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Sample records for abnormal interpretation rates

  1. The value of Bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. PMID:25784058

  2. Interpretation difficulty of normal versus abnormal radiographs using a pediatric example

    PubMed Central

    Boutis, Kathy; Cano, Stefan; Pecaric, Martin; Welch-Horan, T. Bram; Lampl, Brooke; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie; Pusic, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiograph teaching files are usually dominated by abnormal cases, implying that normal radiographs are easier to interpret. Our main objective was to compare the interpretation difficulty of normal versus abnormal radiographs of a set of common pediatric radiographs. Methods We developed a 234-item digital case bank of pediatric ankle radiographs, recruited a convenience sample of participants, and presented the cases to each participant who then classified the cases as normal or abnormal. We determined and contrasted the interpretation difficulty of the normal and abnormal x-rays items using Rasch Measurement Theory. We also identified case features that were associated with item difficulty. Results 139 participants (86 medical students, 7 residents, 29 fellows, 5 emergency physicians, and 3 radiologists) rated a minimum of 50 cases each, which resulted in 16,535 total ratings. Abnormal cases were more difficult (+0.99 logits) than were normal ones (−0.58 logits), difference 1.57 logits (95% CI 1.2, 2.0), but there was considerable overlap in difficulty scores. Patient variables associated with a more difficult normal radiograph included younger patient age (β = −0.16, 95% CI −0.22, −0.10), history of distal fibular tenderness (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.17, 0.93), and presence of a secondary ossification centre (β = 0.84, 95% CI 0.27, 1.41). Conclusions While abnormal images were more difficult to interpret, normal images did show a range of interpretation difficulties. Including a significant proportion of normal cases may be of benefit to learners. PMID:27103955

  3. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  4. Interpretation of Serum Calcium in Patients with Abnormal Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R. B.; Little, A. J.; Williams, R. B.; Milner, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred consecutive specimens received in this laboratory for “liver function tests” showed a wide range of abnormal protein concentrations. Calcium concentration correlated closely with albumin (r = 0·867) but less closely with total protein (r = 0·682). A simple formula for adjusting calcium concentration was derived from the regression equation of calcium on albumin. Adjusted calcium = calcium - albumin + 4·0, where calcium is in mg/100 ml and albumin in g/100 ml. Low calcium concentrations were found in 49 (24·5%) and raised concentrations in six (3%) of the 200 blood specimens taken for liver function tests. After adjustment, the 95% limits of the observed range were identical with the 95% limits of the normal range determined in this laboratory. Unlike adjustments based on total protein or specific gravity, the adjustment on albumin in 39 specimens which showed hypergammaglobulinaemia on electrophoresis gave normal calcium concentrations. PMID:4758544

  5. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  6. Gains in accuracy from averaging ratings of abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swensson, Richard G.; King, Jill L.; Gur, David; Good, Walter F.

    1999-05-01

    Six radiologists used continuous scales to rate 529 chest-film cases for likelihood of five separate types of abnormalities (interstitial disease, nodules, pneumothorax, alveolar infiltrates and rib fractures) in each of six replicated readings, yielding 36 separate ratings of each case for the five abnormalities. Analyses for each type of abnormality estimated the relative gains in accuracy (area below the ROC curve) obtained by averaging the case-ratings across: (1) six independent replications by each reader (30% gain), (2) six different readers within each replication (39% gain) or (3) all 36 readings (58% gain). Although accuracy differed among both readers and abnormalities, ROC curves for the median ratings showed similar relative gains in accuracy. From a latent-variable model for these gains, we estimate that about 51% of a reader's total decision variance consisted of random (within-reader) errors that were uncorrelated between replications, another 14% came from that reader's consistent (but idiosyncratic) responses to different cases, and only about 35% could be attributed to systematic variations among the sampled cases that were consistent across different readers.

  7. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta

    2007-07-01

    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p < .05) with WM impairment, as well as with impairments in sensory-memory encoding, executive function, and social/occupational function. These results offer no support for disorganized associations in abnormal proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction. PMID:17521483

  8. Abnormal intermittency of heart rate in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Myung-Kul; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Kim, June-Soo

    2002-03-01

    Introduction: We aim to test our hypothesis that, during daily activity, though not as prominent as during HUT test, the patients may show different degree of intermittency in heart rates compared to healthy persons. METHOD AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with neurocardiogenic syncope who showed a positive HUT test and thirty healthy controls without history of syncope were included. Their twenty-four hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were digitized and RR interval (RRI) data of six-hour interval were analyzed. To quantify the intermittency (C1) behavior, The intermittency analysis was performed using Mexican hat wavelet. For the syncope group, the values of C1 were significantly higher at 6AM-6PM and lower at 6AM-midnight, respectively. However, the values were not different at midnight-6AM. The significant night-day circadian change shown in the control group was lost in C1. CONCLUSION: When compared to healthy control, the patients with neurocardiogenic syncope shows increased intermittency of heart rates in daytime during daily activity, and abnormal circadian rhythms of the index. These new findings may be useful for investigating the pathophysiology of neurocardiogenic syncope and early identification of the patients.

  9. A Modeling Perspective on Interpreting Rates of Change in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ärlebäck, Jonas B.; Doerr, Helen M.; O'Neil, AnnMarie H.

    2013-01-01

    Functions provide powerful tools for describing change, but research has shown that students find difficulty in using functions to create and interpret models of changing phenomena. In this study, we drew on a models and modeling perspective to design an instructional approach to develop students' abilities to describe and interpret rates of…

  10. Interpretation of the electronic fetal heart rate during labor.

    PubMed

    Sweha, A; Hacker, T W; Nuovo, J

    1999-05-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is commonly used to assess fetal well-being during labor. Although detection of fetal compromise is one benefit of fetal monitoring, there are also risks, including false-positive tests that may result in unnecessary surgical intervention. Since variable and inconsistent interpretation of fetal heart rate tracings may affect management, a systematic approach to interpreting the patterns is important. The fetal heart rate undergoes constant and minute adjustments in response to the fetal environment and stimuli. Fetal heart rate patterns are classified as reassuring, nonreassuring or ominous. Nonreassuring patterns such as fetal tachycardia, bradycardia and late decelerations with good short-term variability require intervention to rule out fetal acidosis. Ominous patterns require emergency intrauterine fetal resuscitation and immediate delivery. Differentiating between a reassuring and nonreassuring fetal heart rate pattern is the essence of accurate interpretation, which is essential to guide appropriate triage decisions. PMID:10323356

  11. Outcomes among athletes with arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities: implications for ECG interpretation.

    PubMed

    McClaskey, David; Lee, Daniel; Buch, Eric

    2013-10-01

    , including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural cardiac disease are associated with an increased risk of adverse events, including sudden cardiac death, and warrant special consideration with regards to sports eligibility. Findings in this review are limited by a lack of control groups, limited assessment of confounding factors (such as performance-enhancing drugs), and under-representation of women and certain ethnicities. Further prospective studies are needed to better characterize the long-term outcome of ECG abnormalities among athletes and provide evidence for ECG interpretation guidelines. PMID:23852445

  12. Improving Interprofessional Consistency in Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Govindappagari, Shravya; Zaghi, Sahar; Zannat, Ferdous; Reimers, Laura; Goffman, Dena; Kassel, Irene; Bernstein, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Objective To determine if mandatory online training in electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) improved agreement in documentation between obstetric care providers and nurses on labor and delivery. Methods Health care professionals working in obstetrics at our institution were required to complete a course on EFM interpretation. We performed a retrospective chart review of 701 charts including patients delivered before and after the introduction of the course to evaluate agreement among providers in their documentation of their interpretations of the EFM tracings. Results Agreement between provider and nurse documentation at the time of admission improved for variability and accelerations (variability: 91.1 vs. 98.3%, p < 0.001; and accelerations: 75.2 vs. 87.7%, p < 0.001). Similarly, agreement improved at the time of the last note prior to delivery for documentation of variability and accelerations (variability: 82.1 vs. 90.6%, p = 0.001; and accelerations: 56.7 vs. 68.6%, p = 0.0012). Agreement in interpretation of decelerations both at the time of admission and at the time of delivery increased (86.3 vs. 90.6%, p = 0.0787, and 56.7 vs. 61.1%, p = 0.2314, respectively) but was not significant. Conclusion An online EFM course can significantly improve consistency in multidisciplinary documentation of fetal heart rate tracing interpretation. PMID:26906180

  13. Abnormal evaporation rate of ethanol from low concentration aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Grimshaw, J. ); O'Hare, K.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Evaporation of aqueous ethanol solutions was studied in a wind tunnel using a circular cell design which ensured control of all the major conditions of mass transfer. At lower concentrations of alcohol, the evaporation rate of alcohol per unit of alcohol showed a dramatic increase over that at higher concentrations. Various explanations for the effect were sought but it was concluded that preferential adsorption of alcohol at the interface in low alcohol concentrations solutions as suggested by the Gibbs adsorption allowed ethanol to evaporate more readily compared to that obtained at higher concentrations. 55 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  15. BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN LONGTAILED AND PIGTAILED MACAQUES VARY BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR RATING AND SEX

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.

    2007-01-01

    Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (βE) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (βE-ACTH)/βE dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of βE to abnormal behavior is a new finding. PMID:17719139

  16. On the interpretation of risk and rate advancement periods.

    PubMed

    Discacciati, Andrea; Bellavia, Andrea; Orsini, Nicola; Greenland, Sander

    2016-02-01

    Risk and rate advancement periods (RAP) measure the impact of an exposure on the relation of age to disease. Specifically, they quantify the time by which the risk or rate of a disease is advanced among exposed subjects conditional on disease-free survival to a certain baseline age. The fact that these measures incorporate timing of disease occurrence makes them appealing for risk communication, and their use has increased over recent years. Unfortunately, their misinterpretations have also increased. In particular, RAP is often misinterpreted as the difference in mean survival time, when in fact it is a distinct concept and a profoundly different quantity. Other misinterpretations include interpreting RAP as the time by which a survival curve is shifted between exposed and unexposed, and equating RAP to a simple function of relative risks. In this paper we review RAP and show why common misinterpretations are flawed. We also show how RAP is profoundly sensitive to the specification of disease dependence on age. We conclude that whereas RAP remains a potentially useful measure, it requires multiple cautions beyond those needed for traditional measures of association, especially when computed for rates. PMID:26675753

  17. [Abnormally broad confidence intervals in logistic regression: interpretation of results of statistical programs].

    PubMed

    de Irala, J; Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas, R; Serrano del Castillo, A

    1997-03-01

    This study describes the behavior of eight statistical programs (BMDP, EGRET, JMP, SAS, SPSS, STATA, STATISTIX, and SYSTAT) when performing a logistic regression with a simulated data set that contains a numerical problem created by the presence of a cell value equal to zero. The programs respond in different ways to this problem. Most of them give a warning, although many simultaneously present incorrect results, among which are confidence intervals that tend toward infinity. Such results can mislead the user. Various guidelines are offered for detecting these problems in actual analyses, and users are reminded of the importance of critical interpretation of the results of statistical programs. PMID:9162592

  18. Interpretation of the temperature dependence of equilibrium and rate constants.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J; Jackson, Craig M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to potential pitfalls in attempts to glean mechanistic information from the magnitudes of standard enthalpies and entropies derived from the temperature dependence of equilibrium and rate constants for protein interactions. Problems arise because the minimalist model that suffices to describe the energy differences between initial and final states usually comprises a set of linked equilibria, each of which is characterized by its own energetics. For example, because the overall standard enthalpy is a composite of those individual values, a positive magnitude for DeltaH(o) can still arise despite all reactions within the subset being characterized by negative enthalpy changes: designation of the reaction as being entropy driven is thus equivocal. An experimenter must always bear in mind the fact that any mechanistic interpretation of the magnitudes of thermodynamic parameters refers to the reaction model rather than the experimental system. For the same reason there is little point in subjecting the temperature dependence of rate constants for protein interactions to transition-state analysis. If comparisons with reported values of standard enthalpy and entropy of activation are needed, they are readily calculated from the empirical Arrhenius parameters. PMID:16897812

  19. Interpreting the Dependence of Mutation Rates on Age and Time

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ziyue; Wyman, Minyoung J.; Sella, Guy; Przeworski, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Mutations can originate from the chance misincorporation of nucleotides during DNA replication or from DNA lesions that arise between replication cycles and are not repaired correctly. We introduce a model that relates the source of mutations to their accumulation with cell divisions, providing a framework for understanding how mutation rates depend on sex, age, and cell division rate. We show that the accrual of mutations should track cell divisions not only when mutations are replicative in origin but also when they are non-replicative and repaired efficiently. One implication is that observations from diverse fields that to date have been interpreted as pointing to a replicative origin of most mutations could instead reflect the accumulation of mutations arising from endogenous reactions or exogenous mutagens. We further find that only mutations that arise from inefficiently repaired lesions will accrue according to absolute time; thus, unless life history traits co-vary, the phylogenetic “molecular clock” should not be expected to run steadily across species. PMID:26761240

  20. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Craig, Maria E.; Virk, Sohaib A.; Pryke, Alison; Chan, Albert K. F.; Cho, Yoon Hi; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Research Design and Methods Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12–20 years; diabetes duration >5 years) treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000–14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography), peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing), autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings) and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration. Results Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol]) (p = 0.7), retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06); microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07), peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108) and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401). In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45–0.95, p = 0.029) and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, p = 0.026), but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10–2.17, p = 0.33). SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes. Conclusions In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES. PMID:27050468

  1. Experience Rate of Elbow Pain and Morphological Abnormality of Humeral Medial Epicondyle among Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kida, Yoshikazu; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryuhei; Kabuto, Yukichi; MInami, Masataka; Onishi, Okihiro; Tsujihara, Takashi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the experience rate of elbow pain and to clarify the relationship between morphological abnormality of the humeral medial epicondyle and positions among baseball players in elementary school (ES), junior high school (JHS) and high school (HS). Methods: In this study, 4353 baseball players who participated in our medical screening (2008-2015) were enrolled. There were 1545 players from ES, 1934 players from JHS, and 874 players from HS. We asked them to answer the questionnaire to investigate the experience of elbow pain, and the position they played. Ultrasonography of the humeral medial epicondyle was examined and irregularity, fragmentation, and malunion of the humeral medial epicondyle. The results were analyzed statistically. P < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results: The experience rates of elbow pain among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 26.0%, 27.0%, and 68.3%. The rates of abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among players in ES, JHS, and HS were 18.2%, 36.3%, and 39.9% (Table 1). The experience rate of elbow pain among pitchers and catchers was significantly higher than the fielders in ES (Table 2), however, there were no significant differences between positions in JHS and HS (Table 3,4). According to the rate of morphological abnormalities of humeral medial epicondyle, pitchers and catchers were significantly higher than fielders in ES, while only pitchers were significantly higher than the fielders in JHS and HS (Table 2,3,4). Conclusion: The experience rate of elbow pain among baseball players rose as the age increased, and the rate in HS was almost 70%. The rates of morphological abnormality of humeral medial epicondyle among pitchers and catchers were high and the tendency was observed from a young age. The primary prevention of elbow injuries in youth baseball players of all ages should be considered.

  2. Chromosome abnormality rate among Iranian patients with idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Kahrizi, Kimia; Kariminejad, Roxana; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Ansari, Javad; Fallah, Masoumeh; Mojtahedi, Forough; Darvish, Hossein; Bahrami Monajemi, Gholamreza; Abedini, S. Sedigheh; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mental retardation (MR) has heterogeneous aetiology mostly with genetic causes. Chromosomal aberrations are one of the most common causes of MR. Reports on chromosome abnormality rate among consanguineous families are sparse. In order to identify the chromosome abnormality rate in idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages, a total of 322 Iranian families with positive family history for MR were investigated in the Genetics Research Center. Material and methods In the majority of families (92%) at least two sibs were affected with MR and none had specific chromosomal syndromes such as Down syndrome. Standard cytogenetic techniques using high resolution GTG banding were carried out on all the patients. Results The overall chromosome abnormality rate contributing to mental retardation was 1.24% (4 cases), which comprised 46,XY,der(18)t(4;18)(q31.1;q23)mat; 45,XY,-21,-22,+der(22)t(21;22)(q21.1;q13.33)mat; 46,XY,rec(2)dup(2p)inv(2)(p25.1q37.3)pat, and 46,XY,der(11)t(10;11)(q25.2;q25)pat. Conclusions Although the most likely genetic cause of mental retardation in patients with consanguineous parents is autosomal recessive, the fact that 1.24% of our patients had chromosomal abnormalities emphasizes the importance of cytogenetic investigation as the first laboratory genetic tests for all MR patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the rate of chromosome abnormality among patients with idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages. PMID:22291774

  3. NASA's Human Rating Requirements a Historical Interpretive Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, G.; Kramer White, J.

    2012-01-01

    Section 3.0 of NASA's Human Rating Requirements for Space Systems, NPR 8705.2, represents technical engineering requirements that the Agency requires of Human Space Systems. In many cases the requirements are not unlike requirements for any space system, crewed or uncrewed, they deal with successfully accomplishing the mission objectives. However, they go one step further and have requirements that go beyond successful completion of the mission and dictate functions or actions necessary to assure the survival of the crew. In that regard they are unique from other space system requirements. Even with their uniqueness the technical requirements of the NPR 8705.2 have been relatively unchanged in overall intent over the revisions. They all have provided for system redundancy, crew habitable environment, crew situational awareness, crew operation, system control, emergency egress and abort systems. In a few cases the intent of the requirement was changed intentionally, either to restrict certain types of systems or their functions, or to encompass lessons learned from previous programs. For the most part the requirements are non controversial and represent the current best practices for human space systems, however, a few requirements are always debated and have evolved over revisions of the NPR due to studies conducted with various programs like the Orbital Space Plane and the Constellation Programs. Those requirements will be discussed using results of trade studies conducted during past programs highlighting how these particular requirements have evolved through the revisions of the NPR. Comments will also be provided for requirements that although not debated, have provided challenges in interpretation.

  4. NASA's Human Rating Requirements - A Historical Interpretive Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Gerald; White, Juli Kramer

    2011-01-01

    Section 3.0 of NASA's Human Rating Requirements for Space Systems, NPR 8705.2, represents technical engineering requirements that the Agenc y requires of Human Space Systems. In many cases the requirements are not unlike requirements for any space system, crewed or uncrewed, th ey deal with successfully accomplishing the mission objectives. Howev er, they go one step further and have requirements that go beyond suc cessful completion of the mission and dictate functions or actions ne cessary to assure the survival of the crew. In that regard they are u nique from other space system requirements. Even with their uniquenes s the technical requirements of the NPR 8705.2 have been relatively u nchanged in overall intent over the revisions. They all have provided for system redundancy, crew habitable environment, crew situational awareness, crew operation, system control, emergency egress and abort systems. In a few cases the intent of the requirement was changed in tentionally, either to restrict certain types of systems or their fun ctions, or to encompass lessons learned from previous programs. For t he most part the requirements are non controversial and represent the current best practices for human space systems, however, a few requi rements are always debated and have evolved over revisions of the NPR due to studies conducted with various programs like the Orbital Spac e Plane and the Constellation Programs. Those requirements will be di scussed using results of trade studies conducted during past programs highlighting how these particular requirements have evolved through the revisions of the NPR. Comments will also be provided for requirem ents that although not debated, have provided challenges in interpret ation.

  5. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ≥65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  6. Increase in the embedding dimension in the heart rate variability associated with left ventricular abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, D. S.; Irurzun, I. M.; Mitelman, J.; Mola, E. E.

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the authors report evidence that the existence of premature ventricular contractions increases the embedding dimension of the cardiac dynamics. They also analyze patients with congestive heart failure, a severe clinical condition associated with abnormal left ventricular function. Results also show an increase in the embedding dimension of the heart rate variability. They used electrocardiograms collected by themselves with quality standards that make them comparable with other databases.

  7. Seasonal variations of decay rate measurement data and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Measurement data of long-lived radionuclides, for example, (85)Kr, (90)Sr, (108m)Ag, (133)Ba, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (226)Ra, and particularly the relative residuals of fitted raw data from current measurements of ionization chambers for half-life determination show small periodic seasonal variations with amplitudes of about 0.15%. The interpretation of these fluctuations is a matter of controversy whether the observed effect is produced by some interaction with the radionuclides themselves or is an artifact of the measuring chain. At the origin of such a discussion there is the exponential decay law of radioactive substances used for data fitting, one of the fundamentals of nuclear physics. Some groups of physicists use statistical methods and analyze correlations with various parameters of the measurement data and, for example, the Earth-Sun distance, as a basis of interpretation. In this article, data measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and published earlier are the subject of a correlation analysis using the corresponding time series of data with varying measurement conditions. An overview of these measurement conditions producing instrument instabilities is given and causality relations are discussed. The resulting correlation coefficients for various series of the same radionuclide using similar measurement conditions are in the order of 0.7, which indicates a high correlation, and for series of the same radionuclide using different measurement conditions and changes of the measuring chain of the order of -0.2 or even lower, which indicates an anti-correlation. These results provide strong arguments that the observed seasonal variations are caused by the measuring chain and, in particular, by the type of measuring electronics used. PMID:27258217

  8. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  9. Interpreting Category II Fetal Heart Rate Tracings: Does Meconium Matter?

    PubMed Central

    FREY, Heather A.; TUULI, Methodius G.; SHANKS, Anthony L.; MACONES, George A.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Category II fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings are considered indeterminate, thus improved risk stratification of category II FHR tracings is needed. We estimated whether the presence of meconium increased the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN This study was conducted within a prospective cohort of 5000 women with singleton pregnancies admitted in labor at term. Pregnancies with category II FHR in the 60 minutes prior to delivery were included. FHR data were extracted by trained nurses blinded to clinical outcome. The exposure was presence of meconium. The primary outcome was a composite neonatal morbidity defined as ≥1 of the following: neonatal death, neurologic morbidity, respiratory morbidity, hypotension requiring treatment, and sepsis. Secondary outcomes were nursery admission, cord pH, 5-minute Apgar score, and components of the composite. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. RESULTS Of the 3,257 women with category II FHR tracings, 693 (21.3%) had meconium and 2,564 (78.7%) did not. Meconium was associated with higher risk of the composite morbidity (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.78-3.48) and increased risks of the secondary outcomes. The associations remained significant when infants with meconium aspiration syndrome were excluded. Thick meconium was significantly associated with the composite morbidity. CONCLUSIONS The presence of meconium is associated with an increased risk of neonatal morbidity in women with category II FHR pattern. This clinical factor may assist clinicians in managing category II FHR patterns in labor. PMID:24949543

  10. Clinical significance of exercise-induced left ventricular wall motion abnormality occurring at a low heart rate

    SciTech Connect

    Kimchi, A.; Rozanski, A.; Fletcher, C.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the relationship between the heart rate at the time of onset of exercise-induced wall motion abnormality and the severity of coronary artery disease in 89 patients who underwent exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography as part of their evaluation for coronary artery disease. Segmental wall motion was scored with a five-point system (3 = normal; -1 = dyskinesis); a decrease of one score defined the onset of wall motion abnormality. The onset of wall motion abnormality at less than or equal to 70% of maximal predicted heart rate had 100% predictive accuracy for coronary artery disease and higher sensitivity than the onset of ischemic ST segment depression at similar heart rate during exercise: 36% (25 of 69 patients with coronary disease) vs 19% (13 of 69 patients), p = 0.01. Wall motion abnormality occurring at less than or equal to 70% of maximal predicted heart rate was present in 49% of patients (23 of 47) with critical stenosis (greater than or equal to 90% luminal diameter narrowing), and in only 5% of patients (2 of 42) without such severe stenosis, p less than 0.001. The sensitivity of exercise-induced wall motion abnormality occurring at a low heart rate for the presence of severe coronary artery disease was similar to that of a deterioration in wall motion by more than two scores during exercise (49% vs 53%) or an absolute decrease of greater than or equal to 5% in exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (49% vs 45%).

  11. The Interrater Reliability of the Modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale for Use with People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; McIlraith, Lucy; Miller, Clare; Stanley-Clarke, Terri; George, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Researching falls in persons with ID is limited by difficulties in applying standardised balance outcome measures. The modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), developed to identify falls risk in older adults, requires only that the participant walks and thus may be a feasible falls research tool to use with people with ID. In…

  12. Active interpretation of the Lorentz ``boosts'' as a physical explanation of different time rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, D.; Hiley, B. J.

    1985-08-01

    The purely passive interpretation of the Lorentz transformation does not explain why an accelerated system actually has a changed time rate (e.g., as in the case of the twins' paradox). This has made the theory in some ways rather difficult to understand. In this paper, we propose an active interpretation of the Lorentz transformation or ``boost,'' and show that it leads to a simple and clear explanation of how and why time rates change. Thus the meaning of the theory is clarified and made more evident.

  13. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  14. Relative User Ratings of MMPI-2 Computer-Based Test Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.; Weed, Nathan C.

    2004-01-01

    There are eight commercially available computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs) for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), of which few have been empirically evaluated. Prospective users of these programs have little scientific data to guide choice of a program. This study compared ratings of these eight CBTIs. Test users…

  15. Serial study of the effect of radiotherapy on semen parameters, hamster egg penetration rates, and lymphocyte chromosome abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.; Barnes, M.; Arthur, K.; Ringrose, T.; Douglas, G.

    1984-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the long-term effects of radiotherapy (RT) on male fertility and the induction of lymphocyte and sperm chromosome abnormalities. This preliminary report provides information on 11 cancer patients (mainly seminomas) treated by RT (testicular dose, 44 to 499 rads). All 11 men were studied pre-RT and at intervals post-RT. The pre-RT semen profile varied considerably, but, in general, the profile was poor with a mean sperm concentration of 19.4 x 10/sup 6/ ml and a mean hamster egg penetration rate of 5%. One month after RT, the sperm concentration decreased and hamster egg penetration was 0% in all men. At 3 and 12 months post-RT, all but two patients were azoospermic. By 24 months post-RT, 9 of 11 patients had regained sperm production and 5 had sperm capable of hamster egg penetration. The three men who have been studied 36 months post-RT had a mean sperm concentration of 45.3 x 10/sup 6/ ml, and all had positive hamster egg penetration tests, although two of the three men had very low penetration rates (2% and 4%). Lymphocyte chromosome analysis demonstrated a striking frequency of chromosome abnormalities post-RT which decreased with time (pre-RT, 0%; 1 month, 42.4%; 3 months, 24.7%; 12 months, 13.8%; 24 months, 11.2%; and 36 months, 10.0%). Thus, it appears that sperm production starts to recover 2 to 3 years after RT when the frequency of lymphocyte chromosome abnormalities has decreased, but the sperm may not be fully functional at this time, as evidenced by poor rates of hamster egg penetration. Future studies of sperm chromosome analysis in these men will determine whether this impairment of the sperm is associated with meiotic chromosome abnormalities.

  16. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS) in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI). Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses. PMID:21114820

  17. Attenuation of the influence of cardiolocomotor coupling in heart rate variability interpretation during exercise test.

    PubMed

    Hernando, A; Hernando, D; Garatachea, N; Casajus, J A; Bailon, R

    2015-08-01

    During exercise test, cardiolocomotor coupling related components appear in heart rate variability (HRV), blurring its interpretation as autonomic nervous system (ANS) marker. These cardiolocomotor coupling related components are centered at the pedalling and running stride frequency, as well as at their aliases, and may overlap with the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of HRV. In this work cardiolocomotor-related HRV components are studied during maximal exercise test on treadmill and cycle ergometer. Power in the bands related to cardiolocomotor coupling increases with exercise intensity in cycle ergometer but not in treadmill exercise test, where it displays higher values for all exercise intensities. A method is proposed to reduce the effect of this coupling in the interpretation of HRV. Evolution of the power in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands are studied after the proposed reduction of cardiolocomotor coupling, showing more significant changes with exercise intensity than before the method is applied. PMID:26736557

  18. Interpreting impedance spectra of organic photovoltaic cells—Extracting charge transit and recombination rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J.; Holst, James

    2014-09-28

    Impedance spectroscopy has been widely used to extract the electron-hole recombination rate constant in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). This technique is typically performed on OPVs held at open-circuit. Under these conditions, the analysis is simplified with recombination as the only pathway for the decay of excess charge carriers; transit provides no net change in the charge density. In this work, we generalize the application and interpretation of impedance spectroscopy for bulk heterojunction OPVs at any operating voltage. This, in conjunction with reverse bias external quantum efficiency measurements, permits the extraction of both recombination and transit rate constants. Using this approach, the transit and recombination rate constants are determined for OPVs with a variety of electron donor-acceptor pairings and compositions. It is found that neither rate constant individually is sufficient to characterize the efficiency of charge collection in an OPV. It is demonstrated that a large recombination rate constant can be accompanied by a large transit rate constant, thus fast recombination is not necessarily detrimental to OPV performance. Extracting the transit and recombination rate constants permits a detailed understanding of how OPV architecture and processing conditions impact the transient behavior of charge carriers, elucidating the origin of optimum device configurations.

