and electrolyte imbalances, are treated with massage, and fluid and electrolyte replacement. Heat exhaustion occurs both as water- and sodium-depleted types, with associated symptoms such as malaise, vomiting, and confusion. Treatment involves taking the affected person to a cool environment and replacing fluids and electrolytes if needed. In more serious cases, intravenous hydration may be necessary, although monitoring of serum sodium levels is important to prevent cerebral edema. If not treated promptly, heat exhaustion may evolve into heatstroke, a deadly form of heat illness. Heatstroke occurs in classic and exertional forms and is present when the core body temperature exceeds 40 degrees C (104 degrees F). The patient may experience cardiac arrhythmias, rhabdomyolysis, serum chemistry abnormalities, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and death. Heatstroke is a medical emergency that should be treated immediately with temperature-lowering techniques such as immersion in an ice bath or evaporative cooling. Fluid resuscitation is important but should be closely monitored, and renal function may need to be protected with mannitol and diuretics. It is important to be vigilant for heat illnesses because they occur insidiously but progress rapidly.

  20. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  1. [Nutrition in the critically ill].

    PubMed

    Weimann, A; Andrä, J; Sablotzki, A

    2011-11-01

    The prognostic impact of inadequate energy and protein supply in malnourished intensive care patients has been recently reemphasized. Consent exists about the beneficial effects of early enteral nutrition in the critically ill. However, gastrointestinal intolerance of the critically ill may be a major problem for the feasibility of enteral nutrition bearing additional risks. In case adequate enteral nutrition cannot be realized, there is controversy about the appropriate time to start total parenteral or combined enteral / parenteral nutrition. Due to potential adverse effects immune-enhancing substrates have to be cautiously administered. For standardization implementation of a guideline based nutritional protocol is recommended. The review refers to the recent guidelines of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (2009), the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) (2009) and the German Sepsis Society (DSG) (2010).

  2. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  3. Exoneration of the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Fields, L

    1987-12-01

    Mental illness may be manifested in the impairment of understanding or of volitional control. Impairment of understanding may be manifested in delusions. Impairment of volitional control is shown when a person is unable to act in accordance with good reasons that he himself accepts. In order for an impairment of understanding or of self-control to exculpate, the offence must be causally connected with the impairment in question. The rationale of exculpation in general, which applies also to the case of mental illness, is that the offence does not indicate a morally bad attitude in the offender. A consequence of this rationale is that Kenny is wrong to hold that no injustice would result from the elimination of the legal defence of diminished responsibility.

  4. Darwin's illness: a final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Fernando; Quintana, Carlos

    2007-01-22

    We have re-examined many of the abundant publications on the illness that afflicted Charles Darwin during most of his life, including some of the 416 health-related letters in his correspondence, as well as his autobiographical writings. We have concluded that he suffered from Crohn's disease, located mainly in his upper small intestine. This explains his upper abdominal pain, his flatulence and vomiting, as well as his articular and neurological symptoms, his 'extreme fatigue', low fever and especially the chronic, relapsing course of his illness that evolved in bouts, did not affect his life expectancy and decreased with old age, and also the time of life at which it started. It apparently does not explain, however, many of his cutaneous symptoms. We do not support other diagnoses such as Chagas' disease, lactose intolerance or the many psychiatric conditions that have been postulated. PMID:17575947

  5. Darwin's illness: a final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Fernando; Quintana, Carlos

    2007-01-22

    We have re-examined many of the abundant publications on the illness that afflicted Charles Darwin during most of his life, including some of the 416 health-related letters in his correspondence, as well as his autobiographical writings. We have concluded that he suffered from Crohn's disease, located mainly in his upper small intestine. This explains his upper abdominal pain, his flatulence and vomiting, as well as his articular and neurological symptoms, his 'extreme fatigue', low fever and especially the chronic, relapsing course of his illness that evolved in bouts, did not affect his life expectancy and decreased with old age, and also the time of life at which it started. It apparently does not explain, however, many of his cutaneous symptoms. We do not support other diagnoses such as Chagas' disease, lactose intolerance or the many psychiatric conditions that have been postulated.

  6. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  7. Nutritional interventions in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The metabolism of critical illness is characterised by a combination of starvation and stress. There is increased production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon and growth hormone and increased insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Phagocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells elaborate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, and antioxidant depletion ensues. There is hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlactataemia, increased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen production. Insulin resistance, particularly in relation to the liver, is marked. The purpose of nutritional support is primarily to save life and secondarily to speed recovery by reducing neuropathy and maintaining muscle mass and function. There is debate about the optimal timing of nutritional support for the patient in the intensive care unit. It is generally agreed that the enteral route is preferable if possible, but the dangers of the parenteral route, a route of feeding that remains important in the context of critical illness, may have been over-emphasised. Control of hyperglycaemia is beneficial, and avoidance of overfeeding is emphasised. Growth hormone is harmful. The refeeding syndrome needs to be considered, although it has been little studied in the context of critical illness. Achieving energy balance may not be necessary in the early stages of critical illness, particularly in patients who are overweight or obese. Protein turnover is increased and N balance is often negative in the face of normal nutrient intake; optimal N intakes are the subject of some debate. Supplementation of particular amino acids able to support or regulate the immune response, such as glutamine, may have a role not only for their potential metabolic effect but also for their potential antioxidant role. Doubt remains in relation to arginine supplementation. High-dose mineral and vitamin antioxidant therapy may have a place. PMID:17343768

  8. Probiotics in critically ill children

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  9. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  10. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  11. Economic hardship associated with managing chronic illness: a qualitative inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Essue, Beverley; Jan, Stephen; Wells, Robert; Whitworth, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic illness and disability can have damaging, even catastrophic, socioeconomic effects on individuals and their households. We examined the experiences of people affected by chronic heart failure, complicated diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inform patient centred policy development. This paper provides a first level, qualitative understanding of the economic impact of chronic illness. Methods Interviews were conducted with patients aged between 45 and 85 years who had one or more of the index conditions and family carers from the Australian Capital Territory and Western Sydney, Australia (n = 66). Content analysis guided the interpretation of data. Results The affordability of medical treatments and care required to manage illness were identified as the key aspects of economic hardship, which compromised patients' capacity to proactively engage in self-management and risk reduction behaviours. Factors exacerbating hardship included ineligibility for government support, co-morbidity, health service flexibility, and health literacy. Participants who were on multiple medications, from culturally and linguistically diverse or Indigenous backgrounds, and/or not in paid employment, experienced economic hardship more harshly and their management of chronic illness was jeopardised as a consequence. Economic hardship was felt among not only those ineligible for government financial supports but also those receiving subsidies that were insufficient to meet the costs of managing long-term illness over and above necessary daily living expenses. Conclusion This research provides insights into the economic stressors associated with managing chronic illness, demonstrating that economic hardship requires households to make difficult decisions between care and basic living expenses. These decisions may cause less than optimal health outcomes and increased costs to the health system. The findings support the necessity of a critical analysis of

  12. Sperm retrieval during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Powner, David J; Rumohr, Jon A; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2010-06-01

    Objective of this study is to review technical methods to retrieve sperm from critically ill/injured patients after an appropriate family request, possible harmful effects on sperm production/function by ICU medications or concurrent illnesses, and ethical considerations for hospitals and care providers in providing this resource. Design used for this study includes: literature review, PubMed 1998-2009, and authors' files. There are no interventions. In conclusion, although successful and unsuccessful pregnancies following sperm removal from critically-ill patients are reported, no firm probability predictions for either result are known. Acute and chronic diseases that effect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and multiple medications common to the ICU may reduce sperm production or function. Retrieval methods before and after cardio-respiratory death differ and often require intracytoplasmic sperm injection or other in vitro fertilization techniques to achieve a subsequent pregnancy. The proactive development of a collaborative policy/procedure to identify appropriate roles for the hospital, its employees, and affiliated critical care and urology physicians is strongly recommended.

  13. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  14. Fluid therapy in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Major surgery and critical illnesses such as sepsis and trauma all disturb normal physiological fluid handling. Intravenous fluid therapy for resuscitation and fluid maintenance is a central part of medical care during these conditions, yet the evidence base supporting practice in this area lacks answers to a number of important questions. Recent research developments include a refinement of our knowledge of the endothelial barrier structure and function and a focus on the potential harm that may be associated with intravenous fluid therapy. Here, we briefly describe the contemporary view of fluid physiology and how this may be disrupted by pathological processes. The important themes in critical illness fluid research are discussed, with a particular focus on two emerging ideas: firstly, that individualising fluid treatment to the patient, their underlying disease state and the phase of that illness may be key to improving clinical outcomes using fluid interventions and, secondly, that fluids should be considered to be drugs, with specific indications and contraindications, dose ranges and potential toxicities. PMID:25276346

  15. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  16. ILL: Sacred Cow or Vital Service?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul J.; Hulsey, Richard; Brandau, Christie Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Includes three articles that debate whether interlibrary loan (ILL) is the best way to get public library patrons what they need. Highlights include return on investment; funding; alternatives to ILL, including purchase on demand and online full-text databases; cost effectiveness; and the advantages of patron-initiated ILL through interconnected…

  17. Loan Stars: ILL Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the changes in interlibrary loan (ILL) practices, and points the way to an ideal future. Discusses patron-initiated document request systems; library-mediated ordering systems; document delivery suppliers; accessing electronic resources; ILL management software; paying ILL invoices; new electronic delivery options; and results of a…

  18. Ebola virus disease and critical illness.

    PubMed

    Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Fischer, William A; Uyeki, Timothy M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Adhikari, Neill K J; Portella, Gina; Lamontagne, Francois; Clement, Christophe; Jacob, Shevin T; Rubinson, Lewis; Vanderschuren, Abel; Hajek, Jan; Murthy, Srinivas; Ferri, Mauricio; Crozier, Ian; Ibrahima, Elhadj; Lamah, Marie-Claire; Schieffelin, John S; Brett-Major, David; Bausch, Daniel G; Shindo, Nikki; Chan, Adrienne K; O'Dempsey, Tim; Mishra, Sharmistha; Jacobs, Michael; Dickson, Stuart; Lyon, G Marshall; Fowler, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    As of 20 May 2016 there have been 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths resulting from the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak reported to the World Health Organization. There continue to be sporadic flare-ups of EVD cases in West Africa.EVD presentation is nonspecific and characterized initially by onset of fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, and fever; this is followed several days later by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Anorexia and gastrointestinal losses lead to dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and metabolic acidosis, and, in some patients, acute kidney injury. Hypoxia and ventilation failure occurs most often with severe illness and may be exacerbated by substantial fluid requirements for intravascular volume repletion and some degree of systemic capillary leak. Although minor bleeding manifestations are common, hypovolemic and septic shock complicated by multisystem organ dysfunction appear the most frequent causes of death.Males and females have been equally affected, with children (0-14 years of age) accounting for 19 %, young adults (15-44 years) 58 %, and older adults (≥45 years) 23 % of reported cases. While the current case fatality proportion in West Africa is approximately 40 %, it has varied substantially over time (highest near the outbreak onset) according to available resources (40-90 % mortality in West Africa compared to under 20 % in Western Europe and the USA), by age (near universal among neonates and high among older adults), and by Ebola viral load at admission.While there is no Ebola virus-specific therapy proven to be effective in clinical trials, mortality has been dramatically lower among EVD patients managed with supportive intensive care in highly resourced settings, allowing for the avoidance of hypovolemia, correction of electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities, and the provision of oxygen, ventilation, vasopressors, and dialysis when indicated. This experience emphasizes that

  19. Agoraphobia, compulsive behaviours and behaviour completion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1983-06-01

    Anxiety is identified with a state of high arousal. Agoraphobia is differentiated from specific phobias which are inherent responses to situations which threatened primitive man. In agoraphobia, attacks of high arousal are produced by situations which delay ongoing activity. It is hypothesised that such delays produce arousal by activating behaviour completion mechanisms. Evidence is reviewed which indicates desensitization has a lasting effect in agoraphobia but not in specific phobias. It is suggested that desensitization reduces the arousal produced by behaviour completion mechanisms. Aversive therapy in homosexuality reduces the subjects' drive to carry out compulsive sexual behaviours but does not alter sexual orientation. It is suggested that compulsive sexual behaviours are not activated by primary sexual drives but by behaviour completion mechanisms which are also responsible for other compulsive behaviours. Aversive therapy acts by reducing the arousal produced by the behaviour completion mechanisms. As both aversive therapy and desensitization reduce such arousal, desensitization should be able to replace aversive therapy in the treatment of compulsive behaviours.

