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Sample records for abnormal intestinal permeability

  1. Alterations in Intestinal Permeability After Thermal Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    intestinal permeability has been documented in the infected group. Our finding of increased intestinal many clinical states, including celiac disease ...Crohn’s permeability before the episode of infection suggests, but disease , and other intestinal mucosal disorders.6,7 It was does not prove, a causal...permeability to sugars in patients with Crohn’s disease ofresult in endotoxemia only in those patients who develop the terminal ileus and colon. Digestion

  2. Intestinal Permeability and Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 in Children with Autism: A Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Marli A.; Sigalet, David L.; Holst, Jens J.; Meddings, Jon B.; Wood, Julie; Sharkey, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    We measured small intestinal permeability using a lactulose:mannitol sugar permeability test in a group of children with autism, with current or previous gastrointestinal complaints. Secondly, we examined whether children with autism had an abnormal glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) response to feeding. Results were compared with sibling controls…

  3. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal permeability and nutritional status in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Souza, Nilian Carla Silva; Mendonca, Jacqueline Nakau; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with a possible connection between dietary components and triggering or worsening of symptoms. An altered intestinal permeability might allow absorption of incompletely digested peptides (gluten and casein) that could produce opioid-like activity on the brain, causing significant changes in behavior. To assess the intestinal permeability and nutritional status of participants with developmental disorders to determine if changes in the intestinal mucosal barrier and/or injury to the intercellular junctions have occurred that might justify application of further dietary modifications. To assess intestinal permeability, the research team analyzed participants urine under fasting conditions, using gas chromatography to determine chromatographic peaks. To assess nutritional status, the team determined participants heights and weights and performed a bioelectric bioimpedance examination at least 4 hours after their most recent meal. In addition, the team determined food intake using three diet diaries. They asked participants and caregivers to register each food consumed during 2 nonconsecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. The study occurred at the Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University. Seven participants aged 9 to 23 years with developmental disorders (the developmental group, DG) completed the study. The research team recruited them through the Association of Friends of the Autistic Persons of Ribeirao Preto in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. The control group (CG) consisted of nonsmoking healthy volunteers in the general population who were similar in age to the experimental group and did not suffer from diseases that potentially could influence nutritional status and intestinal function. To assess intestinal permeability, participants ingested 150 mL of an isosmolar solution of the sugars mannitol (2 g) and lactulose (7.5 g) under fasting conditions and the researchers collected all voided urine over a period of 5 hours

  5. Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Bode, J. Christian; Bode, Christiane; Brenner, David A.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Hamilton, Frank; Kang, Y. James; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rao, Radhakrishna; Sartor, R. Balfour; Swanson, Christine; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a summary of the symposium on Alcohol, Intestinal Bacterial Growth, Intestinal Permeability to Endotoxin, and Medical Consequences, organized by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Dietary Supplements, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 11, 2006. Alcohol exposure can promote the growth of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine which may result in accumulation of endotoxin. In addition, alcohol metabolism by Gram negative bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde, which in turn can increase intestinal permeability to endotoxin by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction and adherens junction proteins. Alcohol-induced generation of nitric oxide may also contribute to increased permeability to endotoxin by reacting with tubulin, which may cause damage to microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequent disruption of intestinal barrier function. Increased intestinal permeability can lead to increased transfer of endotoxin from the intestine to the liver and general circulation where endotoxin may trigger inflammatory changes in the liver and other organs. Alcohol may also increase intestinal permeability to peptidoglycan which can initiate inflammatory response in liver and other organs. In addition, acute alcohol exposure may potentiate the effect of burn injury on intestinal bacterial growth and permeability. Decreasing the number of Gram negative bacteria in the intestine can result in decreased production of endotoxin as well as acetaldehyde which is expected to decrease intestinal permeability to endotoxin. In addition, intestinal permeability may be preserved by administering epidermal growth factor, L-glutamine, oats supplementation, or zinc thereby preventing the transfer of endotoxin to the general circulation. Thus reducing the number of intestinal Gram negative bacteria and

  6. Intestinal Membrane Permeability and Hypersensitivity In the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Zhang, Buyi; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in which the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood; however, increased intestinal permeability in diarrhea-predominant IBS patients has been reported. Here we demonstrate diarrhea-predominant IBS patients (D-IBS) that display increased intestinal permeability. We have also found that increased intestinal membrane permeability is associated with visceral and thermal hypersensitivity in this subset of D-IBS patients. We evaluated 54 D-IBS patients and 22 controls for intestinal membrane permeability using the lactulose / mannitol method. All subjects ingested 5 g laclulose and 2 g mannitol in 100 ml of water after which their urine was collected. We also evaluated the mean mechanical visual analogue (MVAS) pain rating to nociceptive thermal and visceral stimulation in all subjects. All study participants also completed the FBDSI scale. Approximately 39% of diarrhea-predominant IBS patients have increased intestinal membrane permeability as measured by the lactulose / mannitol ratio. These IBS patients also demonstrated higher M-VAS pain intensity reading scale. Interestingly, the IBS patients with hypersensitivity and increased intestinal permeability had a higher FBDSI score (100.8±5.4) compared to IBS patients with normal membrane permeability and sensitivity (51.6±12.7) and controls (6.1 ± 5.6) (p<0.001). A subset of D-IBS patients have increased intestinal membrane permeability that is associated with an increased FBDSI score and increased hypersensitivity to visceral and thermal nociceptive pain stimuli. Thus, increased intestinal membrane permeability in D-IBS patients may lead to more severe IBS symptoms and hypersensitivity to somatic and visceral stimuli. PMID:19595511

  7. Intestinal permeability defects: Is it time to treat?

    PubMed Central

    Odenwald, Matthew A.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2013-01-01

    An essential role of the intestinal epithelium is to separate luminal contents from the interstitium, a function primarily determined by the integrity of the epithelium and the tight junction that seals the paracellular space. Intestinal tight junctions are selectively-permeable, and intestinal permeability can be increased physiologically in response to luminal nutrients or pathologically by mucosal immune cells and cytokines, the enteric nervous system, and pathogens. Compromised intestinal barrier function is associated with an array of clinical conditions, both intestinal and systemic. While most available data are correlative, some studies support a model where cycles of increased intestinal permeability, intestinal immune activation, and subsequent immune-mediated barrier loss contribute to disease progression. This model is applicable to intestinal and systemic diseases. However, it has not been proven and both mechanistic and therapeutic studies are ongoing. Nevertheless, the correlation between increased intestinal permeability and disease has caught the attention of the public, leading to a rise in popularity of the diagnosis of “leaky gut syndrome,” which encompasses a range of systemic disorders. Proponents claim that barrier restoration will cure underlying disease, but this has not been demonstrated in clinical trials. Moreover, human and mouse studies show that intestinal barrier loss alone is insufficient to initiate disease. It is therefore uncertain if increased permeability in these patients is a cause or effect of the underlying disorder. Although drug targets that may mediate barrier restoration have been proposed, none have been proven effective. As such, current treatments for barrier dysfunction should target the underlying disease. PMID:23851019