  19. Frequency and trajectory of abnormalities in respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation in severe pneumonia in children.

    PubMed

    Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Fox, Matthew P; Thea, Donald M; Qazi, Shamim A

    2012-08-01

    The frequency or trajectory of vital sign abnormalities in children with pneumonia has not been described. In a cohort of 2714 patients with severe pneumonia identified and treated as per the World Health Organization definition and recommendations, tachypnea, fever and hypoxia were found in 68.9%, 23.6% and 15.5% of children, respectively. Median oxygen saturation returned to a normal range by 10 hours following initiation of treatment, followed by temperature at 12 hours and respiratory rate at 22 hours for subjects <12 months and at 48 hours for those ≥ 12 months of age. PMID:22531236

  20. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  1. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals.

    PubMed

    Han, J J; Wang, C P; Liu, X J; Wang, Y; Liu, Z-K; Zhang, T-Y; Jiang, J Z

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 10(11)-16.6 × 10(11) K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate. PMID:26939584

  2. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate. PMID:26939584

  3. Interpretation of Normalized Spectral Heart Rate Variability Indices In Sleep Research: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    The normalized spectral heart rate variability (HRV) measures low-frequency (LF)nu and high-frequency (HF)nu are frequently used in contemporary sleep research studies to quantify modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this tutorial and methodologic critique is to concisely demonstrate the structural algebraic redundancy inherent in the normalized spectral HRV measures with respect to each other, and also with respect to the well-known HRV index of sympathovagal balance, LF:HF ratio. The statistical problems and interpretational paradoxes related to the mathematical definitions of LFnu and HFnu are briefly outlined. Examples of use of normalized spectral HRV measures in recent articles from the sleep-relevant research literature are critically reviewed. LFnu, HFnu, and LF:HF ratio should be considered equivalent carriers of information about sympathovagal balance. Citation: Burr RL. Interpretation of normalized spectral heart rate variability indices in sleep research: a critical review. SLEEP 2007;30(7):913-919. PMID:17682663

  4. The Effect of Prolonged Culture of Chromosomally Abnormal Human Embryos on The Rate of Diploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazrgar, Masood; Gourabi, Hamid; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Fakhri, Mostafa; Hassani, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohamad; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in aneuploidy rate following a prolonged co-culture of human blastocysts has been reported. As co-culture is not routinely used in assisted reproductive technology, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prolonged single culture on the rate of diploid cells in human embryos with aneuploidies. Materials and Methods In this cohort study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridi- zation (FISH) to reanalyze surplus blastocysts undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on day 3 postfertilization. They were randomly studied on days 6 or 7 following fertilization. Results Of the 30 analyzed blastocysts, mosaicism was observed in 26(86.6%), while 2(6.7%) were diploid, and 2(6.7%) were triploid. Of those with mosaicism, 23(88.5%) were determined to be diploid-aneuploid and 3(11.5%) were aneuploid mosaic. The total frequency of embryos with more than 50% diploid cells was 33.3% that was lower on day 7 in comparison with the related value on day 6 (P<0.05); however, there were no differences when the embryos were classified according to maternal age, blastocyst developmental stage, total cell number on day 3, and embryo quality. Conclusion Although mosaicism is frequently observed in blastocysts, the prolonged single culture of blastocysts does not seem to increase the rate of normal cells. PMID:26985346

  5. On the upscaling of mass transfer rate expressions for interpretation of source zone partitioning tracer tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroumand, Ali; Abriola, Linda M.

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of partitioning tracer tests conducted in dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones relies on conceptual models that describe mass exchange between the DNAPL and aqueous phases. Such analysis, however, is complicated by the complex distribution of entrapped DNAPL mass and formation heterogeneity. Due to parameter uncertainty in heterogeneous regions and the desire to reduce model complexity, the effect of mass transfer limitations is often neglected, and an equilibrium-based model is typically used to interpret test results. This work explores the consequences of that simplifying assumption on test data interpretation and develops an alternative upscaled modeling approach to quantify effective mass transfer rates. To this end, a series of partitioning tracer tests is numerically simulated in heterogeneous two-dimensional PCE-DNAPL source zones, representative of a range of hydraulic conductivity and DNAPL mass distribution characteristics. The effective mass transfer coefficient corresponding to each test is determined by fitting an upscaled model to the simulated data, and regression analysis is performed to explore the correlation between various source zone metrics and the effective mass transfer coefficient. Results suggest that vertical DNAPL spreading, Reynolds number, pool fraction, and the effective organic phase saturation are the most significant parameters controlling tracer partitioning rates. Finally, a correlation for prediction of the effective (upscaled) mass transfer coefficient is proposed and verified using existing experimental data. The developed upscaled model incorporates the influence of physical heterogeneity on the rate of tracer partitioning and, thus, can be used for the estimation of source zone mass distribution characteristics from tracer test results.

  6. Abnormal oral glucose tolerance and glucose malabsorption after vagotomy and pyloroplasty. A tracer method for measuring glucose absorption rates

    SciTech Connect

    Radziuk, J.; Bondy, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the abnormal glucose tolerance in patients who had undergone vagotomy and pyloroplasty were investigated by measuring the rates of absorption of ingested glucose and the clearance rate of glucose using tracer methods. These methods are based on labeling a 100-g oral glucose load with (1-/sup 14/C)glucose and measuring glucose clearance using plasma levels of infused (3-/sup 3/H)glucose. The rate of appearance of both ingested and total glucose is then calculated continuously using a two-compartment model of glucose kinetics. It was found that about 30% of the ingested glucose (100 g) failed to appear in the systemic circulation. That this was due to malabsorption was confirmed using breath-hydrogen analysis. The absorption period is short (101 +/- 11 min) compared with normal values but the clearance of glucose is identical to that in control subjects, and it peaks 132 +/- 7 min after glucose loading. The peak plasma insulin values were more than four times higher in patients than in normal subjects, and this may afford an explanation of rates of glucose clearance that are inappropriate for the short absorption period. The combination of glucose malabsorption and this clearance pattern could yield the hypoglycemia that may be observed in patients after gastric surgery.

  7. Teacher Interpretation of Test Scores and Feedback to Students in EFL Classrooms: A Comparison of Two Rating Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales have been used as a major assessment instrument to measure language performance on oral tasks. The present research concerned, under the same rating criteria, how far teachers interpreted students' speaking scores by using two different types of rating method, and how far students could benefit from the feedback of the description of…

  8. Interpretation of heart rate variability via detrended fluctuation analysis and αβ filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría, J. C.; Woolfson, M. S.; Crowe, J. A.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Croaker, G. D. H.; Vyas, H.

    2003-06-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), suitable for the analysis of nonstationary time series, has confirmed the existence of persistent long-range correlations in healthy heart rate variability data. In this paper, we present the incorporation of the αβ filter to DFA to determine patterns in the power-law behavior that can be found in these correlations. Well-known simulated scenarios and real data involving normal and pathological circumstances were used to evaluate this process. The results presented here suggest the existence of evolving patterns, not always following a uniform power-law behavior, that cannot be described by scaling exponents estimated using a linear procedure over two predefined ranges. Instead, the power law is observed to have a continuous variation with segment length. We also show that the study of these patterns, avoiding initial assumptions about the nature of the data, may confer advantages to DFA by revealing more clearly abnormal physiological conditions detected in congestive heart failure patients related to the existence of dominant characteristic scales.

  9. Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

  10. Elevated PEM (Phasic Electromyographic Metric) Rates Identify Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder Patients on Nights Without Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Rye, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity of the phasic electromyographic metric (PEM) to differentiate patients with a history suggestive of rapid eye movement behavior disorder (REMBD) on laboratory nights without overt dream-enactment behavior. Methods: PEM was quantified as the % of 2.5-sec intervals with phasic muscle activity of 100-msec duration with an amplitude of at least 4 times background activity in 11 patients and 31 elderly controls. Data were derived from both REM and NREM sleep from 5 muscle groups (mentalis, left/right anterior tibialis, left/right brachioradialis). Results: Relative to controls, REMBD patients had significantly higher levels of PEM activity in all recordings. The largest differences occurred during REM sleep for the mentalis and brachioradialis channels. Similar results were obtained by limiting quantification of PEM to the final REM period of the night and could be accomplished by individuals with no previous familiarity with polysomnography. Discussion: PEM may be a useful metric to characterize the REM related phasic muscle activity on patients with a history of REMBD, even when no overt dream-enactment behaviors are detected on a laboratory night. Citation: Bliwise DL; Rye DB. Elevated PEM (phasic electromyographic metric) rates identify rapid eye movement behavior disorder patients on nights without behavioral abnormalities. SLEEP 2008;31(6):853–857. PMID:18548830

  11. Interobserver reliability to interpret intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring: Does a standardized algorithm improve agreement among clinicians?

    PubMed

    Uccella, S; Cromi, A; Colombo, G F; Bogani, G; Casarin, J; Agosti, M; Ghezzi, F

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the accuracy in predicting intrapartum fetal acidaemia and the interobserver reproducibility of a mathematical algorithm for the interpretation of electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring throughout labour. Eight physicians (blinded to the clinical outcomes of the deliveries) evaluated four randomly selected intrapartum FHR tracings by common visual interpretation, trying to predict umbilical artery base excess at birth. They subsequently were asked to re-evaluate the tracings using a mathematical algorithm for FHR tracing interpretation. Common visual interpretation allowed a correct estimation of the umbilical artery base excess in 34.4% of cases, with a poor interobserver reproducibility (Kappa correlation coefficient = 0.24). After implementation of the algorithm, the proportion of correct estimates significantly increased to 90.6% (p < 0.001), with excellent inter-clinician agreement (κ: 0.85). To conclude, incorporation of a standardised algorithm reduces the interobserver variability and allows a better estimation of fetal acidaemia at birth. PMID:25254299

  12. The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine children’s comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., “The janitor untangled himself from the rope and the fireman in the elementary school did too after the accident.”) in which the ellipsis phrase (“did too”) had 2 interpretations: (a) strict (“untangled the janitor”) and (b) sloppy (“untangled the fireman”). We examined these sentences at a normal speech rate with an online cross-modal picture priming task (n = 14) and an offline sentence–picture matching task (n = 11). Both tasks were also given with slowed speech input (n = 17). Results Children showed priming for both the strict and sloppy interpretations at a normal speech rate but only for the strict interpretation with slowed input. Offline, children displayed an adultlike preference for the sloppy interpretation with normal-rate input but a divergent pattern with slowed speech. Conclusions Our results suggest that children and adults rely on a hybrid syntax-discourse model for the online comprehension and offline interpretation of VP ellipsis constructions. This model incorporates a temporally sensitive syntactic process of VP reconstruction (disrupted with slow input) and a temporally protracted discourse effect attributed to parallelism (preserved with slow input). PMID:22223886

  13. Optimizing Detection Rate and Characterization of Subtle Paroxysmal Neonatal Abnormal Facial Movements with Multi-Camera Video-Electroencephalogram Recordings.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesco; Pavlidis, Elena; Cattani, Luca; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-06-01

    Objectives We retrospectively analyze the diagnostic accuracy for paroxysmal abnormal facial movements, comparing one camera versus multi-camera approach. Background Polygraphic video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) recording is the current gold standard for brain monitoring in high-risk newborns, especially when neonatal seizures are suspected. One camera synchronized with the EEG is commonly used. Methods Since mid-June 2012, we have started using multiple cameras, one of which point toward newborns' faces. We evaluated vEEGs recorded in newborns in the study period between mid-June 2012 and the end of September 2014 and compared, for each recording, the diagnostic accuracies obtained with one-camera and multi-camera approaches. Results We recorded 147 vEEGs from 87 newborns and found 73 episodes of paroxysmal facial abnormal movements in 18 vEEGs of 11 newborns with the multi-camera approach. By using the single-camera approach, only 28.8% of these events were identified (21/73). Ten positive vEEGs with multicamera with 52 paroxysmal facial abnormal movements (52/73, 71.2%) would have been considered as negative with the single-camera approach. Conclusions The use of one additional facial camera can significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of vEEGs in the detection of paroxysmal abnormal facial movements in the newborns. PMID:27111027

  14. The rate of rise of corticotrophin releasing factor and endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, C D; Petruckevitch, A; Quartero, R; Carabelli, P; Poston, L; Kerkez, S; Campbell, E; Lowry, P J; Linton, E A

    1990-09-01

    Maternal plasma concentrations of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity (EDLI) were estimated in 80 normal and 88 abnormal pregnancies which were sampled sequentially from 24 weeks gestation to delivery. A slope was fitted for each woman's antenatal EDLI and CRF values, both of which rose significantly during gestation, and the mean of the slopes for the normal and abnormal groups for each value compared. There was no evidence of significant mean differences between groups for EDLI but there was evidence of a significant mean difference for CRF (P less than 0.05). After adjustment for other variables which may affect pregnancy outcome, the slopes for CRF were found not to be significantly related to outcome. PMID:2242370

  15. Slow isotope turnover rates and low discrimination values in the American alligator: implications for interpretation of ectotherm stable isotope data.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Heithaus, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a standard ecological tool for elucidating feeding relationships of organisms and determining food web structure and connectivity. There remain important questions concerning rates at which stable isotope values are incorporated into tissues (turnover rates) and the change in isotope value between a tissue and a food source (discrimination values). These gaps in our understanding necessitate experimental studies to adequately interpret field data. Tissue turnover rates and discrimination values vary among species and have been investigated in a broad array of taxa. However, little attention has been paid to ectothermic top predators in this regard. We quantified the turnover rates and discrimination values for three tissues (scutes, red blood cells, and plasma) in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Plasma turned over faster than scutes or red blood cells, but turnover rates of all three tissues were very slow in comparison to those in endothermic species. Alligator δ(15)N discrimination values were surprisingly low in comparison to those of other top predators and varied between experimental and control alligators. The variability of δ(15)N discrimination values highlights the difficulties in using δ(15)N to assign absolute and possibly even relative trophic levels in field studies. Our results suggest that interpreting stable isotope data based on parameter estimates from other species can be problematic and that large ectothermic tetrapod tissues may be characterized by unique stable isotope dynamics relative to species occupying lower trophic levels and endothermic tetrapods. PMID:23303328

  16. A re-interpretation of the rate of tension redevelopment (k(TR)) in active muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kawai, Masataka

    2013-12-01

    A slackening to zero tension by large length release (~20%) and a restretch of active muscle fibres cause a fall and a redevelopment in tension. According to the model of Brenner (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85(9):3265-3269, 1988), the rate constant of tension redevelopment (k TR) is the sum of attachment and detachment rate constants, hence is limited by the fast reaction. Here we propose a model in which, after restretch, cross-bridges cycle many times by stretching series elastic elements, hence k(TR) is limited by a slow reaction. To set up this model, we made an assumption that the stepping rate (v) decreases linearly with tension (F), which is consistent with the Fenn effect. The distance traveled by a cross-bridge stretches series elastic elements with stiffness σ. With these assumptions, we set up a first order differential equation, which results in an exponential time course with the rate constant k(TR) = ση(0)ν(0)(1 - λ)/F(1), where λ = ν(1)/ν(0), η = step size, the subscript 0 indicates unloaded condition, and the subscript 1 indicate isometric condition. We demonstrate that the ATP hydrolysis rate (=[myosin head]/ν(0)) is proportionate to k(TR) as the ambient temperature is changed, and that the published data fit to this relationship well if λ = 0.28. We conclude that k(TR) is limited by the cross-bridge turnover rate; hence it represents the rate constant of the slowest reaction of the cross-bridge cycle, i.e. the ADP isomerization step before ADP is released. PMID:24162314

  17. MERGERS IN {Lambda}CDM: UNCERTAINTIES IN THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MERGER RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Bundy, Kevin; Wetzel, Andrew; Ma, Chung-Pei; Croton, Darren; Khochfar, Sadegh; Hernquist, Lars; Genel, Shy; Van den Bosch, Frank; Somerville, Rachel S.; Keres, Dusan; Stewart, Kyle; Younger, Joshua D.

    2010-12-01

    Different theoretical methodologies lead to order-of-magnitude variations in predicted galaxy-galaxy merger rates. We examine how this arises and quantify the dominant uncertainties. Modeling of dark matter and galaxy inspiral/merger times contribute factor of {approx}2 uncertainties. Different estimates of the halo-halo merger rate, the subhalo 'destruction' rate, and the halo merger rate with some dynamical friction time delay for galaxy-galaxy mergers, agree to within this factor of {approx}2, provided proper care is taken to define mergers consistently. There are some caveats: if halo/subhalo masses are not appropriately defined the major-merger rate can be dramatically suppressed, and in models with 'orphan' galaxies and under-resolved subhalos the merger timescale can be severely over-estimated. The dominant differences in galaxy-galaxy merger rates between models owe to the treatment of the baryonic physics. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations without strong feedback and some older semi-analytic models (SAMs), with known discrepancies in mass functions, can be biased by large factors ({approx}5) in predicted merger rates. However, provided that models yield a reasonable match to the total galaxy mass function, the differences in properties of central galaxies are sufficiently small to alone contribute small (factor of {approx}1.5) additional systematics to merger rate predictions. But variations in the baryonic physics of satellite galaxies in models can also have a dramatic effect on merger rates. The well-known problem of satellite 'over-quenching' in most current SAMs-whereby SAM satellite populations are too efficiently stripped of their gas-could lead to order-of-magnitude under-estimates of merger rates for low-mass, gas-rich galaxies. Models in which the masses of satellites are fixed by observations (or SAMs adjusted to resolve this 'over-quenching') tend to predict higher merger rates, but with factor of {approx}2 uncertainties stemming from the

  18. Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Melanie J.; Smith, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    How ecological and morphological diversity accrues over geological time has been much debated by paleobiologists. Evidence from the fossil record suggests that many clades reach maximal diversity early in their evolutionary history, followed by a decline in evolutionary rates as ecological space fills or due to internal constraints. Here, we apply recently developed methods for estimating rates of morphological evolution during the post-Paleozoic history of a major invertebrate clade, the Echinoidea. Contrary to expectation, rates of evolution were lowest during the initial phase of diversification following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and increased over time. Furthermore, although several subclades show high initial rates and net decreases in rates of evolution, consistent with “early bursts” of morphological diversification, at more inclusive taxonomic levels, these bursts appear as episodic peaks. Peak rates coincided with major shifts in ecological morphology, primarily associated with innovations in feeding strategies. Despite having similar numbers of species in today’s oceans, regular echinoids have accrued far less morphological diversity than irregular echinoids due to lower intrinsic rates of morphological evolution and less morphological innovation, the latter indicative of constrained or bounded evolution. These results indicate that rates of evolution are extremely heterogenous through time and their interpretation depends on the temporal and taxonomic scale of analysis. PMID:25713369

  19. Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Melanie J.; Smith, Andrew B.

    2015-03-01

    How ecological and morphological diversity accrues over geological time has been much debated by paleobiologists. Evidence from the fossil record suggests that many clades reach maximal diversity early in their evolutionary history, followed by a decline in evolutionary rates as ecological space fills or due to internal constraints. Here, we apply recently developed methods for estimating rates of morphological evolution during the post-Paleozoic history of a major invertebrate clade, the Echinoidea. Contrary to expectation, rates of evolution were lowest during the initial phase of diversification following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and increased over time. Furthermore, although several subclades show high initial rates and net decreases in rates of evolution, consistent with "early bursts" of morphological diversification, at more inclusive taxonomic levels, these bursts appear as episodic peaks. Peak rates coincided with major shifts in ecological morphology, primarily associated with innovations in feeding strategies. Despite having similar numbers of species in today's oceans, regular echinoids have accrued far less morphological diversity than irregular echinoids due to lower intrinsic rates of morphological evolution and less morphological innovation, the latter indicative of constrained or bounded evolution. These results indicate that rates of evolution are extremely heterogenous through time and their interpretation depends on the temporal and taxonomic scale of analysis.

  20. Interpreting Quaternary uplift rates at the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, from uplifted marine terraces

    SciTech Connect

    Merritts, D. ); Bull, W.B. )

    1989-11-01

    Analysis of the altitudinal spacing of 14 flights of marine terraces indicates a spatial pattern of varying uplift rates that agrees with that determined from previously dated terraces for the past 3-81 ka, and temporal changes in uplift rates from <1 m/ka to 3-5 m/ka that may reflect response to changes in tectonic regime during passage of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). A possible mechanism for regional uplift is growth of a slab window south of the MTJ. The region of most rapid uplift is 25-43 km south of the MTJ, immediately south of the northern boundary of the slab window. The coastline is tilted upward to the south in the region directly above the southern edge of the subducted Gorda plate. At Point Delgada, 55 km south of the present MTJ, where the northern edge of the slab window passes {approximately}300 ka, uplift rates have been 1.2 m/ka for at least 330 ka. More than 1.4 m.y. after passage of the southern edge of the subducted slab, at the Mendocino coast, uplift rates have been less than 0.4 m/ka for at least 330 ka.

  1. A microphysical interpretation of rate- and state-dependent friction for fault gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, Matt J.; Carpenter, Brett M.; Marone, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of fault strength during the seismic cycle plays a key role in the mode of fault slip, nature of earthquake stress drop, and earthquake nucleation. Laboratory-based rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) laws can describe changes in fault strength during slip, but the connections between fault strength and the mechanisms that dictate the mode of failure, from aseismic creep to earthquake rupture, remain poorly understood. The empirical nature of RSF laws remains a drawback to their application in nature. Here we analyze an extensive data set of friction constitutive parameters with the goal of illuminating the microphysical processes controlling RSF. We document robust relationships between: (1) the initial value of sliding (or kinetic) friction, (2) RSF parameters, and (3) the time rates of frictional strengthening (aging). We derive a microphysical model based on asperity contact mechanics and show that these relationships are dictated by: (1) an activation energy that controls the rate of asperity growth by plastic creep, and (2) an inverse relationship between material hardness and the activation volume of plastic deformation. Collectively, our results illuminate the physics expressed by the RSF parameters, and which describe the absolute value of frictional strength and its dependence on time and slip rate. Moreover, we demonstrate that seismogenic fault behavior may be dictated by the interplay between grain properties and ambient conditions controlling the local shear strength of grain-scale asperity contacts.

  2. Validating the Interpretations of PISA and TIMSS Tasks: A Rating Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Scholastic tests regard cognitive abilities to be domain-specific competences. However, high correlations between competences indicate either high task similarity or a dependence on common factors. The present rating study examined the validity of 12 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and Third or Trends in International…

  3. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Time-Series Interpretations as Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a repeatable and efficient method of behavior assessment that is used to document teacher perceptions of student behavior in the classroom. Time-series data can be graphically plotted and visually analyzed to evaluate patterns of behavior or intervention effects. This study evaluated the decision accuracy of novice…

  4. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  5. Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jee-Hoon; Yu, Ok Hwan; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Won; Choy, Eun Jung

    2016-03-01

    The venerid clam (Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M. veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fissures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO2-enriched air at (400±25)×10-6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10-6 (high pCO2), or (1 200±28)×10-6 (extremely high pCO2), the atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals; two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were significantly decreased in the high and extremely high pCO2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high pCO2 conditions, the cultures exhibited significantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fissures; on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M. veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.

  6. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  7. Mechanistic QSAR models for interpreting degradation rates of sulfonamides in UV-photocatalysis systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Feng, Yi; Hu, Cui; Xiao, Xiaoyu; Yu, Daliang; Zou, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Photocatalysis is one of the most effective methods for treating antibiotic wastewater. Thus, it is of great significance to determine the relationship between degradation rates and structural characteristics of antibiotics in photocatalysis processes. In the present study, the photocatalytic degradation characteristics of 10 sulfonamides (SAs) were studied using two photocatalytic systems composed of nanophase titanium dioxide (nTiO2) plus ultraviolet (UV) and nTiO2/activated carbon fiber (ACF) plus UV. The results indicated that the largest apparent SA degradation rate constant (Kapp) is approximately 5 times as large as that of the smallest one. Based on the degradation mechanism and the partial least squares regression (PLS) method, optimum Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were developed for the two systems. Mechanistic models indicated that the degradation rule of SAs in the TiO2 systems strongly relates to their highest occupied molecular orbital (Ehomo), the maximum values of nucleophilic attack (f(+)x), and the minimum values of the most negative partial charge on a main-chain atom (q(C)min), whereas the maximum values of OH radical attack (f(0)x) and the apparent adsorption rate constant values (kad) are key factors affecting the degradation rule of SAs in the TiO2/ACF system. PMID:26070083

  8. Interpretation of high rate dust measurements with the Cassini dust detector CDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Sascha

    2008-03-01

    For two years the cosmic dust analyser (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has been exploring the dust environment of Saturn [Srama, R., Kempf, S., Moragas-Klostermeyer, G., Helfert, S., Ahrens, T. J., Altobelli, N., Auer, S., Beckmann, U., Bradley, J.G., Burton, M., Dikarev, V.V., Economou, T., Fechtig, H., Green, S.F., Grande, M., Havnes, O., Hillier, J.K., Horanyi, M., Igenbergs, E., Jessberger, E.K., Johnson, T.V., Krüger, H., Matt, G., McBride, N., Mocker, A., Lamy, P., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Lura, F., McDonnell, J.A.M., Möhlmann, D., Morfill, G.E., Postberg, F., Roy, M., Schwehm, G.H., Spahn, F., Svestka, J., Tschernjawski, V., Tuzzolino, A.J., Wäsch, R., Grün, E., 2006. In situ dust measurements in the inner Saturnian system. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 967-987]. One major goal of the CDA instruments is to investigate Saturn's enigmatic E ring - the largest known planetary ring of the solar system. The sophisticated main detector (dust analyser - DA) of CDA is rather slow when processing the impact data, and limits the detectable number of impacts to 60min-1 [Srama, R., Ahrens, T., Altobelli, N., Auer, S., Bradley, J., Burton, M., Dikarev, V., Economou, T., Fechtig, H., Görlich, M., Grande, M., Graps, A., Grün, E., Havnes, O., Helfert, S., Horányi, M., Igenbergs, E., Jeßberger, E., Johnson, T., Kempf, S., Krivov, A., Krüger, H., Mocker-Ahlreep, A., Moragas-Klostermeyer, G., Lamy, P., Landgraf, M., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Lura, F., McDonnel, J., Möhlmann, D., Morfill, G., Müller, M., Roy, M., Schäfer, G., Schlotzhauer, G., Schwehm, G., Spahn, F., Stübig, M., Svestka, J., Tschernjawski, V., Tuzzolino, A., Wäsch, R., Zook, H., 2004. The Cassini cosmic dust analyser. Space Sci. Rev. 114, 465-518]. However, measurements by the CDA high rate detector (HRD) imply that the DA impact rates in the inner core of the E ring exceed 1000min-1. Clearly, to investigate dust-rich environments with the DA requires knowledge about the instrument performance at

  9. Measurement and Interpretation of Crustal Deformation Rates Associated with Postglacial Rebound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, James L.

    1993-01-01

    This project involves obtaining GPS measurements in Scandinavia, and using the measurements to estimate the viscosity profile of the Earth's mantle and to correct tide-gauge measurements for the rebound effect. Below, we report on several aspects of this project. The DSGS was occupied in August 1993. This campaign also inaugurated SWEPOS, the Swedish permanent GPS network. Initial results are presented in Johansson et al., a copy of which is contained in Appendix A. An important technical advance we intend for this project is to use the full three dimensional site velocity information for inferring geophysical parameters. To this end, we have investigated using VLBI determined baseline length rates in North America to constraining proposed combinations of ice history and earth rheology, and presented this work in Mitrovica et al., a copy of which is contained in Appendix B.