  20. Initial observations of cheek tooth abnormalities in sheep in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, V; Crossley, D

    2010-07-24

    Observations were made on a small flock of 50 sheep of the native Slovenian Jezersko-Solcava breed by investigators with dental training. The aim was to determine the range of naturally occurring dental diseases, so postmortem examinations were performed on animals slaughtered for meat or culled due to disease. Additional data were obtained by examination of 25 specimens submitted for investigation of unexplained death at a pathology centre. Seventeen (34 per cent) of the flock had incisor disease but only five became clinically ill; all these five had advanced cheek tooth disease (gingival recession, periodontal pocketing, diastemata, missing teeth, occlusal wear abnormalities, food impaction, tooth mobility, tooth fracture, tooth loss and/or jaw abscessation). Advanced cheek tooth disease was found in 21 (84 per cent) of the sheep submitted to the pathology laboratory, while only seven (28 per cent) had advanced incisor disease. The results show that, as in other countries, dental disease is a serious problem for sheep in Slovenia.

  1. [The frontiers of 'abnormality': psychiatry and social control].

    PubMed

    Engel, M G

    1998-01-01

    The article examines some of the main aspects governing psychiatry's role in the Brazilian political and social context at the close of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. It analyzes certain themes - civilization, race, labor, fanaticism, political dissent, sexuality - that were emphasized by specialists in their construction of a very broad notion of 'mental illness'. Through the analysis of texts produced by psychiatrists and legal experts (including dissertations written at the Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro, reports from the Serviço de Assistência a Alienados, and works and articles by specialists), the relation between the psychiatric definition of the frontiers of 'abnormality' and efforts to implement new strategies of social control is discussed. PMID:16676447

  2. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    PubMed

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  3. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  4. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-12-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.

  5. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  6. Emerging Drugs and Indications for Cardio-Metabolic Disorders in People with Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kouidrat, Youssef; Amad, Ali; De Hert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. All of these comorbidities increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Different approaches, including diet and lifestyle modifications, behavioral therapy and switching antipsychotic agents, have been proposed to manage these metabolic abnormalities. However, these interventions may be insufficient, impractical or fail to counteract the metabolic dysregulation. Consequently, a variety of pharmacological agents such as antidiabetic drugs, have been studied in an attempt to reverse the weight gain and metabolic abnormalities evident in these patients. Despite a significant effect, many of these treatments are used off-label. This qualitative review focuses on pharmacological agents that could offer significant benefits in the management of cardio-metabolic disorders associated with serious mental illness. PMID:26088113

  7. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

  8. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines.

  9. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  10. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community.

  11. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community. PMID:20927146

  12. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  13. Behavioural Phenotype in Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; van Dijk, F.; Stolker, J. J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLs) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterised by unusual facial features, abnormal fat distribution and intellectual disability. As many genetically determined disorders are characterised not only by physical features but also by specific behaviour, we studied whether a specific behavioural…

  14. Beyond Behaviour: Is Social Anxiety Low in Williams Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…

  15. Morgellons disease, illuminating an undefined illness: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction This review of 25 consecutive patients with Morgellons disease (MD) was undertaken for two primary and extremely fundamental reasons. For semantic accuracy, there is only one "proven" MD patient: the child first given that label. The remainder of inclusive individuals adopted the label based on related descriptions from 1544 through 1884, an internet description quoted from Sir Thomas Browne (1674), or was given the label by practitioners using similar sources. Until now, there has been no formal characterization of MD from detailed examination of all body systems. Our second purpose was to differentiate MD from Delusions of Parasitosis (DP), another "informal" label that fit most of our MD patients. How we defined and how we treated these patients depended literally on factual data that would determine outcome. How they were labeled in one sense was irrelevant, except for the confusing conflict rampant in the medical community, possibly significantly skewing treatment outcomes. Case presentation Clinical information was collected from 25 of 30 consecutive self-defined patients with Morgellons disease consisting of laboratory data, medical history and physical examination findings. Abnormalities were quantified and grouped by system, then compared and summarized, but the numbers were too small for more complex mathematical analysis. The quantification of physical and laboratory abnormalities allowed at least the creation of a practical clinical boundary, separating probable Morgellons from non-Morgellons patients. All the 25 patients studied meet the most commonly used DP definitions. Conclusions These data suggest Morgellons disease can be characterized as a physical human illness with an often-related delusional component in adults. All medical histories support that behavioral aberrancies onset only after physical symptoms. The identified abnormalities include both immune deficiency and chronic inflammatory markers that correlate strongly with

  16. Nutritional demands in acute and chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Rosemary A; Davidson, H Isobel M

    2003-11-01

    Common to both acute and chronic disease are disturbances in energy homeostasis, which are evidenced by quantitative and qualitative changes in dietary intake and increased energy expenditure. Negative energy balance results in loss of fat and lean tissue. The management of patients with metabolically-active disease appears to be simple; it would involve the provision of sufficient energy to promote tissue accretion. However, two fundamental issues serve to prevent nutritional demands in disease being met. The determination of appropriate energy requirements relies on predictive formulae. While equations have been developed for critically-ill populations, accurate energy prescribing in the acute setting is uncommon. Only 25-32% of the patients have energy intakes within 10% of their requirements. Clearly, the variation in energy expenditure has led to difficulties in accurately defining the energy needs of the individual. Second, the acute inflammatory response initiated by the host can have profound effects on ingestive behaviour, but this area is poorly understood by practising clinicians. For example, nutritional targets have been set for specific disease states, i.e. pancreatitis 105-147 kJ (25-35 kcal)/kg; chronic liver disease 147-168 kJ (35-40 kcal)/kg, but given the alterations in gut physiology that accompany the acute-phase response, targets are unlikely to be met. In cancer cachexia attenuation of the inflammatory response using eicosapentaenoic acid results in improved nutritional intake and status. This strategy poses an attractive proposition in the quest to define nutritional support as a clinically-effective treatment modality in other disorders. PMID:15018475

  17. Microstructural abnormalities of the brain white matter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lei, Du; He, Ning; Hu, Xinyu; Chen, Ying; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jinbo; Guo, Lanting; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple behavioural problems and executive dysfunctions for which neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of abnormalities, with inconsistencies partly owing to confounding by medication and concurrent psychiatric disease. We aimed to investigate the microstructural abnormalities of white matter in unmedicated children and adolescents with pure ADHD and to explore the association between these abnormalities and behavioural symptoms and executive functions. Methods We assessed children and adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls using psychiatric interviews. Behavioural problems were rated using the revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, and executive functions were measured using the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data using a 3 T MRI system, and we compared diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial and radial diffusivities, between the 2 groups. Results Thirty-three children and adolescents with ADHD and 35 healthy controls were included in our study. In patients compared with controls, FA was increased in the left posterior cingulum bundle as a result of both increased axial diffusivity and decreased radial diffusivity. In addition, the averaged FA of the cluster in this region correlated with behavioural measures as well as executive function in patients with ADHD. Limitations This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and small sample size. The cluster size of the significant result was small. Conclusion Our findings suggest that white matter abnormalities within the limbic network could be part of the neural underpinning of behavioural problems and executive dysfunction in patients with ADHD. PMID:25853285

  18. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner. PMID:26399492

  19. Does Major Illness Cause Financial Catastrophe?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Keziah; Dranove, David; Sfekas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examine the financial impact of major illnesses on the near-elderly and how this impact is affected by health insurance. Data Sources We use RAND Corporation extracts from the Health and Retirement Study from 1992 to 2006.1 Study Design Our dependent variable is the change in household assets, excluding the value of the primary home. We use triple difference median regressions on a sample of newly ill/uninsured near elderly (under age 65) matched to newly ill/insured near elderly. We also include a matched control group of households whose members are not ill. Results Controlling for the effects of insurance status and illness, we find that the median household with a newly ill, uninsured individual suffers a statistically significant decline in household assets of between 30 and 50 percent relative to households with matched insured individuals. Newly ill, insured individuals do not experience a decline in wealth. Conclusions Newly ill/uninsured households appear to be one illness away from financial catastrophe. Newly ill insured households who are matched to uninsured households appear to be protected against financial loss, at least in the near term. PMID:19840132

  20. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator

  1. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  2. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina.

  3. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  4. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS “attacks” that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man’s seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur—although rarely—in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  5. Post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    Men with post orgasmic illness syndrome (POIS) become ill rather immediately after ejaculation, whether spontaneously at night, during sexual intercourse or masturbation. Two subtypes are distinguished: primary and secondary POIS. It also occurs before or after a man has been sterilized. POIS is an invalidating most probably auto-immune disease leading to much distress in males and their partners. It is characterized by five criteria. Its symptoms are described by seven clusters. However, the manifestation of these symptoms varies from one male to the other but is relatively constant in the person himself. Among men the symptoms vary in intensity, durations and sort of symptoms. POIS is a chronic disorder that manifests itself in POIS "attacks" that occur within a few minutes to a few hours after ejaculation, and disappear spontaneously after 3 to 7 days. POIS is not associated with increased total serum IgE concentrations. On the contrary, there are indications that POIS is triggered by specific cytokines that are released by an auto-immune reaction to the man's seminal fluid. Indirect clinical evidence suggests that the antigen (Ag) triggering the POIS systemic reaction is not bound to spermatozoa but to seminal fluid produced by prostatic tissue. In addition, POIS may also occur-although rarely-in females. In those cases, it is hypothesized that the Ag is associated with female prostatic tissue around the vagina. PMID:27652231

  6. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  7. Autistic traits and abnormal sensory experiences in adults.

    PubMed

    Horder, Jamie; Wilson, C Ellie; Mendez, M Andreina; Murphy, Declan G

    2014-06-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the 'broader phenotype' of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and administered the Autism Quotient (AQ) along with the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS), and the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ), all questionnaire measures of abnormal sensory responsivity. Autism traits were significantly correlated with scores on all three sensory scales (AQ/GSQ r = 0.478; AQ/AASP r = 0.344; AQ/CAPS r = 0.333; all p < 0.001). This relationship was linear across the whole range of AQ scores and was true both in those with, and without, an ASD diagnosis. It survived correction for anxiety trait scores, and other potential confounds such as mental illness and migraine.

  8. Abnormal regurgitation in three cows caused by intrathoracic perioesophageal lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Three Brown Swiss cows with abnormal regurgitation because of a perioesophageal disorder are described. Case presentation The cows were ill and had poor appetite, salivation and regurgitation of poorly-chewed feed. Collection of rumen juice was successful in one cow, and in another, the tube could be advanced to the level of the 7th intercostal space, and in the third, only saliva could be collected. In one cow, oesophagoscopy revealed a discoloured 10-cm mucosal area with fibrin deposits. Thoracic radiographs were normal. The cows were euthanased and examined postmortem. Cow 1 had a large perioesophageal abscess containing feed material at the level of the thoracic inlet, believed to be the result of a healed oesophageal injury. Cow 2 had an abscess between the oesophagus and trachea 25 cm caudal to the epiglottis with the same presumed aetiology as in cow 1. Cow 3 had a mediastinal carcinoma that enclosed and constricted the oesophagus. Conclusions Abnormal regurgitation in cattle is usually the result of an oesophageal disorder. Causes of oesophageal disorders vary widely and their identification can be difficult. PMID:24629042

  9. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  10. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  11. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  12. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  13. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  14. Temperament and character personality profile and illness-related stress in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Rupert; Geiser, Franziska; Kleiman, Alexandra; Zur, Berndt; Karpawitz-Godt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor as well as a consequence of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Impulsiveness, overachievement, emotional instability, and hard-driving competitiveness have been discussed as personality features in CSC patients. We investigated 57 consecutive CSC patients and 57 age- and gender-matched controls by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Somatic risk factors, illness characteristics, subjective assessment of severity of illness, and illness-related stress in different areas of life (work, private life) were evaluated. CSC patients showed significantly higher emotional distress as measured by the Global Severity Index. The CSC personality was characterized by lower scoring on the character dimension cooperativeness and the temperament dimension reward dependence. Cooperativeness as well as subjective assessment of severity of CSC has been recognized as significant predictors of illness-related work stress accounting for 30% of variance. Implicating competitiveness, hostility and emotional detachment, lower level of cooperativeness, and reward dependence support the existence of specific aspects of type A behaviour in CSC patients. Low perceived social support and loss of control may explain the significant contribution of this personality dimension to illness-related work stress. Treatment of CSC should thus incorporate psychoeducation about factors contributing to illness-related stress.