  8. Quantitation of small intestinal permeability during normal human drug absorption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the quantitative relationship between a drug’s physical chemical properties and its rate of intestinal absorption (QSAR) is critical for selecting candidate drugs. Because of limited experimental human small intestinal permeability data, approximate surrogates such as the fraction absorbed or Caco-2 permeability are used, both of which have limitations. Methods Given the blood concentration following an oral and intravenous dose, the time course of intestinal absorption in humans was determined by deconvolution and related to the intestinal permeability by the use of a new 3 parameter model function (“Averaged Model” (AM)). The theoretical validity of this AM model was evaluated by comparing it to the standard diffusion-convection model (DC). This analysis was applied to 90 drugs using previously published data. Only drugs that were administered in oral solution form to fasting subjects were considered so that the rate of gastric emptying was approximately known. All the calculations are carried out using the freely available routine PKQuest Java (http://www.pkquest.com) which has an easy to use, simple interface. Results Theoretically, the AM permeability provides an accurate estimate of the intestinal DC permeability for solutes whose absorption ranges from 1% to 99%. The experimental human AM permeabilities determined by deconvolution are similar to those determined by direct human jejunal perfusion. The small intestinal pH varies with position and the results are interpreted in terms of the pH dependent octanol partition. The permeability versus partition relations are presented separately for the uncharged, basic, acidic and charged solutes. The small uncharged solutes caffeine, acetaminophen and antipyrine have very high permeabilities (about 20 x 10-4 cm/sec) corresponding to an unstirred layer of only 45 μm. The weak acid aspirin also has a large AM permeability despite its low octanol partition at pH 7.4, suggesting

  9. Regulation of intestinal permeability: The role of proteases

    PubMed Central

    Van Spaendonk, Hanne; Ceuleers, Hannah; Witters, Leonie; Patteet, Eveline; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; De Meester, Ingrid; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m2 - the human body’s largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport. Increased intestinal permeability is associated with and suggested as a player in the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous proteases, both in the lumen and in the mucosa. There is increasing evidence to suggest that a dysregulation of the protease/antiprotease balance in the gut contributes to epithelial damage and increased permeability. Excessive proteolysis leads to direct cleavage of intercellular junction proteins, or to opening of the junction proteins via activation of protease activated receptors. In addition, proteases regulate the activity and availability of cytokines and growth factors, which are also known modulators of intestinal permeability. This review aims at outlining the mechanisms by which proteases alter the intestinal permeability. More knowledge on the role of proteases in mucosal homeostasis and gastrointestinal barrier function will definitely contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets for permeability-related diseases. PMID:28405139

  10. Intestinal permeability in a patient with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre Valadez, Jonathan Manuel; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Méndez-Guerrero, Osvely; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; García Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide public health problem, and patients with this disease are at high risk of developing complications, bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric nodes, and systemic circulation, resulting in the development of severe complications related to high mortality rate. The intestinal barrier is a structure with a physical and biochemical activity to maintain balance between the external environment, including bacteria and their products, and the internal environment. Patients with liver cirrhosis develop a series of alterations in different components of the intestinal barrier directly associated with the severity of liver disease that finally increased intestinal permeability. A “leaky gut” is an effect produced by damaged intestinal barrier; alterations in the function of tight junction proteins are related to bacterial translocation and their products. Instead, increasing serum proinflammatory cytokines and hemodynamics modification, which results in the appearance of complications of liver cirrhosis such as hepatic encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, bacterial spontaneous peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in maintaining the proper function of the intestinal barrier; bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis are two phenomena often present in people with liver cirrhosis favoring bacterial translocation. Increased intestinal permeability has an important role in the genesis of these complications, and treating it could be the base for prevention and partial treatment of these complications. PMID:27920543

  11. Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability

    PubMed Central

    Alhamoruni, A; Wright, KL; Larvin, M; O'Sullivan, SE

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activation of cannabinoid receptors decreases emesis, inflammation, gastric acid secretion and intestinal motility. The ability to modulate intestinal permeability in inflammation may be important in therapy aimed at maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cannabinoids modulate the increased permeability associated with inflammation in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Confluent Caco-2 cell monolayers were treated for 24 h with IFNγ and TNFα (10 ng·mL−1). Monolayer permeability was measured using transepithelial electrical resistance and flux measurements. Cannabinoids were applied either apically or basolaterally after inflammation was established. Potential mechanisms of action were investigated using antagonists for CB1, CB2, TRPV1, PPARγ and PPARα. A role for the endocannabinoid system was established using inhibitors of the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids. KEY RESULTS Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol accelerated the recovery from cytokine-induced increased permeability; an effect sensitive to CB1 receptor antagonism. Anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol further increased permeability in the presence of cytokines; this effect was also sensitive to CB1 antagonism. No role for the CB2 receptor was identified in these studies. Co-application of THC, cannabidiol or a CB1 antagonist with the cytokines ameliorated their effect on permeability. Inhibiting the breakdown of endocannabinoids worsened, whereas inhibiting the synthesis of endocannabinoids attenuated, the increased permeability associated with inflammation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings suggest that locally produced endocannabinoids, acting via CB1 receptors play a role in mediating changes in permeability with inflammation, and that phytocannabinoids have therapeutic potential for reversing the disordered intestinal permeability associated with inflammation. LINKED ARTICLES This

  12. Intestinal permeability and Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Di Berardino, F; Zanetti, D; Ciusani, E; Caccia, C; Leoni, V; De Grazia, U; Filipponi, E; Elli, L

    Ménière disease (MD) is a multifactorial chronic disabling condition characterized by episodic vertigo, ear fullness, and hearing loss. MD patients often complain of aspecific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with autonomic dysregulation, frequently outweighed by the otological manifestations. Dietary modifications have been reported to improve the typical MD symptoms in some cases. Our purpose was to test the urinary levels of lactulose and mannitol (double sugar test) and the fecal calprotectin, both markers of altered intestinal permeability, in subjects with definite MD in an active and inactive stage. Twenty-six with definite unilateral MD were studied: 14 patients were symptomatic for at least 3months with moderate to severe vertigo spells and a functional level ≥4; 12 patients had been asymptomatic (no vertigo spells) for at least 3months and had a functional level=1 at the time of testing. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as "control group". Lactulose and mannitol absorption was significantly increased in the symptomatic M patients compared to the asymptomatic group (p<0.02 and p<0.004, respectively) and to the controls. FC were also higher than normal only in the symptomatic group. (p<0.01). An altered intestinal permeability, according to the two assays, was found only in symptomatic MD patients. The rationale for a possible relationship between MD and intestinal permeability is forwarded. The double-sugar test and FC quantification might be implemented in the MD diagnostic workup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fructokinase, Fructans, Intestinal Permeability, and Metabolic Syndrome: An Equine Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Rivard, Chris; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Otabachian-Smith, Silvia; Ishimoto, Takuji; Cicerchi, Christina; Cheeke, Peter R.; MacIntosh, Bridgett; Hess, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Fructose is a simple sugar present in honey and fruit, but can also exist as a polymer (fructans) in pasture grasses. Mammals are unable to metabolize fructans, but certain gram positive bacteria contain fructanases and can convert fructans to fructose in the gut. Recent studies suggest that fructose generated from bacteria, or directly obtained from the diet, can induce both increased intestinal permeability and features of metabolic syndrome, especially the development of insulin resistance. The development of insulin resistance is driven in part by the metabolism of fructose by fructokinase C in the liver, which results in oxidative stress in the hepatocyte. Similarly, the metabolism of fructose in the small bowel by intestinal fructokinase may lead to increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. While speculative, these observations raise the possibility that the mechanism by which fructans induce laminitis could involve intestinal and hepatic fructokinase. Further studies are indicated to determine the role of fructanases, fructose and fructokinase in equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. PMID:23439477