  10. Variations in creep rate along the Hayward Fault, California, interpreted as changes in depth of creep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Variations ill surface creep rate along the Hayward fault are modeled as changes in locking depth using 3D boundary elements. Model creep is driven by screw dislocations at 12 km depth under the Hayward and other regional faults. Inferred depth to locking varies along strike from 4-12 km. (12 km implies no locking.) Our models require locked patches under the central Hayward fault, consistent with a M6.8 earthquake in 1868, but the geometry and extent of locking under the north and south ends depend critically on assumptions regarding continuity and creep behavior of the fault at its ends. For the northern onshore part of the fault, our models contain 1.4-1.7 times more stored moment than the model of Bu??rgmann et al. [2000]; 45-57% of this stored moment resides in creeping areas. It is important for seismic hazard estimation to know how much of this moment is released coseismically or as aseismic afterslip.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Clinician Ratings of Interpreter Mediated Visits in Underserved Primary Care Settings with Ad hoc, In-person Professional, and Video Conferencing Modes

    PubMed Central

    Nápoles, Anna M.; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Karliner, Leah S.; O’Brien, Helen; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2013-01-01

    Language interpretation ameliorates health disparities among underserved limited English-proficient patients, yet few studies have compared clinician satisfaction with these services. Self-administered clinician post-visit surveys compared the quality of interpretation and communication, visit satisfaction, degree of patient engagement, and cultural competence of visits using untrained people acting as interpreters (ad hoc), in-person professional, or video conferencing professional interpretation for 283 visits. Adjusting for clinician and patient characteristics, the quality of interpretation of in-person and video conferencing modes were rated similarly (OR=1.79; 95% CI 0.74, 4.33). The quality of in-person (OR=5.55; 95% CI 1.50, 20.51) and video conferencing (OR=3.10; 95% CI 1.16, 8.31) were rated higher than ad hoc interpretation. Self-assessed cultural competence was better for in-person versus video conferencing interpretation (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.11, 4.86). Video conferencing interpretation increases access without compromising quality, but cultural nuances may be better addressed by in-person interpreters. Professional interpretation is superior to ad hoc (OR=4.15; 95% CI 1.43, 12.09). PMID:20173271

  13. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  14. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  17. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  18. Metabolism of thyroxine-binding globulin in man. Abnormal rate of synthesis in inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency and excess.

    PubMed Central

    Refetoff, S; Fang, V S; Marshall, J S; Robin, N I

    1976-01-01

    increase in TBG D disproportionate to their level of serum TBG. These studies indicate that changes in TBG concentration in patients with X-chromosome-linked TBG abnormalities are due to alterations in its rate of synthesis. In other conditions, abnormalities of TBG degradation and/or rate of synthesis may be found. PMID:56342

  19. The role of variations in growth rate and sample collection on interpreting results of segmental analyses of hair.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Marc A; Montgomery, Madeline A; Brewer, Jason D

    2011-07-15

    Segmental analysis of hair for drugs, metabolites, and poisons has been widely reported in the scientific literature over the past two decades. Two fundamental assumptions in interpreting results of such analyses are (1) an average linear growth rate of head hair of 1cm/month and (2) that sample collections occur with the hair being cut directly next to the scalp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability associated with growth rate of human head hair, as well as the ability to uniformly collect hair next to the scalp. The results were used to determine how these factors affect the interpretation of results generated in segmental analysis of hair. A thorough literature review was conducted to assess the range of linear growth of human head hair from the vertex posterior and occipital regions. The results were compiled to establish the average (1.06cm/month), as well as the range of possible growth rates of head hair. The range was remarkable and suggests that conclusions based on the 1-cm/month growth rate could be significantly skewed. A separate study was undertaken to evaluate collection of hair next to the scalp. Fourteen individuals were provided oral instructions, as well as a written standard collection procedure for head hair. The experience levels among the collectors varied from novice to expert. Each individual collected hair from dolls with short- and long-hair. Immediately following each collection, the sampling area was evaluated to determine how close to the scalp the cuts were made, as well as the variability in the lengths of hair remaining at the sampled area. From our collection study, we determined that 0.8±0.1cm of hair was left on the scalp after cutting. When taking into account the amount of hair left on the scalp after collecting, the use of a growth rate of 1.06cm/month, and the assumption that it takes two weeks for newly formed hair in the follicle to reach the scalp, we find that the first 1-cm segment of hair typically

  20. Effect of short-term physical exercise on foetal heart rate and uterine activity in normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rauramo, I

    1987-01-01

    The response of a short-term submaximal bicycle ergometer test on foetal heart rate (FHR) and on uterine activity was studied in 61 pregnant women between pregnancy weeks 32 and 40. 28 of the women had uncomplicated pregnancies, 13 were hypertensive, 11 were diabetic, and 9 had intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. After exercise, FHR declined in healthy subjects in pregnancy weeks past 35, whereas no significant change was found in such subjects before week 35 of pregnancy. Analysis of variance revealed a difference of FHR between subjects with umcomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies in relation to time (p = 0.021). Exercise induced uterine contractions in hypertensive subjects. Foetal bradycardia was found in 2 healthy, in 2 pre-eclamptic, and in one cholestatic subject. In healthy pregnant women a non-reactive FHR with concomitant reduced FHR variability was found after exercise (P less than 0.01). The FHR variability of patients with pathologic pregnancies was less affected. These results suggest that, after a relatively strenuous short-term exercise, foetuses of mothers with uneventful pregnancies can be at risk of hypoxia in late pregnancy, but the clinical significance remains uncertain. PMID:3435001

  1. Rate of Gene Silencing at Duplicate Loci: A Theoretical Study and Interpretation of Data from Tetraploid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Hsiung

    1980-01-01

    A large-scale simulation has been conducted on the rate of gene loss at duplicate loci under irreversible mutation. It is found that tight linkage does not provide a strong sheltering effect, as thought by previous authors; indeed, the mean loss time for the case of tight linkage is of the same order of magnitude as that for no linkage, as long as Nu is not much larger than 1, where N is the effective population size and u the mutation rate. When Nu is 0.01 or less, the two loci behave almost as neutral loci, regardless of linkage, and the mean loss time is about only half the mean extinction time for a neutral allele under irreversible mutation. However, the former becomes two or more times larger than the latter when Nu ≥ 1.——In the simulation, the sojourn times in the frequency intervals (0, 0.01) and (0.99, 1) and the time for the frequency of the null allele to reach 0.99 at one of the two loci have also been recorded. The results show that the population is monomorphic for the normal allele most of the time if Nu ≤ 0.01, but polymorphic for the null and the normal alleles most of the time if Nu ≥ 0.1.——The distribution of the frequency of the null allele in an equilibrium tetraploid population has been studied analytically. The present results have been applied to interpret data from some fish groups that are of tetraploid origin, and a model for explaining the slow rate of gene loss in these fishes is proposed. PMID:7429144

  2. A Framework for Interpreting Type I Error Rates from a Product‐Term Model of Interaction Applied to Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Province, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adequate control of type I error rates will be necessary in the increasing genome‐wide search for interactive effects on complex traits. After observing unexpected variability in type I error rates from SNP‐by‐genome interaction scans, we sought to characterize this variability and test the ability of heteroskedasticity‐consistent standard errors to correct it. We performed 81 SNP‐by‐genome interaction scans using a product‐term model on quantitative traits in a sample of 1,053 unrelated European Americans from the NHLBI Family Heart Study, and additional scans on five simulated datasets. We found that the interaction‐term genomic inflation factor (lambda) showed inflation and deflation that varied with sample size and allele frequency; that similar lambda variation occurred in the absence of population substructure; and that lambda was strongly related to heteroskedasticity but not to minor non‐normality of phenotypes. Heteroskedasticity‐consistent standard errors narrowed the range of lambda, with HC3 outperforming HC0, but in individual scans tended to create new P‐value outliers related to sparse two‐locus genotype classes. We explain the lambda variation as a result of non‐independence of test statistics coupled with stochastic biases in test statistics due to a failure of the test to reach asymptotic properties. We propose that one way to interpret lambda is by comparison to an empirical distribution generated from data simulated under the null hypothesis and without population substructure. We further conclude that the interaction‐term lambda should not be used to adjust test statistics and that heteroskedasticity‐consistent standard errors come with limitations that may outweigh their benefits in this setting. PMID:26659945

  3. Abnormal regional myocardial deformation properties and increased aortic stiffness in normotensive patients with aortic coarctation despite successful correction: an ABPM, standard echocardiography and strain rate imaging study.

    PubMed

    di Salvo, Giovanni; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Verrengia, Marina; Rea, Alessandra; Santoro, Giuseppe; Gala, Simona; Castaldi, Biagio; D'Andrea, Antonello; Caso, Pio; Giovanna Russo, Maria; Calabró, Raffaele

    2007-09-01

    The long-term follow-up data subsequent to a successful repair of AoC (aortic coarctation) show that life expectancy remains reduced. Previous standard echocardiographic studies have demonstrated normal or increased systolic cardiac function in patients following successful repair of AoC. SR (strain rate) imaging is a new technique able to detect subclinical myocardial abnormalities. In the present study we investigated whether young patients (without hypertension, as assessed using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and an exercise test) following successful AoC repair already have abnormal myocardial deformation properties, and the relationship of the deformation properties with aortic stiffness. We studied 166 subjects, 83 AoC non-hypertensive patients (mean age 12+/-4 years) a number of years after successful repair of AoC and 83 age- and sex-matched subjects as controls. Peak systolic SR (1/s) for both regional longitudinal and radial function was assessed. The aortic stiffness index was calculated from the echocardiographically derived thoracic aortic diameters, and the measurement of blood pressure was obtained by cuff sphygmomanometry. The LV (left ventricular) ejection fraction was significantly increased in AoC patients, whereas regional longitudinal SRs were significantly reduced (-1.1+/-0.9 compared with -2+/-0.5, P<0.0001) in patients. The aortic stiffness index was significantly increased in AoC patients (12+/-9, P<0.0001). At multilinear regression analysis, age at repair (P=0.005; coefficient, -0.201; S.E.M., 0.027) and the aortic stiffness index (P=0.0029; coefficient, 0.334; S.E.M., 0.423) predicted longitudinal SR. Despite the presence of a successful repair for AoC, in the absence of hypertension, longitudinal deformation properties were significantly impaired. Moreover, the degree of longitudinal SR impairment was correlated with age at repair and aortic stiffness. Early repair can delay the onset of hypertension in postcoarctectomy patients

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  5. Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Parameters of Heart Rate Variability and Interictal Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities in Drug-naïve Patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Ozden; Cincin, Altug; Pehlivan, Aslihan; Midi, Ipek; Kepez, Alper; Agan, Kadriye

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Epilepsy is a disease known to occur with autonomous phenomenons. Earlier studies indicate decreased heart rate variability (HRV) during ictal and interictal periods among epilepsy patients. In this study, we aim to investigate cardiac rhythm abnormalities and HRV during interictal period between drug-naïve patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and healthy control group. Methods: Twenty-six patients with IGE and 26 healthy individuals included in the study. In order to eliminate any structural cardiac pathology, transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all subjects and time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were evaluated after 24-hour rhythm holter monitoring. Results: Between two groups, no significant difference was detected in terms of mean heart rate and maximum duration between the start of the Q waves and the end of the T waves (QT intervals). In the time domain analysis of HRV, no statically significant difference was detected for standard deviation of all R - R intervals and root-mean-square of successive differences between patient and control group (p = 0,070 and p = 0,104 respectively). In the frequency domain analysis of HRV, patients tended to display lower total power and very low frequency power than did healthy subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no major effect of the epilepsy on HRV in patients with IGE. It should be emphasized that, in this study, HRV was evaluated only in patients with IGE and that the results are not proper to be generalized for patients with partial seizures. PMID:27390676

  6. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  7. Hearing a Melody in Different Ways: Multistability of Metrical Interpretation, Reflected in Rate Limits of Sensorimotor Synchronization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repp, Bruno H.

    2007-01-01

    Music commonly induces the feeling of a regular beat (i.e., a metrical structure) in listeners. However, musicians can also intentionally impose a beat (i.e., a metrical interpretation) on a metrically ambiguous passage. The present study aimed to provide objective evidence for this little-studied mental ability. Participants were prompted with…

  8. Automated Identification of Abnormal Adult EEGs

    PubMed Central

    López, S.; Suarez, G.; Jungreis, D.; Obeid, I.; Picone, J.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of electroencephalograms (EEGs) is a process that is still dependent on the subjective analysis of the examiners. Though interrater agreement on critical events such as seizures is high, it is much lower on subtler events (e.g., when there are benign variants). The process used by an expert to interpret an EEG is quite subjective and hard to replicate by machine. The performance of machine learning technology is far from human performance. We have been developing an interpretation system, AutoEEG, with a goal of exceeding human performance on this task. In this work, we are focusing on one of the early decisions made in this process – whether an EEG is normal or abnormal. We explore two baseline classification algorithms: k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Random Forest Ensemble Learning (RF). A subset of the TUH EEG Corpus was used to evaluate performance. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. kNN achieved a 41.8% detection error rate while RF achieved an error rate of 31.7%. These error rates are significantly lower than those obtained by random guessing based on priors (49.5%). The majority of the errors were related to misclassification of normal EEGs. PMID:27195311

  9. Development and Interpretation of New Sediment Rating Curve Considering the Effect of Vegetation Cover for Asian Basins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration of a river can provide very important perspective on erosion or soil loss of one river basin ecosystem. The changes of land use and land cover, such as deforestation or afforestation, affect sediment yield process of a catchment through changing the hydrological cycle of the area. A sediment rating curve can describe the average relation between discharge and suspended sediment concentration for a certain location. However, the sediment load of a river is likely to be undersimulated from water discharge using least squares regression of log-transformed variables and the sediment rating curve does not consider temporal changes of vegetation cover. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can well be used to analyze the status of the vegetation cover well. Thus long time monthly NDVI data was used to detect vegetation change in the past 19 years in this study. Then monthly suspended sediment concentration and discharge from 1988 to 2006 in Laichau station were used to develop one new sediment rating curve and were validated in other Asian basins. The new sediment model can describe the relationship among sediment yield, streamflow, and vegetation cover, which can be the basis for soil conservation and sustainable ecosystem management. PMID:24453795

  10. Development and interpretation of new sediment rating curve considering the effect of vegetation cover for Asian basins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Sun, Wenchao; Ning, Shaowei

    2013-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration of a river can provide very important perspective on erosion or soil loss of one river basin ecosystem. The changes of land use and land cover, such as deforestation or afforestation, affect sediment yield process of a catchment through changing the hydrological cycle of the area. A sediment rating curve can describe the average relation between discharge and suspended sediment concentration for a certain location. However, the sediment load of a river is likely to be undersimulated from water discharge using least squares regression of log-transformed variables and the sediment rating curve does not consider temporal changes of vegetation cover. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can well be used to analyze the status of the vegetation cover well. Thus long time monthly NDVI data was used to detect vegetation change in the past 19 years in this study. Then monthly suspended sediment concentration and discharge from 1988 to 2006 in Laichau station were used to develop one new sediment rating curve and were validated in other Asian basins. The new sediment model can describe the relationship among sediment yield, streamflow, and vegetation cover, which can be the basis for soil conservation and sustainable ecosystem management. PMID:24453795

  11. Fault slip-rate gradients and distributed deformation in the central Mojave Desert, California, interpreted from balanced cross-sections and ALSM topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of strike-slip and shortening across the central Mojave Desert illuminates how discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates in this region may arise. Geologic studies show at most 6.2 ± 1.9 mm/yr of dextral slip distributed across six strike-slip faults. Geodetic block mocels and present SCEC Community Fault Model (CFM) configurations link faults across the central Mojave Desert and predict higher displacement rates than permitted by geologic data. However, numerous faults in the Mojave Desert terminate into a region of widespread, un-quantified shortening around the latitude of Barstow, while only the Calico-Blackwater fault displays a clear link. Despite this link, the Calico-Blackwater fault loses ~1 mm/yr of slip and >3 km of total displacement across the central Mojave Desert. How this displacement gradient is accomplished remains unclear. One potential mechanism is the transfer of deformation to the Harper Lake fault, located to the west of the Calico-Blackwater fault. To investigate this transfer, we present new balanced cross-sectional interpretations across the central Mojave Desert. These sections show linkages between the Calico, Blackwater, and Harper Lake faults through a series of north-dipping thrust ramps. This interpretation also severs connections across the central Mojave Desert between the Harper Lake and Camp Rock faults. To this cross-section interpretation we add new mapping of high-resolution ALSM topography along the northern Harper Lake fault that shows evidence for the transfer of dextral slip into distributed deformation. Together these findings show that fault slip and slip rates are not constant along strike, and that transfer of discrete fault slip into distributed deformation of the surrounding crust can be a significant sink of displacement in areas of widely dispersed, disconnected faults, such as occurs in the Eastern California Shear Zone.

  12. A microphysical interpretation of the rate-and-state friction direct effect: implications for the seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ende, Martijn; Niemeijer, André; Spiers, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    For many years, empirical rate-and-state friction laws have been successfully applied to describe the transient frictional behaviour of fault zones, as observed in laboratory experiments and in nature. However, the rate-and-state friction parameters and equations are still poorly understood in terms of the underlying processes that operate at a micro-scale. In addition, there exist large discrepancies between lab-derived values and estimated values for natural fault zones. Because of these discrepancies, extrapolation of the frictional behaviour from sample-scale to the spatial and temporal scales of natural faults is non-trivial. Most notably, there is only a small theoretical basis for the near-instantaneous increase in friction after a sudden increase in sliding velocity (known as the direct effect). Marone et al. (1990) observed a positive relationship between the direct effect and dilatation in quartz gouges. However, the magnitude of the dilatation was significantly higher than expected based on the change in friction, which they explained by non-coaxial dilatation. In more recent years, Beeler et al. (2007) used a normalisation scheme to show that in the case of phyllosilicates, the magnitude of the direct effect is comparable to the stress required for dislocation glide. However, dislocation glide does not explain a-values for "hard" minerals such as quartz and calcite, especially when fluid-rock interactions are rapid. To address these issues, room temperature velocity stepping experiments have been conducted on granular calcite, and granular rock salt as an analogue for quartz under hydrothermal conditions. These experiments clearly demonstrate that the magnitude of the direct effect is much larger in gouges where pressure solution rates are high and deformation is distributed. A large contribution of dilatation to the magnitude of the direct effect becomes apparent in these gouges. In contrast, calcite gouges in which pressure solution is slow, show a

  13. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  14. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, T. William

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides) exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1) to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3) are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides). Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride). PMID:26006228

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  16. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  18. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Blum, A.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Anderson, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in element and mineral concentrations in regolith profiles in a chronosequence developed on marine terraces along coastal California are interpreted in terms of chemical weathering rates and processes. In regoliths up to 15 m deep and 226 kyrs old, quartz-normalized mass transfer coefficients indicate non-stoichiometric preferential release of Sr > Ca > Na from plagioclase along with lesser amounts of K, Rb and Ba derived from K-feldspar. Smectite weathering results in the loss of Mg and concurrent incorporation of Al and Fe into secondary kaolinite and Fe-oxides in shallow argillic horizons. Elemental losses from weathering of the Santa Cruz terraces fall within the range of those for other marine terraces along the Pacific Coast of North America. Residual amounts of plagioclase and K-feldspar decrease with terrace depth and increasing age. The gradient of the weathering profile bs is defined by the ratio of the weathering rate, R to the velocity at which the profile penetrates into the protolith. A spreadsheet calculator further refines profile geometries, demonstrating that the non-linear regions at low residual feldspar concentrations at shallow depth are dominated by exponential changes in mineral surface-to-volume ratios and at high residual feldspar concentrations, at greater depth, by the approach to thermodynamic saturation. These parameters are of secondary importance to the fluid flux qh, which in thermodynamically saturated pore water, controls the weathering velocity and mineral losses from the profiles. Long-term fluid fluxes required to reproduce the feldspar weathering profiles are in agreement with contemporary values based on solute Cl balances (qh = 0.025-0.17 m yr-1). During saturation-controlled and solute-limited weathering, the greater loss of plagioclase relative to K-feldspar is dependent on the large difference in their respective solubilities instead of the small difference between their respective

  19. Women's interpretation of cervical smear test results.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2004-06-01

    Screening for cervical cancer using the Papanicolaou smear test has been available in England since the 1960s, yet very little is known about how women interpret their test results. This questionnaire study required women to explain, in their own words, the meaning of normal and abnormal test results. It was discovered that the use of the word cell as a description of findings was extremely common, and that a proportion of subjects equated abnormal results with technical inadequacy. The frequency of circularity in the interpretations, i.e. interpreting 'normal' as 'not abnormal' and vice versa, was striking. Contrary to previous research, we find that, whilst many women interpret normal results as indicating the current absence of cancer, few appear to believe that future cancer is thereby definitively ruled out. By the same token, only a very small minority interpret abnormal results as definitive of cancer. PMID:15165270

  20. THE EFFECT OF POPULATION-WIDE MASS-TO-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS ON THE INTERPRETATION OF KEPLER AND HARPS SUPER-EARTH OCCURRENCE RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfgang, Angie; Laughlin, Gregory

    2012-05-10

    The ongoing High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Search (HARPS) has found that 30%-50% of G and K dwarfs in the solar neighborhood host planets with M{sub pl} {approx}< M{sub Nep} in orbits of P {<=} 50 days. At first glance, this high overall occurrence rate seems at best to be marginally consistent with the planet frequency measured during Q0-Q2 of the Kepler mission, whose 1235 detected planetary candidates naively imply that {approx}15% of main-sequence dwarfs harbor a short-period planet with R{sub pl} < 4 R{sub Circled-Plus }. A rigorous comparison between the two surveys is difficult, however, as they observe different stellar populations, measure different planetary physical properties, and are subject to radically different sampling plans. In this article, we report the results of a Monte Carlo study which seeks to partially overcome this apparent discrepancy by identifying plausible planetary population distributions which can jointly conform to the results of the two surveys. We find that, given the HARPS occurrence rate, either a population subject to a mass-density relationship extrapolated from our solar system or a population concurrently consisting of dense silicate-iron planets and low-density gaseous worlds can produce total numbers of planet candidates consistent with those actually detected by Kepler. However, these two mass-to-radius relationships (M-Rs) resolve the apparent occurrence rate discrepancy with different mass and period distributions, enabling future observations to rule out M-Rs that do not fully describe the observed planet population in a global sense. Extracting information of this nature from the transit-radial-velocity comparison has significant implications for the interpretation of planet occurrence rates: if a multi-valued M-R, which allows planets of similar mass to have significantly different radii, emerges from observational data, then multiple formation mechanisms are likely at work. In this event, HARPS may be

  1. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  2. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  3. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  5. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  6. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  7. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Sonography in Hypotension and Cardiac Arrest (SHoC): Rates of Abnormal Findings in Undifferentiated Hypotension and During Cardiac Arrest as a Basis for Consensus on a Hierarchical Point of Care Ultrasound Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Milne, James; Lewis, David; Fraser, Jacqueline; Diegelmann, Laura; Olszynski, Paul; Stander, Melanie; Lamprecht, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH and ACES) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. PoCUS also provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We wished to report disease incidence as a basis to develop a hierarchical approach to PoCUS in hypotension and during cardiac arrest. Methods We summarized the recorded incidence of PoCUS findings from the initial cohort during the interim analysis of two prospective studies. We propose that this will form the basis for developing a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data to obtain the input of a panel of international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM). The modified Delphi tool will be developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients as well as into cardiac arrest algorithms. Results Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). During cardiac arrest there were no pericardial effusions, however abnormalities of ventricular contraction (45%) and valvular motion (39%) were common among the 43 patients included. Conclusions A prospectively collected disease incidence-based hierarchy of scanning can be developed based on the reported findings. This will inform an international consensus

  9. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  10. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  11. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  15. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  16. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. PMID:26842972

  17. Congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S

    1992-11-01

    This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy. PMID:1439018

  18. Standardization of infrared breast thermogram acquisition protocols and abnormality analysis of breast thermograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Das, Kakali; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Majumdar, Gautam

    2016-05-01

    The non-invasive, painless, radiation-free and cost-effective infrared breast thermography (IBT) makes a significant contribution to improving the survival rate of breast cancer patients by early detecting the disease. This paper presents a set of standard breast thermogram acquisition protocols to improve the potentiality and accuracy of infrared breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection. By maintaining all these protocols, an infrared breast thermogram acquisition setup has been established at the Regional Cancer Centre (RCC) of Government Medical College (AGMC), Tripura, India. The acquisition of breast thermogram is followed by the breast thermogram interpretation, for identifying the presence of any abnormality. However, due to the presence of complex vascular patterns, accurate interpretation of breast thermogram is a very challenging task. The bilateral symmetry of the thermal patterns in each breast thermogram is quantitatively computed by statistical feature analysis. A series of statistical features are extracted from a set of 20 thermograms of both healthy and unhealthy subjects. Finally, the extracted features are analyzed for breast abnormality detection. The key contributions made by this paper can be highlighted as -- a) the designing of a standard protocol suite for accurate acquisition of breast thermograms, b) creation of a new breast thermogram dataset by maintaining the protocol suite, and c) statistical analysis of the thermograms for abnormality detection. By doing so, this proposed work can minimize the rate of false findings in breast thermograms and thus, it will increase the utilization potentiality of breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection.

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  20. Interpretation of orbital scale variability in mid-latitude speleothem δ18O: Significance of growth rate controlled kinetic fractionation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather; Mendez-Vicente, Ana; Gonzalez-Lemos, Saul; Moreno, Ana; Cacho, Isabel; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    Oxygen isotopes have been the most widely used climate indicator in stalagmites, applied to reconstruct past changes in rainfall δ18O and cave temperature. However, the δ18O signal in speleothems may also be influenced by variable kinetic fractionation effects, here conceived broadly as fractionation effects not arising from temperature variation. The regional reproducibility of speleothem δ18O signals has been proposed as a way to distinguish the δ18O variations arising directly from changes rainfall δ18O and cave temperature, from variations due to kinetic effects which may nonetheless be influenced by climate. Here, we compare isotopic records from 5 coeval stalagmites from two proximal caves in NW Spain covering the interval 140 to 70 ka, which experienced the same primary variations in temperature and rainfall δ18O, but exhibit a large range in growth rates and temporal trends in growth rate. Stalagmites growing at faster rates near 50 μm/yr have oxygen isotopic ratios over 1‰ more negative than coeval stalagmites with very slow (5 μm/yr) growth rates. Because growth rate variations also occur over time within any given stalagmite, the measured oxygen isotopic time series for a given stalagmite includes both climatic and kinetic components. Removal of the kinetic component of variation in each stalagmite, based on the dependence of the kinetic component on growth rate, is effective at distilling a common temporal evolution of among the oxygen isotopic records of the multiple stalagmites. However, this approach is limited by the quality of the age model. For time periods characterized by very slow growth and long durations between dates, the presence of crypto-hiatus may result in average growth rates which underestimate the instantaneous speleothem deposition rates and which therefore underestimate the magnitude of kinetic effects. The stacked growth rate-corrected speleothem δ18O is influenced by orbital scale variation in the cave temperature and

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  2. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  3. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  4. Interpreting Changes over Time in High School Average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark Attainment Rates. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (9)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Education officials and journalists frequently track changes over time in the average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark attainment rates of individual high schools. Using standard statistical methods, I examined how often changes in these statistics are unambiguously positive or negative, rather…

  5. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in ancient flood deposits from the Coombs Hills, northern Dry Valleys, East Antarctica: interpreting exposure ages and erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerison, H. R.; Phillips, W. M.; Stuart, F. M.; Sugden, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    In situ produced cosmogenic 3He analyses provide independent support for the model of a stable, hyper-arid polar climate persisting in East Antarctica since the mid-Miocene and provide quantitative constraints on long-term rates of erosion within the Dry Valleys. In the Coombs Hills area, a series of cobble-size boulders form mega-ripples with wavelengths of approximately 50 m. Their topographic position and association with features characteristic of scabland, such as stripped, corrugated bedrock surfaces, indicate the boulders were deposited by subglacial floodwaters. Such outburst flooding could only have occurred during overriding of the northern Dry Valleys by a greatly expanded East Antarctic ice sheet. Timing of the overriding episode has been previously assigned to 14.8 to 13.6 Ma by correlation with volcanic ash deposits dated by 40Ar/39Ar in the Asgard Range of the Dry Valleys. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in clinopyroxene from Ferrar dolerite boulders are consistent with 8.6 to 10.4 Ma exposure, calculated using scaling factors appropriate for Antarctica and assuming zero erosion. These are among the oldest surface exposure dates yet measured on Earth, but are not however consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar chronology used to define the age of the landscape due to unconstrained levels of erosion. Erosion rates of 0.03-0.06 m Ma-1 are necessary to have produced the measured boulder exposure age if they were deposited at 14.8 Ma. These are less than half the steady-state erosion rate derived from cosmogenic 3He in the nearby bedrock surfaces (0.17 m Ma-1) and testify to the extreme stability of the landscape.