  15. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  16. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  17. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.

    2013-01-01

    Research findings Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children’s decreased activity and increased irritability. Mothers of children who are frequently ill report more child behavior problems; however, previous research in this area has yet to simultaneously examine children’s temperament. This investigation examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked together to predict young children’s social functioning. This multi-method study utilized a sample of 110 daycare-attending children. Nurses went to the daycare centers weekly to perform health screens on the participating children. Minor illness experience was represented using a proportion created by dividing the number of illness diagnoses by the total number of health screenings completed from the time the child was enrolled in the study through his or her second birthday. Toddlers’ negative emotionality and social behavior were assessed using mothers’ and fathers’ reports. The two dimensions of negative emotionality and minor illness experience operated in different ways such that anger worked additively with minor illness experience and fearfulness interacted with minor illness experience to predict social behavior. Children who were described as more temperamentally angry displayed less social competence especially when they also experienced high proportions of minor illness. Temperamentally fearful children exhibited more externalizing problems when they experienced a higher frequency of illness whereas fearfulness was not associated to externalizing problems for children who experienced low proportions of illness. Practice or Policy Children’s frequent experience with minor illnesses combined with negative emotionality appears to place toddlers at a heightened risk for exhibiting behavior problems. These findings have implications for child and family well-being as well as

  18. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan. This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. PMID:25237489

  19. Neuroeconomic dissociation of semantic dementia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Chiong, Winston; Wood, Kristie A; Beagle, Alexander J; Hsu, Ming; Kayser, Andrew S; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-02-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by abnormal behaviour and decision-making, but prevailing diagnostic criteria for such behaviours are typically qualitative and often ambiguous. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (also called semantic dementia) are two clinical variants of frontotemporal dementia with overlapping but distinct anatomical substrates known to cause profound changes in decision-making. We investigated whether abnormal decision-making in these syndromes could be more precisely characterized in terms of dissociable abnormalities in patients' subjective evaluations of valence (positive versus negative outcome) and of time (present versus future outcome). We presented 28 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 14 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, 25 patients with Alzheimer's disease (as disease controls), and 61 healthy older control subjects with experimental tasks assaying loss aversion and delay discounting. In general linear models controlling for age, gender, education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia were less averse to losses than control subjects (P < 0.001), while patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia discounted delayed rewards more steeply than controls (P = 0.019). There was no relationship between loss aversion and delay discounting across the sample, nor in any of the subgroups. These findings suggest that abnormal behaviours in neurodegenerative disease may result from the disruption of either of two dissociable neural processes for evaluating the outcomes of action. More broadly, these findings suggest a role for computational methods to supplement traditional qualitative characterizations in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26667277

  20. Neuroeconomic dissociation of semantic dementia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Chiong, Winston; Wood, Kristie A; Beagle, Alexander J; Hsu, Ming; Kayser, Andrew S; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-02-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are marked by abnormal behaviour and decision-making, but prevailing diagnostic criteria for such behaviours are typically qualitative and often ambiguous. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (also called semantic dementia) are two clinical variants of frontotemporal dementia with overlapping but distinct anatomical substrates known to cause profound changes in decision-making. We investigated whether abnormal decision-making in these syndromes could be more precisely characterized in terms of dissociable abnormalities in patients' subjective evaluations of valence (positive versus negative outcome) and of time (present versus future outcome). We presented 28 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 14 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, 25 patients with Alzheimer's disease (as disease controls), and 61 healthy older control subjects with experimental tasks assaying loss aversion and delay discounting. In general linear models controlling for age, gender, education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia were less averse to losses than control subjects (P < 0.001), while patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia discounted delayed rewards more steeply than controls (P = 0.019). There was no relationship between loss aversion and delay discounting across the sample, nor in any of the subgroups. These findings suggest that abnormal behaviours in neurodegenerative disease may result from the disruption of either of two dissociable neural processes for evaluating the outcomes of action. More broadly, these findings suggest a role for computational methods to supplement traditional qualitative characterizations in the differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Challenges for the endocrine laboratory in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Clark, P M S; Gordon, K

    2011-10-01

    The endocrine laboratory must provide accurate and timely results for the critically ill patient. A number of pathophysiological factors affect assay systems for adrenal, thyroid and gonadal function tests. The effects are primarily on estimates of 'free hormone' concentration through abnormal binding protein concentrations and the effects of drugs and metabolites on hormone-protein binding. The limitations of the principal analytical techniques (immunoassay and chromatography-mass spectrometry) include drug effects, endogenous antibody interference and ion suppression. These effects are not always easily identified. Analytical specificity and standardisation result in differences in bias between assays and thus a requirement for assay specific decision limits and reference ranges. Good communication between clinician and laboratory is needed to minimise these effects. Developments in mass spectrometry should lead to greater sensitivity and wider applicability of the technique. International efforts to develop higher order reference materials and reference method procedures should lead to greater comparability of results.

  2. Heat Illness in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life-threatening condition and employ preventive measures. We will discuss appropriate management in pre-hospital and hospital settings. Early recognition and cooling are the most crucial aspects of the management of heat illness. PMID:25478301

  3. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  4. Illness in a redeployed soldier.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dana R

    2007-05-01

    Overseas deployments place military personnel at risk for tropical diseases not typically observed on the U.S. mainland. This case describes the first reported case of brucellosis returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. A 31-year-old infantry soldier complained of a 6-week history of headaches, relapsing fever, and constitutional symptoms since returning from Iraq. This soldier was determined to have the only reported case of brucellosis, but was one of many soldiers at risk from eating unpasteurized cheese on the local economy. Although malaria and leishmaniasis continue to be the most common deployment-related illnesses, brucellosis must also be considered in the differential of any redeployed soldier with headache, fever, and body aches. Public health as well as command elements must reinforce their role in preventing exposure to this pathogen. PMID:17521107

  5. Depression in medically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Sandra; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-03-01

    In medically ill patients, given the many entities the phenotype of depression may represent, clinicians must be prepared to cast their diagnostic nets widely, not settling for the obvious but frequently incorrect choice of major depressive episode and throwing antidepressants at it willy nilly. Having chosen the correct diagnosis from among a broad differential of depression “look-alikes,” clinicians can draw upon a broad swath of treatment modalities including medications, psychotherapy, social supports, and spiritual interventions. Working as a psychiatrist in the medical arena requires the curiosity and analytic skills of a detective and the breadth of knowledge of a polymath adapting therapeutic tools from across the biopsychosociospiritual spectrum to the specific needs of the patient. PMID:22370500

  6. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  7. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  8. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  9. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload <20) in comparison with non-Intensive Case Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials

  10. Speech Deficits in Serious mental Illness: A Cognitive Resource Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; McGovern, Jessica E.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Covington, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Speech deficits, notably those involved in psychomotor retardation, blunted affect, alogia and poverty of content of speech, are pronounced in a wide range of serious mental illnesses (e.g., schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar disorders). The present project evaluated the degree to which these deficits manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. We examined natural speech from 52 patients meeting criteria for serious mental illnesses (i.e., severe functional deficits with a concomitant diagnosis of schizophrenia, unipolar and/or bipolar affective disorders) and 30 non-psychiatric controls using a range of objective, computer-based measures tapping speech production (“alogia”), variability (“blunted vocal affect”) and content (“poverty of content of speech”). Subjects produced natural speech during a baseline condition and while engaging in an experimentally-manipulated cognitively-effortful task. For correlational analysis, cognitive ability was measured using a standardized battery. Generally speaking, speech deficits did not differ as a function of SMI diagnosis. However, every speech production and content measure was significantly abnormal in SMI versus control groups. Speech variability measures generally did not differ between groups. For both patients and controls as a group, speech during the cognitively-effortful task was sparser and less rich in content. Relative to controls, patients were abnormal under cognitive load with respect only to average pause length. Correlations between the speech variables and cognitive ability were only significant for this same variable: average pause length. Results suggest that certain speech deficits, notably involving pause length, may manifest as a function of cognitive resource limitations. Implications for treatment, research and assessment are discussed. PMID:25464920

  11. From Cues to Action: Information Seeking and Exercise Self-Care among Older Adults Managing Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Wister, Andrew V.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from the health belief model, cues to action have been theorized to influence health behaviours; however, few studies have examined these constructs explicitly. This study investigated the relationship between information cues to action and exercise self-care. It was hypothesized that reading about illness information, knowing about…

  12. Urban-Rural Differences in the Nature and Prevalence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…

  13. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  14. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  15. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  16. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  17. Landlords' experiences of housing tenants suffering from severe mental illness: a Swedish empirical study.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Hansson, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Swedish study was to describe landlords' experiences of having tenants suffering from severe mental illness. Sixteen landlords working in private and public housing agencies participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic latent content analysis. The results showed that having tenants with severe mental illness entails being confronted with various difficult circumstances, ranging from mismanagement of apartments to sensitivity among neighbours as well as issues regarding provocative behaviour. It involved providing assistance that was far beyond their professional obligations and to be neglected by the community-based psychiatric service system when in need of help. In order to support landlords and to prevent evictions of individuals with severe mental illness, community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their attempts to achieve collaboration with the parties at hand.

  18. Landlords' experiences of housing tenants suffering from severe mental illness: a Swedish empirical study.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Hansson, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Swedish study was to describe landlords' experiences of having tenants suffering from severe mental illness. Sixteen landlords working in private and public housing agencies participated in open in-depth interviews. Data were subjected to a thematic latent content analysis. The results showed that having tenants with severe mental illness entails being confronted with various difficult circumstances, ranging from mismanagement of apartments to sensitivity among neighbours as well as issues regarding provocative behaviour. It involved providing assistance that was far beyond their professional obligations and to be neglected by the community-based psychiatric service system when in need of help. In order to support landlords and to prevent evictions of individuals with severe mental illness, community-based psychiatric services need to be more pro-active in their attempts to achieve collaboration with the parties at hand. PMID:23361470

  19. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  20. Unintentional behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2014-08-01

    We argue that the authors ignore a broad range of possible means of changing behaviour: unintentional change. Most of the behaviours that people seek to change - either in themselves or that are the subject of public health campaigns-are habitual, and hence not necessarily responsive to intentions. An evolutionary approach should take into account all kinds of evolved behavioural responses. PMID:25162861

  1. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  2. Resilience in the Chronic Illness Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralik, Debbie; van Loon, Antonia; Visentin, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This article advances the consideration of resilience as an important concept in the transitional process of learning to adapt to life with chronic illness, by utilising interactional processes inherent in participatory action research (PAR) that may strengthen a person's capacity to live well with long-term illness. Sharing experiences and…

  3. Chronic Illness and the Academic Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Stephanie A.; Morgan, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the hidden epidemic in higher education. They describe the stigma of chronic illness and argue that the invisibility of chronic illness may elicit particularly problematic responses from others, especially when faculty work in a context where people are expected to be highly productive and have unlimited…

  4. Mental Illness, Work, and Income Support Programs

    PubMed Central

    Danziger, Sheldon; Frank, Richard G.; Meara, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Improved treatment makes it easier for individuals with mental illness to participate in mainstream society, including the labor force. Nevertheless, a diagnosis of a severe and persistent mental illness or a substance use disorder often coincides with reduced work activity and lower earnings. The Social Security Disability Insurance Program and the Supplemental Security Income program provide income support for increasing numbers of individuals with mental illness. A growing share of a third program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which offers cash support to low-income single caregivers, is composed of individuals with mental illness, as new work requirements result in faster exits of those without mental health conditions. These programs have come under increasing scrutiny as the shares of recipients with mental illness increase. Some question whether these programs serve many individuals capable of working and supporting themselves. However, evidence on whether eligibility criteria for these income support programs are too stringent or too lax regarding individuals with mental illness is mixed. Appropriate income support policy for those with mental illness will differ dramatically depending on the source of the recent rise in individuals with mental illness using income support. PMID:19339364

  5. When a Student Is Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Margot

    1995-01-01

    Highlights issues facing teachers who have mentally ill students in their classes and ways for teachers to address the issues. Discusses in-school interventions, out-of-school treatment, and the role of the teacher as mediator in helping students relate to other mentally ill students and in offering support to parents. (MAB)

  6. Foodborne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW While the American food supply is among the safest in the ... deaths. The chart below includes foodborne disease-causing organisms that frequently cause illness in the United States. ...