  14. Intestinal permeability study of minoxidil: assessment of minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for biopharmaceutics classification.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Makoto; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Zur, Moran; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The permeability of minoxidil was determined in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rodents and permeability studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was compared with that of metoprolol, an FDA reference drug for BCS classification. In rat perfusion studies, the permeability of minoxidil was somewhat higher than that of metoprolol in the jejunum, while minoxidil showed lower permeability than metoprolol in the ileum. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of intestinal segment, while the permeability of metoprolol was region-dependent. Similarly, in mouse perfusion study, the jejunal permeability of minoxidil was 2.5-fold higher than that of metoprolol. Minoxidil and metoprolol showed similar permeability in Caco-2 study at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of pH, while metoprolol showed pH-dependent transport in Caco-2 study. Minoxidil exhibited similar permeability in the absorptive direction (AP-BL) in comparison with secretory direction (BL-AP), while metoprolol had higher efflux ratio (ER > 2) at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. No concentration-dependent transport was observed for either minoxidil or metoprolol transport in Caco-2 study. Verapamil did not alter the transport of either compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of both pH and intestinal segment in intestinal perfusion studies and Caco-2 studies. Caco-2 studies also showed no involvement of carrier mediated transport in the absorption process of minoxidil. These results suggest that minoxidil may be an acceptable reference drug for BCS high permeability classification. However, minoxidil exhibited higher jejunal permeability than metoprolol and thus to use minoxidil as a reference drug would raise the

  15. Permeability of rhynchophylline across human intestinal cell in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bo; Wang, Jing; Sun, Jing; Li, Ming; Xu, Huibo; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is the major component of Uncaria species, which is used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. However, its oral bioavailability has not been known. This study aims to investigate the intestinal permeability and related mechanisms of Rhy using cultured human epithelial Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity of Rhy on Caco-2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay. The effect of Rhy on the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer was assayed with transepithelial electrical resistance. The permeability of Rhy across cell monolayer was assayed by measuring Rhy quantity in received side with HPLC. The effect of Rhy on the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1 was detected with Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. In the concentration of Rhy, which did not produce toxicity on cell viability and integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer, Rhy crossed the monolayer with velocity 2.76~5.57×10^-6 cm/sec and 10.68~15.66×10^-6 cm/sec from apical to basolateral side and from basolateral to apical side, respectively. The permeability of Rhy was increased by verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, or rhodamine123, a P-glycoprotein substrate. Rhy revealed an induction effect on P-glycoprotein expression in Caco-2 cells. These results demonstrate the low permeability of Rhy in intro, and suggest that P-glycoprotein may underlie the mechanism. PMID:24966905

  16. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-05-23

    DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway.

  17. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Somesh

    2015-01-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25792565

  18. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. In vivo analysis of intestinal permeability following hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Richter, Michael; Mazor, Rafi; Kistler, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the time course of intestinal permeability changes to proteolytically-derived bowel peptides in experimental hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: We injected fluorescently-conjugated casein protein into the small bowel of anesthetized Wistar rats prior to induction of experimental hemorrhagic shock. These molecules, which fluoresce when proteolytically cleaved, were used as markers for the ability of proteolytically cleaved intestinal products to access the central circulation. Blood was serially sampled to quantify the relative change in concentration of proteolytically-cleaved particles in the systemic circulation. To provide spatial resolution of their location, particles in the mesenteric microvasculature were imaged using in vivo intravital fluorescent microscopy. The experiments were then repeated using an alternate measurement technique, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans 20, to semi-quantitatively verify the ability of bowel-derived low-molecular weight molecules (< 20 kD) to access the central circulation. RESULTS: Results demonstrate a significant increase in systemic permeability to gut-derived peptides within 20 min after induction of hemorrhage (1.11 ± 0.19 vs 0.86 ± 0.07, P < 0.05) compared to control animals. Reperfusion resulted in a second, sustained increase in systemic permeability to gut-derived peptides in hemorrhaged animals compared to controls (1.2 ± 0.18 vs 0.97 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). Intravital microscopy of the mesentery also showed marked accumulation of fluorescent particles in the microcirculation of hemorrhaged animals compared to controls. These results were replicated using FITC dextrans 20 [10.85 ± 6.52 vs 3.38 ± 1.11 fluorescent intensity units (× 105, P < 0.05, hemorrhagic shock vs controls)], confirming that small bowel ischemia in response to experimental hemorrhagic shock results in marked and early increases in gut membrane permeability. CONCLUSION: Increased small bowel permeability in hemorrhagic

  20. Interactions Between Diet and the Intestinal Microbiota Alter Intestinal Permeability and Colitis Severity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Sean R; Britton, Graham J; Contijoch, Eduardo J; Vennaro, Olivia H; Mortha, Arthur; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Grinspan, Ari; Clemente, Jose C; Merad, Miriam; Faith, Jeremiah J

    2018-03-01

    It is not clear how the complex interactions between diet and the intestinal microbiota affect development of mucosal inflammation or inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated interactions between dietary ingredients, nutrients, and the microbiota in specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice given more than 40 unique diets; we quantified individual and synergistic effects of dietary macronutrients and the microbiota on intestinal health and development of colitis. C56BL/6J SPF and GF mice were placed on custom diets containing different concentrations and sources of protein, fat, digestible carbohydrates, and indigestible carbohydrates (fiber). After 1 week, SPF and GF mice were given dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. Disease severity was determined based on the percent weight change from baseline, and modeled as a function of the concentration of each macronutrient in the diet. In unchallenged mice, we measured intestinal permeability by feeding mice labeled dextran and measuring levels in blood. Feces were collected and microbiota were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. We collected colons from mice and performed transcriptome analyses. Fecal microbiota varied with diet; the concentration of protein and fiber had the strongest effect on colitis development. Among 9 fiber sources tested, psyllium, pectin, and cellulose fiber reduced the severity of colitis in SPF mice, whereas methylcellulose increased severity. Increasing dietary protein increased the density of the fecal microbiota and the severity of colitis in SPF mice, but not in GF mice or mice given antibiotics. Psyllium fiber reduced the severity of colitis through microbiota-dependent and microbiota-independent mechanisms. Combinatorial perturbations to dietary casein protein and psyllium fiber in parallel accounted for most variation in gut microbial density and intestinal permeability in unchallenged mice, as well as the severity of DSS-induced colitis; changes in 1 ingredient

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v inhibits Escherichia coli-induced intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Mangell, Peter; Nejdfors, Pernilla; Wang, Mei; Ahrné, Siv; Weström, Bjorn; Thorlacius, Henrik; Jeppsson, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, could affect Escherichia coli-induced passage of mannitol across the intestinal wall. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated for one week by either tube feeding with L. plantarum 299v twice daily, free access to L. plantarum 299v by adding the bacterium in the drinking water, or negative control receiving regular feeding. Intestinal segments were mounted in Ussing chambers and the mucosa was exposed to control medium, E. coli, and L. plantarum 299v (alone or together). [14C]Mannitol was added as a marker of intestinal permeability and samples were taken from the serosal side. E. coli exposure induced a 53% increase in mannitol passage across the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). One week of pretreatment with L. plantarum 299v in the drinking water abolished the E. coli-induced increase in permeability. Tube feeding for one week or short-term addition of L. plantarum 299v in the Ussing chambers had no effect on the permeability provoked by E. coli challenge. Notably, L. plantanum 299v itself did not change the intestinal passage of mannitol. These data demonstrate that pretreatment with L. plantarum 299v, which is a probiotic bacterium, protects against E. coli-induced increase in intestinal permeability, and that L. plantarum 299v alone has no influence on the intestinal permeability. Thus, this study supports the concept that probiotics may exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Rebamipide suppresses diclofenac-induced intestinal permeability via mitochondrial protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Diao, Lei; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Juan; Yao, Qiang; Chen, Mo-Li

    2012-03-14

    To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of rebamipide on small intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac in mice. Diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 3 d orally. A control group received the vehicle by gavage. Rebamipide (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 d 4 h after diclofenac administration. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by Evans blue and the FITC-dextran method. The ultrastructure of the mucosal barrier was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial function including mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-reduced (NADH) levels, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATPase activities were measured. Small intestinal mucosa was collected for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Compared with the control group, intestinal permeability was significantly increased in the diclofenac group, which was accompanied by broken tight junctions, and significant increases in MDA content and MPO activity. Rebamipide significantly reduced intestinal permeability, improved inter-cellular tight junctions, and was associated with decreases in intestinal MDA content and MPO activity. At the mitochondrial level, rebamipide increased SDH and ATPase activities, NADH level and decreased mitochondrial swelling. Increased intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac can be attenuated by rebamipide, which partially contributed to the protection of mitochondrial function.