  9. The effect of abnormal cell proportion on specimen classifier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; White, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results obtained from a cell classifier which is confronted with an abnormal/normal cell ratio which is different from the ratio assumed in the calibration of the classifier. False negative and false positive error rates are determined in advance for classifier operation, along with the necessary sample size in order to validate the predicted distributions. Changes are demonstrated to happen only regarding the false negative rate, where reductions in the abnormal cell rate below the expected rates would cause totally unreliable data. Substantial overproduction of abnormal cells would be quickly noticeable, while production rates beyond, but close to, the expected rates would only require more extensive sampling. Classifier systems for 10% proportions of abnormal cells are concluded to be possible, but difficulties are present with much lower rates

  10. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  11. Interpreting human behavior from depositional rates and combustion features through the study of sedimentary microfacies at site Pinnacle Point 5-6, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Brown, Kyle S; Fisher, Erich C; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marean, Curtis W

    2015-08-01

    Using fine and coarse resolution geoarchaeological studies at the Middle Stone Age site of PP5-6 at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay, South Africa, we discovered different patterns of anthropogenic input and changes in behavior through time. Through the microfacies approach, we documented the various geogenic and anthropogenic processes that formed the deposits of the site. By deciphering large scale rate differences in the production of these microfacies we estimated anthropogenic input rates and therefore gained understanding of occupational duration and intensity. The PP5-6 sediments document occupations characterized by small groups and short visits during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. This part of the sequence is characterized by numerous single (and mostly intact) hearth structures in a roofspall-rich matrix. During this time the sea was very close to the site and the people were focused on exploiting the rocky shores. With the advent of the glacial conditions of MIS4, the occupation of the site became much more intense. The occurrence of thick palimpsests of burnt remains, sometimes disturbed by small-scale sedimentary gravity processes, supports this conclusion. As sea level dropped and the coastline retreated, the geogenic input shifted to predominately aeolian sediments, implying an exposed shelf probably associated with a rich but more distant coastal environment. The occupants of PP5-6 turned their preference to silcrete as a raw material and they began to make microlithic stone tools. Since sites dating to MIS4 are abundant in the Cape, we suggest that populations during MIS4 responded to glacial conditions with either demographic stability or growth as well as technological change. PMID:26024567

  12. Characteristics, Malignancy Rate, and Follow-up of BI-RADS Category 3 Lesions Identified at Breast MR Imaging: Implications for MR Image Interpretation and Management.

    PubMed

    Chikarmane, Sona A; Birdwell, Robyn L; Poole, Patricia S; Sippo, Dorothy A; Giess, Catherine S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To (a) evaluate the frequency of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 assessment in screening and diagnostic breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, (b) review findings considered indicative of BI-RADS category 3, and (c) determine outcomes of BI-RADS category 3 lesions, including upgrades, downgrades, and malignancy rates. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors retrospectively reviewed the breast MR imaging database (2009-2011) to identify breast MR images classified as showing BI-RADS category 3 lesions. There were 9216 BI-RADS assessments in 5778 examinations (3360 women). Of the 9216 assessments, 567 (6%) in 483 women (average age, 47.2 years; median age, 47.0 years) were assigned BI-RADS category 3. In women with more than one BI-RADS category 3 lesion, the first lesion reported in the impression was used for data analysis. Outcomes data were available for 435 of the 483 women (90.1%). These women comprised the study cohort. Medical records from January 1, 2009, to May 31, 2015, were reviewed to obtain demographic characteristics and outcomes. χ(2) statistics and 95% exact confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Results MR imaging was performed for high-risk screening in 240 of the 435 patients (55.2%) and for diagnostic purposes in 195 (44.8%). Findings included mass (n = 125, 28.7%), focus (n = 111, 25.5%), nonmass enhancement (n = 80, 18.3%), moderate or marked background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) (n = 91, 20.9%), posttreatment changes (n = 16, 3.8%), and other findings (n = 12, 2.8%). Outcomes were as follows: 339 of the 435 patients (78%) did not have evidence of malignancy at more than 24 months, 28 (6.4%) underwent mastectomy (all benign), and 68 (15.6%) had lesion upgrades, with 11 cancers (2.5%). All 11 cancers were diagnosed in women with a genetic mutation or a personal history of breast cancer. No cancer was

  13. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  14. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  15. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  17. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... to the miner by MSHA in accordance with section 203 of the act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  18. Faculty Ratings: Procedures for Interpreting Student Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingles, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    The author contends that student evaluations of faculty should be adjusted before use in tenure, salary, and promotion decisions to eliminate irrelevant course and teacher attributes which color students' opinions and confound analysis. To eliminate possible bias, a multiple regression analysis procedure for the adjustment of student evaluations…

  19. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  2. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  3. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  4. The Clinician's "World of Action" as an Approach to Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibace, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description of an undergraduate abnormal psychology course developed from a theory of instruction and active student participation, the theoretical basis for the course, student course evaluation, and an interpretation of the students' performances. (Author/CK)

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. Prevention of congenital abnormalities by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation.

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, A E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation on neural tube defects and other congenital abnormality entities. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial of supplementation with multivitamins and trace elements. SETTING--Hungarian family planning programme. SUBJECTS--4156 pregnancies with known outcome and 3713 infants evaluated in the eighth month of life. INTERVENTIONS--A single tablet of a multivitamin including 0.8 mg of folic acid or trace elements supplement daily for at least one month before conception and at least two months after conception. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of major and mild congenital abnormalities. RESULTS--The rate of all major congenital abnormalities was significantly lower in the group given vitamins than in the group given trace elements and this difference cannot be explained totally by the significant reduction of neural tube defects. The rate of major congenital abnormalities other than neural tube defects and genetic syndromes was 9.0/1000 in pregnancies with known outcome in the vitamin group and 16.6/1000 in the trace element group; relative risk 1.85 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 3.38); difference, 7.6/1000. The rate of all major congenital abnormalities other than neural tube defects and genetic syndromes diagnosed up to the eighth month of life was 14.7/1000 informative pregnancies in the vitamin group and 28.3/1000 in the trace element group; relative risk 1.95 (1.23 to 3.09); difference, 13.6/1000. The rate of some congenital abnormalities was lower in the vitamin group than in the trace element group but the differences for each group of abnormalities were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--Periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce not only the rate of neural tube defects but also the rate of other major non-genetic syndromatic congenital abnormalities. Further studies are needed to differentiate the chance effect and vitamin dependent effect. PMID:8324432

  7. Man Versus Machine Part 2: Comparison of Radiologists' Interpretations and NeuroQuant Measures of Brain Asymmetry and Progressive Atrophy in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; DeSmit, Megan E; Seabaugh, Jan M; Havranek, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    This study is an expanded version of an earlier study, which compared NeuroQuant measures of MRI brain volume with the radiologist's traditional approach in outpatients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. NeuroQuant volumetric analyses were compared with the radiologists' interpretations. NeuroQuant found significantly higher rates of atrophy (50.0%), abnormal asymmetry (83.3%), and progressive atrophy (70.0%) than the radiologists (12.5%, 0% and 0%, respectively). Overall, NeuroQuant was more sensitive for detecting at least one sign of atrophy, abnormal asymmetry, or progressive atrophy (95.8%) than the traditional radiologist's approach (12.5%). PMID:25923853

  8. Identifying regional cardiac abnormalities from myocardial strains using nontracking-based strain estimation and spatio-temporal tensor analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhen; Liu, Qingshan; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Axel, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Myocardial strain is a critical indicator of many cardiac diseases and dysfunctions. The goal of this paper is to extract and use the myocardial strain pattern from tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify and localize regional abnormal cardiac function in human subjects. In order to extract the myocardial strains from the tagged images, we developed a novel nontracking-based strain estimation method for tagged MRI. This method is based on the direct extraction of tag deformation, and therefore avoids some limitations of conventional displacement or tracking-based strain estimators. Based on the extracted spatio-temporal strain patterns, we have also developed a novel tensor-based classification framework that better conserves the spatio-temporal structure of the myocardial strain pattern than conventional vector-based classification algorithms. In addition, the tensor-based projection function keeps more of the information of the original feature space, so that abnormal tensors in the subspace can be back-projected to reveal the regional cardiac abnormality in a more physically meaningful way. We have tested our novel methods on 41 human image sequences, and achieved a classification rate of 87.80%. The regional abnormalities recovered from our algorithm agree well with the patient's pathology and clinical image interpretation, and provide a promising avenue for regional cardiac function analysis. PMID:21606022

  9. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  10. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  11. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  12. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  13. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  14. Using medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dionne; Bowen, Juan; DeJesus, Ramona; Maldonado, Alejandro; Jiwa, Fatima

    2010-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that appropriate use of interpreters in clinical encounters improves outcomes and decreases adverse events. This article reviews both the medical reasons for working with trained medical interpreters and the related laws, and offers practical tips for working effectively with interpreters. PMID:20481167

  15. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  16. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  17. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  18. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  19. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  20. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  1. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  2. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  3. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  4. Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age. PMID:19663038

  5. Response monitoring, repetitive behaviour and anterior cingulate abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and function during response monitoring were associated with repetitive behaviour in ASD. We compared ACC activation to correct and erroneous antisaccades using rapid presentation event-related functional MRI in 14 control and ten ASD participants. Because response monitoring is the product of coordinated activity in ACC networks, we also examined the microstructural integrity of the white matter (WM) underlying this brain region using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) in 12 control and 12 adult ASD participants. ACC activation and FA were examined in relation to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ratings of restricted and repetitive behaviour. Relative to controls, ASD participants: (i) made more antisaccade errors and responded more quickly on correct trials; (ii) showed reduced discrimination between error and correct responses in rostral ACC (rACC), which was primarily due to (iii) abnormally increased activation on correct trials and (iv) showed reduced FA in WM underlying ACC. Finally, in ASD (v) increased activation on correct trials and reduced FA in rACC WM were related to higher ratings of repetitive behaviour. These findings demonstrate functional and structural abnormalities of the ACC in ASD that may contribute to repetitive behaviour. rACC activity following errors is thought to reflect affective appraisal of the error. Thus, the hyperactive rACC response to correct trials can be interpreted as a misleading affective signal that something is awry, which may trigger repetitive attempts at correction

  6. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Neep, Michael J; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M

    2014-06-15

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted.

  7. Ability of chest radiography to predict widespread scintigraphic ventilation abnormalities in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Ellis, K.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The false negative rate of ventilation-perfusion (V-P) scintigraphy for PE increases in the presence of widespread obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) because diffuse V abnormalities conceal potential V-P mismatches. To determine whether this situation could be predicted accurately by a pre-scintigraphy chest x-ray (CXR), a double-blind evaluation of 55 CXRs and V-P scans in 53 patients (pts) was performed. Multiview Kr-81m (Kr) scans were done in 38 cases and pre-perfusion Xe-133 (Xe) studies including washout in 17. All CXRs were obtained within 24 hrs of the scans and none showed infiltrates that would otherwise render the V-P scan nondiagnostic (NDX). All V-P scans showing V abnormalities in greater than or equal to67% of the lung fields were considered NDX, and those showing V abnormalities in 50-67% of the lungs were considered ''borderline'' for interpretation. CXRs were classified as showing diffuse OPD, focal OPD, or as no evidence for OPD. All V and all P scans were abnormal; 7 cases were read as high probability for PE, 29 as low probability and the remainder as NDX. Eleven of 13 (85%) pts with diffuse OPD by CXR had NDX scans (8/9 Kr, 3/4 Xe) and two were considered borderline. However, none of 10 pts with focal OPD by CXR had NDX scans and only 2 were considered borderline. The CXR showed no OPD in 32 cases, but 8 (25%) had enough V abnormalities to be classified NDX (2 of 21 Kr scans, 6 0f 11 Xe scans) and 2 others (both Kr scans) were considered borderline. The findings confirm that V scintigraphy with either Kr or Xe is more sensitive than the CXR in detecting airways disease, but indicate that V-P scintigraphy is likely to be NDX for PE in pts whose CXRs demonstrate diffuse OPD.

  8. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  9. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  10. Centralised interpretation of electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, P W; Watts, M P; Lawrie, T D; Walker, R S

    1977-01-01

    A system was devised so that a peripheral hospital could transmit electrocardiograms (ECGs) to a central computer for interpretation. The link that transmits both ECGs and reports is provided by the telephone network. Initial results showed that telephone transmission did not significantly affect the accuracy of the ECG interpretation. The centralised computer programme could be much more widely used to provide ECG interpretations. A telephone link would not be justified in health centres, where the demand for ECGs is fairly small, but ECGs recorded at a health centre can be sent to the computer for interpretation and returned the next day. The most cost-effective method of providing computer interpretation for several health centres in a large city would be to have a portable electrocardiograph and transmission facilities, which could be moved from centre to centre. PMID:319866

  11. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  12. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    PubMed

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores. PMID:25643047

  13. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  14. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  15. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  16. Physiological consequences of abnormal connectivity in a developmental epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Mouhsin M.; Vernet, Marine; Klooster, Debby; Chu, Catherine J.; Boric, Katica; Barnard, Mollie E.; Romatoski, Kelsey; Westover, M. Brandon; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Chang, Bernard S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many forms of epilepsy are associated with aberrant neuronal connections, but the relationship between such pathological connectivity and the underlying physiological predisposition to seizures is unclear. We sought to characterize the cortical excitability profile of a developmental form of epilepsy known to have structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. Methods We employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous EEG recording in eight patients with epilepsy from periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and matched healthy controls. We used connectivity imaging findings to guide TMS targeting and compared the evoked responses to single-pulse stimulation from different cortical regions. Results Heterotopia patients with active epilepsy demonstrated a relatively augmented late cortical response that was greater than that of matched controls. This abnormality was specific to cortical regions with connectivity to subcortical heterotopic gray matter. Topographic mapping of the late response differences showed distributed cortical networks that were not limited to the stimulation site, and source analysis in one subject revealed that the generator of abnormal TMS-evoked activity overlapped with the spike and seizure onset zone. Interpretation Our findings indicate that patients with epilepsy from gray matter heterotopia have altered cortical physiology consistent with hyperexcitability, and that this abnormality is specifically linked to the presence of aberrant connectivity. These results support the idea that TMS-EEG could be a useful biomarker in epilepsy in gray matter heterotopia, expand our understanding of circuit mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and have potential implications for therapeutic neuromodulation in similar epileptic conditions associated with deep lesions. PMID:25858773

  17. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  18. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  19. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  20. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  1. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  2. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEXICAN AMERICANS: CORRELATIONS WITH DIABETES, OBESITY, AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Queen, Saulette R.; Smulevitz, Beverly; Rentfro, Anne R.; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Kim, Hyunggun; McPherson, David D.; Hanis, Craig L.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Laing, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. RESULTS Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population. PMID:23515880

  3. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  4. Two interpretations of thin-shell instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-07-01

    For O (4 ) -symmetric instantons, there are two complementary interpretations for their analytic continuations. One is the nothing-to-something interpretation, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are disconnected by Euclidean manifolds. The other is the something-to-something interpretation, introduced by Brown and Weinberg, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by the Euclidean manifold. These interpretations have their own pros and cons and hence they are complementary. In this paper, we consider analytic continuations of thin-shell instantons that have less symmetry, i.e., the spherical symmetry. When we consider the Farhi-Guth-Guven/Fischler-Morgan-Polchinski tunneling, the something-to-something interpretation has been used in the usual literature. On the other hand, we can apply the nothing-to-something interpretation with some limited conditions. We argue that for both interpretations, we can give the consistent decay rate. As we apply and interpret what follows the nothing-to-something interpretation, a stationary black hole can emit an expanding shell that results in a spacetime without a singularity or event horizon.

  5. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  6. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  7. Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS), identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83). There was a significant difference between genders (p < 0.001) and there was no difference in age groups. Mucosal thickening was the most prevalent abnormality (66%), followed by retention cysts (10.1%) and opacification (7.8%). No association was observed between the proximity of periapical lesions and the presence and type of inflammatory abnormalities (p = 0.124). Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images. PMID:22883529

  8. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290-400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area.

  9. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1985-02-19

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area. 6 figs.

  10. Incorporation of a clinical history into the interpretation process in a PACS environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstein, Lawrence A.; Good, Barbara C.; Miketic, Linda M.; Tabor, Ellen K.; Yousem, Samuel A.; King, Jill L.; Gennari, Rose C.; Felice, Marc A.; Sidorovich, Kathleen

    1990-08-01

    In a large-scale, multi-reader study to investigate questions surrounding the issue of the implementation of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) into the modern radiology environment, we examined the effect that the incorporation of a clinical history into the reading process would have on levels of diagnostic accuracy. Because we wanted to test the inclusion of the clinical history in an environment as close to that of the clinical situation as possible, we defined "history" to be a concise, objective, and potentially computer-extractable version of what appears in the patient records, including a statement from the referring physician when this is available. In a series of studies, four radiologists interpreted 247 posteroanterior normal and abnormal chest images on conventional film both with and without accompanying patient histories; five radiologists read the same number of images presented on a high-resolution video workstation with and without clinical histories. There were no significant differences (p = .05) in diagnostic accuracy rates with or without clinical history for either the film or the workstation in cases of interstitial disease, nodules, or pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy for the radiologists as a group was not affected by the presence of the clinical history. We concluded that for the interpretation of these abnormalities, the incorporation of clinical history with images in the PACS environment should not be a major goal.

  11. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  12. CT and MR imaging of odontoid abnormalities: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nishchint; Verma, Ritu; Garga, Umesh C; Baruah, Barinder P; Jain, Sachin K; Bhaskar, Surya N

    2016-01-01

    Odontoid process is the central pillar of the craniovertebral junction. Imaging of this small structure continues to be a challenge for the radiologists due to complex bony and ligamentous anatomy. A wide range of developmental and acquired abnormalities of odontoid have been identified. Their accurate radiologic evaluation is important as different lesions have markedly different clinical course, patient management, and prognosis. This article seeks to provide knowledge for interpreting appearances of odontoid on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with respect to various disease processes, along with providing a quick review of the embryology and relevant anatomy. PMID:27081234

  13. CT and MR imaging of odontoid abnormalities: A pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nishchint; Verma, Ritu; Garga, Umesh C; Baruah, Barinder P; Jain, Sachin K; Bhaskar, Surya N

    2016-01-01

    Odontoid process is the central pillar of the craniovertebral junction. Imaging of this small structure continues to be a challenge for the radiologists due to complex bony and ligamentous anatomy. A wide range of developmental and acquired abnormalities of odontoid have been identified. Their accurate radiologic evaluation is important as different lesions have markedly different clinical course, patient management, and prognosis. This article seeks to provide knowledge for interpreting appearances of odontoid on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with respect to various disease processes, along with providing a quick review of the embryology and relevant anatomy. PMID:27081234

  14. Diagnosis of Abnormality of Transformer Winding by Frequency Response Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Satoru; Mizutani, Yoshinobu

    Deformation and/or displacement of transformer winding are hazardous because electromagnetic force generated by a short-circuit current may increase. Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) has the possibility to detect these abnormalities with high sensitivity. In this paper, fundamentals and diagnosis method of power transformers by FRA are introduced. Examples of applications of FRA such as detection of deformation of winding due to short-circuit tests, detection of disconnection electrostatic shield, and detection of displacement of HV winding are introduced. Furthermore, recent researches related to interpretation of change of transfer functions are introduced.

  15. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  16. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  17. Copenhagen and Transactional Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görnitz, Th.; von Weizsäcker, C. F.

    1988-02-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation (CI) never received an authoritative codification. It was a “minimum semantics” of quantum mechanics. We assume that it expresses a theory identical with the Transactional Interpretation (TI) when the observer is included into the system described by the theory. A theory consists of a mathematical structure with a physical semantics. Now, CI rests on an implicit description of the modes of time which is also presupposed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Essential is the futuric meaning of probability as a prediction of a relative frequency. CI can be shown to be fully consistent on this basis. The TI and CI can be translated into each other by a simple “dictionary.” The TI describes all events as CI describes past events; CI calls future events possibilities, which TI treats like facts. All predictions of both interpretations agree; we suppose the difference to be linguistic.

  18. Modern standards of ECG interpretation in young athletes: yield and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Asif, Irfan M; Prutkin, Jordan M

    2015-01-01

    Although cardiovascular screening is recommended before participating in competitive sports, the role of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been debated. When added to the medical history and physical examination, an ECG used during the pre-participation screening (PPS) of young athletes can greatly enhance the ability to detect underlying cardiovascular pathology. Concerns over false positive rates, however, have posed an obstacle to large-scale implementation. The recent development of modern athlete-specific ECG interpretation criteria has dramatically reduced false positive rates to levels below other commonly used screening tests (e.g. breast cancer, prostate cancer) and subsequently improved cost effectiveness. There are also emerging data that certain sub-groups have a higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, including males, athletes of Afro-Caribbean descent, basketball players, and endurance athletes. While false positive rates from a number of studies are reduced with the improved standards, there may be room for continued improvements. Future efforts should focus on refining criteria based on age, race, gender, ethnicity, and sport, while also clearly delineating the appropriate work-up strategies for those with abnormal findings, as this can lead to improved resource utilization. PMID:25595717

  19. Significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Sever, Matjaz; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed 133 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) who were followed at our institution (median 7.5 years) and had adequate cytogenetics information. The 5-, 10- and 15-year survival rates were 93%, 79% and 64%, respectively, with a median projected overall survival of 24 years. Nineteen patients (14%) had abnormal cytogenetics at any time during the disease course (no survival difference). Sixteen patients (12%) underwent disease transformation during follow-up, after a median of 8.5 years, to myelofibrosis (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1); eight had cytogenetic abnormalities. Among 133 patients, 39 were newly diagnosed: 33 with normal and six with abnormal cytogenetics (no survival difference); nine underwent disease transformation (six with normal and three with abnormal cytogenetics at diagnosis). In keeping with other smaller series, the presence of chromosomal abnormalities may have had a role in disease transformation in patients with PV; survival was not affected likely due to short follow-up. PMID:23488603

  20. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  1. Comment on "Stoll H. et al. (2015): Interpretation of orbital scale variability in mid-latitude speleothem δ18O: Significance of growth rate controlled kinetic fractionation effects. Quat. Sci. Rev. 127, 215-228"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stoll et al. (2015) have recently proposed that kinetic growth rate dependence of the oxygen isotope fractionation factor imprints an 18O isotope signal into the calcite precipitated to stalagmites. In their work growth rates of five stalagmites are related to negative offsets of δ18O from its equilibrium value. They report: "In the stalagmites contemplated here, growth rates of 4 - 80 μm year-1are equivalent to deposition rates of 3.4·10-9to 6.9·10-8 mol m-2 s-1assuming a density of calcite of 2.71 g/cm3."

  2. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  3. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  4. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  5. [Renal abnormalities in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Pernasetti, María Marta; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Fuente, Jorge de la; Arteaga, Javier de; Douthat, Walter; Bardosy, Cecilia; Zarate, Abel; Massari, Pablo U

    2010-01-01

    Several renal complications may occur during HIV infection, especially in advanced stages related to HIV, to other infectious agents and/or drugs. Little is known about the prevalence of renal diseases that may occur as a complication of or related to HIV infection in asymptomatic patients. This is a single center cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HIV(+) patients referred to a nefrology care service at an Argentine hospital to look for the presence of renal abnormalities. Fifty two consecutive patients were studied between April and November 2008. Patients underwent plasma and urine analysis, ultrasound, and kidney biopsy as needed. Mean age was 39.9 +/- 10.6 years, 88% were male, time from HIV diagnosis 53.2 +/- 41.2 months (2-127); 71% had HIV-disease and 77% were on antiretroviral therapy. Mean plasma HIV-RNA copies number was 7.043 +/- 3.322 and CD4+ cell count: 484 +/- 39. Pathologic findings in urine analysis were present in 30.7% of patients: albuminuria 16.6%, microscopic hematuria 11.5%, hypercalciuria 10.8% and crystalluria 6%. Mean glomerular filtration rate was 102.2 +/- 22.95 ml/min (34-149) and 41% of patients could be classified in stages 1 to 3 of chronic kidney disease. Renal abnormalities prevaled in older patients without relationship with presence of HIV-disease. Two patients were biopsied and the findings included: tubulointerstitial nephritis with presence of crystal deposition in one and IgA nephropathy in the other. No HIV-associated nephropathy was detected. The broad spectrum and the high prevalence of lesions found in this series suggest that asymptomatic HIV-infected patients should routinely undergo renal evaluation. PMID:20529774

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

  8. Explaining the Interpretive Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

  9. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  10. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  11. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  12. Interpretations of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced into schools in England in 1998 with the aim of raising the literacy attainments of primary-aged children. The Framework for Teaching the Literacy Hour, a key component of the NLS, proposes an interpretation of literacy that emphasises reading, writing and spelling skills. An investigation of the…

  13. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  14. Psychological characteristics of and counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Wu, B; Guo, K M; Tian, R H

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a psychological problem has gained increasing attention. Male partners among infertile couples have elevated levels of psychological distress, which could affect semen quality, result in hormonal abnormalities, and increase the occurrence of early miscarriage. Infertile women are more vulnerable to psychological distress and require psychological support. Subfertile women who conceive after assisted reproduction have higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertility patients. However, psychosocial characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities have not been studied. We report the characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities and their influence on psychological counseling. Seventy-five patients were carriers of reciprocal translocations, 25 carried Robertsonian translocations, 17 carried inversions, 10 carried deletions, and 3 carried isochromosomes. The main clinical characteristics were recurrent spontaneous abortion, oligospermatism, azoospermatism, primary amenorrhea, and fetal death. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those scores of women with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those of men with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than their scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality. Women carriers with structural chromosome abnormality were more vulnerable to psychological distress. Psychosocial counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities should focus on self-confidence and treatment with assisted reproductive technology. PMID:27173267

  15. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  16. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  17. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  18. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  20. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  1. The detection of congenital glaucoma by photoscreen interpretation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, R W; Sitenga, G

    2000-01-01

    Photoscreening is designed to detect abnormalities in children's eye, particularly abnormal refractive errors, which can lead to amblyopia. An Alaska Bind Child Discovery MTI Polaroid photoscreen in one girl resulted in diagnosis and treatment of congenital glaucoma. Patients with known pediatric eye disease underwent photoscreening. Subtle non-refractive changes in photoscreen images may reveal eye disease even more serious than amblyopia. We suggest that human or computer interpretation of photoscreening images, particularly when retained, be done conscientiously with respect to the refractive state and alignment of the eyes, but also regarding other potentially serious ocular pathology. PMID:11042939

  2. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  3. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  4. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  7. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  8. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  9. Depressive symptoms among women with an abnormal mammogram.