  7. Minor Illnesses, Temperament, and Toddler Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolak, Amy M.; Frey, Tara J.; Brown, Chloe A.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Minor illnesses, such as upper respiratory infections, stomachaches, and fevers, have been associated with children's decreased activity and increased irritability. This multi-method investigation of 110 day care-attending children examined whether experience with recurrent, minor illnesses and negative emotionality worked…

  8. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  9. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  10. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  11. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  12. Metabolic response to the stress of critical illness.

    PubMed

    Preiser, J-C; Ichai, C; Orban, J-C; Groeneveld, A B J

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic response to stress is part of the adaptive response to survive critical illness. Several mechanisms are well preserved during evolution, including the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the release of pituitary hormones, a peripheral resistance to the effects of these and other anabolic factors, triggered to increase the provision of energy substrates to the vital tissues. The pathways of energy production are altered and alternative substrates are used as a result of the loss of control of energy substrate utilization by their availability. The clinical consequences of the metabolic response to stress include sequential changes in energy expenditure, stress hyperglycaemia, changes in body composition, and psychological and behavioural problems. The loss of muscle proteins and function is a major long-term consequence of stress metabolism. Specific therapeutic interventions, including hormone supplementation, enhanced protein intake, and early mobilization, are investigated. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms, the clinical consequences, and therapeutic implications of the metabolic response to stress.

  13. Abnormal Development of Thalamic Microstructure in Premature Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Lisa B.; Votava-Smith, Jodie K.; Ceschin, Rafael; Nagasunder, Arabhi C.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blüml, Stefan; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Preterm birth is associated with alteration in cortico-thalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and peri-operative clinical variables. Material and Methods We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and peri-operative clinical variables. Results In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated pre-operative arterial blood gas pH (p<0.05). Conclusion Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased peri-operative serum pH was associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamo-cortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD. PMID:25608695

  14. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    PubMed

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders.

  15. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    PubMed

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. PMID:23845416

  16. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN CRITICAL ILLNESS

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julie M.; Stapleton, Renee D.

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation of enteral nutritional formulas and parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions with omega-3 fatty acids is a recent area of research in patients with critical illness. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce inflammation in critically ill patients, particularly those with sepsis and acute lung injury. The objective of this article is to review the data on supplementing omega-3 fatty acids during critical illness; enteral and parenteral supplementation are reviewed separately. The results of the research available to date are contradictory for both enteral and parenteral omega-3 fatty acid administration. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may influence the acute inflammatory response in critically ill patients, but more research is needed before definitive recommendations about the routine use of omega-3 fatty acids in caring for critically ill patients can be made. PMID:20796218

  17. Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.

    PubMed Central

    Frith, C D; Blakemore, S J; Wolpert, D M

    2000-01-01

    Much of the functioning of the motor system occurs without awareness. Nevertheless, we are aware of some aspects of the current state of the system and we can prepare and make movements in the imagination. These mental representations of the actual and possible states of the system are based on two sources: sensory signals from skin and muscles, and the stream of motor commands that have been issued to the system. Damage to the neural substrates of the motor system can lead to abnormalities in the awareness of action as well as defects in the control of action. We provide a framework for understanding how these various abnormalities of awareness can arise. Patients with phantom limbs or with anosognosia experience the illusion that they can move their limbs. We suggest that these representations of movement are based on streams of motor commands rather than sensory signals. Patients with utilization behaviour or with delusions of control can no longer properly link their intentions to their actions. In these cases the impairment lies in the representation of intended movements. The location of the neural damage associated with these disorders suggests that representations of the current and predicted state of the motor system are in parietal cortex, while representations of intended actions are found in prefrontal and premotor cortex. PMID:11205340

  18. Managerial practices regarding workers working while ill.

    PubMed

    Norton, D M; Brown, L G; Frick, R; Carpenter, L R; Green, A L; Tobin-D'Angelo, M; Reimann, D W; Blade, H; Nicholas, D C; Egan, J S; Everstine, K

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that handling of food by an ill worker is a cause of almost half of all restaurant-related outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code contains recommendations for food service establishments, including restaurants, aimed at reducing the frequency with which food workers work while ill. However, few data exist on the extent to which restaurants have implemented FDA recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study on the topic of ill food workers in restaurants. We interviewed restaurant managers (n = 426) in nine EHS-Net sites. We found that many restaurant policies concerning ill food workers do not follow FDA recommendations. For example, one-third of the restaurants' policies did not specifically address the circumstances under which ill food workers should be excluded from work (i.e., not be allowed to work). We also found that, in many restaurants, managers are not actively involved in decisions about whether ill food workers should work. Additionally, almost 70% of managers said they had worked while ill; 10% said they had worked while having nausea or "stomach flu," possible symptoms of foodborne illness. When asked why they had worked when ill, a third of the managers said they felt obligated to work or their strong work ethic compelled them to work. Other reasons cited were that the restaurant was understaffed or no one was available to replace them (26%), they felt that their symptoms were mild or not contagious (19%), they had special managerial responsibilities that no one else could fulfill (11%), there was non-food handling work they could do (7%), and they would not get paid if they did not work or the restaurant had no sick leave policy (5%). Data from this study can inform future research and help policy makers target interventions designed to reduce the frequency with which food workers work while ill.

  19. Managerial practices regarding workers working while ill.

    PubMed

    Norton, D M; Brown, L G; Frick, R; Carpenter, L R; Green, A L; Tobin-D'Angelo, M; Reimann, D W; Blade, H; Nicholas, D C; Egan, J S; Everstine, K

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that handling of food by an ill worker is a cause of almost half of all restaurant-related outbreaks. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code contains recommendations for food service establishments, including restaurants, aimed at reducing the frequency with which food workers work while ill. However, few data exist on the extent to which restaurants have implemented FDA recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study on the topic of ill food workers in restaurants. We interviewed restaurant managers (n = 426) in nine EHS-Net sites. We found that many restaurant policies concerning ill food workers do not follow FDA recommendations. For example, one-third of the restaurants' policies did not specifically address the circumstances under which ill food workers should be excluded from work (i.e., not be allowed to work). We also found that, in many restaurants, managers are not actively involved in decisions about whether ill food workers should work. Additionally, almost 70% of managers said they had worked while ill; 10% said they had worked while having nausea or "stomach flu," possible symptoms of foodborne illness. When asked why they had worked when ill, a third of the managers said they felt obligated to work or their strong work ethic compelled them to work. Other reasons cited were that the restaurant was understaffed or no one was available to replace them (26%), they felt that their symptoms were mild or not contagious (19%), they had special managerial responsibilities that no one else could fulfill (11%), there was non-food handling work they could do (7%), and they would not get paid if they did not work or the restaurant had no sick leave policy (5%). Data from this study can inform future research and help policy makers target interventions designed to reduce the frequency with which food workers work while ill. PMID:25581195

  20. Trajectories of illness perceptions in persons with chronic illness: An explorative longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2015-07-01

    Accurate illness perceptions are essential to the self-management of chronic illness. This study explored trajectories of illness perceptions in persons with morbid obesity (n = 53) and persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 52) following a patient education course. Participants completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire five times over a 1-year period. Repeated measures analysis of variance was employed. Over time, obese participants perceived shorter illness duration, fewer consequences, less emotional stress, and more personal control. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease participants had initial increases in personal control and understanding, but these changes were not maintained throughout the follow-up period.

  1. Illness behavior, social adaptation, and the management of illness. A comparison of educational and medical models.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1977-08-01

    Motivational needs and coping are important aspects of illness response. Clinicians must help guide illness response by suggesting constructive adaptive opportunities and by avoiding reinforcement of maladaptive patterns. This paper examines how the patient's search for meaning, social attributions, and social comparisons shapes adaptation to illness and subsequent disability. It proposes a coping-adaptation model involving the following five resources relevant to rehabilitation: economic assets, abilities and skills, defensive techniques, social supports, and motivational impetus. It is maintained that confusion between illness and illness behavior obfuscates the alternatives available to guide patients through smoother adaptations and resumption of social roles. PMID:328824

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Characterization and Comparison to Similar Illnesses in a Highly Endemic Area—Arizona, 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Marc S.; Regan, Joanna J.; Humpherys, Dwight; Mahoney, Dianna L.; Martinez, Michelle; Emerson, Ginny L.; Tack, Danielle M.; Geissler, Aimee; Yasmin, Seema; Lawson, Regina; Hamilton, Charlene; Williams, Velda; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Kenneth; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Yost, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality since 2002 on tribal lands in Arizona. The explosive nature of this outbreak and the recognition of an unexpected tick vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, prompted an investigation to characterize RMSF in this unique setting and compare RMSF cases to similar illnesses. Methods We compared medical records of 205 patients with RMSF and 175 with non-RMSF illnesses that prompted RMSF testing during 2002–2011 from 2 Indian reservations in Arizona. Results RMSF cases in Arizona occurred year-round and peaked later (July–September) than RMSF cases reported from other US regions. Cases were younger (median age, 11 years) and reported fever and rash less frequently, compared to cases from other US regions. Fever was present in 81% of cases but not significantly different from that in patients with non-RMSF illnesses. Classic laboratory abnormalities such as low sodium and platelet counts had small and subtle differences between cases and patients with non-RMSF illnesses. Imaging studies reflected the variability and complexity of the illness but proved unhelpful in clarifying the early diagnosis. Conclusions RMSF epidemiology in this region appears different than RMSF elsewhere in the United States. No specific pattern of signs, symptoms, or laboratory findings occurred with enough frequency to consistently differentiate RMSF from other illnesses. Due to the nonspecific and variable nature of RMSF presentations, clinicians in this region should aggressively treat febrile illnesses and sepsis with doxycycline for suspected RMSF. PMID:25697743

  3. Jacob Aall's illness and death.

    PubMed

    Hem, Erlend; Stubhaug, Arild

    2013-12-10

    Jacob Aall (1773-1844) was one of Norway's most notable nation-builders at the beginning of the 19th century. He owned and operated a large ironworks, participated in political life and was an historian, writer and translator of sagas. In the last 15 years of his life, he suffered greatly from pain attacks. After his death, an autopsy was performed and the doctors found a stone the size of a hen's egg, which weighed more than 90 g. The stone was variously described as a kidney stone and a bladder stone. Aall had travelled to Copenhagen in 1837 and consulted the Danish doctor Ludvig Levin Jacobson (1783-1843), known for his instrument for crushing bladder stones, a new and revolutionary treatment method. But some disagreement appears to have arisen between them about the treatment. A year later Aall consulted Christen Heiberg (1799-1872), a professor of surgery in Christiania (now Oslo). Heiberg also examined Aall's bladder and found «no cause for alarm». Aall adhered to a strict diet, including drinking an Italian «spa water» daily which he obtained in bottles from Trieste. However, he showed no great improvement. To all appearances, it was kidney stones that afflicted him in his last years and which finally ended his life. This article gives a full portrayal of the course of his illness with an authentic description from an age when there were no treatment possibilities for kidney stones. PMID:24326505

  4. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  6. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies.