  3. Rebamipide suppresses diclofenac-induced intestinal permeability via mitochondrial protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lei; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Juan; Yao, Qiang; Chen, Mo-Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of rebamipide on small intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac in mice. METHODS: Diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 3 d orally. A control group received the vehicle by gavage. Rebamipide (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 d 4 h after diclofenac administration. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by Evans blue and the FITC-dextran method. The ultrastructure of the mucosal barrier was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial function including mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-reduced (NADH) levels, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATPase activities were measured. Small intestinal mucosa was collected for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, intestinal permeability was significantly increased in the diclofenac group, which was accompanied by broken tight junctions, and significant increases in MDA content and MPO activity. Rebamipide significantly reduced intestinal permeability, improved inter-cellular tight junctions, and was associated with decreases in intestinal MDA content and MPO activity. At the mitochondrial level, rebamipide increased SDH and ATPase activities, NADH level and decreased mitochondrial swelling. CONCLUSION: Increased intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac can be attenuated by rebamipide, which partially contributed to the protection of mitochondrial function. PMID:22416180

  4. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism coincide with increased intestinal permeability in young adults under prolonged physiological stress.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Murphy, Nancy E; Castellani, John W; Gundersen, Yngvar; Hoke, Allison V; Levangie, Michael W; Kumar, Raina; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Hammamieh, Rasha; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-06-01

    The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiological effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiological stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and a multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiological stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, as well as intestinal permeability (IP). Soldiers ( n = 73) were provided three rations per day with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a 4-day cross-country ski-march (STRESS). IP was measured before and during STRESS. Blood and stool samples were collected before and after STRESS to measure inflammation, stool microbiota, and stool and plasma global metabolite profiles. IP increased 62 ± 57% (mean ± SD, P < 0.001) during STRESS independent of diet group and was associated with increased inflammation. Intestinal microbiota responses were characterized by increased α-diversity and changes in the relative abundance of >50% of identified genera, including increased abundance of less dominant taxa at the expense of more dominant taxa such as Bacteroides Changes in intestinal microbiota composition were linked to 23% of metabolites that were significantly altered in stool after STRESS. Together, pre-STRESS Actinobacteria relative abundance and changes in serum IL-6 and stool cysteine concentrations accounted for 84% of the variability in the change in IP. Findings demonstrate that a multiple-stressor military training environment induced increases in IP that were associated with alterations in markers of inflammation and with intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. Associations between IP, the pre-STRESS microbiota, and microbiota metabolites suggest that targeting the intestinal microbiota could provide novel strategies for preserving IP during physiological stress. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Military training, a unique model for studying temporal dynamics of intestinal barrier and intestinal

  5. Transmural Intestinal Wall Permeability in Severe Ischemia after Enteral Protease Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Angelina E.; Lamadrid, Itze; Li, Diana; Ma, Stephanie R.; Kurre, Leena; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.; Penn, Alexander H.

    2014-01-01

    In intestinal ischemia, inflammatory mediators in the small intestine's lumen such as food byproducts, bacteria, and digestive enzymes leak into the peritoneal space, lymph, and circulation, but the mechanisms by which the intestinal wall permeability initially increases are not well defined. We hypothesize that wall protease activity (independent of luminal proteases) and apoptosis contribute to the increased transmural permeability of the intestine's wall in an acutely ischemic small intestine. To model intestinal ischemia, the proximal jejunum to the distal ileum in the rat was excised, the lumen was rapidly flushed with saline to remove luminal contents, sectioned into equal length segments, and filled with a tracer (fluorescein) in saline, glucose, or protease inhibitors. The transmural fluorescein transport was determined over 2 hours. Villi structure and epithelial junctional proteins were analyzed. After ischemia, there was increased transmural permeability, loss of villi structure, and destruction of epithelial proteins. Supplementation with luminal glucose preserved the epithelium and significantly attenuated permeability and villi damage. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors (doxycycline, GM 6001), and serine protease inhibitor (tranexamic acid) in the lumen, significantly reduced the fluorescein transport compared to saline for 90 min of ischemia. Based on these results, we tested in an in-vivo model of hemorrhagic shock (90 min 30 mmHg, 3 hours observation) for intestinal lesion formation. Single enteral interventions (saline, glucose, tranexamic acid) did not prevent intestinal lesions, while the combination of enteral glucose and tranexamic acid prevented lesion formation after hemorrhagic shock. The results suggest that apoptotic and protease mediated breakdown cause increased permeability and damage to the intestinal wall. Metabolic support in the lumen of an ischemic intestine with glucose reduces the transport from the lumen across the wall

  6. Intestinal permeability of forskolin by in situ single pass perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Jun; Jiang, Dong-bo; Tian, Lu-Lu; Yin, Jia-Jun; Huang, Jian-Ming; Weng, Wei-Yu

    2012-05-01

    The intestinal permeability of forskolin was investigated using a single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in rats. SPIP was performed in different intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) with three concentrations of forskolin (11.90, 29.75, and 59.90 µg/mL). The investigations of adsorption and stability were performed to ensure that the disappearance of forskolin from the perfusate was due to intestinal absorption. The results of the SPIP study indicated that forskolin could be absorbed in all segments of the intestine. The effective permeability (P (eff)) of forskolin was in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability. The P (eff) was highest in the duodenum as compared to other intestinal segments. The decreases of P (eff) in the duodenum and ileum at the highest forskolin concentration suggested a saturable transport process. The addition of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, significantly enhanced the permeability of forskolin across the rat jejunum. The absorbed fraction of dissolved forskolin after oral administration in humans was estimated to be 100 % calculated from rat P (eff). In conclusion, dissolved forskolin can be absorbed readily in the intestine. The low aqueous solubility of forskolin might be a crucial factor for its poor oral bioavailability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  8. Active intestinal drug absorption and the solubility-permeability interplay.

    PubMed

    Porat, Daniel; Dahan, Arik

    2018-02-15

    The solubility-permeability interplay deals with the question: what is the concomitant effect on the drug's apparent permeability when increasing the apparent solubility with a solubility-enabling formulation? The solubility and the permeability are closely related, exhibit certain interplay between them, and ongoing research throughout the past decade shows that treating the one irrespectively of the other may be insufficient. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the solubility-permeability interplay when using solubility-enabling formulations for oral lipophilic drugs, highlighting active permeability aspects. A solubility-enabling formulation may affect the permeability in opposite directions; the passive permeability may decrease as a result of the apparent solubility increase, according to the solubility-permeability tradeoff, but at the same time, certain components of the formulation may inhibit/saturate efflux transporters (when relevant), resulting in significant apparent permeability increase. In these cases, excipients with both solubilizing and e.g. P-gp inhibitory properties may lead to concomitant increase of both the solubility and the permeability. Intelligent development of such formulation will account for the simultaneous effects of the excipients' nature/concentrations on the two arms composing the overall permeability: the passive and the active arms. Overall, thorough mechanistic understanding of the various factors involved in the solubility-permeability interplay may allow developing better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby exploiting the advantages analyzed in this article, offering oral delivery solution even for BCS class IV drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The complexity of intestinal permeability: Assigning the correct BCS classification through careful data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Zur, Moran; Hanson, Allison S; Dahan, Arik