    PubMed

    Alderete, Ethel; Juarbe, Teresa C; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Pasick, Rena; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-01-01

    An abnormal mammography finding constitutes a stressful event that may increase vulnerability by developing or intensifying pre-existing psychological morbidity. We evaluated depressive symptoms using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview among women of four ethnic groups who had an abnormal mammography result controlling for the effect of demographic, psychosocial and medical factors on recent onset of depressive symptoms. Telephone surveys were conducted among women aged 40-80 years recruited from four clinical sites in the San Francisco Bay Area after receiving a screening mammography result that was classified as abnormal but probably benign, suspicious or highly suspicious, or indeterminate using standard criteria. Among the 910 women who completed the interview, mean age was 56 (S.D.=10), 42% were White, 19% Latina, 25% African American, and 14% Asian. Prevalence of lifetime depressive symptoms was 44%, and 11% of women had symptoms in the previous month. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that Asian ethnicity, annual income >$10 000 and weekly attendance at religious services were significantly associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Having an indeterminate result on mammography and being on disability were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Reporting a first episode of depression more than a year before the interview was associated with significant increase in depressive symptoms in the month prior to the interview regardless of mammography result. Women with an indeterminate interpretation on mammography were at greater risk of depressive episode in the month prior to the interview compared to women with probably benign results (odds ratio=2.41; 95% CI=1.09-5.31) or with a suspicious finding. Clinicians need to consider depression as a possible consequence after an abnormal mammography result. PMID:15816053

  10. Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Blackley, David J; Halldin, Cara N; Wang, Mei Lin; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of lung function abnormality and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) by mine size among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. Methods During 2005–2012, 4491 miners completed spirometry and chest radiography as part of a health surveillance programme. Spirometry was interpreted according to American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines, and radiography per International Labour Office standards. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for abnormal spirometry (obstructive, restrictive or mixed pattern using lower limits of normal derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III) and CWP among workers from small mines (≤50 miners) compared with those from large mines. Results Among 3771 eligible miners, those from small mines were more likely to have abnormal spirometry (18.5% vs 13.8%, p<0.01), CWP (10.8% vs 5.2%, p<0.01) and progressive massive fibrosis (2.4% vs 1.1%, p<0.01). In regression analysis, working in a small mine was associated with 37% higher prevalence of abnormal spirometry (PR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.61) and 2.1 times higher prevalence of CWP (95% CI 1.68 to 2.70). Conclusions More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:25052085

  11. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  12. An Artificial Vector Model for Generating Abnormal Electrocardiographic Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D.; Nemati, Shamim; Sameni, Reza

    2010-01-01

    We present generalizations of our previously published artificial models for generating multi-channel ECG to provide simulations of abnormal cardiac rhythms. Using a three-dimensional vectorcardiogram (VCG) formulation, we generate the normal cardiac dipole for a patient using a sum of Gaussian kernels, fitted to real VCG recordings. Abnormal beats are specified either as perturbations to the normal dipole or as new dipole trajectories. Switching between normal and abnormal beat types is achieved using a first-order Markov chain. Probability transitions can be learned from real data or modeled by coupling to heart rate and sympathovagal balance. Natural morphology changes from beat-to-beat are incorporated by varying the angular frequency of the dipole as a function of the inter-beat (RR) interval. The RR interval time series is generated using our previously described model whereby time- and frequency-domain heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability characteristics can be specified. QT-HR hysteresis is simulated by coupling the Gaussian kernels associated with the T-wave in the model with a nonlinear factor related to the local HR (determined from the last n RR intervals). Morphology changes due to respiration are simulated by introducing a rotation matrix couple to the respiratory frequency. We demonstrate an example of the use of this model by simulating HR-dependent T-Wave Alternans (TWA) with and without phase-switching due to ectopy. Application of our model also reveals previously unreported effects of common TWA estimation methods. PMID:20308774

  13. Cardiac abnormalities in end stage renal failure and anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, K P; Skinner, J R; Wren, C; Hunter, S; Coulthard, M G

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen anaemic children on dialysis were assessed to determine the incidence of cardiac changes in end stage renal failure. Nine children had an increased cardiothoracic ratio on radiography. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in every case but no child had left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by voltage criteria. However, left ventricular hypertrophy, often gross, was found on echocardiography in 12 children and affected the interventricular septum disproportionately. Cardiac index was increased in 10 patients as a result of an increased left ventricular stroke volume rather than heart rate. Left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly greater in those on treatment for hypertension and in those with the highest cardiac index. Abnormal diastolic ventricular function was found in 6/11 children. Children with end stage renal failure have significant cardiac abnormalities that are likely to contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality in this group. Anaemia and hypertension, or its treatment, probably contribute to these changes. Voltage criteria on electrocardiogram are of no value in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography must be performed, with the results corrected for age and surface area, in order to detect and follow these abnormalities. Images PMID:8323332

  14. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  15. Interpretation Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  16. Interpretation of the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The superposition of the first satellite geoid determined by Iszak upon Ootilla's geoid was based on surface gravity determinations. Good agreement was observed except over the Pacific area of the globe. The poor agreement over the Pacific was interpreted as the result of inadequate observations there. Many geoids were determined from satellite observations, including Doppler measurements. It is found that the geoid is the result of density differences in the mantle maintained since the primeval Earth by its finite strength. Various models based on this assumption are developed.

  17. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  18. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

  20. On Measuring Quantitative Interpretations of Reasonable Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhami, Mandeep K.

    2008-01-01

    Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and…

  1. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  2. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  3. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  4. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  5. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  6. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  7. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. PMID:26384603

  9. Detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on picture archive and communication system video monitors.

    PubMed

    Washowich, T L; Williams, S C; Richardson, L A; Simmons, G E; Dao, N V; Allen, T W; Hammet, G C; Morris, M J

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on video display workstation monitors between radiologists experienced with video image interpretation and radiologists who lack this experience. Twenty-four patients with interstitial lung abnormalities documented by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung biopsy, and 26 control patients with no history of pulmonary disease or a normal HRCT and normal chest radiographs were studied. Images were acquired using storage phosphor digital radiography and displayed on 1,640 x 2,048 pixel resolution video monitors. Five board-certified radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded and randomized manner by using a six-point presence of abnormality grading scale. Three radiologists were from 1 to 4 years out of residency and considered to be experienced workstation monitor readers with between 1 to 3 years of video monitor image interpretation. For the inexperienced readers, one radiologist had no prior experience with reading images from a video monitor and was direct out of residency, and the other radiologist had less than 4 months of intermittent exposure and was 1 year out of residency. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for individual readers. Positive predictive values, negative predictive values, accuracy, and receiver-operating curves were also generated. A comparison was made between experienced and inexperienced readers. For readers experienced with video monitor image interpretation, the sensitivity ranged from 87.5% to 92%, specificity from 69% to 92%, positive predictive value (PPV) from 73% to 87.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) from 87% to 90%, and accuracy from 80% to 88%. For inexperienced readers, these values were sensitivity 58%, specificity 50% to 65%, PPV 52% to 61%, NPV 56.5% to 63%, and accuracy 54% to 62%. Comparing image interpretation between experienced and inexperienced readers, there were statistically significant differences for

  10. A Role for White Matter Abnormalities in the Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronically disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by manic states that is often interspersed with periods of depression whose neurobiology remains largely unknown. There is, however, increasing evidence that white matter (WM) abnormalities may play an important role in the neurobiology of the disorder. In this review we critically evaluate evidence for WM abnormalities in bipolar disorder obtained from neuroimaging, neuropathological, and genetic research. Increased rates of white matter hyperintensities, regional volumetric abnormalities, abnormal water diffusion along prefrontal-subcortical tracts, fewer oligodendrocytes in prefrontal WM, and alterations in the expression of myelin-and oligodendrocyte-related genes are among the most consistent findings. Abnormalities converge in the prefrontal WM and, in particular, tracts that connect prefrontal regions and subcortical gray matter structures known to be involved in emotion. Taken together, the evidence supports and clarifies a model of bipolar disorder that involves disconnectivity in regions implicated in emotion generation and regulation. PMID:19896972

  11. The flow of interpretation. The collateral interpretation, force and flow.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D

    1989-01-01

    This paper was presented to a Conference on the theme 'The Formulation of Interpretations in Clinical Practice'. It suggests that, impressionistically in line with the identification of psychoanalysis with natural science, an unconscious metaphor which sees interpretation as something like a force inserted on a physical particle has been more influential conceptually than the unconscious metaphor naturally complementary to it, that of interpretation as something like a liquid in flow. The concept of 'the collateral interpretation' is introduced. Loosely speaking, this is what an analyst thinks he would interpret at any given moment. It is tentative, unformed, and changes kaleidoscopically. It accommodates psychoanalytic concepts. It is suggested that examination of the mode of operation of 'the collateral interpretation' is important in understanding the formulation of interpretations. A single session is used for clinical illustration. PMID:2606603

  12. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  13. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  14. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  17. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  18. Evolving interpretation of the athlete's electrocardiogram: from European Society of Cardiology and Stanford criteria, to Seattle criteria and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Corrado, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) pre-participation screening can prevent sudden cardiac death in the athletes by early diagnosis and disqualification of affected individuals. Interpretation of the athlete's ECG should be based on specific criteria, because ECG changes that would be considered abnormal in the untrained population may develop in trained athletes as a physiologic and benign consequence of the heart's adaptation to exercise. In 2010, a stem document from the Section of Sports Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) proposed to classify the athlete's ECG changes according to the prevalence, relation to exercise training, association with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and need for further investigations into two groups: "common and training-related" (Group 1) and "uncommon and training-unrelated" (Group 2). Over the last years, several efforts have been made to refine the ESC criteria for interpretation of the athlete's ECG in order to improve specificity maintaining good sensitivity, especially among elite and Afro-Caribbean athletes, which show the highest rate of false positives Group 2 ECG abnormalities. However, the balance between improvement in specificity and loss of sensitivity should be evaluated keeping in mind that the primary aim of the screening program is to save the athlete's lives rather than money. PMID:25724348

  19. Abnormal brain scan with subacute extradural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Morley, J. Barrie; Langford, Keith H.

    1970-01-01

    Four patients are described with proven subacute extradural haematomas, each with an abnormal cerebral scan of diagnostic assistance. A possible mechanism of production of the subacute extradural haematoma is discussed, and appears to be similar to the mechanism involved in the subacute subdural haematoma. The means by which the abnormal scan results in such cases is also examined, from which it appears that non-specific meningeal membrane inflammatory reaction surrounding the haematoma is significant. Images PMID:5478950

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  1. Interpreting the effect of increasing COD loading rates on the performance of a pre-anoxic MBBR system: implications on the attached and suspended biomass dynamics and nitrification-denitrification activity.

    PubMed

    Lima, P S; Dezotti, M; Bassin, J P

    2016-06-01

    A pre-anoxic MBBR system was subjected to increasing organic loading rates up to 18 gCOD/(m(2) day). At 3 gCOD/(m(2) day), most of the incoming organic matter was removed via denitrification. However, at higher loads, anoxic COD removal became limited by the nitrite/nitrate supply from the aerobic reactor, which assumed an important role in this conversion. Despite the application of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (<2 mg/L) in this tank, nitrification was observed to be nearly complete until 8 gCOD/(m(2) day). As the organic input was increased, the maximum specific nitrifying activity gradually declined. Activity tests suggested that an oxygen-limited environment was established in the biofilm. At lower loads [3-8 gCOD/(m(2) day)], the nitrification product obtained was affected by the DO concentration, whereas from 16 to 21 gCOD/(m(2) day), nitrite/nitrate profiles were likely associated with microbial stratification in the biofilm. The results also indicated that the role of the suspended biomass in the overall nitrification and denitrification can be very significant in high loaded MBBRs and should not be neglected, even at low HRTs. PMID:26941244

  2. REM sleep abnormalities in severe athetoid cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Inoue, Y; Iwakawa, Y; Sasaki, H

    1990-01-01

    Various abnormalities of sleep have been reported in extrapyramidal diseases in adults. We have investigated the disturbances of REM sleep (SREM) in severe athetoid cerebral palsy (ACP) originating perinatally. Ten ACP patients, 5 males and 5 females ranging from 15 to 30 years old, were studied by means of all-night polygraphic examination. Three cases showed a marked decrease in rapid eye movements in SREM. Moreover, the tone of submental muscle in SREM was also disturbed in three. Regarding body movements during sleep, gross movements and twitch movements of the submental muscle were analyzed. In most of the patients, an abnormal distribution of body movements according to sleep stages was observed, the rate being significantly reduced in SREM. REMs, atonia and body movements are considered to be related to the brainstem function in animals. The results of the present study suggest that perinatal extrapyramidal diseases could also coincide with brainstem dysfunctions. PMID:2288380

  3. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  4. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  5. Is Abnormal Urine Protein/Osmolality Ratio Associated with Abnormal Renal Function in Patients Receiving Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate?

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Jasmine R.; Berg, Melody L.; Tan, Eugene M.; Amer, Hatem; Cummins, Nathan W.; Rizza, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk factors for and optimal surveillance of renal dysfunction in patients on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) remain unclear. We investigated whether a urine protein-osmolality (P/O) ratio would be associated with renal dysfunction in HIV-infected persons on TDF. Methods This retrospective, single-center study investigated the relationship between parameters of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and P/O-ratio) and risk factors for development of kidney dysfunction. Subjects were HIV-infected adults receiving TDF with at least one urinalysis and serum creatinine performed between 2010 and 2013. Regression analyses were used to analyze risk factors associated with abnormal P/O-ratio and abnormal eGFR during TDF therapy. Results Patients were predominately male (81%); (65%) were Caucasian. Mean age was 45.1(±11.8) years; median [IQR] TDF duration was 3.3 years. [1.5–7.6]. Median CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were 451 cells/μL [267.5–721.5] and 62 copies/mL [0–40,150], respectively. Abnormal P/O-ratio was not associated with low eGFR. 68% of subjects had an abnormal P/O-ratio and 9% had low eGFR. Duration of TDF use, age, diabetes and hypertension were associated with renal dysfunction in this study. After adjustment for age, subjects on TDF > 5 years had almost a four-fold increased likelihood of having an abnormal P/O-ratio than subjects on TDF for < 1yr (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.2–14.0; p = 0.024). Conclusion Abnormal P/O-ratio is common in HIV-infected patients on TDF but was not significantly associated with low eGFR, suggesting that abnormal P/O-ratio may be a very early biomarker of decreased renal function in HIV infected patients. PMID:26872144

  6. Appropriate use of medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

    2014-10-01

    More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

  7. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA. PMID:23558712

  8. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  9. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of

  10. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  11. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  12. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  13. Determining Register in Sign-to-English Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Risa

    1987-01-01

    Identifies indicators of register or style in selected portions of two lectures presented in American Sign Language, and in the interpretations of each made by two interpreters. The indicators used are speaking rate, pausing, syntax, intonation, and lexical choice. Transcripts of data are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

  14. Abnormality of EEG alpha asymmetry in female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Graae, F; Tenke, C; Bruder, G; Rotheram, M J; Piacentini, J; Castro-Blanco, D; Leite, P; Towey, J

    1996-10-15

    Abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been associated with various psychiatric disorders and behaviors, including depression, suicide, and aggression. We examined quantitative resting EEG in Hispanic female adolescent suicide attempters and matched normal controls. Computerized EEG measures were recorded at 11 scalp sites during eyes open and eyes closed periods from 16 suicide attempters and 22 normal controls. Suicide attempters differed from normal controls in alpha asymmetry. Normal adolescents had greater alpha (less activation) over right than left hemisphere, whereas suicidal adolescents had a nonsignificant asymmetry in the opposite direction. Nondepressed attempters were distinguished from depressed attempters in that they accounted for the preponderance of abnormal asymmetry, particularly in posterior regions. Alpha asymmetry over posterior regions was related to ratings of suicidal intent, but not depression severity. The alpha asymmetry in suicidal adolescents resembled that seen for depressed adults in its abnormal direction, but not in its regional distribution. Findings for suicidal adolescents are discussed in terms of a hypothesis of reduced left posterior activation, which is not related to depression but to suicidal or aggressive behavior. PMID:8894062

  15. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542

  16. Fundamentals of interpretation in echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, P.; Lee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This illustrated book provides familiarity with the many clinical, physical, and electronic factors that bear on echocardiographic interpretation. Physical and clinical principles are integrated with considerations of anatomy and physiology to address interpretive problems. This approach yields, for example, sections on the physics and electronics of M-mode, cross sectional, and Doppler systems which are informal, full of echocardiagrams, virtually devoid of mathematics, and rigorously related to common issues faced by echocardiograph interpreters.

  17. A Question of Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 22, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    It is often difficult to determine if wind eroded surface represent the youngest activity in a region. Wind eroded landforms can be covered by later materials and the exhumed long after they were initially formed. This image illustrates how difficult it can be to interpret the surface of Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7, Longitude 174.7 East (185.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at

  18. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  19. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  20. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  1. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  2. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  3. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  4. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  5. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for urinary tract abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hálek, Jan; Flögelová, Hana; Michálková, Kamila; Smakal, Oldrich; Dubrava, Lubomír; Zapletalová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at (1) the determination of the incidence of abnormalities of the urinary tract in newborn infants detected by postnatal ultrasound screening, and (2) the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for detecting surgical urinary tract abnormalities. The prospective study was of full-term neonates born in the University Hospital of Olomouc in 2005-2008 who underwent renal ultrasound screening after 72 h of life. Significant findings were recorded. Subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were recorded and evaluated in a group of children with detected renal pelvic dilatation (RPD). (1) A total of 6,088 newborn infants was examined. The absolute and relative RPD incidence rates (anteroposterior diameter, APD) were as follows: 5-7 mm, 146 (2.4%); 7-10 mm, 70 (1.15%); 10-15 mm, 13 (0.21%), and 15 mm or more, 5 (0.08%). Of those, 16 children were operated on for abnormalities of the urinary tract, of which nine (56%) had been detected by prenatal screening. Other findings: six cases of unilateral renal agenesis, four cases of multicystic renal dysplasia, four of renal dystopia, one of polycystic kidney disease and one of renal hypoplasia. (2) A group of 224 children with postnatally detected RPD was examined, of whom 40 (17.9%) underwent voiding cystourethrography and/or scintigraphy and 16 (7.1%) were treated surgically. The receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed, and the areas under the curves were calculated. Postnatal renal ultrasound screening is probably a suitable test for detecting significant urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:19856001

  7. Nanoscale abnormal grain growth in (001) epitaxial ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Develos-Bagarinao, Katherine; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro

    2009-09-01

    X-ray reciprocal-space mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to study kinetics and mechanisms of lateral grain growth in epitaxial (001) ceria (CeO{sub 2}) deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and (12 lowbar 10) (r-cut) sapphire. Rate and character of the grain growth during postannealing at 1050 deg. C are found to be strongly dependent on the type of the epitaxial substrate. Films deposited on YSZ exhibit signatures of normal grain growth, which stagnated after the lateral grain size reaches 40 nm, consistent with the grain-boundary pinning by the thermal grooving. In contrast, when r-cut sapphire substrate was used, abnormal (secondary) grain growth is observed. A small population of grains grow to well over 100 nm consuming smaller, <10 nm, grains, thus forming well-defined >100 nm large (001) terminations and rendering the sample single-crystalline quality. The grain growth is accompanied by reduction in lateral rms strain, resulting in a universal grain size--rms strain dependence. Analysis of the AFM and x-ray diffraction data leads to the conclusion that bimodal initial grain population consisting of grains with very different sizes is responsible for initiation of the abnormal growth in (001) CeO{sub 2} films on r-cut sapphire. Due to different surface chemistry, when a YSZ substrate is used, the initial grain distribution is monomodal, therefore only normal growth is active. We demonstrate that a 2.2 deg. miscut of the sapphire substrate eliminates the large-grain population, thus suppressing abnormal grain growth. It is concluded that utilization of abnormal grain growth is a promising way for synthesis of large (001) ceria terminations.

  8. Chronobiologically Interpreted Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Franz; Mult, Hc; Cornélissen, Germaine; Hillman, Dewayne; Beaty, Larry A; Hong, Shiyu; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-05-01

    To detect vascular variability anomalies (VVAs), a blood pressure and heart rate profile around the clock for at least 7 days is a start. As a minimum, measurement every 60 or preferably 30 minutes for a week is needed, to be continued if abnormality is found, to assess the about 24-hour (circadian) variability that exists in all individuals. As a first dividend, one then also obtains a glimpse of 2 of the very many longer-than-circadian periodicities, the biological half-week and week. Certainly if we can have sensors and computer chips in our cars that continuously monitor the pressure over a tire's life, we should be able to do the same job for ourselves for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Healthcare today emphasizes wellness with recommendations for exercise and a proper diet, yet these evaluations may not be adequate. BP may be measured at a visit to the doctor or before an exercise session, along with measuring body weight and performing a physical exam. The seeds of disease are planted long before they are visible, and what appears to be normal from a conventional point of view may in fact actually be abnormal. Hidden alterations of physiological function, masked by the body's remarkable adaptive capabilities, may become visible through a new diagnostic and therapeutic realm-chronobiology-that reveals hitherto unseen abnormalities. The tools of chronobiology may yield additional dividends, such as the detection of physiological "loads" related to stress and stress relief and the undesirable effcts of space weather upon personal events such as sudden cardiac death, societal events like terrorism and war, and natural disasters. Chronobiologi cally interpreted automatic ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring (C-ABPM) may detect the antecedents of these types of events. C-ABPM is of interest in preventive cardiology, since it reveals new diagnoses as vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) and renders previous conventional diagnoses more reliable, such

  9. Chronobiologically Interpreted Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, Germaine; Hillman, Dewayne; Beaty, Larry A.; Hong, Shiyu; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-01-01

    To detect vascular variability anomalies (VVAs), a blood pressure and heart rate profile around the clock for at least 7 days is a start. As a minimum, measurement every 60 or preferably 30 minutes for a week is needed, to be continued if abnormality is found, to assess the about 24-hour (circadian) variability that exists in all individuals. As a first dividend, one then also obtains a glimpse of 2 of the very many longer-than-circadian periodicities, the biological half-week and week. Certainly if we can have sensors and computer chips in our cars that continuously monitor the pressure over a tire's life, we should be able to do the same job for ourselves for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Healthcare today emphasizes wellness with recommendations for exercise and a proper diet, yet these evaluations may not be adequate. BP may be measured at a visit to the doctor or before an exercise session, along with measuring body weight and performing a physical exam. The seeds of disease are planted long before they are visible, and what appears to be normal from a conventional point of view may in fact be abnormal. Hidden alterations of physiological function, masked by the body's remarkable adaptive capabilities, may become visible through a new diagnostic and therapeutic realm—chronobiology—that reveals hitherto unseen abnormalities. The tools of chronobiology may yield additional dividends, such as the detection of physiological “loads” related to stress and stress relief and the undesirable effects of space weather upon personal events such as sudden cardiac death, societal events like terrorism and war, and natural disasters. Chronobiologically interpreted automatic ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring (C-ABPM) may detect the antecedents of these types of events. C-ABPM is of interest in preventive cardiology, since it reveals new diagnoses as vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) and renders previous conventional diagnoses more reliable, such

  10. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations. PMID:26605692

  11. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  12. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  13. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  14. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  15. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  16. Cytogenetic abnormality in patients with multiple myeloma analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying; Chen, Wenming; Chen, Shilun; Huang, Zhongxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) data and the association with clinical characteristics, therapy response, and survival time in patients with multiple myeloma. Method We performed a retrospective review of patients with multiple myeloma from November 2010 to April 2014. Results Cytogenetic abnormalities by FISH were detectable in 66% of patients. One cytogenetic abnormality, two cytogenetic abnormalities, and complex abnormalities were detectable in 21.2%, 51.5%, and 27.3% of cases, respectively. 1q21 amplification, t(4p16.3/14q32), and 17p deletion were observed in 69.7%, 30.3%, and 21.2% of cases, respectively. Total response rates (complete response [CR] + near CR + partial response) were 93.8% and 82.1%, respectively, in cytogenetic normality group and abnormality group. CR rates were 50% and 32.1%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) time was 51 months and 24 months, respectively, in cytogenetic normality group and abnormality group (P<0.05). Median OS time was not significantly different between 1q21 amplification group and no 1q21 amplification group in patients with FISH abnormalities (P>0.05). Median OS time was not significantly different between t(4;14) group and no t(4;14) group in patients with FISH abnormalities (P>0.05). Seven patients of 17p deletion died in 2 years. Conclusion Multiple myeloma is characterized by a high occurrence of chromosomal aberrations. 1q21 amplification and t(4;14) are the most common abnormalities. Multiple cytogenetic abnormalities are frequently observed in the same one patient. The total response rate, CR rate, and OS time are worse in cytogenetic abnormal patients compared with cytogenetic normal patients. Patients with 17p deletion have a very poor prognosis. Future goals of therapy will be to achieve minimal residual disease, biomarkers, and genomic data, which might provide a better estimate of the depth of response to therapy and OS. PMID:27042105

  17. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  18. Interpretation Tasks for Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to grammar teaching provides learners with opportunities to produce specific grammatical structures. This article explores an alternative approach, one based on interpreting input. The rationale for the approach is discussed, as are the principles for designing interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. (Contains 35…

  19. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  20. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  1. Oral Interpretation as Performing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Eric E.

    A three-step process of description, reduction, and interpretation is employed in this paper in disentangling the complex of relationships involved in oral interpretation. In the description, contributions from various disciplines are synthesized; among the topics discussed are the communication process model usually employed in descriptions of…

  2. Computer-assisted diagnosis in renal nuclear medicine: rationale, methodology, and interpretative criteria for diuretic renography.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew T; Garcia, Ernest V

    2014-03-01

    The goal of artificial intelligence, expert systems, decision support systems, and computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) in imaging is the development and implementation of software to assist in the detection and evaluation of abnormalities, to alert physicians to cognitive biases, to reduce intraobserver and interobserver variability, and to facilitate the interpretation of studies at a faster rate and with a higher level of accuracy. These developments are needed to meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the volume of diagnostic imaging studies coupled with a concurrent increase in the number and complexity of images in each patient data. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. Errors are even more likely when physicians interpret low-volume studies such as technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic scans where imagers may have had limited training or experience. Decision support systems include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems, and statistical systems. iRENEX (renal expert) is an expert system for diuretic renography that uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of both clinical parameters and quantitative parameters derived from the renogram. Initial studies have shown that the interpretations provided by iRENEX are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts. iRENEX provides immediate patient-specific feedback at the time of scan interpretation, can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions, and can be used as an educational tool to teach trainees to better interpret renal scans. It also has the capacity to populate a structured reporting module and generate a clear and concise impression based on the elements contained in the report; adherence to the procedural and data entry components of the structured reporting module ensures and documents procedural competency. Finally

  3. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  4. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  5. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  7. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  8. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  9. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  10. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  11. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy. PMID:27169865

  12. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  13. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  14. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  15. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  16. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  17. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  18. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  19. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  20. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, A. M.; Broom, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved. DESIGN: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews. SETTING: Australian gynaecology clinics. SUBJECTS: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs. RESULTS: Most women wanted to participate in decisions about their care but found it difficult to get the information they required from doctors because they were confused by what their doctors told them and felt unable to ask questions in the consultation. Medical terms such as wart virus and precancer were difficult to understand. Not being able to see their cervix also made it hard for women to understand what their abnormality meant and what treatment entailed. Most women tried to make sense of their abnormality in the context of their everyday lives. For some women their gynaecological care was not consistent with the way they understood their abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: The inherent power structure of medical practice combined with time pressures often make it difficult for doctors to give the detailed information and reassurance patients need when a diagnosis is distressing or when investigation and treatment are strange and upsetting. PMID:9161314

  1. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  2. Codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2 in an outpatient psychotherapy sample.

    PubMed

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In an evaluation of the codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2, 48 doctoral student psychotherapists rated their clients' (N = 120) standardized interpretations as more accurate when based on the profile's codetype, in comparison with ratings for interpretations based on alternate codetypes. Effect sizes ranged from nonsignificant to large, depending on the degree of proximity between the profile's codetype and the alternate codetype. There was weak evidence to suggest that well-defined profiles yielded more accurate interpretations than undefined profiles. It appears that codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2 is generally valid, but there might be little difference in the accuracy of interpretations based on nearby codetypes. PMID:24766215

  3. [Hypoxaemia, peripheral chemoreceptors and fetal heart rate].