  8. Families living with chronic illness: beliefs about illness, family, and health care.

    PubMed

    Årestedt, Liselott; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs can be described as the lenses through which we view the world. With emerging illness, beliefs about the illness experience become important for nurses to understand to enhance well-being and healing. The aim of this study was to illuminate illness beliefs of families living with chronic illness. A qualitative design was chosen, including repeated narrative research interviews with seven Swedish families living with chronic illness. Hermeneutic analysis was used to interpret the transcribed family interviews. The result described beliefs in families, both within and across families. Both core beliefs and secondary beliefs about illness, family, and health care were revealed. Illness beliefs have importance for how families respond to and manage situations that arise from their encounters with illness. Nurses have to make space for and listen to families' stories of illness to become aware of what beliefs may support and encourage family well-being and healing. The Illness Beliefs Model provides a touchstone whereby nurses can distinguish both individual and shared beliefs within families living with chronic illness and provide ideas for family intervention if needed.

  9. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  10. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  11. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  12. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-01-01

    Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and

  13. Genetics of impulsive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity, defined as the tendency to act without foresight, comprises a multitude of constructs and is associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Dissecting different aspects of impulsive behaviour and relating these to specific neurobiological circuits would improve our understanding of the etiology of complex behaviours for which impulsivity is key, and advance genetic studies in this behavioural domain. In this review, we will discuss the heritability of some impulsivity constructs and their possible use as endophenotypes (heritable, disease-associated intermediate phenotypes). Several functional genetic variants associated with impulsive behaviour have been identified by the candidate gene approach and re-sequencing, and whole genome strategies can be implemented for discovery of novel rare and common alleles influencing impulsivity. Via deep sequencing an uncommon HTR2B stop codon, common in one population, was discovered, with implications for understanding impulsive behaviour in both humans and rodents and for future gene discovery. PMID:23440466

  14. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  15. The aftermath: aspects of recovery described by perpetrators of maternal filicide committed in the context of severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Josephine; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2006-01-01

    Mentally abnormal maternal filicide is a rare and horrifying event. Clinicians are unlikely to develop broad experience with this and there is little information available about recovery. This paper presents a range of descriptions of recovery experiences derived from a qualitative study of mentally abnormal maternal filicide perpetrators. Transcripts from a qualitative, semi-structured interview study of six women who committed filicide in the context of major mental illness were reviewed. Descriptions related to rehabilitation issues were grouped and themes extracted. The women described patchy but horrific memories they avoided thinking and talking about. They described intense self-judgement and self-hate. They valued ongoing relationships with surviving children and were distressed by perceptions that they might be a danger to other children. Managing illness was not described as a major challenge. Acknowledgement of illness was described as important in coming to terms with what they had done. Surviving children and relationships with family and other support networks were described as important in their rehabilitation. We conclude that optimizing treatment and rehabilitation for mental illness, supporting the woman to acknowledge the role of illness in the offence, maximizing support from personal networks, and enabling her to regain some aspect of the mother role may be more efficacious than debriefing with respect to the offence.

  16. The aftermath: aspects of recovery described by perpetrators of maternal filicide committed in the context of severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Josephine; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2006-01-01

    Mentally abnormal maternal filicide is a rare and horrifying event. Clinicians are unlikely to develop broad experience with this and there is little information available about recovery. This paper presents a range of descriptions of recovery experiences derived from a qualitative study of mentally abnormal maternal filicide perpetrators. Transcripts from a qualitative, semi-structured interview study of six women who committed filicide in the context of major mental illness were reviewed. Descriptions related to rehabilitation issues were grouped and themes extracted. The women described patchy but horrific memories they avoided thinking and talking about. They described intense self-judgement and self-hate. They valued ongoing relationships with surviving children and were distressed by perceptions that they might be a danger to other children. Managing illness was not described as a major challenge. Acknowledgement of illness was described as important in coming to terms with what they had done. Surviving children and relationships with family and other support networks were described as important in their rehabilitation. We conclude that optimizing treatment and rehabilitation for mental illness, supporting the woman to acknowledge the role of illness in the offence, maximizing support from personal networks, and enabling her to regain some aspect of the mother role may be more efficacious than debriefing with respect to the offence. PMID:16491479

  17. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  19. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  20. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  1. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  2. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  3. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  5. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  6. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  7. Coagulation and complement system in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Helling, H; Stephan, B; Pindur, G

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation and inflammatory response including the complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of critical illness. However, only limited data are available addressing the relationship of both pathways and its assessment of a predictive value for the clinical outcome in intense care medicine. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation and complement system were studied in patients with septicaemia and multiple trauma regarded as being exemplary for critical illness. 34 patients (mean age: 51.38 years (±16.57), 15 females, 19 males) were investigated at day 1 of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Leukocytes, complement factors C3a and C5a were significantly (p <  0.0500) higher in sepsis than in trauma, whereas platelet count and plasma fibrinogen were significantly lower in multiple trauma. Activation markers of coagulation were elevated in both groups, however, thrombin-antithrombin-complex was significantly higher in multiple trauma. DIC scores of 5 were not exceeded in any of the two groups. Analysing the influences on mortality (11/34; 32.35% ), which was not different in both groups, non-survivors were significantly older, had significantly higher multiple organ failure (MOF) scores, lactate, abnormal prothrombin times and lower C1-inhibitor activities, even more pronounced in early deaths, than survivors. In septic non-survivors protein C was significantly lower than in trauma. We conclude from these data that activation of the complement system as part of the inflammatory response is a significant mechanism in septicaemia, whereas loss and consumption of blood components including parts of the coagulation and complement system is more characteristic for multiple trauma. Protein C in case of severe reduction might be of special concern for surviving in sepsis. Activation of haemostasis was occurring in both diseases, however, overt DIC was not confirmed in this study to be a leading mechanism in critically ill patients

  8. Consumer Informatics in Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients. Design: A number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents soliciting a list of questions asked of medical staff. Parent procedure training was observed to evaluate the training dialog, and parents were observed interacting with a prototype information and education computer offering. Results: Parents' concerns ranged from the details of managing day to day, to conceptual information about disease and treatment, to management of psychosocial problems. They sought information to solve problems and to provide emotional support, which may create conflicts of interest when the material is threatening. Whether they preferred to be informed by a doctor, nurse, or another parent depended on the nature of the information. Live interaction was preferred to video, which was preferred to text for all topics. Respondents used existing technologies in a straightforward way but were enthusiastic about the proposed use of computer technology to support home care. Multimedia solutions appear to complement user needs and preferences. Conclusion: Consumers appear positively disposed toward on-line solutions. On-line systems can offer breadth, depth and timeliness currently unattainable. Patients should be involved in the formation and development process in much the same way that users are involved in usercentered computer interface design. A generic framework for patient content is presented that could be applied across multiple disorders. PMID:9223035

  9. Applying One Health to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bower, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    The British Veterinary Behaviour Association and the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors held a meeting last month to highlight the One Health principle with regard to the behaviour of people and animals, particularly pets. Caroline Bower reports. PMID:25377201

  10. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma.

  11. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. PMID:27278508

  12. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it.

  13. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child.

    PubMed

    Koetting, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    In October 2004, a case of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child was identified in a children's hospital in the Midwest. This case report begins with a discussion and explanation of the various nomenclatures that have been used by the healthcare community such as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious disorder by proxy, medical child abuse, and caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. A discussion of case facts is then presented, which includes key concepts that nurses should know regarding a diagnosis of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child and the interventions that should be taken. PMID:25900681

  14. Preventing injuries and illnesses in the wilderness.

    PubMed

    Angert, David; Schaff, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Wilderness trips have become increasingly popular, especially in the adolescent population. The wilderness can be a source of rejuvenation while being mentally and physically challenging; however, it is also fraught with the potential for injury, illness, and even death. Epidemiologic studies of injuries and illnesses from hikers are not extensive, but there are sufficient data to identify the most common risk factors to offer some strategies for prevention. Many youth will have a medical visit or preparticipation physical assessment before an organized wilderness experience. This article highlights commonly seen wilderness injuries and illnesses and provides guidance for proper planning and problem solving.

  15. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it. PMID:24301694

  16. [Enteral nutrition and the critically ill patient].

    PubMed

    Planas, M

    1999-09-01

    Critically ill patients often suffer from malnutrition y loss of muscle weight throughout the whole time they are ill, even when they receive nutritional therapy, due to the tremendous amount of stress they undergo accompanied by a high degree of hypercatabolism. The most recent theories all coincide in the importance of the intestine as the preferred way for nutrients to enter the bodies of these patients because besides fulfilling its function to absorb and digest nutrients, the intestine plays an important role as a barrier to bacteria and their toxins. For these reasons, enteral nutrition should be the first option to consider whenever we must feed a critically ill patient by artificial means.

  17. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

  18. Behavioural genetics: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, F; Ellenbroek, B A

    1999-06-01

    Behavioural genetics is the study of the hereditary influence on behaviour, and can therefore be regarded as the intersection between behavioural sciences and genetics. As with most other fields of research it is difficult to exactly pinpoint when behavioural genetics started. In fact, one might say that the notion behavioural traits can be inherited may have appeared in human thought as early at 8000 BC, when the domestication of the dog began. The scientific era of behavioural genetics is generally considered to start with Charles Darwin. In his famous book On the Origin of Species by Means of natural Selection, or the Preservation of favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, published in 1859 (and sold out the first day), he devoted an entire chapter on instinctive behavioural patterns. Some years later, in his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, he clearly stated that the difference between the mind of a human being and the mind of an animal 'is certainly one of degree and not of kind'. Moreover he gave considerable thought that mental powers (and insanity) are heritable aspects.

  19. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  20. Medical Ethics and the Hopelessly Ill Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, A. Martin

    1976-01-01

    The author reviews some of his observations regarding the responsibility of the physician caring for the hopelessly ill child and presents the resolutions proposed in 1974 by the adhoc committee on Ethics and Survival. (SB)

  1. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives. PMID:25899250

  2. Mass sociogenic illness--real and imaginary.

    PubMed

    Doyle, C R; Akhtar, J; Mrvos, R; Krenzelok, E P

    2004-04-01

    Mass sociogenic illness is the occurrence of a group of nonspecific physical symptoms for which no organic cause can be determined and is often transmitted by 'line of sight'. The fear of bioterrorism can also lead to panic and produce cases of mass sociogenic illness, in which people develop symptoms in response to an imaginary threat. Poison centers are faced with resolving the dilemma of sociogenic vs poison related symptoms. We report 2 situations of mass sociogenic illnesses involving school age children where multiple victims exhibited similar symptoms prompted by the presence or suggestion of fumes. Symptoms resolved spontaneously. When clusters of unexplained illness occur, a sociogenic etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis. As fears about bioterrorism increase, the frequency of such incidents and the anxiety generated may increase. PMID:15080215

  3. State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQS CONTACT IIF SEARCH IIF Contact Us State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Overview of State data available ... Texas Department of Insurance Division of Workers' Compensation Workplace Safety, MS-23 7551 Metro Center Drive, Suite 100 ...

  4. California Firearms Law and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Barnhorst, Amy

    2015-06-01

    California provides numerous pathways by which people with mental illness can qualify for a state-level firearm prohibition. The state's involuntary detention for psychiatric treatment, or "5150" (CA W&I Code 5150) process, is often cited as one potential mechanism for reducing violence by dangerous people, though its use is limited to people whose dangerousness is due to a mental illness. Additionally, California has taken legislative steps to prohibit firearm ownership among other people who have an increased risk of violence, regardless of whether or not mental illness is a factor. This article compares the California firearm ownership disqualification system for mental illness with the federal system and those of other states, examines the strengths and weaknesses of this system, and reviews alternatives.