    2014-09-30

    While the solubility parameter is fairly straightforward when assigning BCS classification, the intestinal permeability (Peff) is more complex than generally recognized. In this paper we emphasize this complexity through the analysis of codeine, a commonly used antitussive/analgesic drug. Codeine was previously classified as a low-permeability compound, based on its lower LogP compared to metoprolol, a marker for the low-high permeability class boundary. In contrast, high fraction of dose absorbed (Fabs) was reported for codeine, which challenges the generally recognized Peff-Fabs correlation. The purpose of this study was to clarify this ambiguity through elucidation of codeine's BCS solubility/permeability class membership. Codeine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its intestinal permeability throughout the small intestine was investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats. Codeine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All in vitro studies indicated that codeine's permeability is higher than metoprolol's. In vivo studies in rats showed similar permeability for both drugs throughout the entire small-intestine. In conclusion, codeine was found to be a BCS Class I compound. No Peff-Fabs discrepancy is involved in its absorption; rather, it reflects the risk of assigning BCS classification based on merely limited physicochemical characteristics. A thorough investigation using multiple experimental methods is prudent before assigning a BCS classification, to avoid misjudgment in various settings, e.g., drug discovery, formulation design, drug development and regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 13C Mannitol as a Novel Biomarker for Measurement of Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Madhusudan; Camilleri, Michael; Hines, Jolaine; Burton, Duane; Ryks, Michael; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Sundt, Wendy; Dyer, Roy; Singh, Ravinder J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI disorders are associated with altered intestinal permeability, which can be measured in vivo by urinary excretion after oral lactulose and mannitol ingestion. Inadvertent dietary consumption of 12Carbon (12C, regular) mannitol in food or from other sources may interfere with the test’s interpretation. 13Carbon (13C) constitutes 1% of carbon in nature and 13C mannitol is a stable isotope. Our aim was to determine performance of 13C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. Methods Ten healthy volunteers underwent intestinal permeability assay using co-administered 12C mannitol, 13C mannitol and lactulose, followed by timed urine collections. Urinary sugar concentrations were measured using tandem high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Key Results We found that 13C mannitol can be distinguishable from 12C mannitol on tandem mass spectrometry. Additionally, 13C mannitol had ~20-fold lower baseline contamination compared to 12C mannitol. We describe here the 13C mannitol assay method for measurement of intestinal permeability. Conclusions & Inferences In conclusion, 13C mannitol is superior to 12C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. It avoids issues with baseline contamination and erratic excretions during the testing period. PMID:26914765

  11. (13) C mannitol as a novel biomarker for measurement of intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Grover, M; Camilleri, M; Hines, J; Burton, D; Ryks, M; Wadhwa, A; Sundt, W; Dyer, R; Singh, R J

    2016-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI disorders are associated with altered intestinal permeability, which can be measured in vivo by urinary excretion after oral lactulose and mannitol ingestion. Inadvertent dietary consumption of (12) Carbon ((12) C, regular) mannitol in food or from other sources may interfere with the test's interpretation. (13) Carbon ((13) C) constitutes 1% of carbon in nature and (13) C mannitol is a stable isotope. Our aim was to determine the performance of (13) C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. Ten healthy volunteers underwent intestinal permeability assay using coadministered (12) C mannitol, (13) C mannitol and lactulose, followed by timed urine collections. Urinary sugar concentrations were measured using tandem high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that (13) C mannitol can be distinguishable from (12) C mannitol on tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, (13) C mannitol had ~20-fold lower baseline contamination compared to (12) C mannitol. We describe here the (13) C mannitol assay method for the measurement of intestinal permeability. In conclusion, (13) C mannitol is superior to (12) C mannitol for measurement of intestinal permeability. It avoids issues with baseline contamination and erratic excretions during the testing period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Crystal-liquid Fugacity Ratio as a Surrogate Parameter for Intestinal Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Fasihi, Zohreh; Akbari, Jafar; Jannatabadi, Ensieh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Loebenberg, Raimar; Valizadeh, Hadi

    We assessed the feasibility of using crystal-liquid fugacity ratio (CLFR) as an alternative parameter for intestinal permeability in the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of passively absorbed drugs. Dose number, fraction of dose absorbed, intestinal permeability, and intrinsic dissolution rate were used as the input parameters. CLFR was determined using thermodynamic parameters i.e., melting point, molar fusion enthalpy, and entropy of drug molecules obtained using differential scanning calorimetry. The CLFR values were in the range of 0.06-41.76 mole percent. There was a close relationship between CLFR and in vivo intestinal permeability (r > 0.8). CLFR values of greater than 2 mole percent corresponded to complete intestinal absorption. Applying CLFR versus dose number or intrinsic dissolution rate, more than 92% of tested drugs were correctly classified with respect to the reported classification system on the basis of human intestinal permeability and solubility. This investigation revealed that the CLFR might be an appropriate parameter for quantitative biopharmaceutical classification. This could be attributed to the fact that CLFR could be a measure of solubility of compounds in lipid bilayer which was found in this study to be directly proportional to the intestinal permeability of compounds. This classification enables researchers to define characteristics for intestinal absorption of all four BCS drug classes using suitable cutoff points for both intrinsic dissolution rate and crystal-liquid fugacity ratio. Therefore, it may be used as a surrogate for permeability studies. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  13. Intestinal Permeability of β-Lapachone and Its Cyclodextrin Complexes and Physical Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Jorge; Echezarreta-López, Magdalena; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Casabó, Vicente-Germán; Bermejo, Marival; Landin, Mariana

    2016-12-01

    β-Lapachone (βLAP) is a promising, poorly soluble, antitumoral drug. βLAP combination with cyclodextrins (CDs) improves its solubility and dissolution but there is not enough information about the impact of cyclodextrins on βLAP intestinal permeability. The objectives of this work were to characterize βLAP intestinal permeability and to elucidate cyclodextrins effect on the dissolution properties and on the intestinal permeability. The final goal was to evaluate CDs influence on the oral absorption of βLAP. Binary systems (physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) including βLAP and CDs (β-cyclodextrin: βCD, random-methyl-β-cyclodextrin: RMβCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin: SBEβCD) have been prepared and analysed by differential scanning calorimetry. βLAP (and its combinations with CDs) absorption rate coefficients and effective permeability values have been determined in vitro in MDCK or MDCK-Mdr1 monolayers and in situ in rat by a closed loop perfusion technique. DSC results confirmed the formation of the inclusion complexes. βLAP-CDs inclusion complexes improve drug solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with physical mixtures. βLAP presented a high permeability value which can provide complete oral absorption. Its oral absorption is limited by its low solubility and dissolution rate. Cyclodextrin (both as physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) showed a positive effect on the intestinal permeability of βLAP. Complexation with CDs does not reduce βLAP intestinal permeability in spite of the potential negative effect of the reduction in free fraction of the drug. The use of RMβCD or SBEβCD inclusion complexes could benefit βLAP oral absorption by enhancing its solubility, dissolution rate and permeability.