    PubMed

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-02-01

    The perinatal results of the widespread adoption of the continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring during labor remain rather disappointing. This is due in part to a lack of consistent interpretation of the fetal heart tracings. Despite efforts by referral agencies over the past decade the situation has not improved. In defense of practitioners the heterogeneity and complexity of definitions and classifications patterns especially morphological currently proposed should be noted. Whereas with the recent advances in the field of neuroscience, it is now possible to visualize the chain of pathophysiological events that lead from the hypoxemic stimulus of the glomus cell to changes in the morphology of the fetal heart rate tracing. Thus by taking some examples of real situations, we propose a method of analysis that dissects the fetal heart tracing and take into account the functional specifications of the chemoreceptor when exposed to a hypoxic environment. Furthermore we can identify tracings with a "threshold effect" and also "sensitization and desensitization effects" according to the intensity, duration and recurrence of hypoxaemic episodes. This new approach based upon specific research into the mechanism behind the fetal heart rate abnormalities may be useful to complement the morphological study of the fetal heart tracing, to provide a better idea of the fetal status and to better define the indications of fetal blood sampling procedures. PMID:21798673

  4. Abnormal Precipitation of Oxyhemoglobin S by Mechanical Shaking

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Toshio; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Friedman, Shlomo; Schwartz, Elias

    1974-01-01

    The oxy-form of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) is abnormally unstable and precipitates at a 10-fold faster rate than does oxyhemoglobin A (oxy-Hb A) during mechanical shaking. The apparent rate of precipitation of heterozygous hemolysate (AS) is approximately half that of oxy-Hb S. The deoxy-form of Hb S, on the other hand, is resistant to the mechanical treatment. This stabilization is attributed to the conformational change of hemoglobin rather than the lack of oxygen, because carbonmonoxide hemoglobin S, which is known to have conformational properties similar to those of oxy-Hb, is unstable even under anaerobic conditions. Methemoglobin S is most unstable, although addition of cyanide stabilizes the protein. The precipitation of oxy-Hb S is inhibited by ethanol and other organic solvents. The relationship of the mechanical instability of sickle oxyhemoglobin to intraerythrocytic denaturation and vaso-occlusive phenomena in sickle cell disease to be determined. Images PMID:4525907

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  6. Interpreting Results from Multiscore Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of information on score reliabilities, significance of score differences, intercorrelations of scores, and differential validity of score patterns on the interpretation of results from multiscore batteries. (Author)

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  9. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  10. [TMJ morphological changes in abnormal occlusion].

    PubMed

    Volkov, S I; Bazhenov, D V; Semkin, V A; Bogdanov, A O

    2013-01-01

    TMJ dysfunction is one of the most common diseases among all disorders of the maxillofacial region. Any abnormality in synchrony or amplitude of motion of the TMJ results in the malposition of the articular disc. Researchers and clinicians were always interested in topographic anatomy of the TMJ. There is currently no consensus on matters relating to changes in anatomical features of the TMJ by occlusal disturbances. PMID:23715443

  11. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  12. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  13. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in chronic active hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, D. T.; Moanga, M.; Teodorescu, M.; Brucher, J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation on human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomes in chronic active hepatitis was carried out. A higher percentage of chromatid and chromosome lesions was recorded in all patients studied as compared with control groups—normal individuals, healthy subjects who had suffered from acute viral hepatitis, patients with alcoholic liver disease, and patients with mechanical jaundice due to cancer. The possible origin of these abnormalities is discussed. PMID:5076805

  15. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  16. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  17. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  18. Autism and chromosome abnormalities-A review.

    PubMed

    Bergbaum, Anne; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie

    2016-07-01

    The neuro-behavioral disorder of autism was first described in the 1940s and was predicted to have a biological basis. Since that time, with the growth of genetic investigations particularly in the area of pediatric development, an increasing number of children with autism and related disorders (autistic spectrum disorders, ASD) have been the subject of genetic studies both in the clinical setting and in the wider research environment. However, a full understanding of the biological basis of ASDs has yet to be achieved. Early observations of children with chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banded chromosome analysis (karyotyping) and in situ hybridization revealed, in some cases, ASD associated with other features arising from such an abnormality. The introduction of higher resolution techniques for whole genome screening, such as array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), allowed smaller imbalances to be detected, some of which are now considered to represent autism susceptibility loci. In this review, we describe some of the work underpinning the conclusion that ASDs have a genetic basis; a brief history of the developments in genetic analysis tools over the last 50 years; and the most common chromosome abnormalities found in association with ASDs. Introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) into the clinical diagnostic setting is likely to provide further insights into this complex field but will not be covered in this review. Clin. Anat. 29:620-627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012322

  19. Apparent Ruvalcaba syndrome with genitourinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bialer, M G; Wilson, W G; Kelly, T E

    1989-07-01

    The Ruvalcaba syndrome is a rare malformation syndrome characterized by skeletal dysplasia, facial anomalies, and mental retardation. We report on a 22-year-old woman with severe growth and mental retardation and numerous manifestations characteristic of the Ruvalcaba syndrome. In addition, she has several anomalies not previously described in the Ruvalcaba syndrome, including upslanting palpebral fissures, torus palatinus, hiatal hernia with gastroesophageal reflux, recurrent respiratory infections, pectus excavatum, equinovarous deformity, hypotonia, unilateral renal hypoplasia, an accessory ovary, and atretic fallopian tube. Review of published reports of Ruvalcaba syndrome confirms variability of the clinical and radiographic changes. Findings present in at least 50% of reported patients include mental retardation, short stature, pubertal delay, an abnormal nose (usually beaked) with hypoplastic nasal alae, microstomia with narrow maxilla, thin upper lip vermilion, broad hips, small hands, joint limitation, short fingers and toes, and vertebral abnormalities. Because 5 of the reported patients had renal abnormalities, a renal ultrasound or contrast study is indicated in the evaluation of these patients. Additional reports, particular from multiplex families, will be important to better characterize this syndrome. PMID:2679089

  20. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  1. Abnormalities in Hippocampal Functioning with Persistent Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mutso, Amelia A.; Radzicki, Daniel; Baliki, Marwan N.; Huang, Lejian; Banisadr, Ghazal; Centeno, Maria Virginia; Radulovic, Jelena; Martina, Marco; Miller, Richard J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain patients exhibit increased anxiety, depression, and deficits in learning and memory. Yet how persistent pain affects the key brain area regulating these behaviors, the hippocampus, has remained minimally explored. In this study we investigated the impact of spared nerve injury (SNI) neuropathic pain in mice on hippocampal-dependent behavior and underlying cellular and molecular changes. In parallel, we measured the hippocampal volume of three groups of chronic pain patients. We found that SNI animals were unable to extinguish to contextual fear and showed increased anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, SNI mice in comparison to sham animals exhibited hippocampal 1) reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression and phosphorylation, 2) decreased neurogenesis and 3) altered short-term synaptic plasticity. In order to relate the observed hippocampal abnormalities with human chronic pain, we measured the volume of human hippocampus in chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and osteoarthritis patients (OA). Compared to controls, CBP and CRPS, but not OA, had significantly less bilateral hippocampal volume. These results indicate that hippocampus-mediated behavior, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis are abnormal in neuropathic rodents. The changes may be related to the reduction in hippocampal volume we see in chronic pain patients, and these abnormalities may underlie learning and emotional deficits commonly observed in such patients. PMID:22539837

  2. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  3. Additional chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, José; Montesinos, Pau; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.; Calasanz, María J.; Aventín, Anna; Ferro, María T.; Luño, Elisa; Sánchez, Javier; Vellenga, Edo; Rayón, Chelo; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Rivas, Concha; González, José D.; Tormo, Mar; Amutio, Elena; González, Marcos; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the t(15;17). The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia is still a controversial matter. Design and Methods Based on cytogenetic data available for 495 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in two consecutive PETHEMA trials (LPA96 and LPA99), we analyzed the incidence, characteristics, and outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities who had been treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation. Results Additional chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 140 patients (28%). Trisomy 8 was the most frequent abnormality (36%), followed by abn(7q) (5%). Patients with additional chromosomal abnormalities more frequently had coagulopathy (P=0.03), lower platelet counts (P=0.02), and higher relapse-risk scores (P=0.02) than their counterparts without additional abnormalities. No significant association with FLT3/ITD or other clinicopathological characteristics was demonstrated. Patients with and without additional chromosomal abnormalities had similar complete remission rates (90% and 91%, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that additional chromosomal abnormalities were associated with a lower relapse-free survival in the LPA99 trial (P=0.04), but not in the LPA96 trial. However, neither additional chromosomal abnormalities overall nor any specific abnormality was identified as an independent risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The lack of independent prognostic value of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia does not support the use of alternative therapeutic strategies when such abnormalities are found. PMID:19903674

  4. Interpreting Borderline BeLPT Results

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D.C.; Mayer, A.S.; Lewin, M.D.; Mroz, M.M.; Maier, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) identifies persons sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD). BeLPT test results are abnormal (AB), borderline (BL), or normal (NL). This manuscript addresses the predictive value and interpretation of BL BeLPT results. Methods The various three-result combinations that meet or exceed a nominal referral criteria of 1 AB + 1 BL are assessed with probability modeling and compared. Results At 2% prevalence, the three-result combinations that meet or exceed this referral criteria and associated probabilities of BeS are: (a) 1 AB + 1 BL + 1 NL (72%); (b) 3 BL (91%); (c) 2 AB + 1 NL (95%); (d) 1 AB + 2 BL (99%); (e) 2 AB + 1 BL (100%); and (f) 3 AB (100%). Conclusion These results suggest that BL results are meaningful and that three BL results predict BeS across a broad range of population prevalences. An analysis of longitudinal BeLPT results and clinical findings from an actual surveillance program is warranted to confirm the model’s predictions. PMID:20957676

  5. Abnormal cerebellar volume in acute and remitted major depression.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Hirjak, Dusan; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal cortical volume is well-documented in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but cerebellar findings have been heterogeneous. It is unclear whether abnormal cerebellar structure relates to disease state or medication. In this study, using structural MRI, we investigated cerebellar volume in clinically acute (with and without psychotropic treatment) and remitted MDD patients. High-resolution structural MRI data at 3T were obtained from acute medicated (n=29), acute unmedicated (n=14) and remitted patients (n=16). Data from 29 healthy controls were used for comparison purposes. Cerebellar volume was investigated using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods. Patients with an acute MDD episode showed increased volume of left cerebellar area IX, and this was true for both medicated and unmedicated individuals (p<0.05 cluster-corrected). Remitted patients exhibited bilaterally increased area IX volume. In remitted, but not in acutely ill patients, area IX volume was significantly associated with measures of depression severity, as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). In addition, area IX volume in remitted patients was significantly related to the duration of antidepressant treatment. In acutely ill patients, no significant relationships were established using clinical variables, such as HAMD, illness or treatment duration and number of depressive episodes. The data suggest that cerebellar area IX, a non-motor region that belongs to a large-scale brain functional network with known relevance to core depressive symptom expression, exhibits abnormal volume in patients independent of clinical severity or medication. Thus, the data imply a possible trait marker of the disorder. However, given bilaterality and an association with clinical scores at least in remitted patients, the current findings raise the possibility that cerebellar volume may be reflective of successful treatment as well. PMID:27321187

  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The centenarian population is gradually increasing, so it is becoming more common to see centenarians in clinical practice. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in the elderly have been reported, but several methodological biases have been detected that limit the validity of their results. The aim of this study is to analyse the ECG abnormalities in a prospective study of the centenarian population and to assess their impact on survival. Method We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI), cognitive mini-exam (CME) and Charlson index (ChI) were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death. Results A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3). Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11). ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19). Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P = .005) and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P = .008); 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3%) had atrial fibrillation (AF), 30 (37.5%) conduction defects and 31 (38.8%) abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P = .002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2) and changes suggestive of ischemia (P = .019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7). Mean survival was 628 days (SD 578.5), median 481 days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P = .011), hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P = .032), hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P < .001) and functional dependence assessed by BI (RR 1.8, P = .024). Conclusion Although ECG abnormalities are

  7. An atlas of radiological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, J.F.; Chessell, G.

    1988-01-01

    This book is concerned with pathologic entities and their impact on the skeleton. The book is divided into nine chapters. After a discussion of normal anatomic features, the authors discuss trauma, avascular necrosis and osteochondritis, bone infections, diseases of the joints, bone tumors, reticuloses and hemopoietic disorders, endocrine and metabolic bone diseases, and congenital abnormalities. A line drawing accompanies every radiograph to contrast the pathologic findings with the normal anatomic features.

  8. Bakers' cyst and tibiofemoral abnormalities are more distinctive MRI features of symptomatic osteoarthritis than patellofemoral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Visser, A W; Mertens, B; Reijnierse, M; Bloem, J L; de Mutsert, R; le Cessie, S; Rosendaal, F R; Kloppenburg, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate which structural MR abnormalities discriminate symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), taking co-occurrence of abnormalities in all compartments into account. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45–65 years. In 1285 participants (median age 56 years, 55% women, median body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2), MRI of the right knee were obtained. Structural abnormalities (osteophytes, cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), subchondral cysts, meniscal abnormalities, effusion, Baker's cyst) at 9 patellofemoral and tibiofemoral locations were scored following the knee OA scoring system. Symptomatic OA in the imaged knee was defined following the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Logistic ridge regression analyses were used to investigate which structural abnormalities discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic OA, crude and adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Symptomatic knee OA was present in 177 individuals. Structural MR abnormalities were highly frequent both in individuals with OA and in those without. Baker's cysts showed the highest adjusted regression coefficient (0.293) for presence of symptomatic OA, followed by osteophytes and BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment (0.185–0.279), osteophytes in the medial trochlear facet (0.262) and effusion (0.197). Conclusions Baker's cysts discriminate best between individuals with and without symptomatic knee OA. Structural MR abnormalities, especially in the medial side of the tibiofemoral joint and effusion, add further in discriminating symptomatic OA. Baker's cysts may present as a target for treatment. PMID:27252896

  9. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    PubMed Central

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory causal indicators are controversial and little-understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning intended by a researcher. This article questions the validity of evidence used to claim that causal indicators are inherently susceptible to interpretational confounding. Further, a simulation study demonstrates that causal indicator coefficients are stable across correctly-specified models. Determining the suitability of causal indicators has implications for the way we conceptualize measurement and build and evaluate measurement models. PMID:25530730

  10. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  11. Abnormal cortical thickness connectivity persists in childhood absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Curwood, Evan K; Pedersen, Mangor; Carney, Patrick W; Berg, Anne T; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a childhood-onset generalized epilepsy. Recent fMRI studies have suggested that frontal cortex activity occurs before thalamic involvement in epileptic discharges suggesting that frontal cortex may play an important role in childhood absence seizures. Neurocognitive deficits can persist after resolution of the epilepsy. We investigate whether structural connectivity changes are present in the brains of CAE patients in young adulthood. Methods Cortical thickness measurements were obtained for 30 subjects with CAE (mean age 21 ± 2 years) and 56 healthy controls (mean age 24 ± 4) and regressed for age, sex, and total intracranial volume (TIV). Structural connectivity was evaluated by measuring the correlation between average cortical thicknesses in 915 regions over the brain. Maps of connectivity strength were then obtained for both groups. Results When compared to controls, the CAE group shows overall increased “connectivity” with focal increased connection strength in anterior regions including; the anterior cingulate and the insula and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally; the right orbito-frontal and supramarginal regions; and the left entorhinal cortex. Decreased connection strength in the CAE group was found in the left occipital lobe, with a similar trend in right occipital lobe. Interpretation Brains in young adults whose CAE was resolved had abnormal structural connectivity. Our findings suggest that frontal regions correlate most with cortical thickness throughout the brain in CAE patients, whereas occipital regions correlate most in well matched normal controls. We interpret this as evidence of a developmental difference in CAE that emphasizes these frontal lobe regions, perhaps driven by frontal lobe epileptiform activity. PMID:26000319

  12. Correlation of Structural Bony Abnormalities and Mechanical Symptoms of Hip Joints

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Sung-Hwa; Kwak, Yoon-Ho; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine structural bony abnormalities predisposing for femoroacetabular impingement by comparison of patients with and without mechanical symptoms. Materials and Methods We conducted this comparative study on 151 patients (151 hips; mean age 44.8 years; range 16-73 years) with mechanical symptoms with results of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) arthrography (the symptomatic group). Each patient was matched with a control who underwent MDCT due to ureter stone (the asymptomatic group) in terms of age, gender, site (right or left), and time at diagnosis. Acetabular evaluations, which included cranial and central anteversion and anterior and lateral center edge angles and femoral measurements, were performed. In addition, we evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of structural bone abnormalities between the two groups. Results The prevalence for patients who had at least one structural bony abnormality in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was 80.1% (121/151) and 54.3% (82/151), respectively (odds ratio: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 2.30-5.66; P<0.001). The most common osseous abnormality was the isolated Pincer type in both groups: 89 (73.6%) of 121 hips with an osseous abnormality in the symptomatic group and 57 (69.5%) of 82 hips with an osseous abnormality in the asymptomatic group. By analysis of CT arthrography in symptomatic patients, a labral tear was found in 107 hips (70.9%), and 86 (80%) of these hips had a structural bony abnormality. Conclusion A significantly greater prevalence rate of structural bony abnormality was observed for the symptomatic group than for the asymptomatic group. These findings are helpful for development of appropriate treatment plans.

  13. Fertilization and embryo quality of mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Hyojeong; Lee, Jang Mi; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate fertilization and embryo quality of dysmorphic mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods The fertilization rate (FR) and embryo quality were compared among 58 dysmorphic and 42 normal form oocytes (control 1) obtained from 35 consecutive ICSI cycles, each of which yielded at least one dysmorphic mature oocyte, performed over a period of 5 years. The FR and embryo quality of 441 normal form oocytes from another 119 ICSI cycles that did not involve dysmorphic oocytes served as control 2. Dysmorphic oocytes were classified as having a dark cytoplasm, cytoplasmic granularity, cytoplasmic vacuoles, refractile bodies in the cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, an oval shape, an abnormal zona pellucida, a large perivitelline space, debris in the perivitelline space, or an abnormal polar body (PB). Results The overall FR was significantly lower in dysmorphic oocytes than in normal form oocytes in both the control 1 and control 2 groups. However, embryo quality in the dysmorphic oocyte group and the normal form oocyte groups at day 3 was similar. The FR and embryo quality were similar in the oocyte groups with a single abnormality and multiple abnormalities. Specific abnormalities related with a higher percentage of top-quality embryos were dark cytoplasm (66.7%), abnormal PB (50%), and cytoplasmic vacuoles (25%). Conclusion The fertilization potential of dysmorphic oocytes in our study was lower, but their subsequent embryonic development and embryo quality was relatively good. We were able to define several specific abnormalities related with good or poor embryo quality. PMID:26815385

  14. Abnormal visual field maps in human cortex: a mini-review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Haak, Koen V; Langers, Dave R M; Renken, Remco; van Dijk, Pim; Borgstein, Johannes; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2014-07-01

    Human visual cortex contains maps of the visual field. Much research has been dedicated to answering whether and when these visual field maps change if critical components of the visual circuitry are damaged. Here, we first provide a focused mini-review of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that have evaluated the human cortical visual field maps in the face of retinal lesions, brain injury, and atypical retinocortical projections. We find that there is a fair body of research that has found abnormal fMRI activity, but also that this abnormal activity does not necessarily stem from cortical remapping. The abnormal fMRI activity can often be explained in terms of task effects and/or the uncovering of normally hidden system dynamics. We then present the case of a 16-year-old patient who lost the entire left cerebral hemisphere at age three for treatment of chronic focal encephalitis (Rasmussen syndrome) and intractable epilepsy. Using an fMRI retinotopic mapping procedure and population receptive field (pRF) modeling, we found that (1) despite the long period since the hemispherectomy, the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex remained unaffected by the removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere, and (2) the intact lateral occipital cortex contained an exceptionally large representation of the center of the visual field. The same method also indicates that the neuronal receptive fields in these lateral occipital brain regions are extraordinarily small. These features are clearly abnormal, but again they do not necessarily stem from cortical remapping. For example, the abnormal features can also be explained by the notion that the hemispherectomy took place during a critical period in the development of the lateral occipital cortex and therefore arrested its normal development. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting abnormal fMRI activity as a marker of cortical remapping; there are often other explanations. PMID:23347557

  15. Paternal Age and Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Human Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Donate, Anna; Estop, Anna M; Giraldo, Jesús; Templado, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between numerical chromosome abnormalities in sperm and age in healthy men. We performed FISH in the spermatozoa of 10 donors from the general population: 5 men younger than 40 years of age and 5 fertile men older than 60 years of age. For each chromosome, 1,000 sperm nuclei were analyzed, with a total of 15,000 sperm nuclei for each donor. We used a single sperm sample per donor, thus minimizing intra-donor variability and optimizing consistent analysis. FISH with a TelVysion assay, which provides data on aneuploidy of 19 chromosomes, was used in order to gain a more genome-wide perspective of the level of aneuploidy. Aneuploidy and diploidy rates observed in the younger and older groups were compared. There were no significant differences in the incidence of autosomal disomy, sex chromosome disomy, total chromosome disomy, diploidy, nor total numerical abnormalities between younger and older men. This work confirms that aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes is more common than that of autosomes and that this does not change with age. Our results suggest that some probe combinations have a tendency to indicate higher levels of diploidy, thus potentially affecting FISH results and highlighting the limitations of FISH. PMID:27322585

  16. Transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms related to visual evoked potential abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Butler, Pamela D; Chan, Chi C; Trachik, Benjamin J

    2015-12-15

    Visual processing abnormalities have been reported across a range of psychotic and mood disorders, but are typically examined within a particular disorder. The current study used a novel transdiagnostic approach to examine diagnostic classes, clinician-rated current symptoms, and self-reported personality traits in relation to visual processing abnormalities. We examined transient visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) from 48 adults (56% female), representing a wide range of psychotic and mood disorders, as well as individuals with no history of psychiatric disorder. Stimuli were low contrast check arrays presented on green and red backgrounds. Pairwise comparisons between individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD), chronic mood disorders (CMD), and nonpsychiatric controls (NC) revealed no overall differences for either P1 or N1 amplitude. However, there was a significant interaction with the color background in which the NC group showed a significant increase in P1 amplitude to the red, vs. green, background, while the SSD group showed no change. This was related to an increase in social anhedonia and general negative symptoms. Stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that individuals with greater apathy and/or eccentric behavior had a reduced P1 amplitude. These relationships provide clues for uncovering the underlying causal pathology for these transdiagnostic symptoms. PMID:26412383

  17. Hemorheological abnormalities in lipoprotein lipase deficient mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui; Huang Wei; Xian Xunde; Ross, Colin J.D.; Hayden, Michael R.; Wen Zongyao . E-mail: rheol@bjmu.edu.cn; Liu George . E-mail: vangeorgeliu@gmail.com

    2006-03-24

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis.

  18. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with perinatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E.; Fennoy, I.; Laraque, D.; Kanem, N.; Brown, G.; Mitchell, J.

    1992-01-01

    Cocaine in all forms is the number one illicit drug of choice among pregnant women. Records of 70 children with cocaine exposure in utero who were referred for developmental evaluation at a large inner-city hospital were reviewed in an effort to determine whether a specific pattern of abnormalities could be discerned. Patients received physical examinations, neurological screenings, and behavioral and developmental assessments based on the Gesell Developmental Inventory, and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Documentation of specified drug use was obtained by history. Mean age (SEM) at referral was 19.2 (1.7) months. All mothers used cocaine in one of its forms, although polydrug use was common. Growth parameters were low (median = 15th percentile). Significant neurodevelopmental abnormalities were observed, including language delay in 94% of the children and an extremely high frequency of autism (11.4%). The high rate of autistic disorders not known to occur in children exposed to alcohol or opiates alone suggests specific cocaine effects. PMID:1380564

  19. Abnormal subendocardial function in restrictive left ventricular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Henein, M Y; Gibson, D G

    1994-01-01

    patients with restrictive disease whether or not cavity size is increased. Not only are the extent and peak velocity of shortening reduced, but during diastole the peak early diastolic lengthening rate and amplitude during atrial systole are impaired. Early diastolic long axis motion is asynchronous with respect to transmitral flow and left ventricular minor axis. These effects will impair the overall left ventricular systolic and diastolic function independently of any decrease in passive cavity compliance. Unlike fibrosis, these long axis abnormalities are potentially amenable to treatment. PMID:7946773

  20. Interpreting genomic data via entropic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Rajeev K.; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of high-throughput genome sequencing platforms and more recently the next-generation platforms, the genome databases are growing at an astronomical rate. Tremendous efforts have been invested in recent years in understanding intriguing complexities beneath the vast ocean of genomic data. This is apparent in the spurt of computational methods for interpreting these data in the past few years. Genomic data interpretation is notoriously difficult, partly owing to the inherent heterogeneities appearing at different scales. Methods developed to interpret these data often suffer from their inability to adequately measure the underlying heterogeneities and thus lead to confounding results. Here, we present an information entropy-based approach that unravels the distinctive patterns underlying genomic data efficiently and thus is applicable in addressing a variety of biological problems. We show the robustness and consistency of the proposed methodology in addressing three different biological problems of significance—identification of alien DNAs in bacterial genomes, detection of structural variants in cancer cell lines and alignment-free genome comparison. PMID:23036836

  1. Ultrasound diagnosis of structural abnormalities in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Dugoff, Lorraine

    2002-04-01

    The advances in ultrasound technology have made it possible to identify fetal structural abnormalities and genetic syndromes in the first trimester. First trimester prenatal diagnosis of fetal central nervous system, renal, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities is reviewed. PMID:11981912

  2. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  3. Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157468.html Gene Abnormality May Be Key to Down Syndrome, Scientists Say Results might eventually lead to new ... abnormality that affects brain development in people with Down Syndrome, and they say this finding might lead to ...

  4. Familial myopathy with tubular aggregates associated with abnormal pupils.

    PubMed

    Shahrizaila, Nortina; Lowe, James; Wills, Adrian

    2004-09-28

    The authors describe familial tubular aggregate myopathy associated with abnormal pupils. Four family members from two generations had myopathy and pupillary abnormalities. The myopathologic findings consisted of tubular aggregates in many fibers but predominantly type I fibers. PMID:15452313

  5. NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

  6. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory, causal indicators are controversial and little understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning…

  7. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  8. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    simulator. The abnormal conditions considered in this work include locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, rudder, and throttle), structural damage of the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail, malfunctioning sensors, and reduced engine effectiveness. The results of applying the proposed approach to this wide range of abnormal conditions show its high capability in detecting the abnormal conditions with zero false alarms and very high detection rates, correctly identifying the failed subsystem and evaluating the type and severity of the failure. The results also reveal that the post-failure flight envelope can be reasonably predicted within this framework.

  9. Mechanisms of Normal and Abnormal Endometrial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation, is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. Progesterone also augments a second HESC hemostatic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In contrast, progestins inhibit HESC matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3 and 9 expression to stabilize endometrial stromal and vascular extracellular matrix. Through these mechanisms decidualized endometrium is rendered both hemostatic and resistant to excess trophoblast invasion in the mid-luteal phase and throughout gestation to prevent hemorrhage and accreta. In non-fertile cycles, progesterone withdrawal results in decreased HESC TF and PAI-expression and increased MMP activity and inflammatory cytokine production promoting the controlled hemorrhage of menstruation and related tissue sloughing. In contrast to these well ordered biochemical processes, unpredictable endometrial bleeding associated with anovulation reflects absence of progestational effects on TF, PAI-1 and MMP activity as well as unrestrained angiogenesis rendering the endometrium non-hemostatic, proteolytic and highly vascular. Abnormal bleeding associated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives results not from impaired hemostasis but from unrestrained angiogenesis leading to large fragile endometrial vessels. This abnormal angiogenesis reflects progestational inhibition of endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and generation of reactive oxygen species that increase production of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HESCs and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in endometrial endothelial cells while decreasing HESC expression of angiostatic, Ang-1. The resulting vessel fragility promotes bleeding. Aberrant angiogenesis also underlies abnormal bleeding associated with myomas and endometrial polyps however there are gaps in our understanding of this pathology. PMID:21499503

  10. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  11. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again. PMID:1754972

  12. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  13. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohns, Thomas J.; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E.; Lang, Iain A.; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Llewellyn, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992–93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991–1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997–1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25–50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35–1.66) and 1.09 (0.76–1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20–1.19) and 1.12 (0.79–1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84–4.54) and 0.73 (0.47–1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with

  14. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Thomas J; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E; Lang, Iain A; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H M; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Kuller, Lewis H; Langa, Kenneth M; Lopez, Oscar L; Llewellyn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35-1.66) and 1.09 (0.76-1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19) and 1.12 (0.79-1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54) and 0.73 (0.47-1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  15. Vicarious posttraumatic growth among interpreters.