  5. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model.

  6. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of binge drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin ... your story Mental Illness ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders ...

  7. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model. PMID:27256943

  8. Seniors' life histories and perceptions of illness.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-03-01

    This life history research examined seniors' life experiences and perceived connections to illnesses. From a randomly selected sample of 190 seniors'interviews, 107 deemed to be the most expressive life stories were selected as the focus for this analysis. All seniors lived independently in a Canadian prairie city, were 60 years of age or older, Caucasian, European decent, had a chronic illness, and told of lives touched by the Great Depression and World War II. Given the paucity of research exploring seniors' life histories, these findings increase understanding of how life experiences shape seniors' identities. Four main themes emerged to describe seniors' lives: chaos, tragedy, quest, and romance. Findings reported here show that seniors with optimistic perceptions do not connect their life experiences with illnesses. Seniors with pessimistic perceptions frequently connect their life experiences with present illnesses and are most likely to remember past abuse and coping with abuse.

  9. Medicare and Caregivers: Illness and Hospitilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Medicare and Caregivers Illness and Hospitalization Facing a chronic ... and give you Medicare-covered services. When Does Medicare Cover Hospital Care? If a person needs to ...

  10. Socio-Cultural Determinants of Health-Seeking Behaviour on the Kenyan Coast: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Amina; Van Baar, Anneloes; Fischer, Ronald; Bomu, Grace; Gona, Joseph K.; Newton, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. Methods and Results Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter) was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a) attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b) chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem) and c) as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment. Conclusions Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs. PMID:24260094

  11. Chronic illness: the process of integration

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how adults with a chronic illness integrate the illness experience into their life context. Background Adults with chronic illnesses are challenged to learn self-management strategies to prevent complications and achieve an acceptable quality of life. Integration represents the process undertaken by an individual to achieve a sense of balance in self-managing a chronic illness and living a personally meaningful life. Design A mixed-method descriptive design was employed to recruit English-speaking adults with a chronic illness. A semi-structured interview was completed, transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Descriptive data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity and depressive symptoms. The research was undertaken in Connecticut, USA. Results The sample (n = 26) was diverse with respect to age (25–80 years), education (8–24 years), duration of illness (1–39 years), gender (63% female) and ethnicity (63% white). Participants reported a mean of four chronic illnesses and 31% of the sample had increased depressive symptoms. The process of integration was complex and multifactorial. Themes of integration included: shifting sands, staying afloat, weathering the storms, rescuing oneself and navigating life. Numerous factors including treatment side effects, a progressive or uncertain illness trajectory, co-morbidity, bad days, financial hardships and interpersonal/environmental challenges contributed to a disruption or difficulty in the integration process. Conclusion All participants made considerable effort to integrate the illness into their life context and participate in a personally meaningful life. However, it was easy to be consumed with ‘living an illness’ as the daily tasks, the changing symptoms and the fluctuating emotions could be overwhelming. There was a complex co-existence between ‘living a life’ and ‘living an illness’. Relevance to clinical practice There were numerous challenges to

  12. Mining association rules between abnormal health examination results and outpatient medical records.

    PubMed

    Chao Huang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, interpretation of health examination reports relies primarily on the physician's own experience. If health screening data could be integrated with outpatient medical records to uncover correlations between disease and abnormal test results, the physician could benefit from having additional reference resources for medical examination report interpretation and clinic diagnosis. This study used the medical database of a regional hospital in Taiwan to illustrate how association rules can be found between abnormal health examination results and outpatient illnesses. The rules can help to build up a disease-prevention knowledge database that assists healthcare providers in follow-up treatment and prevention. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm, the data cutting and sorting method, or DCSM, in place of the traditional Apriori algorithm. DCSM significantly improves the mining performance of Apriori by reducing the time to scan health examination and outpatient medical records, both of which are databases of immense sizes.

  13. The Role of Plasmapheresis in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trung C.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Goldman, Jordana R.; Carcillo, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis In this chapter, we will review the current recommendations from the American Society for Apheresis regarding the use of plasmapheresis in many of the diseases that intensivists commonly encounter in critically ill patients. Recent experience indicates that therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may be useful in a wide spectrum of illnesses characterized by microvascular thrombosis, the presence of auto-antibodies, immune activation with dysregulation of immune response, and in some infections. PMID:22713617

  14. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  15. Life stress and illness: a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Christie-Seely, J

    1983-03-01

    The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness.

  16. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or in the hospital, a threatening environment, as a result of other genetic and psychological factors, or as a combination of all these factors. Additionally, exposure to physical pain early in one’s life and or frequent painful medical procedures are correlated with fear and anxiety during subsequent procedures and treatments and may lead to medical nonadherence and other comorbidities. Anxiety disorders can have serious consequences in children/adolescents with chronic and or life limiting medical illnesses. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of anxiety disorders is necessary and may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms. Behavioral and cognitive methods as well as psychotropic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. We will review current treatments for anxiety in children/adolescents with medical illnesses and propose future research directions. PMID:20721908

  17. High Altitude Illnesses in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High Altitude Headache (HAH), Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) are all high altitude related illnesses in order of severity from the mildly symptomatic to the potentially life-threatening. High altitude illnesses occur when travelers ascend to high altitudes too rapidly, which does not allow enough time for the body to adjust. Slow graded ascent to the desired altitude and termination of ascent if AMS symptoms present are keys to illness prevention. Early recognition and rapid intervention of AMS can halt progression to HACE. Pharmacologic prophylaxis with acetazolamide is a proven method of prevention and treatment of high altitude illness. If prevention fails then treatment modalities include supplemental oxygen, supportive therapy, hyperbaric treatment, and dexamethasone. Given the multitude of visitors to the mountains of Hawai‘i, high altitude illness will continue to persist as a prevalent local condition. This paper will emphasize the prevention and early diagnosis of AMS so that the illness does not progress to HACE. PMID:25478293

  18. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants.

    PubMed

    Samet, J M; Lambert, W E; Skipper, B J; Cushing, A H; Hunt, W C; Young, S A; McLaren, L C; Schwab, M; Spengler, J D

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  20. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  1. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  2. Expanding the value of qualitative theories of illness experience in clinical practice: a grounded theory of secondary heart disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Ononeze, V; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A; Byrne, M; Bradley, C

    2009-06-01

    Qualitative theories of illness experience are about the individual interpretations of the psychosocial and cultural aspects of living with illness. Thus, they contribute to a better understanding of health and health care provision. In this paper, we examine how a grounded theory (GT) of heart disease experience can inform secondary prevention. In-depth interviews of individual experience of heart disease were conducted with 26 patients, using GT iterative data collection and analysis framework. A GT was compiled from data and examined within a sociocultural framework to ascertain how experience influenced health behaviour. Despite individual contextual variations, the theory of 'keeping it going' describes the study sample's common attitude to living with heart disease. The theory was adequate in explaining secondary cardiac behaviour, because it identified the aspects of patients' beliefs and attitudes which are key to effective secondary prevention. The assessment of the impact of illness experience on health behaviour within a sociocultural framework helped to articulate the strong influence of social and contextual factors. The study offers an appropriate explanatory framework for encouraging health behaviour change. It emphasizes the importance of interventions being relevant to individual perceptions and interpretations. It provides a framework for designing and evaluating cardiac interventions and the theoretical principles which underpin them.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  4. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  5. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  6. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  7. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  8. Status of antioxidants and other biochemical abnormalities in children with dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Ray, G; Kumar, V; Kapoor, A K; Dutta, A K; Batra, S

    1999-02-01

    During an outbreak of dengue fever in 1996, 66 children between 45 days and 12 years of age with dengue fever and 25 healthy controls were studied for antioxidants and other biochemical abnormalities. As per World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 14 children were classified as having classical dengue (DEN), 42 with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), and 10 (including three who died) as having dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and albumin (ALB), the three main antioxidants studied, were found to be abnormal in 96, 94, and 40 per cent of the cases respectively. The levels for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), total protein (TP), total cholesterol (CHO), and triglycerides (TGL) were abnormal in 79, 50, 30, 93, and 67 per cent of the cases respectively. Among the different groups of dengue the abnormalities were more marked in children with DSS than in those with DEN and DHF, especially with respect to ALB, TP, TGL, AST, ALT, and CPK (p < 0.005). This preliminary report of dengue confirms the assumption of free radical generation and alteration in antioxidant status during acute illness. However, to understand their complex interaction in disease progression and therapeutic utility, further studies are required.

  9. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  10. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  11. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  12. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  13. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  14. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  15. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  16. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  17. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  18. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  19. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  20. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  1. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  2. Pyrethroid illnesses in California, 1996-2002.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Janet; O'Malley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This survey summarizes California's recent experience with illnesses related to pyrethroid exposures and augments the data available on pyrethroid inhalation exposure and residue dissipation. We reviewed California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP) data and DPR Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data for 13 pyrethroids used during 1996-2002 and identified 317 illnesses associated with exposure. PUR found a total of 4,629,852 pound (2,100,068 kg) of the 13 active ingredients were applied during the 7 yr. Type II pyrethroids accounted for 1,979,352 (897,820 kg) and 42.7% of the total pounds applied and 220 (69.6%) of the reported illnesses. Cyfluthrin was associated with 122 cases (55% of illnesses related to type II pyrethroids and 38.4% of all pyrethroid illnesses). Agricultural uses accounted for 118 (37.3%) of the reported illness cases, with 116 cases associated with employment. For the 199 cases (62.8%) associated with nonagricultural use, 132 (66.3%) were occupationally related. Overall, approximately equal numbers of illnesses resulted from individual exposures (167 cases) and group exposures (150 cases). The symptom arrays associated with the pyrethroid illnesses included irritant effects or pares- thesias of the eye, skin, or respiratory tract in 269 cases (84.9%). Type II pyrethroids were more frequently associated with isolated irritant symptoms (107 cases) than the type I pyrethroids (26 of 97 cases). Systemic symptoms were reported in 184 illnesses (58% of cases). Isolated systemic effects occurred in 48 cases (15.1%), but systemic effects were also present in 136 (50.6%) of the 269 cases with irritant symptoms. Residue exposures accounted for 158 illnesses (49.8%). Single or multiple violations of pesticide use regulations contributed to exposures in 90 of the 317 illnesses (28.4%); 76 were related to nonagricultural pyrethroid use. We also report results of DPR Worker Health and Safety Branch (WH

  3. [Severe mental illness in mothers and congenital malformations in newborns: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Magnanini, Mônica Maria Ferreira; Legay, Leticia Fortes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2011-12-01

    The risk of congenital malformations appears to be higher in infants of mothers with mental disorders as compared to those of mothers with no history of psychiatric illness. This article presents a meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal mental illness and congenital malformations. The review consisted of an article search in the MEDLINE, ISIWEB, Scopus, and SciELO databases, using the following key words: "mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "psychotic disorders" OR "schizophrenia" AND "congenital abnormalities" OR "birth defects". A total of 108 studies were identified, and five articles were selected according to the established criteria. These articles were included in a meta-analysis, involving a total of 4,194 children of mothers with mental illness and 249,548 children of mothers with no such disorders. Pooled relative risk showed a significant association between exposure to mental illness in mothers and risk of malformations in newborns (RR = 2.06, 95%CI: 1.46-2.67). The study highlights the relationship between maternal mental health during pregnancy and its effects on the infant's health.