  14. HIV induces production of IL-18 from intestinal epithelial cells that increases intestinal permeability and microbial translocation

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ossama; Samarani, Suzanne; Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Tremblay, Cecile; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Amre, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the IL-1 family with multiple context dependent functions. We and others have shown that HIV infection is accompanied by increased circulating levels of IL-18 along with decreased levels of its antagonist, Interleukin-18 Binding Protein (IL-18BP). The infection is also accompanied by intestinal inflammation and decreased intestinal integrity as measured by intestinal permeability, regeneration and repair. However, little is known concerning the relation between high level of IL-18 associated with the viral infection and intestinal permeability. Here we demonstrate that HIV treatment increases production of IL-18 and decreases that of IL-18BP production in human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines. IL-18 causes apoptosis of the IEC by activating caspase-1 and caspase-3. It induces epithelial barrier hyperpermeability by decreasing and disrupting both tight and adherens junction proteins, occludin, claudin 2 and beta-catenin. Disorganization of F-actin was also observed in the IEC that were exposed to the cytokine. Moreover IL-18 decreases transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Caco-2 and increases permeability in HT29 monolayers. The cells’ treatment with IL-18 causes an increase in the expression of phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light-chain (p-MLC) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and a decrease in phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (p-STAT)-5. This increase in p-MLC is suppressed by a Rho-kinase (ROCK)-specific inhibitor. Interestingly, the levels of the cytokine correlate with those of LPS in the circulation in three different categories of HIV infected patients (HAART-naïve and HAART-treated HIV-infected individuals, and Elite controls) as well as in healthy controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the HIV-induced IL-18 plays a role in increased intestinal permeability and microbial translocation observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:29601578

  15. Possible Links between Intestinal Permeablity and Food Processing: A Potential Therapeutic Niche for Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Rapin, Jean Robert; Wiernsperger, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is a likely cause of various pathologies, such as allergies and metabolic or even cardiovascular disturbances. Intestinal permeability is found in many severe clinical situations and in common disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. In these conditions, substances that are normally unable to cross the epithelial barrier gain access to the systemic circulation. To illustrate the potential harmfulness of leaky gut, we present an argument based on examples linked to protein or lipid glycation induced by modern food processing. Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening. This brief review aims to increase physician awareness of this common, albeit largely unrecognized, pathology, which may be easily prevented or improved by means of simple nutritional changes. PMID:20613941

  16. Involvement of intestinal permeability in the oral absorption of clarithromycin and telithromycin.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-09-01

    The involvement of intestinal permeability in the oral absorption of clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide antibiotic, and telithromycin (TEL), a ketolide antibiotic, in the presence of efflux transporters was examined. In order independently to examine the intestinal and hepatic availability, CAM and TEL (10 mg/kg) were administered orally, intraportally and intravenously to rats. The intestinal and hepatic availability was calculated from the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after administration of CAM and TEL via different routes. The intestinal availabilities of CAM and TEL were lower than their hepatic availabilities. The intestinal availability after oral administration of CAM and TEL increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively, after concomitant oral administration of verapamil as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. Further, an in vitro transport experiment was performed using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model of intestinal epithelial cells. The apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL through the Caco-2 cell monolayers was lower than their basolateral-to-apical transport. Verapamil and bromosulfophthalein as a multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) inhibitor significantly increased the apical-to-basolateral transport of CAM and TEL. Thus, the results suggest that oral absorption of CAM and TEL is dependent on intestinal permeability that may be limited by P-gp and MRPs on the intestinal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Real-time Measurement of Epithelial Barrier Permeability in Human Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Huang, Sha; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Spence, Jason R; Young, Vincent B

    2017-12-18

    Advances in 3D culture of intestinal tissues obtained through biopsy or generated from pluripotent stem cells via directed differentiation, have resulted in sophisticated in vitro models of the intestinal mucosa. Leveraging these emerging model systems will require adaptation of tools and techniques developed for 2D culture systems and animals. Here, we describe a technique for measuring epithelial barrier permeability in human intestinal organoids in real-time. This is accomplished by microinjection of fluorescently-labeled dextran and imaging on an inverted microscope fitted with epifluorescent filters. Real-time measurement of the barrier permeability in intestinal organoids facilitates the generation of high-resolution temporal data in human intestinal epithelial tissue, although this technique can also be applied to fixed timepoint imaging approaches. This protocol is readily adaptable for the measurement of epithelial barrier permeability following exposure to pharmacologic agents, bacterial products or toxins, or live microorganisms. With minor modifications, this protocol can also serve as a general primer on microinjection of intestinal organoids and users may choose to supplement this protocol with additional or alternative downstream applications following microinjection.

  18. The biopharmaceutics of successful controlled release drug product: Segmental-dependent permeability of glipizide vs. metoprolol throughout the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Zur, Moran; Cohen, Noa; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to study the challenges and prospects of regional-dependent absorption in a controlled-release scenario, through the oral biopharmaceutics of the sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug glipizide. The BCS solubility class of glipizide was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in-vitro (PAMPA and Caco-2) and in-vivo in rats. Metoprolol was used as the low/high permeability class boundary marker. Glipizide was found to be a low-solubility compound. All intestinal permeability experimental methods revealed similar trend; a mirror image small intestinal permeability with opposite regional/pH-dependency was obtained, a downward trend for glipizide, and an upward trend for metoprolol. Yet the lowest permeability of glipizide (terminal Ileum) was comparable to the lowest permeability of metoprolol (proximal jejunum). At the colon, similar permeability was evident for glipizide and metoprolol, that was higher than metoprolol's jejunal permeability. We present an analysis that identifies metoprolol's jejunal permeability as the low/high permeability class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract; we show that the permeability of both glipizide and metoprolol matches/exceeds this threshold throughout the entire intestinal tract, accounting for their success as controlled-release dosage form. This represents a key biopharmaceutical characteristic for a successful controlled-release dosage form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of prostaglandin on indomethacin-induced increased intestinal permeability in man.

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, I; Smethurst, P; Clark, P; Menzies, I; Levi, J; Peters, T

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether NSAID induced disruption of small intestinal integrity is preventable by concomitant prostaglandin administration, and whether prostaglandins themselves interfere with intestinal permeability and absorption. Twelve subjects underwent testing following treatment as indicated: baseline, no treatment rioprostil, 300 micrograms, at -9 and -1 h indomethacin, 75 mg and 50 mg, at -9 and -1 h respectively rioprostil plus indomethacin, regimen as above. At 0800 h (0 h) subjects drink a solution containing 51CrEDTA 100 microCi, L-rhamnose 0.5 g, D-xylose 0.5 g and 3-O-methyl-glucose 0.2 g; this is followed by a 5-h urine collection. The amount of test substance in the urine reflects non-mediated intercellular and transcellular permeability, and passive and active carrier mediated transport systems, respectively. Permeation of L-rhamnose, D-xylose and 3-O-methyl-glucose is unaffected by rioprostil and/or indomethacin. Indomethacin significantly increases intestinal permeability to 51CrEDTA; coadministration of rioprostil, however, significantly decreases this detrimental effect of indomethacin. These findings suggest that prostaglandins are essential for maintaining small intestinal integrity in man and lend further support to the suggestion that NSAIDs damage the small intestine by reducing mucosal prostaglandin synthesis.

  20. Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0–0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects. PMID:22272087

  1. Effects of soybean agglutinin on intestinal barrier permeability and tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0-0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects.

  2. MLCK-mediated intestinal permeability promotes immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in PI-IBS mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Y; Du, L; Kim, J J; Chen, B; Zhu, Y; Zhang, Y; Yao, S; He, H; Zheng, X; Huang, Z; Dai, N

    2018-04-11

    Alterations in intestinal permeability regulated by tight junctions (TJs) are associated with immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an important mediator of epithelial TJ. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MLCK in the pathogenesis of IBS using a post infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. Trichinella spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used. Urine lactulose/mannitol ratio was measured to assess intestinal epithelial permeability. Western blotting was used to evaluate intestinal TJ protein (zonula occludens-1) and MLCK-associated protein expressions. Immune profile was assessed by measuring Th (T helper) 1/Th2 cytokine expression. Visceral sensitivity was determined by abdominal withdrawal reflex in response to colorectal distension. Eight weeks after inoculation with T. spiralis, PI-IBS mice developed decreased pain and volume thresholds during colorectal distention, increased urine lactulose/mannitol ratio, elevated colonic Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio, and decreased zonula occludens-1 expression compared to the control mice. MLCK expression was dramatically elevated in the colonic mucosa of PI-IBS mice compared to the control mice, alongside increased pMLC/MLC and decreased MLCP expression. Administration of MLCK inhibitor and TJ blocker both reversed the increased intestinal permeability, visceral hypersensitivity, and Th1-dominant immune profile in PI-IBS mice. MLCK is a pivotal step in inducing increased intestinal permeability promoting low-grade intestinal immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in PI-IBS mice. MLCK inhibitor may provide a potential therapeutic option in the treatment of IBS. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Corticosterone mediates stress-related increased intestinal permeability in a region-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gen; Wu, Shu-Pei; Hu, Yongjun; Smith, David E; Wiley, John W.; Hong, Shuangsong