    PubMed

    Splevins, Katie A; Cohen, Keren; Joseph, Stephen; Murray, Craig; Bowley, Jake

    2010-12-01

    An emerging evidence base indicates that posttraumatic growth might be experienced vicariously by those working alongside trauma survivors. In this study we explored the vicarious experiences of eight interpreters working in a therapeutic setting with asylum seekers and refugees. We adopted a qualitative approach, using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged from the findings: feeling what your client feels, beyond belief, finding your own way to deal with it, and a different person. Although all participants experienced distress, they also perceived themselves to have grown in some way. The implications for a theory of vicarious posttraumatic growth are discussed, along with clinical applications. PMID:20663936

  16. [Lived experience of women with fetal chromosomal abnormality receiving termination at second trimester].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mei; Su, Tsann-Juu; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Lonng

    2007-12-01

    Fetal chromosomal examination helps screen fetal chromosomal abnormalities prenatally. Diagnosis of such anomalies allows pregnancy termination, but causes tremendous trauma during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities who are urgently required to terminate their pregnancy. The qualitative field study was conducted at a medical center in Taipei. The researcher, a primary nurse, conducted interviews with five women face to face or over the phone to collect the data. The period of care lasted for two weeks, beginning with confirmed diagnosis of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, followed by the subjects' decision on pregnancy termination, and ending up with their discharge from the hospital. The study is presented in narrative form and the data analyzed using interpretive research strategies of phenomenology. Three categories of lived experience emerged from the data: (1) recurring nightmares, (2) the torment from making the decision of pregnancy termination, and (3) frustration or sadness afterwards. The results illustrated that the lived experience of the women suffering from fetal chromosomal abnormalities and receiving termination was a continuous process. We suggest that medical staff concern themselves with the issue and provide humanistic caring for patients during the various different phases. PMID:18098106

  17. Termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality: a meta-ethnography of women's experiences.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Due to technological advances in antenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities, more women face the prospect of terminating pregnancies on these grounds. Much existing research focuses on women's psychological adaptation to this event. However, there is a lack of holistic understanding of women's experiences. This article reports a systematic review of qualitative studies into women's experiences of pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Eight databases were searched up to April 2014 for peer-reviewed studies, written in English, that reported primary or secondary data, used identifiable and interpretative qualitative methods, and offered a valuable contribution to the synthesis. Altogether, 4,281 records were screened; 14 met the inclusion criteria. The data were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Four themes were identified: a shattered world, losing and regaining control, the role of health professionals and the power of cultures. Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality can be considered as a traumatic event that women experience as individuals, in their contact with the health professional community, and in the context of their politico-socio-legal environment. The range of emotions and experiences that pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality generates goes beyond the abortion paradigm and encompasses a bereavement model. Coordinated care pathways are needed that enable women to make their own decisions and receive supportive care. PMID:25555776

  18. scMRI Reveals Large-Scale Brain Network Abnormalities in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a ‘posteriorization’ of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI. PMID:23185305

  19. Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Penelope; McClaren, Belinda J; Hodgson, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have explored women's psychosocial experience of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality, and within this small group of studies it is rare for research to consider the embodied aspect of women's experiences. This paper reports on qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 59 women in Melbourne, Australia who received a prenatal diagnosis of a significant abnormality and decided to terminate the pregnancy. Interview transcripts were coded inductively through thematic analysis. Two themes about embodiment were generated from the interviews: transitioning embodiment, and vulnerable bodies in un/comfortable spaces. Theory of pregnant embodiment was drawn on in interpreting women's narratives. Recommendations arising from the analysis include health professionals recognising, acknowledging and accommodating the transitioning embodied state of women as they consider, prepare for, undergo and recover from pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality. Further recommendations address the connections and disconnections between this transitioning embodied state and the spaces of clinics, hospitals and home. PMID:27578350

  20. Normal versus Abnormal Genital Findings in Children: How Well Do Examiners Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Joyce A.; Wells, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Preselected colposcopic photographs of the anogenital area of 16 patients were shown to 170 medical examiners, who rated their level of suggestion or indication of penetrating injury. Agreement between the participants and experts was higher on the abnormal cases than on the normal cases, and higher on genital findings than on anal findings.…

  1. Forced expiratory flows' contribution to lung function interpretation in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Bernard; Koskas, Marc; Guillo, Houda; Maingot, Lucia; La Rocca, Marie-Claude; Boulé, Michèle; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle; Corinne, Alberti; Beydon, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Forced expiratory flow (FEF) at low lung volumes are supposed to be better at detecting lung-function impairment in asthmatic children than a forced volume. The aim of this study was to examine whether FEF results could modify the interpretation of baseline and post-bronchodilator spirometry in asthmatic schoolchildren in whom forced expiratory volumes are within the normal range. Spirometry, with post-bronchodilator vital capacity within 10% of that of baseline in healthy and asthmatic children, was recorded prospectively. We defined abnormal baseline values expressed as z-scores <-1.645, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) reversibility as a baseline increase >12%, FEF reversibility as an increase larger than the 2.5th percentile of post-bronchodilator changes in healthy children. Among 66 healthy and 50 asthmatic schoolchildren, only two (1.7%) children with normal vital capacity and no airways obstruction had abnormal baseline forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75%). After bronchodilation, among the 45 asthmatic children without FEV1 reversibility, 5 (11.1%) had an FEF25-75% increase that exceeded the reference interval. Isolated abnormal baseline values or significant post-bronchodilator changes in FEF are rare situations in asthmatic schoolchildren with good spirometry quality. PMID:25186269

  2. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  3. Integrative Interpretation of Vocational Interest Inventory Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Malcolm R.

    1978-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of interpretation of vocational interest inventory results. Data provide limited support for the hypotheses that integrative interpretation is most effective. Significant interactions exist between counselors and interpretation procedures. Failure to find significant differences between traditional-individual and…

  4. CHRONIC PERCHLORATE EXPOSURE CAUSES MORPHOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DEVELOPING STICKLEBACK

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Richard R.; Von Hippel, Frank A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of chronic perchlorate exposure during growth and development, and fewer still have analyzed the effects of perchlorate over multiple generations. We describe morphological and developmental characteristics for threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) that were spawned and raised to sexual maturity in perchlorate-treated water (G1,2003) and for their offspring (G2,2004) that were not directly treated with perchlorate. The G1,2003 displayed a variety of abnormalities, including impaired formation of calcified traits, slower growth rates, aberrant sexual development, poor survivorship, and reduced pigmentation that allowed internal organs to be visible. Yet these conditions were absent when the offspring of contaminated fish (G2,2004) were raised in untreated water, suggesting a lack of transgenerational effects and that surviving populations may be able to recover following remediation of perchlorate-contaminated sites PMID:21465539

  5. Abnormal thallium 201 scintigraphy during low-dose vasopressin infusions

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, R.; Kaplan, K.; Bines, A.; Spies, S.; Reed, M.T.; Lesch, M.

    1986-12-01

    Thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scans were obtained in 16 patients just prior to the discontinuation of a vasopressin infusion (.1 to .2 units/min) administered for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeat scintigraphy was performed two to three hours after the vasopressin was stopped. Eleven of the 16 patients (69 percent) demonstrated areas of decreased myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake that resolved after the infusion was stopped. Heart rate-blood pressure product was significantly lower at the time of the second scan. Autopsies were secured in three of 11 scan-positive patients: one had severe coronary artery obstruction, one nonsignificant disease, and another had normal coronary arteries. Vasopressin, even at low doses, can induce abnormalities in myocardial perfusion that are probably mediated by a direct effect on the coronary circulation. They are usually not detectable by routine monitoring techniques and conceivably form the basis for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with the use of this agent.

  6. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  8. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Peltomäki, Timo; Müller, Lukas; Luder, Hans U

    2009-02-01

    Deviations in the growth of the mandibular condyle can affect both the functional occlusion and the aesthetic appearance of the face. The reasons for these growth deviations are numerous and often entail complex sequences of malfunction at the cellular level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the understanding of pathological alterations occurring during childhood and adolescence that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and, hence, result in disorders of mandibular growth. Pathological conditions taken into account are subdivided into (1) congenital malformations with associated growth disorders, (2) primary growth disorders, and (3) acquired diseases or trauma with associated growth disorders. Among the congenital malformations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) appears to be the principal syndrome entailing severe growth disturbances, whereas growth abnormalities occurring in conjunction with other craniofacial dysplasias seem far less prominent than could be anticipated based on their often disfiguring nature. Hemimandibular hyperplasia and elongation undoubtedly constitute the most obscure conditions that are associated with prominent, often unilateral, abnormalities of condylar, and mandibular growth. Finally, disturbances of mandibular growth as a result of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and condylar fractures seem to be direct consequences of inflammatory and/or mechanical damage to the condylar cartilage. PMID:19164410

  9. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  10. Genetic abnormalities associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takafumi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs with high frequency in childhood and is associated with high mortality in adults. Recent technical advances in next-generation sequencing have shed light on genetic abnormalities in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as the precursor to ALL pathogenesis. Based on these genetic abnormalities, ALL is now being reclassified into newly identified subtypes. Philadelphia chromosome-like B-lineage ALL is one of the new high-risk subtypes characterized by genetic alterations that activate various signaling pathways, including those involving cytokine receptors, tyrosine kinases, and epigenetic modifiers. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL is essentially heterogeneous; however, deletion mutations in the IKZF1 gene encoding the transcription factor IKAROS underlie many cases as a key factor inducing aggressive phenotypes and poor treatment responses. Whole-genome sequencing studies of ALL patients and ethnically matched controls also identified inherited genetic variations in lymphoid neoplasm-related genes, which are likely to increase ALL susceptibility. These findings are directly relevant to clinical hematology, and further studies on this aspect could contribute to accurate diagnosis, effective monitoring of residual disease, and patient-oriented therapies. PMID:26991355

  11. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  12. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  13. Eye movement abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L; Zaccara, G; Ramacciotti, A B; Arnetoli, G

    1998-03-20

    The aim of the present study is to investigate smooth pursuit eye movement and saccadic performance in anorexia nervosa during a restored weight period and to determine if functional links can be made between eye movement performance and clinical features. SPEM parameters were recorded for 28 female anorectic out-patients (DSM IV), who had a body weight loss of up to 20% of ideal body weight. Twenty-eight comparison subjects were also tested. Clinically, each patient was assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Structured Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID II), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Hamilton Scale for Depression (HRSD). The anorectic patients performed slightly worse than the comparison subjects on a number of SPEM measures. No relationship was found between SPEM impairment and a global severity index of psychopathology (SCL 90-R GSI) or depressive symptoms. Moreover, OCD symptoms and scores on some EDI scales (such as perfectionism) appear related to the severity of the eye movement alterations. The evidence of SPEM abnormalities in a subgroup of anorectic patients during the remitted state and the relationship of the abnormalities to obsessive-compulsive symptoms are discussed. Results are in agreement with the hypothesis regarding the persistence of neurophysiological as well as psychopathological traits of disorder in anorectic patients. PMID:9579703

  14. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  15. [Classification and genetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298

  16. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with…

  17. IT1: An Interpretive Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, T. R.

    A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…

  18. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  19. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for…

  20. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  1. Interpretation of the Weyl tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2013-09-01

    According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

  2. Art Lessons: Learning To Interpret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    1999-01-01

    When required to interpret works of art, students arrive at a broad-based, well-grounded understanding of the nature, value, and meaning of art in their lives. Teachers should offer art works, like those of Amalia Mesa-Bains, Joseph Stella, and Beverly Buchanan, whose narratives are complex and challenging, but not conceptually dense or…

  3. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  4. EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

  5. Interpreting Hymns for Deaf Worshippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Madeline M.; Boster, Shirley

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special problems of interpreting hymns written in archaic English and then matching words of a translation to music. Addresses the question of whether competence in ASL and knowledge of signs for religious terms are sufficient for hymns to be of value to deaf worshippers. (EKN)

  6. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  7. Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

  8. Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Chloe

    1974-01-01

    The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

  10. What proportion of congenital abnormalities can be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, A E; Intôdy, Z; Modell, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the proportion of preventable congenital abnormalities in Hungary. DESIGN--Analysis of available Hungarian data-bases and of the effectiveness of primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive methods. SETTING--Databases of ad hoc epidemiological studies and of the Hungarian congenital abnormality registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence at birth and prevalence after prevention in 73 congenital abnormality types or groups. RESULTS--Preventive methods are available for 51 (70%) of the 73 congenital abnormality types or groups evaluated. The birth prevalence of all congenital abnormalities could be reduced from 65 to 26 per 1000; thus 39 per 1000 (60%) are preventable. Without congenital dislocation of the hip, which is unusually common in Hungary, the preventable proportion of congenital abnormalities is 52%. CONCLUSION--Many congenital abnormalities can be prevented, but as they do not represent a single pathological category there is no single strategy for their prevention. Images p502-a p503-a PMID:8448464

  11. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  12. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  13. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed Central

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B.; Avery, Gerard R.; Kastelik, Jack A.; Morjaria, Jaymin B.

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  14. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed

    Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2013-07-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  15. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  16. States of 13C with abnormal radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanova, A. S.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Goncharov, S. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Burtebaev, N.; Trzaska, W.; Heikkinen, P.; Tyurin, G. P.; Janseitov, D.; Gurov, Yu. B.

    2016-05-01

    Differential cross-sections of the elastic and inelastic 13C + α scattering were measured at E(α) = 90 MeV. The root mean-square radii() of 13C nucleus in the states: 8.86 (1/2-), 3.09 (1/2+) and 9.90 (3/2-) MeV were determined by the Modified diffraction model (MDM). The radii of the first two levels are enhanced compared to that of the ground state of 13C, confirming the suggestion that the 8.86 MeV state is an analogue of the Hoyle state in 12C and the 3.09 MeV state has a neutron halo. Some indications to the abnormally small size of the 9.90 MeV state were obtained.

  17. New understanding of the role of coincidence site lattice boundaries in abnormal grain growth of aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Soo; Park, Hyung-Ki; Shim, Hyung-Seok; Na, Tae-Wook; Han, Chan-Hee; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2015-04-01

    The sequential microstructure evolution of abnormal grain growth (AGG) in the aluminium alloy (AA5052) was investigated to analyse the migration behaviour of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries, which are known to play an important role in inducing AGG. The sequential evolution showed that CSL boundaries tend to disappear more slowly than general boundaries at the growth front of abnormally growing grains. Especially, the migration rate of Σ9 boundaries was noticeably low, which is contrary to the previous suggestions.

  18. Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, Reality S.

    The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing

  19. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L.; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ( vs. mmHg, ) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; vs. mmHg, ), and RV τ was significantly prolonged ( vs. ms, ). There were strong correlations between RV τ and RV minimum diastolic pressure (, ) and between RV τ and RVEDP (, ). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ( vs. mmHg/mL, ) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change (, ). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  20. Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?

    PubMed

    Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-09-01

    There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36 mm (range: 20-55 mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6 mm and 35 mm (mean of 20 mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function. PMID:21696338

  1. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  2. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  3. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  4. Pediatric DXA: technique and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique and interpretation with emphasis on the considerations unique to pediatrics. Specifically, the use of DXA in children requires the radiologist to be a “clinical pathologist” monitoring the technical aspects of the DXA acquisition, a “statistician” knowledgeable in the concepts of Z-scores and least significant changes, and a “bone specialist” providing the referring clinician a meaningful context for the numeric result generated by DXA. The patient factors that most significantly influence bone mineral density are discussed and are reviewed with respect to available normative databases. The effects the growing skeleton has on the DXA result are also presented. Most important, the need for the radiologist to be actively involved in the technical and interpretive aspects of DXA is stressed. Finally, the diagnosis of osteoporosis should not be made on DXA results alone but should take into account other patient factors. PMID:16715219

  5. Clinical Interpretation of Genomic Variations.

    PubMed

    Sayitoğlu, Müge

    2016-09-01

    Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies generate large-scale genomic data and are used extensively for disease mapping of monogenic and/or complex disorders, personalized treatment, and pharmacogenomics. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming routine tool for diagnosis and molecular monitoring of patients to evaluate therapeutic efficiency. The next-generation sequencing platforms generate huge amounts of genetic variation data and it remains a challenge to interpret the variations that are identified. Such data interpretation needs close collaboration among bioinformaticians, clinicians, and geneticists. There are several problems that must be addressed, such as the generation of new algorithms for mapping and annotation, harmonization of the terminology, correct use of nomenclature, reference genomes for different populations, rare disease variant databases, and clinical reports. PMID:27507302

  6. Paleomicrobiology Data: Authentification and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections. Indeed, the exploration of ancient microbiota and pathogens is best done by such laboratory teams, with research directed toward the discovery and implementation of new techniques and the interpretation of data. PMID:27337456

  7. Strategies for the automatic interpretation of handwritten addresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovner, Richard M.; Gillies, Andrew M.; Ganzberger, Margaret J.; Hepp, Daniel J.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the technologies and strategies underlying a state-of-the-art system for automatic handwritten address interpretation. The system is capable of interpreting both street addresses and post office box addresses. The input to the system is a grayscale image of a handwritten address and the goal is to determine the ZIP+4 code corresponding to the destination address on the mail piece. Processing is accomplished through an integrated series of steps involving preprocessing, numeral field recognition (ZIP codes, street numbers, post office box numbers), national postal database retrieval, word and phrase recognition, database record matching, and a decision strategy. In a formal test, this system encoded 38.7 percent of the mail pieces, with an encode error rate of 8.4 percent. Adjusting system parameters designed to tradeoff encode rate for error rate produces an encode rate of 33.8 percent with a 3.9 percent encode error rate.

  8. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.

    1985-07-01

    We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy and expert systems for power quality analysis and prediction of abnormal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Wael Refaat Anis

    The present research involves the development of several fuzzy expert systems for power quality analysis and diagnosis. Intelligent systems for the prediction of abnormal system operation were also developed. The performance of all intelligent modules developed was either enhanced or completely produced through adaptive fuzzy learning techniques. Neuro-fuzzy learning is the main adaptive technique utilized. The work presents a novel approach to the interpretation of power quality from the perspective of the continuous operation of a single system. The research includes an extensive literature review pertaining to the applications of intelligent systems to power quality analysis. Basic definitions and signature events related to power quality are introduced. In addition, detailed discussions of various artificial intelligence paradigms as well as wavelet theory are included. A fuzzy-based intelligent system capable of identifying normal from abnormal operation for a given system was developed. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy learning was applied to enhance its performance. A group of fuzzy expert systems that could perform full operational diagnosis were also developed successfully. The developed systems were applied to the operational diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors and rectifier bridges. A novel approach for learning power quality waveforms and trends was developed. The technique, which is adaptive neuro fuzzy-based, learned, compressed, and stored the waveform data. The new technique was successfully tested using a wide variety of power quality signature waveforms, and using real site data. The trend-learning technique was incorporated into a fuzzy expert system that was designed to predict abnormal operation of a monitored system. The intelligent system learns and stores, in compressed format, trends leading to abnormal operation. The system then compares incoming data to the retained trends continuously. If the incoming data matches any of the learned trends, an

  10. Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in clinical anxiety and comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Song, Inkyung; Blair Simpson, Helen; Posner, Jonathan; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-05-01

    Given the high prevalence rates of comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders, identifying a common neural pathway to both disorders is important not only for better diagnosis and treatment, but also for a more complete conceptualization of each disease. Hippocampal abnormalities have been implicated in anxiety and depression, separately; however, it remains unknown whether these abnormalities are also implicated in their comorbidity. Here we address this question by testing 32 adults with generalized anxiety disorder (15 GAD only and 17 comorbid MDD) and 25 healthy controls (HC) using multimodal MRI (structure, diffusion and functional) and automated hippocampal segmentation. We demonstrate that (i) abnormal microstructure of the CA1 and CA2-3 is associated with GAD/MDD comorbidity and (ii) decreased anterior hippocampal reactivity in response to repetition of the threat cue is associated with GAD (with or without MDD comorbidity). In addition, mediation-structural equation modeling (SEM) reveals that our hippocampal and dimensional symptom data are best explained by a model describing a significant influence of abnormal hippocampal microstructure on both anxiety and depression-mediated through its impact on abnormal hippocampal threat processing. Collectively, our findings show a strong association between changes in hippocampal microstructure and threat processing, which together may present a common neural pathway to comorbidity of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26743454

  11. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omnès, Roland

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  12. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  13. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  14. Computer Interpretations of ECGs in Rural Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-assisted interpretation of electrocardiograms offers theoretical benefits to rural physicians. This study compared computer-assisted interpretations by a rural physician certified to read ECGs with interpretations by the computer alone. The computer interpretation alone could have led to major errors in patient management, but was correct sufficiently often to warrant purchase by small rural hospitals. PMID:21221365

  15. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments. PMID:16639536

  16. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  17. Quantifiers are incrementally interpreted in context, more than less

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Thomas P.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Language interpretation is often assumed to be incremental. However, our studies of quantifier expressions in isolated sentences found N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) evidence for partial but not full immediate quantifier interpretation (Urbach & Kutas, 2010). Here we tested similar quantifier expressions in pragmatically supporting discourse contexts (Alex was an unusual toddler. Most/Few kids prefer sweets/vegetables…) while participants made plausibility judgments (Experiment 1) or read for comprehension (Experiment 2). Control Experiments 3A (plausibility) and 3B (comprehension) removed the discourse contexts. Quantifiers always modulated typical and/or atypical word N400 amplitudes. However, only the real-time N400 effects only in Experiment 2 mirrored offline quantifier and typicality crossover interaction effects for plausibility ratings and cloze probabilities. We conclude that quantifier expressions can be interpreted fully and immediately, though pragmatic and task variables appear to impact the speed and/or depth of quantifier interpretation. PMID:26005285

  18. Interpretation bias in Cluster-C and borderline personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Arntz, Arnoud; Weertman, Anoek; Salet, Sjoerd

    2011-08-01

    Cognitive therapy (CT) assumes that personality disorders (PDs) are characterized by interpretational biases that maintain the disorder. Changing interpretations is therefore a major aim of CT of PDs. This study tested whether Borderline PD (BPD), Avoidant and Dependent PD (AV/DEPD), and Obsessive-Compulsive PD (OCPD) are characterized by specific interpretations. Among the 122 participants there were 55 PD patients (17 BPD, 30 AV/DEPD, 29 OCPD diagnoses), 26 axis-1 patients, and 41 nonpatients. Participants put themselves into 10 scripts of negative events and noted feelings, thoughts and behaviors that came to mind. Next, they chose between hypothesized BPD-specific, AV/DEPD-specific, and OCPD-specific interpretations of each event (forced choice). Lastly, participants rated belief in each interpretation. Regression analyses revealed that forced choices and belief ratings supported the CT-model of BPD and AV/DEP: interpretations were specific. The alleged OCPD-beliefs were however not specifically related to OCPD, with relatively high popularity in axis-1 patients and nonpatients. The open responses were classified by judges blind for diagnoses, with the following results. BPD was characterized by low levels of solution-focused and healthy-flexible/accepting responses, and higher levels of criticizing others and malevolent interpretations of others. AV/DEPD was characterized by lower levels of solution-focused responses, and higher levels of self-criticism, negative emotions, guilt and fear of judgment, as well as lower levels of other-criticism. OCPD only showed trends for lower healthy responses, and higher compulsiveness and worry. It is concluded that the assumptions of CT are supported for BPD and AV/DEPD, but not - at least not on the explicit interpretational level - for OCPD. CT of OCPD might need a slightly different approach. PMID:21621746

  19. Analysis of GPS Abnormal Conditions within Fault Tolerant Control Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sinbol, Gahssan

    The Global Position System (GPS) is a critical element for the functionality of autonomous flying vehicles. The GPS operation at normal and abnormal conditions directly impacts the trajectory tracking performance of the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) controllers. The effects of GPS parameter variation must be well understood and user-friendly computational tools must be developed to facilitate the design and evaluation of fault tolerant control laws. This thesis presents the development of a simplified GPS error model in Matlab/Simulink and its use performing a sensitivity analysis of GPS parameters effect under system normal and abnormal operation on different UAV trajectory tracking controllers. The model statistically generates position and velocity errors, simulates the effect of GPS satellite configuration on the position and velocity measurement accuracy, and implements a set of failures to the GPS readings. The model and its graphical user interface was integrated within the WVU UAV simulation environment as a masked Simulink block. The effects on the controllers' trajectory tracking performance of the following GPS parameters were investigated within normal operation ranges and outside: time delay, update rate, error standard deviation, bias, and major position and velocity failures. Several sets of control laws with fixed and adaptive parameters and of different levels of complexity have been used in this investigation. A complex performance index formulated in terms of tracking errors and control activity was used for control laws performance evaluation. The composition of various metrics within the performance index was performed using fixed and variable weights depending on the local characteristics of the commanded trajectory. This study has revealed that GPS error parameters have a significant impact on control laws performance. The proposed GPS model has proved to be a valuable, flexible tool for testing and evaluation of the fault

  20. Radiology image perception and observer performance: How does expertise and clinical information alter interpretation? Stroke detection explored through eye-tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Lindsey; Gale, Alastair; Darker, Iain; Toms, Andoni; Saada, Janak

    2009-02-01

    Historically, radiology research has been dominated by chest and breast screening. Few studies have examined complex interpretative tasks such as the reading of multidimensional brain CT or MRI scans. Additionally, no studies at the time of writing have explored the interpretation of stroke images; from novices through to experienced practitioners using eye movement analysis. Finally, there appears a lack of evidence on the clinical effects of radiology reports and their influence on image appraisal and clinical diagnosis. A computer-based, eye-tracking study was designed to assess diagnostic accuracy and interpretation in stroke CT and MR imagery. Eight predetermined clinical cases, five images per case, were presented to participants (novices, trainee, and radiologists; n=8). The presence or absence of abnormalities was rated on a five-point Likert scale and their locations reported. Half cases of the cases were accompanied by clinical information; half were not, to assess the impact of information on observer performance. Results highlight differences in visual search patterns amongst novice, trainee and expert observers; the most marked differences occurred between novice readers and experts. Experts spent more time in challenging areas of interest (AOI) than novices and trainee, and were more confident unless a lesion was large and obvious. The time to first AOI fixation differed by size, shape and clarity of lesion. 'Time to lesion' dropped significantly when recognition appeared to occur between slices. The influence of clinical information was minimal.

  1. Statistical weld process monitoring with expert interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Strauss, A.M.; Thompson, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data of voltage, current, wire feed speed, gas flow rate, travel speed, and elapsed arc time collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. For purposes of quality control, the control limits required for acceptance are specified in the weld procedure acceptance specifications. The control charts then provide quality assurance documentation for each weld. The statistical data trending analysis performed by the SPC program is not only valuable as a quality assurance monitoring and documentation system, it is also valuable in providing diagnostic assistance in troubleshooting equipment and material problems. Possible equipment/process problems are identified and matched with features of the SPC control charts. To aid in interpreting the voluminous statistical output generated by the SPC system, a large number of If-Then rules have been devised for providing computer-based expert advice for pinpointing problems based on out-of-limit variations of the control charts. The paper describes the SPC monitoring tool and the rule-based expert interpreter that has been developed for relating control chart trends to equipment/process problems.