  4. Alterations induced by gestational stress in brain morphology and behaviour of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, M

    2001-12-01

    Retrospective studies in humans suggest that chronic maternal stress during pregnancy, associated with raised plasma levels of CRH, ACTH and cortisol may increase the likelihood of preterm birth, developmental delays and behavioural abnormalities in the children. In adulthood, it may contribute to the significant association between the incidence of schizophrenia, increased left or mixed handedness, reduction in cerebral asymmetry and anomalies in brain morphology. Our studies and others have shown that prenatal stress in rats can mimic these developmental and behavioural alterations. These rats show a reduced propensity for social interaction, increased anxiety in intimidating or novel situations and a reduction in cerebral asymmetry and dopamine turnover, consistent with those in schizophrenic humans. Prenatally-stressed (PS) rats also show behaviour consistent with depression, including a phase-shift in their circadian rhythm for corticosterone, sleep abnormalities, a hedonic deficit and greater acquisition of learned helplessness under appropriate conditions. These behavioural abnormalities are associated with impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress and increased CRH activity. PS males may show demasculinisation and feminisation of their sexual behaviour. The developmental and behavioural abnormalities in PS offspring could occur through sensitisation of the foetal brain by maternal stress hormones to the action of glucocorticoid and CRH and to neurotransmitters affected by them. This may have long-lasting consequences and could explain the precipitation of depressive symptoms or schizophrenia by psychosocial stress in later life. The character of the behavioural abnormalities probably depends on the timing of the maternal stress in relation to development of the particular neuronal systems. PMID:11689280

  5. Combining nutrition and exercise to optimize survival and recovery from critical illness: Conceptual and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Daren K; Stapleton, Renee D; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hough, Catherine L; Morris, Peter; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Day, Andrew; Prado, Carla M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-10-01

    Survivors of critical illness commonly experience neuromuscular abnormalities, including muscle weakness known as ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). ICU-AW is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation, extended ICU and hospital stays, more healthcare-related hospital costs, a higher risk of death, and impaired physical functioning and quality of life in the months after ICU admission. These observations speak to the importance of developing new strategies to aid in the physical recovery of acute respiratory failure patients. We posit that to maintain optimal muscle mass, strength and physical function, the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness. Randomized trials testing this and related hypotheses are needed. We discussed key methodological issues and proposed a common evaluation framework to stimulate work in this area and standardize our approach to outcome assessments across future studies.

  6. Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, U.; Mors, O.; Ewald, H.

    1996-02-16

    Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This gives rise to the suspicion that sex chromosome aneuploidy may somehow be related to the development of psychosis. But since the data set is small, especially with respect to schizophrenia, further studies are needed to elucidate this observation. In one family, cosegregation of the disease locus with a marker on chromosome 21 was seen. Therefore, further research should determine if chromosome 21 contains a gene for manic depressive illness. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Foodborne illness: is it on the rise?

    PubMed

    Nyachuba, David G

    2010-05-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health threat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 76 million foodborne illnesses, including 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, occur in the United States each year. Two recently published Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) reports showed that Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Cryptosporidium, and Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 continue to be leading causes of both the number and incidence of laboratory-confirmed foodborne infections in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), foodborne illness costs the US economy $10-83 billion per year. Recent large foodborne outbreaks have led to claims that the number of foodborne disease outbreaks and concomitant illnesses has increased in recent years. However, a comparison of data from the CDC showed very little change in the incidence of foodborne illness caused by common pathogens between 2008 and the preceding 3 years (2005-2007). Nevertheless, despite intensified prevention efforts, foodborne illness remains a persistent problem in the United States. Food can become contaminated at any point in the farm-to-table continuum, as well as in consumers' own kitchens. Therefore, foodborne illness risk reduction and control interventions must be implemented at every step throughout the food preparation process, from farm to table. In addition, more effective food safety education programs for foodhandlers and consumers are needed. Strategies should take into account food safety-related trends including large-scale production and wide distribution of food, globalization of the food supply, eating outside of the home, emergence of new pathogens, and growing population of at-risk consumers.

  8. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Kiran B.; Wittkamp, Michael; Alvarez, Jessica A.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential role for vitamin D in infection has been well described in adults. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status and markers of innate immunity and infection in critically ill children. Hypothesis Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in children with critical illness and correlated with the severity of illness and dysfunction in innate immunity. Methods We performed a prospective clinical observational study with both case and control groups in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Vitamin D status was defined as vitamin D sufficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D≥ 20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficient (25(OH)D 10 to 20 ng/mL), and vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL). Vitamin D status, severity of illness scores, and cathelicidin, and other clinical data were collected. Results Sixty-one PICU patients and 46 control patients were enrolled. Over 60% of the PICU cases were found to be vitamin D insufficient while less than 1/3 of the controls were insufficient (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was seen between plasma 25(OH)D and any severity of illness scores. Cases with asthma had a significantly lower median level 25(OH)D (16.9 ng/mL) than cases without asthma (18.7 ng/mL). Over 50% of patients hospitalized during the fall and winter were considered vitamin D deficient or insufficient whereas in the sunnier seasons (spring and summer) the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency decreased to about 30% (p = 0.003). Conclusions The overall finding of profound vitamin D deficiency in the pediatric critical care population is an important finding. Significant seasonal differences were noted even in the critically ill. Certain diseases like asthma in critically ill children merit further study. PMID:25580380

  9. Beliefs Regarding Diet During Childhood Illness

    PubMed Central

    Benakappa, Asha D; Shivamurthy, Poojita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child's productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about “hot” and “cold” foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour. PMID:22529535

  10. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Stress in Adolescents with a Chronically Ill Parent: Inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness Model.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Dikkers, A L C; Visser-Meily, J M A; Meijer, A M

    2012-12-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.

  12. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  13. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  14. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  15. Behaviour recognition of ground vehicle using airborne monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyondong; Kim, Seungkeun; Shin, Hyo-Sang; Tsourdos, Antonios; White, Brian A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a behaviour recognition methodology for ground vehicles moving within road traffic using unmanned aerial vehicles in order to identify suspicious or abnormal behaviour. With the target information acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles and estimated by filtering techniques, ground vehicle behaviour is first classified into representative driving modes, and then a string pattern matching theory is applied to detect suspicious behaviours in the driving mode history. Furthermore, a fuzzy decision-making process is developed to systematically exploit all available information obtained from a complex environment and confirm the characteristic of behaviour, while considering spatiotemporal environment factors as well as several aspects of behaviours. To verify the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach, numerical simulations on moving ground vehicles are performed using realistic car trajectory data from an off-the-shelf traffic simulation software.

  16. Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Bilateral Insular Hypometabolism: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ananya; Sood, Mamta; Bhad, Roshan; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-04-01

    Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a cluster of syndromes, characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition, language and/or behavioural changes associated with degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a history of gradually progressive behavioural disturbances, disinhibition, unprovoked anger outbursts, apathy, disorganised behaviour and impaired self-care. A clinical diagnosis of Fronto temporal Dementia (behavioural variant) was made. Extensive investigations found no abnormality except in FDG-PET scan of the brain which revealed hypo metabolism in bilateral anterior insular region. Insula is an important brain area implicated in emotional awareness and behaviour control. Hypo metabolism in insular region in the absence of any structural neuroimaging findings, in a case of behavioural variant of Fronto-temporal dementia suggest that, it might be one of the earliest neurobiological changes occurring in this disorder. PMID:27190928

  17. Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Bilateral Insular Hypometabolism: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Mamta; Bhad, Roshan; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-01-01

    Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD) is a cluster of syndromes, characterized by progressive deterioration of cognition, language and/or behavioural changes associated with degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes. A 53-year-old man was admitted with a history of gradually progressive behavioural disturbances, disinhibition, unprovoked anger outbursts, apathy, disorganised behaviour and impaired self-care. A clinical diagnosis of Fronto temporal Dementia (behavioural variant) was made. Extensive investigations found no abnormality except in FDG-PET scan of the brain which revealed hypo metabolism in bilateral anterior insular region. Insula is an important brain area implicated in emotional awareness and behaviour control. Hypo metabolism in insular region in the absence of any structural neuroimaging findings, in a case of behavioural variant of Fronto-temporal dementia suggest that, it might be one of the earliest neurobiological changes occurring in this disorder. PMID:27190928

  18. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  19. Sexually Abusive Behaviour in Juveniles: Deviant and Non-Deviant Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework is presented in an attempt to find an answer to the question of why some juveniles display sexually abusive behaviour and others do not. Until recently, this question has been approached mainly in terms of the presence of psychiatric illness, deviant sexual interests and/or impaired psychosocial development.…

  20. [Attachment Quality of Young Children with Mentally Ill Parents on the Example of the Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja

    2015-01-01

    One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour. PMID:26509970

  1. Behavioural biomarkers of typical Rett syndrome: moving towards early identification.

    PubMed

    Einspieler, Christa; Freilinger, Michael; Marschik, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic course of Rett syndrome (RTT) is still said to begin with a period of apparently normal development although there is mounting evidence that individuals with RTT show behavioural peculiarities and abnormalities during their infancy. Their spontaneous general movements are abnormal from birth onwards. Normal cooing vocalisation and canonical babbling (if at all required) are interspersed with abnormalities such as proto-vowel and proto-consonant alternations produced on ingressive airstream, breathy voice characteristics, and pressed or high-pitched vocalisations. The gestural repertoire is limited. Certain developmental motor and speech-language milestones are not at all acquired or show a significant delay. Besides abnormal blinking, repetitive and/or long lasting tongue protrusion, and bizarre smiling, there are already the first body and/or hand stereotypies during the first year of life. We are currently on a promising way to define a specific set of behavioural biomarkers pinpointing RTT. PMID:27514944

  2. Health Update: Care of Ill Children in Child Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses differing opinions about (1) exclusion of ill children from child care; (2) the meaning of fever; (3) appropriate care for ill children; (4) transfer of information about ill children in child care; and (5) written policies and procedures for care of ill children. (NH)

  3. "Eat your lunch!" - controversies in the nutrition of the acutely, non-critically ill medical inpatient.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt about the strong association of malnutrition and adverse medical outcomes including mortality, morbidity and quality of life. Particularly in the elderly and frail medical inpatient population, loss of appetite due to the acute illness further aggravates nutritional status. In fact, this relationship between acute disease and eating behaviour / nutritional status may well be bidirectional, with not only illness affecting nutritional status, but also dietary factors influencing the course of illness. Whether loss of appetite associated with acute illness is indeed a protective physiological response or a therapeutic target needing early corrective nutritional therapy is a matter of current debate and can only be resolved within a large and well-designed randomised controlled trial comparing early nutritional therapy with "appetite-guided" nutrition in this patient population. Apart from in critical care, where various large trials have recently been published, there is an important lack of high quality data from large randomised trials in unselected acutely ill medical inpatients to support the early use of nutritional therapy, to shed light on the optimal type, caloric amount and timing of nutritional therapy and to answer ultimately the question as to which patient population will in fact benefit from nutritional interventions. Currently, the EFFORT trial is enrolling patients and aims to fill these literature gaps. The aim of this review is to discuss the current evidence regarding nutritional therapy in acutely ill medical inpatients, and to recommend whether or not, based on today's available evidence, physician should indeed encourage their malnourished patients to "…finish their lunch". PMID:25906253

  4. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  5. Prevalence of carnitine depletion in critically ill patients with undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, A; Hyltander, A; Sjöberg, A; Arfvidsson, B; Sandström, R; Wickström, I; Lundholm, K

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent secondary carnitine deficiency may exist based on the prevalence of subnormal carnitine status in patients with critical illness and abnormal nutritional state. Healthy control patients (n = 12) were investigated and compared with patients with possible secondary carnitine deficiency, ie, patients with overt severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM, n = 28), postoperative long-term (greater than 14 days) parenteral glucose feeding (250 g glucose/d, n = 7), severe liver disease (n = 10), renal insufficiency (n = 7), and sustained septicemia with increased metabolic rate (n = 8). Nutritional status, energy expenditure, creatinine excretion, and blood biochemical tests were measured in relationship to free and total carnitine concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle tissue, as well as urinary excretion of free and total carnitine. The overall mortality rate was 48% within 30 days of the investigation in study patients with the highest mortality in liver disease (90%). The hospitalization range was 14 to 129 days in study patients. Most study patients had lost weight (4% to 19%) and had abnormal body composition. Patients with liver disease, septicemia, renal insufficiency, and those on long-term glucose feeding had significantly higher than predicted metabolic rate (+25% +/- 3%), while patients with severe malnutrition had decreased metabolic rate compared with controls. Patients with liver disease had increased plasma concentrations of free (96 +/- 16 mumol/L) and total (144 +/- 27 mumol/L) carnitine compared with controls (45 +/- 3, 58 +/- 7 mumol/L, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1736038

  6. [Peripheral circulation in critically ill patients: non-invasive methods for the assessment of the peripheral perfusion].