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic psychological stress (CPS) is associated with increased intestinal epithelial permeability and visceral hyperalgesia. It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to CPS. Methods Male rats were subjected to 1-hour water avoidance (WA) stress or subcutaneous CORT injection daily for 10 consecutive days in the presence or absence of corticoid-receptor antagonist RU-486. The visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) was measured. The in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion was used to measure intestinal permeability in jejunum and colon simultaneously. Key Results We observed significant decreases in the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and tight junction proteins in the colon but not the jejunum in stressed rats. These changes were largely reproduced by serial CORT injections in control rats and were significantly reversed by RU-486. Stressed and CORT-injected rats demonstrated a 3-fold increase in permeability for PEG-400 (MW) in colon but not jejunum and significant increase in VMR to CRD, which was significantly reversed by RU-486. In addition, no differences in permeability to PEG-4,000 and PEG-35,000 were detected between control and WA groups. Conclusions & Inferences Our findings indicate that CPS was associated with region-specific decrease in epithelial tight junction protein levels in the colon, increased colon epithelial permeability to low-molecular weight macromolecules which were largely reproduced by CORT treatment in control rats and prevented by RU-486. These observations implicate a novel, region-specific role for CORT as a mediator of CPS-induced increased permeability to macromolecules across the colon epithelium. PMID:23336591

  4. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin increases the small intestinal permeability in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jorge; Morris, Winston E; Loidl, César Fabián; Tironi-Farinati, Carla; Tironi-Farinatti, Carla; McClane, Bruce A; Uzal, Francisco A; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2009-09-18

    Epsilon toxin is a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, an anaerobic bacterium that causes enterotoxaemia in ruminants. In the affected animal, it causes oedema of the lungs and brain by damaging the endothelial cells, inducing physiological and morphological changes. Although it is believed to compromise the intestinal barrier, thus entering the gut vasculature, little is known about the mechanism underlying this process. This study characterizes the effects of epsilon toxin on fluid transport and bioelectrical parameters in the small intestine of mice and rats. The enteropooling and the intestinal loop tests, together with the single-pass perfusion assay and in vitro and ex vivo analysis in Ussing's chamber, were all used in combination with histological and ultrastructural analysis of mice and rat small intestine, challenged with or without C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Luminal epsilon toxin induced a time and concentration dependent intestinal fluid accumulation and fall of the transepithelial resistance. Although no evident histological changes were observed, opening of the mucosa tight junction in combination with apoptotic changes in the lamina propria were seen with transmission electron microscopy. These results indicate that C. perfringens epsilon toxin alters the intestinal permeability, predominantly by opening the mucosa tight junction, increasing its permeability to macromolecules, and inducing further degenerative changes in the lamina propria of the bowel.

  5. Small intestinal permeability is increased in diarrhoea predominant IBS, while alterations in gastroduodenal permeability in all IBS subtypes are largely attributable to confounders.

    PubMed

    Mujagic, Z; Ludidi, S; Keszthelyi, D; Hesselink, M A M; Kruimel, J W; Lenaerts, K; Hanssen, N M J; Conchillo, J M; Jonkers, D M A E; Masclee, A A M

    2014-08-01

    Intestinal permeability has been studied in small groups of IBS patients with contrasting findings. To assess intestinal permeability at different sites of the GI tract in different subtypes of well-characterised IBS patients and healthy controls (HC), and to assess potential confounding factors. IBS patients and HC underwent a multi-sugar test to assess site-specific intestinal permeability. Sucrose excretion and lactulose/rhamnose ratio in 0-5 h urine indicated gastroduodenal and small intestinal permeability, respectively. Sucralose/erythritol ratio in 0-24 h and 5-24 h urine indicated whole gut and colonic permeability, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between IBS groups and intestinal permeability and to adjust for age, sex, BMI, anxiety or depression, smoking, alcohol intake and use of medication. Ninety-one IBS patients, i.e. 37% IBS-D, 23% IBS-C, 33% IBS-M and 7% IBS-U and 94 HC were enrolled. Urinary sucrose excretion was significantly increased in the total IBS group [μmol, median (Q1;Q3): 5.26 (1.82;11.03) vs. 2.44 (0.91;5.85), P < 0.05], as well as in IBS-C and IBS-D vs. HC. However, differences attenuated when adjusting for confounders. The lactulose/rhamnose ratio was increased in IBS-D vs. HC [0.023 (0.013;0.038) vs. 0.014 (0.008;0.025), P < 0.05], which remained significant after adjustment for confounders. No difference was found in 0-24 and 5-24 h sucralose/erythritol ratio between groups. Small intestinal permeability is increased in patients with IBS-D compared to healthy controls, irrespective of confounding factors. Adjustment for confounders is necessary when studying intestinal permeability, especially in a heterogeneous disorder such as IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. c-Kit mutation reduce intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and migration, but not influence intestinal permeability stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hong; Wang, Feng Yun; Kang, Qian; Tang, Xu Dong

    2018-06-20

    The proto-oncogene c-kit, as a marker of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the gastrointestinal tract, plays an important role in the ICCs. Although limited evidences showed c-kit is present in the colonic epithelium but its roles remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression, location and function of c-kit in the intestinal epithelium. Immunofluorescence, western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression and location of c-kit in the intestinal mucosa of WT mice. We investigated intestinal epithelial proliferation and migration in vivo by performing 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and Ki-67 staining in WT and Wads m/m mice. An Ussing chamber with fluorescein-isothiocyanate dextran 4000 was used to detect the transepithelial electric resistance (TER), short circuit current (ISC) and permeability across ex vivo colon segments under control and endotoxaemia conditions. We demonstrated that c-kit was located and expressed in the gut crypt compartment in WT mice, which was demonstrated in the c-kit mutant mice (Wads m/m ). In addition, both the number of proliferating cells and the percentage of the distance migrated were lower in the Wads m/m mice than those in the WT mice. Moreover, the intestinal permeability, TER and tight junction were unaltered in the Wads m/m mice under endotoxic conditions compared with those in both the control condition and the WT mice. Altogether, these observations imply that the expression of c-kit in the colonic epithelium is involved in the proliferation and permeability of the colonic epithelium. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Biopharmaceutical classification of drugs using intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and rat intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Azimi, Mandana; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2009-09-01

    The solubility and dissolution rate of active ingredients are of major importance in preformulation studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the present study, passively absorbed drugs are classified based on their intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and their intestinal permeabilities. IDR was determined by measuring the dissolution of a non-disintegrating disk of drug, and effective intestinal permeability of tested drugs in rat jejunum was determined using single perfusion technique. The obtained intrinsic dissolution rate values were in the range of 0.035-56.8 mg/min/cm(2) for tested drugs. The minimum and maximum intestinal permeabilities in rat intestine were determined to be 1.6 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4)cm/s, respectively. Four classes of drugs were defined: Category I: P(eff,rat)>5 x 10(-5) (cm/s) or P(eff,human)>4.7 x 10(-5) (cm/s), IDR>1(mg/min/cm(2)), Category II: P(eff,rat)>5 x 10(-5) (cm/s) or P(eff,human)>4.7 x 10(-5) (cm/s), IDR<1(mg/min/cm(2)), Category III: P(eff,rat)<5 x 10(-5) (cm/s) or P(eff,human)<4.7 x 10(-5) (cm/s), IDR>1 (mg/min/cm(2)) and Category IV: P(eff,rat)<5 x 10(-5) (cm/s) or P(eff,human)<4.7 x 10(-5) (cm/s), IDR<1(mg/min/cm(2)). According to the results obtained and proposed classification of drugs, it is concluded that drugs could be categorized correctly based on their IDR and intestinal permeability values.