  2. Antenatal diagnosis and management of urinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Colodny, A H

    1987-10-01

    Although much time, effort, and money have been expended in the area of fetal surgery and even though considerable unfortunate media publicity has resulted, the actual clinical problem is not one of great magnitude. Currently all those interested in this area agree that consideration of any intrauterine manipulation or surgery should be reserved for a fetus who has bilateral involvement that is progressive, destructive, and associated with oligohydramnios. Except for rare instances, this eliminates all fetuses except those with some type of urethral obstruction. Significant urethral obstruction accounts for approximately 10 per cent of all patients who have a prenatal diagnosis of a urologic abnormality. Of this 10 per cent, some will not be progressive, some will not be destructive, some will not involve both kidneys, and some will not develop oligohydramnios. Some of these patients will be diagnosed early enough in pregnancy to allow termination of the pregnancy if the involvement is significant and if termination is acceptable to the family. Some will be diagnosed late enough in pregnancy so that if the lungs are mature or can be stimulated to mature, early delivery and postnatal management can be elected. Some will have other associated lethal anomalies that can be diagnosed and would preclude any consideration of intrauterine manipulation or therapy. Some will have irreversible renal failure. Occasionally, the mother may refuse any proposed intrauterine therapy. Thus we are probably considering, on a theoretic basis, well under 1 per cent of all fetuses who have a prenatal diagnosis of urologic abnormalities. There may be some unusual situations that justify intrauterine manipulation. One that we encountered involved a fetus with an abdominal mass so large that a cesarean section was deemed necessary (Figs. 12 and 13). Aspiration of the mass just before delivery was performed to allow a vaginal delivery. Another case involved a pregnant woman who developed

  3. Functional Neuroimaging Abnormalities in Psychosis Spectrum Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Calkins, Monica E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Jackson, Chad; Prabhakaran, Karthik; Bilker, Warren B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical-risk individuals and in schizophrenia. Functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based PS samples, and can help understand the neural architecture of psychosis more broadly, and identify brain phenotypes beyond symptomatology that are associated with the extended psychosis phenotype. Objective To examine the categorical and dimensional relationships of PS symptoms to prefrontal hypoactivation during working memory and to amygdala hyperactivation during threat emotion processing. Design The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a genotyped prospectively accrued population-based sample of nearly 10,000 youths, who received a structured psychiatric evaluation and a computerized neurocognitive battery. A subsample of 1,445 subjects underwent neuroimaging including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks examined here. Setting The PNC is a collaboration between The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Participants Youths ages 11–22 years identified through structured interview as having psychosis-spectrum features (PS, n=260), and typically developing comparison subjects without significant psychopathology (TD, n=220). Main Outcomes and Measures Two fMRI paradigms were utilized, a fractal n-back working memory task probing executive system function, and an emotion identification task probing amygdala responses to threatening faces. Results In the n-back task, PS showed reduced activation in executive control circuitry, which correlated with cognitive deficits. During emotion identification, PS demonstrated elevated amygdala responses to threatening facial expressions, which correlated with positive symptom severity. Conclusions and Relevance The pattern of

  4. Novel Logistic Regression Model of Chest CT Attenuation Coefficient Distributions for the Automated Detection of Abnormal (Emphysema or ILD) versus Normal Lung

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Jiao, Feiran; Mikulski, Marek A.; Gerke, Alicia; Guo, Junfeng; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A.; Thompson, Brad; Lee, Chang Hyun; Fuortes, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives We evaluated the role of automated quantitative computed tomography (CT) scan interpretation algorithm in detecting Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and/or emphysema in a sample of elderly subjects with mild lung disease.ypothesized that the quantification and distributions of CT attenuation values on lung CT, over a subset of Hounsfield Units (HU) range [−1000 HU, 0 HU], can differentiate early or mild disease from normal lung. Materials and Methods We compared results of quantitative spiral rapid end-exhalation (functional residual capacity; FRC) and end-inhalation (total lung capacity; TLC) CT scan analyses in 52 subjects with radiographic evidence of mild fibrotic lung disease to 17 normal subjects. Several CT value distributions were explored, including (i) that from the peripheral lung taken at TLC (with peels at 15 or 65mm), (ii) the ratio of (i) to that from the core of lung, and (iii) the ratio of (ii) to its FRC counterpart. We developed a fused-lasso logistic regression model that can automatically identify sub-intervals of [−1000 HU, 0 HU] over which a CT value distribution provides optimal discrimination between abnormal and normal scans. Results The fused-lasso logistic regression model based on (ii) with 15 mm peel identified the relative frequency of CT values over [−1000, −900] and that over [−450,−200] HU as a means of discriminating abnormal versus normal, resulting in a zero out-sample false positive rate and 15%false negative rate of that was lowered to 12% by pooling information. Conclusions We demonstrated the potential usefulness of this novel quantitative imaging analysis method in discriminating ILD and/or emphysema from normal lungs. PMID:26776294

  5. Topical steroids for chronic wounds displaying abnormal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraj, A; Richards, AJ; Riddell, A; Saravolac, VM; Harding, KG

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic, non-healing wounds are often characterised by an excessive, and detrimental, inflammatory response. We review our experience of using a combined topical steroid, antibiotic and antifungal preparation in the treatment of chronic wounds displaying abnormal and excessive inflammation. Methods A retrospective review was undertaken of all patients being treated with a topical preparation containing a steroid (clobetasone butyrate 0.05%), antibiotic and antifungal at a tertiary wound healing centre over a ten-year period. Patients were selected as the primary treating physician felt the wounds were displaying excessive inflammation. Healing rates were calculated for before and during this treatment period for each patient. Changes in symptom burden (pain, odour and exudate levels) following topical application were also calculated. Results Overall, 34 ulcers were identified from 25 individual patients (mean age: 65 years, range: 37–97 years) and 331 clinic visits were analysed, spanning a total time of 14,670 days (7,721 days ‘before treatment’ time, 6,949 days ‘during treatment’ time). Following treatment, 24 ulcers demonstrated faster rates of healing, 3 ulcers showed no significant change in healing rates and 7 were healing more slowly (p=0.0006). Treatment generally reduced the burden of pain and exudate, without affecting odour. Conclusions In normal wound healing, inflammation represents a transient but essential phase of tissue repair. In selected cases, direct application of a steroid containing agent has been shown to improve healing rates, presumably by curtailing this phase. Further evaluation is required to establish the role of preparations containing topical steroids without antimicrobials in the management of chronic wounds. PMID:23676816

  6. Abnormal movements in first-episode, nonaffective psychosis: dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Fantes, Francisco; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Johnson, Stephanie; Walker, Elaine F

    2015-03-30

    Motor abnormalities represent a neurobehavioral domain of signs intrinsic to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, though they are commonly attributed to medication side effects and remain understudied. Individuals with first-episode psychosis represent an ideal group to study innate movement disorders due to minimal prior antipsychotic exposure. We measured dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs and examined their associations with: (1) age at onset of psychotic symptoms and duration of untreated psychosis; (2) positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms; (3) neurocognition; and (4) neurological soft signs. Among 47 predominantly African American first-episode psychosis patients in a public-sector hospital, the presence and severity of dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like features were assessed using approximately 30-min video recordings. Movement abnormalities were rated utilizing three scales (Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale, Stereotypy Checklist, and Catatonia Rating Scale). Correlational analyses were conducted. Scores for each of three movement abnormality types were modestly inter-correlated (r=0.29-0.40). Stereotypy score was significantly associated with age at onset of psychotic symptoms (r=0.32) and positive symptom severity scores (r=0.29-0.41). There were no meaningful or consistent associations with negative symptom severity, neurocognition, or neurological soft signs. Abnormal movements appear to represent a relatively distinct phenotypic domain deserving of further research. PMID:25619434

  7. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. PMID:19002453

  8. Interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østvang, Dag

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that for Robertson-Walker models with flat or closed space sections, all of the cosmological spectral shift can be attributed to the non-flat connection (and thus indirectly to space-time curvature). For Robertson-Walker models with hyperbolic space sections, it is shown that cosmological spectral shifts uniquely split up into "kinematic" and "gravitational" parts provided that distances are small. For large distances no such unique split-up exists in general. A number of common, but incorrect assertions found in the literature regarding interpretations of cosmological spectral shifts, is pointed out.

  9. A Control Model: Interpretation of Fitts' Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical results for several models are given: a first order model where it is assumed that the hand velocity can be directly controlled, and a second order model where it is assumed that the hand acceleration can be directly controlled. Two different types of control-laws are investigated. One is linear function of the hand error and error rate; the other is the time-optimal control law. Results show that the first and second order models with the linear control-law produce a movement time (MT) function with the exact form of the Fitts' Law. The control-law interpretation implies that the effect of target width on MT must be a result of the vertical motion which elevates the hand from the starting point and drops it on the target at the target edge. The time optimal control law did not produce a movement-time formula simular to Fitt's Law.

  10. Abnormal high density lipoproteins in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, V.; Salen, G.; Cheng, F.W.; Forte, T.; Shefer, S.; Tint, G.S.

    1981-11-01

    The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The adnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profiles and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.

  11. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  12. Update: consequences of abnormal fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Chernausek, Steven D

    2012-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is prevalent worldwide and affects children and adults in multiple ways. These include predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, persistent reduction in stature, and possibly changes in the pattern of puberty. A review of recent literature confirms that the metabolic effects of being born small for gestational age are evident in the very young, persist with age, and are amplified by adiposity. Furthermore, the pattern of growth in the first few years of life has a significant bearing on a person's later health, with those that show increasing weight gain being at the greatest risk for future metabolic dysfunction. Treatment with exogenous human GH is used to improve height in children who remain short after being small for gestational age at birth, but the response of individuals remains variable and difficult to predict. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic programming of IUGR children are just beginning to be explored. It appears that IUGR leads to widespread changes in DNA methylation and that specific "epigenetic signatures" for IUGR are likely to be found in various fetal tissues. The challenge is to link such alterations with modifications in gene expression and ultimately the metabolic abnormalities of adulthood, and it represents one of the frontiers for research in the field. PMID:22238390

  13. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection. PMID:22152445

  14. Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, A; Fombonne, E

    1998-09-01

    In order to identify factors associated with the early detection and referral of children with pervasive developmental disorders, a sample of 82 consecutive referrals to an outpatient diagnostic service was studied. All children were thoroughly assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), standardized psychological tests and direct observations. Data from the ADI on the first symptoms to arouse parental concern and on the first professional advice sought were analyzed. The mean age of children was 19.1 months (SD = 9.4) when the parents first became concerned, and the first professional advice was sought when children were 24.1 months old (SD = 11.7). The most common parental concerns were for speech and language development, followed by abnormal socio-emotional response, and medical problem or delay in milestone. In both bivariate and multiple regression analyses, the mean age of children at first parental concern and professional advice was significantly lower in the presence of mental retardation in the child, of an older sibling in the family, and of first parental concerns for medical problem/delay in milestone. More specific autistic behaviours, child's gender, social class and place of residence did not influence the age of recognition of the disorder in this sample. Health visitors and general practitioners were the first professionals contacted by parents. The implications of these findings for early detection and diagnosis of autism are discussed. PMID:9826299

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  16. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  17. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  18. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  19. Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, A

    1985-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

  20. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  1. Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, C S; ten Cate, C

    1998-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that inappropriate rearing and housing conditions may lead to behavioral abnormalities. Together these data indicate that behavioral abnormalities occur among both wild-caught and domesticated pet birds. The severity and magnitude of these abnormalities is probably underestimated, and there is a need for systematic studies on the nature, origin, variability, species-specificity, and reversibility of behavioral problems in pet birds. Abnormal behavior in caged birds may to some extent be prevented and reduced by environmental enrichment. However, most enrichment studies are anecdotal and not based on a thorough analysis of the behavioral abnormalities, which may lead to measures resulting in a reduction of symptoms rather than the underlying causes. Although it is likely that several of these problems could be reduced by modifying rearing and housing conditions, the current insights into the causal mechanisms underlying abnormal behavior of domesticated and wild-caught pet birds are limited, as are the insights into the possibilities of preventing or curing abnormal behavior. PMID:16363987

  2. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  3. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  4. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  5. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  6. 44 CFR 61.14 - Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Insurance... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.14 Standard Flood Insurance Policy Interpretations....

  7. The appreciation of imagery by schizophrenics: an interpretation of Goldstein's impairment of the abstract attitude.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Ryan, K

    1982-08-01

    Three experiments are reported in which schizophrenics are compared with other psychiatric patients on (i) the imagery value of words in their speech, (ii) their memory for words differing in imagery value, and (iii) their ability to distinguish the imagery value of two words. The study was designed to evaluate a neglected interpretation of Goldstein's ideas that schizophrenics are more concrete, in that their 'action is determined by momentary sense impressions'. The results gave no support for this interpretation and it is suggested that an abnormal way of categorizing the world is more likely to be a useful way of formulating Goldstein's ideas. PMID:7134315

  8. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities. PMID:9684093

  9. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  10. Dynamical interpretation of conditional patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, R. J.; Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.

    1988-01-01

    While great progress is being made in characterizing the 3-D structure of organized turbulent motions using conditional averaging analysis, there is a lack of theoretical guidance regarding the interpretation and utilization of such information. Questions concerning the significance of the structures, their contributions to various transport properties, and their dynamics cannot be answered without recourse to appropriate dynamical governing equations. One approach which addresses some of these questions uses the conditional fields as initial conditions and calculates their evolution from the Navier-Stokes equations, yielding valuable information about stability, growth, and longevity of the mean structure. To interpret statistical aspects of the structures, a different type of theory which deals with the structures in the context of their contributions to the statistics of the flow is needed. As a first step toward this end, an effort was made to integrate the structural information from the study of organized structures with a suitable statistical theory. This is done by stochastically estimating the two-point conditional averages that appear in the equation for the one-point probability density function, and relating the structures to the conditional stresses. Salient features of the estimates are identified, and the structure of the one-point estimates in channel flow is defined.

  11. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  12. Clinical predictors of radiographic abnormalities among infants with bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute viral respiratory exacerbation is one of the most common conditions encountered in a paediatric emergency department (PED) during winter months. We aimed at defining clinical predictors of chest radiography prescription and radiographic abnormalities, among infants with bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children less than 2 years of age with clinical bronchiolitis, who presented for evaluation at the paediatric emergency department of an urban general hospital in France. Detailed information regarding historical features, examination findings, and management were collected. Clinical predictors of interest were explored in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Among 410 chest radiographs blindly interpreted by two experts, 40 (9.7%) were considered as abnormal. Clinical predictors of chest radiography achievement were age (under three months), feeding difficulties, fever over 38°C, hypoxia under than 95% of oxygen saturation, respiratory distress, crackles, and bronchitis rales. Clinical predictors of radiographic abnormalities were fever and close to significance hypoxia and conjunctivitis. Conclusion Our study provides arguments for reducing chest radiographs in infants with bronchiolitis. For infants with clinical factors such as age less than three months, feeding difficulties, respiratory distress without hypoxia, isolated crackles or bronchitis rales, careful clinical follow-up should be provided instead of chest radiography. PMID:24906343

  13. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and QTc Interval in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yuxin; Zou, Jianzhou; Liang, Yixiu; Shen, Bo; Liu, Zhonghua; Cao, Xuesen; Chen, Xiaohong; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death is one of the primary causes of mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Prolonged QTc interval is associated with increased rate of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this article is to assess the abnormalities found in electrocardiograms (ECGs), and to explore factors that can influence the QTc interval. Methods A total of 141 conventional HD patients were enrolled in this study. ECG tests were conducted on each patient before a single dialysis session and 15 minutes before the end of dialysis session (at peak stress). Echocardiography tests were conducted before dialysis session began. Blood samples were drawn by phlebotomy immediately before and after the dialysis session. Results Before dialysis, 93.62% of the patients were in sinus rhythm, and approximately 65% of the patients showed a prolonged QTc interval (i.e., a QTc interval above 440 ms in males and above 460ms in females). A comparison of ECG parameters before dialysis and at peak stress showed increases in heart rate (77.45±11.92 vs. 80.38±14.65 bpm, p = 0.001) and QTc interval (460.05±24.53 ms vs. 470.93±24.92 ms, p<0.001). After dividing patients into two groups according to the QTc interval, lower pre-dialysis serum concentrations of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus, calcium* phosphorus (Ca*P), and higher concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were found in the group with prolonged QTc intervals. Patients in this group also had a larger left atrial diameter (LAD) and a thicker interventricular septum, and they tended to be older than patients in the other group. Then patients were divided into two groups according to ΔQTc (ΔQTc = QTc peak-stress- QTc pre-HD). When analyzing the patients whose QTc intervals were longer at peak stress than before HD, we found that they had higher concentrations of Ca2+ and P5+ and lower concentrations of K+, ferritin, UA, and BNP. They were also more likely to be female. In addition, more cardiac

  14. Association of coexisting morphological umbilical cord abnormality and clinical cord compromise with hypoxic and thrombotic placental histology.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    To assess the usefulness and limitations of placental histology when morphological umbilical cord (UC) abnormality coexists with clinical UC compromise, 5634 consecutive placentas were divided into four groups and statistically compared: group 1-182 placentas from pregnancies with clinical features of UC compromise (variable decelerations, UC entanglement, prolapse, or true knot at delivery); group 2-1355 placentas with abnormal UC morphology or insertion; group 3-152 placentas with at least one phenotype from group 1 and one from group 2; group 4-3945 placentas with no clinical or morphological UC-related phenotypes (control group).Differences were analyzed by ANOVA or χ (2). Of 68 phenotypes studied, 13 clinical and 18 placental phenotypes were statistically significant. In group 1, 2 phenotypes were most common (oligohydramnios and abnormal fetal heart rate tracing). In group 2, 6 phenotypes were most common, including 4 clinical (abnormal umbilical artery Dopplers, nonmacerated stillbirth, multiple pregnancy, and fetal growth restriction) and 2 placental. In group 3, 23 phenotypes were most common, including 7 clinical (gestational hypertension, polyhydramnios, induction of labor, cesarean section, macerated stillbirth, congenital malformations, and abnormal 3rd stage of labor) and 16 placental. The existence of clinical signs of UC compromise alone was associated with the absence of pathomorphological placental abnormalities. However, the coexistence of clinical and abnormal morphological UC phenotypes was statistically significantly associated with placental histological signs of decreased fetal blood flow, hypoxia (acute and chronic post uterine), shallow placental implantation, and/or amnion nodosum. Thus, confirmation of clinical UC compromise should not be expected on placental examination if no morphological UC abnormality or abnormal UC insertion has been found. PMID:26983702

  15. Placental abnormalities in equine pregnancies generated by SCNT from one donor horse.

    PubMed

    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Sheppard, Barbara; Hinrichs, Katrin; Kelleman, Audrey A; Macpherson, Margo L; Runcan, Erin; Choi, Young-Ho; Diaw, Mouhamadou; Mathews, Philip M

    2016-10-01

    Placental changes associated with SCNT have been described in several species, but little information is available in this area in the horse. We evaluated the ultrasonographic, gross, and histopathological characteristics of placentas from three successful and five unsuccessful equine SCNT pregnancies, established using cells from a single donor horse. Starting at approximately 6-month gestation, the pregnancies were monitored periodically using transrectal (TR) and transabdominal (TA) ultrasonography (US) to examine the placentas, fetal fluids, and fetuses. Of the five mares that aborted, one mare did so suddenly without any abnormal signs detected by US and four had enlarged umbilical vessels visible on TA-US before abortion. Placental edema (TR-US) and intravascular thrombi in the umbilical cords were seen (TA-US) in two of these four mares; one mare aborted shortly after acute placental separation was identified on TA-US. In three mares that delivered live foals, TA-US showed engorged allantoic vessels and enlarged umbilical vessels. Two of these mares had placental thickening visible on TR-US, interpreted as a sign of placentitis, that subsided after aggressive medical treatment. Seven of the eight placentas were submitted for gross and histopathological examinations after delivery. All placentas had some degree of edema, abnormally engorged allantoic vessels, and enlarged umbilical vessels. Placentitis, large allantoic vesicles, cystic pouches in the fetal part of the cord, and hemorrhages and thrombi in the umbilical vessels were detected only in placentas from mares that aborted. Equine pregnancies resulting from SCNT may be associated with placental pathologies that can be detected using ultrasonography. However, interpreting their severity is difficult. Although placental abnormalities have been observed in SCNT pregnancies in other species, to the best of our knowledge, placentitis has not been previously reported and may be an important complication of

  16. Executive function abnormalities in pathological gamblers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by persistent and maladaptive gambling behaviors with disruptive consequences for familial, occupational and social functions. The pathophysiology of PG is still unclear, but it is hypothesized that it might include environmental factors coupled with a genetic vulnerability and dysfunctions of different neurotransmitters and selected brain areas. Our study aimed to evaluate a group of patients suffering from PG by means of some neuropsychological tests in order to explore the brain areas related to the disorder. Methods Twenty outpatients (15 men, 5 women), with a diagnosis of PG according to DSM-IV criteria, were included in the study and evaluated with a battery of neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Wechsler Memory Scale revised (WMS-R) and the Verbal Associative Fluency Test (FAS). The results obtained in the patients were compared with normative values of matched healthy control subjects. Results The PG patients showed alterations at the WCST only, in particular they had a great difficulty in finding alternative methods of problem-solving and showed a decrease, rather than an increase, in efficiency, as they progressed through the consecutive phases of the test. The mean scores of the other tests were within the normal range. Conclusion Our findings showed that patients affected by PG, in spite of normal intellectual, linguistic and visual-spatial abilities, had abnormalities emerging from the WCST, in particular they could not learn from their mistakes and look for alternative solutions. Our results would seem to confirm an altered functioning of the prefrontal areas which might provoke a sort of cognitive "rigidity" that might predispose to the development of impulsive and/or compulsive behaviors, such as those typical of PG. PMID:18371193

  17. Myocardial bioenergetic abnormalities in experimental uremia

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, Alistair MS; Harwood, Steven M; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac bioenergetics are known to be abnormal in experimental uremia as exemplified by a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio. However, the progression of these bioenergetic changes during the development of uremia still requires further study and was therefore investigated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy (PNx). Methods A two-stage PNx uremia model in male Wistar rats was used to explore in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscles’ bioenergetic changes over time. High-energy phosphate nucleotides were determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Results 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed lower PCr/ATP ratios in PNx hearts compared to sham (SH)-operated animals 4 weeks after PNx (median values given ± SD, 0.64±0.16 PNx, 1.13±0.31 SH, P<0.02). However, 8 weeks after PNx, the same ratio was more comparable between the two groups (0.84±0.15 PNx, 1.04±0.44 SH, P= not significant), suggestive of an adaptive mechanism. When 8-week hearts were prestressed with dobutamine, the PCr/ATP ratio was again lower in the PNx group (1.08±0.36 PNx, 1.55±0.38 SH, P<0.02), indicating a reduced energy reserve during the progression of uremic heart disease. 31P-NMR data were confirmed by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the changes in myocardial bioenergetics were replicated in the skeletal muscle. Conclusion This study provides evidence of the changes that occur in myocardial energetics in experimental uremia and highlights how skeletal muscle bioenergetics mirror those found in the cardiac tissue and so might potentially serve as a practical surrogate tissue during clinical cardiac NMR investigations. PMID:27307758

  18. Seeing through the eyes of anxious individuals: an investigation of anxiety-related interpretations of emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Mitte, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of emotional states is necessary for successful social communication. Often individuals interpret emotional expressions intuitively and without full cognitive awareness. The aim of the present study was to test whether anxiety would influence affect interpretation in the manner suggested by interpretation bias-the tendency to interpret ambiguous cues in a threatening way. Interpretation of social cues was assessed with the similarity rating task (simtask) in two studies (n1 = 116, n2 = 76). The similarity ratings were analysed with a multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach, and the effects of anxiety on the interpretation of emotional expressions were analysed with multilevel modelling. The results of both studies showed evidence for an anxiety-related interpretation bias. High-anxious individuals tended to interpret milder threats as more negative than low-anxious individuals did. The consequences for anxiety research are discussed. PMID:24499045

  19. Interpreting in the Spirit of ADA!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Amanda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses work on a pilot project to develop guidelines for accessible interpretation that integrates disabled and mainstream visitors. Discusses program and facility designs and suggests ways to make existing interpretive programs more accessible to visitors with disabilities. (LZ)

  20. CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

  1. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

  2. Interpretation of rapidly rotating pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F. . Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik); Glendenning, N.K. )

    1992-08-05

    The minimum possible rotational period of pulsars, which are interpreted as rotating neutron stars, is determined by applying a representative collection of realistic nuclear equations of state. It is found that none of the selected equations of state allows for neutron star rotation at periods below 0.8--0.9 ms. Thus, this work strongly supports the suggestion that if pulsars with shorter rotational periods were found, these are likely to be strange-quark-matter stars. The conclusion that the confined hadronic phase of nucleons and nuclei is only metastable would then be almost inescapable, and the plausible ground-state in that event is the deconfined phase of (3-flavor) strange-quark-matter.

  3. The interpretation of biological surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Biological surveys provide the raw material for assembling ecological patterns. These include the properties of parameters such as range, abundance, dispersion, evenness and diversity; the relationships between these parameters; the relationship between geographical distributions and landscape structure; and the co-occurrence of species. These patterns have often been used in the past to evaluate the role of ecological processes in structuring natural communities. In this paper, I investigate the patterns produced by simple neutral community models (NCMs) and compare them with the output of systematic biological surveys. The NCM generates qualitatively, and in some cases quantitatively, the same patterns as the survey data. It therefore provides a satisfactory general theory of diversity and distribution, although what patterns can be used to distinguish neutral from adaptationist interpretations of communities, or even whether such patterns exist, remains unclear. PMID:14728774

  4. Proverb interpretation changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-06-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three age groups were assessed on a proverb comprehension task and a range of executive function tasks. The older group showed impairment in selecting correct interpretations from alternatives. They also showed executive function deficits, as reflected by reduced working memory and deficient set shifting and inhibition abilities. The findings of the present investigation showed proverb comprehension deficits in normal aging which appeared to be related to reduced executive skills. PMID:18164527

  5. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  6. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  7. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  8. Autosomal Chromosome Abnormality: A Cause of Birth Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumridge, Diane

    Intended for parents and professionals, the book explains chromosome abnormalities in lay terms and discusses the relationship of specific conditions to birth defects. Chromosomal abnormalities are defined and factors in diagnosis and recurrence are discussed. Normal chromosome reproduction processes are covered while such numerical abnormalities…

  9. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  10. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  11. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Cancer.gov

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  12. Retrospective analysis of lung function abnormalities of Bhopal gas tragedy affected population

    PubMed Central

    De, Sajal

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: A large numbers of subjects were exposed to the aerosol of methyl isocyanate (MIC) during Bhopal gas disaster and lung was one of the most commonly affected organs. The aim of the present study was to analyze retrospectively the lung function abnormalities among the surviving MIC exposed population (gas victims) and to compare it with the non-MIC exposed (non gas exposed) population. Methods: The spirometry data of both gas victims and non gas exposed population who attended the Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre for evaluation of their respiratory complaints from August 2001 to December 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and compared. Results: A total 4782 gas victims and 1190 non gas exposed individuals performed spirometry during the study period. Among the gas victims, obstructive pattern was the commonest (50.8%) spirometric abnormality followed by restrictive pattern (13.3%). The increased relative risk of developing restrictive abnormality among gas victims was observed in 20-29 yr age group only (adjusted relative risk: 2.94, P<0.001). Male gas victims were more affected by severe airflow obstruction than females and the overall increased relative risk (1.33 to 1.45, P<0.001) of developing obstructive pattern among gas victims was observed. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed that the relative risk for pulmonary function abnormalities in gas victims was significantly more among those who were young at the time of disaster. Increased smoking habit among gas victims might have played an additive effect on predominance of obstructive pattern in spirometry. PMID:22446861

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities & oxidative stress in women with premature ovarian failure (POF)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Dhananjay; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Kriplani, Alka; Ammini, A.C.; Dada, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as the cessation of ovarian function under the age of 40 yr and is characterized by amenorrhoea, hypoestrogenism and elevated serum gonadotrophin levels. The cause of POF remains undetermined in majority of the cases. This study was aimed to investigate the type and frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic POF and also to study the role of oxidative stress in such cases. Methods: Seventy five women with idiopathic POF were included in this study. Chromosome analysis was done in peripheral blood lymphocytes by conventional GTG banding to identify numerical or structural abnormalities. Cytogenetically normal cases were investigated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in their blood by luminol-chemiluminescence assay. Results: Eighteen chromosomal anomalies were identified in POF patients (24%). Majority of the cases were found to have X-chromosome abnormalities (28%). Overall median ROS range was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) in POF patients [50480 (120,132966) RLU/min] compared to controls [340 (120,5094) RLU/min]. Among these, 50 per cent of the POF patients had higher ROS levels, 20 per cent had medium elevation and 30 per cent were found to have normal values comparable to controls. Interpretation & conclusions: X-chromosome anomalies were found to be the major contributor of POF. Oxidative stress may be the underlying aetiology in idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Thus the results of this study highlight the role of cytogenetic abnormalities and supraphysiological levels of ROS in causation of idiopathic POF. But the role of oxidative stress needs to be confirmed by other studies on patients from different geographical areas and from different ethnicities. PMID:22382189

  14. 10 CFR 1016.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 1016.7 Section 1016.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 1016.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of Energy in writing, no interpretation of...

  15. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  16. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  17. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  18. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  19. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  20. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...