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Lima, Alexandre; Bakker, Jan; van Bommel, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral tissues, such as skin and muscles, are sensitive to alterations in perfusion. During circulatory shock, these tissues are the first to receive less blood and the last to recover after treatment. By monitoring peripheral circulation, disturbance of the systemic circulation can be detected at an early stage. Peripheral perfusion is often disturbed in critically ill patients. Peripheral perfusion may remain disturbed, even if conventional hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and heart frequency normalize after treatment. Persistent abnormal peripheral perfusion is related to a poorer clinical course. With current non-invasive methods, peripheral circulation in critically ill patients can easily be assessed at the bedside. Interventions that improve peripheral circulation may speed up recovery in critically ill patients.

  7. Using the Trajectory Framework: reconceptualizing cardiac illness.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, M H

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac disease is known to be the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. Nursing management of cardiac illnesses, as such, is a primary concern for most practicing nurses. Dramatic changes in cardiac patient populations and associated technology available for treatment indicate a need to reconceptualize the nature of cardiac illness and to consider alternative approaches to guide the care of these patients. Traditional care, to a large degree, has focused upon acute illness, consequently limiting needed attention to the increasing group of patients suffering chronic illness and disability. In the present paper, the major changes in the cardiac patient population and in utilization of available technology are presented. The application of the Corbin and Strauss trajectory framework as an appropriate and useful framework for conceptualizing cardiac illness and care is then discussed. Five characteristics of the framework which render the model particularly well suited to address cardiac care are identified and discussed. These characteristics are: 1) comprehensiveness of care, 2) patient-centered care, 3) gender issues in care, 4) family-focused care, 5) technology and cardiac care. PMID:1763241

  8. Life threatening illness and hospice care.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Forrest, G C; Woolley, H; Baum, J D

    1989-05-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of 25 families and their 26 ill children attending the first children's hospice in the United Kingdom. The study examined the family's perceptions of the care offered and the impact of chronic and life threatening illness. Eighteen (72%) of the families felt they had been well supported by the hospice and valued the family like atmosphere, perceiving the staff to be friendly, approachable, and helpful. The actual nature of hospice care, in an environment with other terminally ill children, was, however, considered a drawback for a few families. A number of families still had unmet needs, notably appropriate child minding when away from the hospice. The impact of chronic life threatening illness on the families was substantial. The parents (particularly the mothers), the index children, and their siblings all experienced much higher levels of psychological symptomatology than would have been expected from normal samples. While families felt greatly helped over symptom control, a proportion remained very worried about certain symptoms, particularly breathlessness, seizures, and pain. A high proportion of families were experiencing financial and employment difficulties as a result of their children's illnesses.

  9. Life threatening illness and hospice care.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, A; Forrest, G C; Woolley, H; Baum, J D

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of 25 families and their 26 ill children attending the first children's hospice in the United Kingdom. The study examined the family's perceptions of the care offered and the impact of chronic and life threatening illness. Eighteen (72%) of the families felt they had been well supported by the hospice and valued the family like atmosphere, perceiving the staff to be friendly, approachable, and helpful. The actual nature of hospice care, in an environment with other terminally ill children, was, however, considered a drawback for a few families. A number of families still had unmet needs, notably appropriate child minding when away from the hospice. The impact of chronic life threatening illness on the families was substantial. The parents (particularly the mothers), the index children, and their siblings all experienced much higher levels of psychological symptomatology than would have been expected from normal samples. While families felt greatly helped over symptom control, a proportion remained very worried about certain symptoms, particularly breathlessness, seizures, and pain. A high proportion of families were experiencing financial and employment difficulties as a result of their children's illnesses. PMID:2730123

  10. Illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Berkanovic, E; Hurwicz, M L

    1992-08-01

    Although there is a large literature examining the effects of distress on the demand for medical care, the data on which this literature is based are equivocal. Nonetheless, this literature is cited frequently by those who advocate a national mental health policy designed to produce a cost-effective "medical offset effect." In this study, longitudinal data on illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms were collected from 940 Medicare recipients enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) under a Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) contract. Seven waves of interviews were conducted over a period of 1 year. This article presents two sets of analyses. In the first, controlling for chronic conditions and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between depressive symptoms reported at baseline, and all illness episodes and physician visits that occurred over the subsequent year are examined. In the second, controlling for depressive symptoms and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between illness episodes and physician visits over the study year, and depressive symptoms recorded at the final interview are examined. The data indicate that, whereas depressive symptoms at baseline are virtually unrelated to subsequent illness episodes and physician visits, illness episodes and physician visits are related to subsequent depressive symptoms. These data indicate, therefore, that policies aimed at diverting the distressed from seeking medical care may result in further inequities in the receipt of needed care. PMID:10120227

  11. [Physical illness in the transference and countertransference].

    PubMed

    Rodewig, K

    1995-06-01

    The significance of severe physical illness in terms of the repercussions it may have on the course of psychoanalytic treatment is a topic that has received very little attention in the literature. The author approaches the problem from the point of view of transference and counter-transference on the one hand, and from a distinction between self and body-self on the other. Rodewig proceeds on the assumption that a physical ailment can have the character of an object and may thus attain the status of third object. Given the threat posed by dangerous physical illness, the ego has recourse to defence mechanisms such as splitting and separate projective identification of positive and negative object- and self-parts, projecting the omnipotent, idealizing desires onto the therapist and the negative desires onto the ailment itself. In a later stage a de-idealization of the therapist sets in and the latter is identified with the illness so that the illness is then bandied back and forth between patient and analyst. The most challenging technical problem for analysts is avoiding the projection of their own illness and death anxieties onto the patient with a view to resolving them there. Instead, they need to be worked in independently and then given back to the patient devoid of their original virulence. The author illustrates the various facets of the problem with brief reference to various case histories. PMID:7610265

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and Gulf War illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, Beatrice Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests excess illness in Persian Gulf War veterans (GWV) can be explained in part by exposure of GWV to organophosphate and carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEis), including pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and nerve agents. Evidence germane to the relation of AChEis to illness in GWV was assessed. Many epidemiological studies reported a link between AChEi exposure and chronic symptoms in GWV. The link is buttressed by a dose–response relation of PB pill number to chronic symptoms in GWV and by a relation between avidity of AChEi clearance and illness, based on genotypes, concentrations, and activity levels of enzymes that detoxify AChEis. Triangulating evidence derives from studies linking occupational exposure to AChEis to chronic health symptoms that mirror those of ill GWV. Illness is again linked to lower activity of AChEi detoxifying enzymes and genotypes conferring less-avid AChEi detoxification. AChEi exposure satisfies Hill's presumptive criteria for causality, suggesting this exposure may be causally linked to excess health problems in GWV. PMID:18332428

  13. The Chronic Illness Initiative: Supporting College Students with Chronic Illness Needs at DePaul University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Lynn; Marshall, Olena

    2008-01-01

    College students with chronic illness find it difficult to succeed in traditional degree programs due to disruptions caused by relapses and unpredictable waxing and waning symptoms. College disability offices are often unable to help, both because their standard supports are not appropriate and because students with chronic illness frequently do…

  14. Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Dragica P; Bursuc, Bogdana N; Bulajic, Milica V; Solovic, Ivan; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Duarte, Raquel; Sorete-Arbore, Adriana; Raileanu, Marinela; Strambu, Irina; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Adzic, Tatjana; Lazic, Zorica; Zlatev-Ionescu, Maria; Bhagyabati, Sorokhaibam; Singh, Irom Ibungo; Srivastava, Govind Narayan

    2014-01-01

    How patients relate to the experience of their illness has a direct impact over their behavior. We aimed to assess illness perception in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by means of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) in correlation with patients' demographic features and clinical TB score. Our observational questionnaire based study included series of consecutive TB patients enrolled in several countries from October 2008 to January 2011 with 167 valid questionnaires analyzed. Each BIPQ item assessed one dimension of illness perceptions like the consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, identity, coherence, emotional representation and concern. An open question referred to the main causes of TB in each patient's opinion. The over-all BIPQ score (36.25 ± 11.054) was in concordance with the clinical TB score (p ≤ 0.001). TB patients believed in the treatment (the highest item-related score for treatment control) but were unsure about the illness identity. Illness understanding and the clinical TB score were negatively correlated (p < 0.01). Only 25% of the participants stated bacteria or TB contact as the first ranked cause of the illness. For routine clinical practice implementation of the BIPQ is convenient for obtaining fast and easy assessment of illness perception with potential utility in intervention design. This time saving effective personalized approach may improve communication with TB patients and contribute to better behavioral strategies in disease control. PMID:25485200

  15. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  16. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  17. Adults' Explanations and Children's Understanding of Contagious Illnesses, Non-Contagious Illnesses, and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (1) whether children notice different causes for contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses, and injuries and (2) what information adults provide to children and to what extent this information is related to children's causal awareness. Studies 1 and 2 explored preschool teachers' and mothers' explanations of…

  18. Anomalous basal ganglia connectivity and obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Caixàs, Assumpta; Harrison, Ben J.; Bueno, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rigla, Mercedes; Macià, Dídac; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Novell-Alsina, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder with a behavioural expression characterized by the presence of obsessive–compulsive phenomena ranging from elaborate obsessive eating behaviour to repetitive skin picking. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recently associated with abnormal functional coupling between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. We have tested the potential association of functional connectivity anomalies in basal ganglia circuits with obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome. Methods We analyzed resting-state functional MRI in adult patients and healthy controls. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated for the dorsal and ventral aspects of the caudate nucleus and putamen. A selected obsessive–compulsive behaviour assessment included typical OCD compulsions, self picking and obsessive eating behaviour. Results We included 24 adults with Prader Willi syndrome and 29 controls in our study. Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed abnormal functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia and within subcortical structures that correlated with the presence and severity of obsessive–compulsive behaviours. In addition, abnormally heightened functional connectivity was identified in the primary sensorimotor cortex–putamen loop, which was strongly associated with self picking. Finally, obsessive eating behaviour correlated with abnormal functional connectivity both within the basal ganglia loops and between the striatum and the hypothalamus and the amygdala. Limitations Limitations of the study include the difficulty in evaluating the nature of content of obsessions in patients with Prader Willi Syndrome and the risk of excessive head motion artifact on brain imaging. Conclusion Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed broad functional connectivity anomalies combining prefrontal loop alterations characteristic of OCD with 1) enhanced coupling in the

  19. Correctional Officers and the Incarcerated Mentally Ill: Responses to Psychiatric Illness in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Galanek, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. men’s prison, I investigate how this social and cultural context structures relations between correctional officers and inmates with severe mental illness. Utilizing interpretivist perspectives, I explore how these relations are structured by trust, respect, and meanings associated with mental illness. Officers’ discretionary responses to mentally ill inmates included observations to ensure psychiatric stability and flexibility in rule enforcement and were embedded within their role to ensure staff and inmate safety. Officers identified housing, employment, and social support as important for inmates’ psychiatric stability as medications. Inmates identified officers’ observation and responsiveness to help seeking as assisting in institutional functioning. These findings demonstrate that this prison’s structures and values enable officers’ discretion with mentally ill inmates, rather than solely fostering custodial responses to these inmates’ behaviors. These officers’ responses to inmates with mental illness concurrently support custodial control and the prison’s order. PMID:25219680

  20. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…