  8. Methods to determine intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation during liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Hartmann, Phillipp; Yang, An-Ming; Chen, Peng; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is often times associated with increased intestinal permeability. A disruption of the gut barrier allows microbial products and viable bacteria to translocate from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal organs. The majority of the venous blood from the intestinal tract is drained into the portal circulation, which is part of the dual hepatic blood supply. The liver is therefore the first organ in the body to encounter not only absorbed nutrients, but also gut-derived bacteria and pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Chronic exposure to increased levels of PAMPs has been linked to disease progression during early stages and to infectious complications during late stages of liver disease (cirrhosis). It is therefore important to assess and monitor gut barrier dysfunction during hepatic disease. We review methods to assess intestinal barrier disruption and discuss advantages and disadvantages. We will in particular focus on methods that we have used to measure increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation during experimental liver disease models. PMID:25595554

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (109 colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel

  10. [Alteration of intestinal permeability: the missing link between gut microbiota modifications and inflammation in obesity?].

    PubMed

    Genser, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Brot-Laroche, Édith; Rousset, Monique; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Clément, Karine; Thenet, Sophie; Leturque, Armelle

    2016-05-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity and associated metabolic complications is a worldwide public health issue. The role of the gut in the pathophysiology of obesity, with an important part for microbiota, is becoming obvious. In rodent models of diet-induced obesity, the modifications of gut microbiota are associated with an alteration of the intestinal permeability increasing the passage of food or bacterial antigens, which contribute to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. In human obesity, intestinal permeability modification, and its role in the crosstalk between gut microbiota changes and inflammation at systemic and tissular levels, are still poorly documented. Hence, further characterization of the triggering mechanisms of such inflammatory responses in obese subjects could enable the development of personalized intervention strategies that will help to reduce the risk of obesity-associated diseases. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  11. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = −0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  12. Increased intestinal macromolecular permeability and urine nitrite excretion associated with liver cirrhosis with ascites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soong; Son, Seung-Cheol; Han, Moon-Jong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Ran; Jeon, Woo-Kyu; Park, Ki-Hong; Shin, Myung-Geun

    2008-06-28

    To determine intestinal permeability, the serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level and urine nitric oxide (NO) metabolites are altered in liver cirrhosis (LC) with or without ascites. Fifty-three patients with LC and 26 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. The intestinal permeability value is expressed as the percentage of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and 3350 retrieval in 8-h urine samples as determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Serum TNF-alpha concentrations and urine NO metabolites were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Greiss reaction method, respectively. The intestinal permeability index was significantly higher in patients with LC with ascites than in healthy control subjects or patients with LC without ascites (0.88 +/- 0.12 vs 0.52 +/- 0.05 or 0.53 +/- 0.03, P < 0.05) and correlated with urine nitrite excretion (r = 0.98). Interestingly, the serum TNF-alpha concentration was significantly higher in LC without ascites than in control subjects or in LC with ascites (198.9 +/- 55.8 pg/mL vs 40.9 +/- 12.3 pg/mL or 32.1 +/- 13.3 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Urine nitrite excretion was significantly higher in LC with ascites than in the control subjects or in LC without ascites (1170.9 +/- 28.7 micromol/L vs 903.1 +/- 55.1 micromol/L or 956.7 +/- 47.7 micromol/L, P < 0.05). Increased intestinal macromolecular permeability and NO is probably of importance in the pathophysiology and progression of LC with ascites, but the serum TNF-alpha concentration was not related to LC with ascites.

  13. Increased small intestinal permeability in ulcerative colitis: rather genetic than environmental and a risk factor for extensive disease?

    PubMed

    Büning, Carsten; Geissler, Nora; Prager, Matthias; Sturm, Andreas; Baumgart, Daniel C; Büttner, Janine; Bühner, Sabine; Haas, Verena; Lochs, Herbert

    2012-10-01

    A disturbed epithelial barrier could play a pivotal role in ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a family-based study analyzing in vivo gastrointestinal permeability in patients with UC, their healthy relatives, spouses, and controls. In total, 89 patients with UC in remission, 35 first-degree relatives (UC-R), 24 nonrelated spouses (UC-NR), and 99 healthy controls (HC) were studied. Permeability was assessed by a sugar-drink test using sucrose (gastroduodenal permeability), lactulose/mannitol (intestinal permeability), and sucralose (colonic permeability). Data were correlated with clinical characteristics including medical treatment. Increased intestinal permeability was detected significantly more often in UC patients in remission (25/89, 28.1%) compared with HC (6/99, 6.1%; P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained in UC-R (7/35, 20.0%; P = 0.01 compared with HC) regardless of sharing the same household with the patients or not. No difference was found between UC-NR (3/24, 12.5%) and HC. Notably, in UC patients increased intestinal permeability was found in 12/28 patients (42.9%) with pancolitis, 7/30 (23.3%) patients with left-sided colitis, and in 2/19 (10.5%) patients with proctitis (P = 0.04). Gastroduodenal and colonic permeability were similar in all groups. Among patients on azathioprine, increased intestinal permeability was only seen in 1/18 (5.6%) patients. In contrast, in 24/70 (34.3%) patients without azathioprine, an increased intestinal permeability was found (P = 0.005). An increased intestinal but not colonic permeability was found in UC patients in clinical remission that could mark a new risk factor for extensive disease location. Similar findings in healthy relatives but not spouses suggest that this barrier defect is genetically determined. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  14. Assessment of Passive Intestinal Permeability Using an Artificial Membrane Insert System.

    PubMed

    Berben, Philippe; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Despite reasonable predictive power of current cell-based and cell-free absorption models for the assessment of intestinal drug permeability, high costs and lengthy preparation steps hamper their use. The use of a simple artificial membrane (without any lipids present) as intestinal barrier substitute would overcome these hurdles. In the present study, a set of 14 poorly water-soluble drugs, dissolved in 2 different media (fasted state simulated/human intestinal fluids [FaSSIF/FaHIF]), were applied to the donor compartment of an artificial membrane insert system (AMI-system) containing a regenerated cellulose membrane. Furthermore, to investigate the predictive capacity of the AMI-system as substitute for the well-established Caco-2 system to assess intestinal permeability, the same set of 14 drugs dissolved in FaHIF were applied to the donor compartment of a Caco-2 system. For 14 drugs, covering a broad range of physicochemical parameters, a reasonable correlation between both absorption systems was observed, characterized by a Pearson correlation coefficient r of 0.95 (FaHIF). Using the AMI-system, an excellent predictive capacity of FaSSIF as surrogate medium for FaHIF was demonstrated (r = 0.96). Based on the acquired data, the AMI-system appears to be a time- and cost-effective tool for the early-stage estimation of passive intestinal permeability for poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorogenic Acid Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Increases Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins in Weaned Rats Challenged with LPS

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21±1 d of age; 62.26±2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05) in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS. PMID:24887396

  16. (51Cr)EDTA intestinal permeability in children with cow's milk intolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Schrander, J.J.; Unsalan-Hooyen, R.W.; Forget, P.P.

    1990-02-01

    Making use of ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA as a permeability marker, we measured intestinal permeability in a group of 20 children with proven cow's milk intolerance (CMI), a group of 17 children with similar complaints where CMI was excluded (sick controls), and a group of 12 control children. ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test results (mean +/- SD) were 6.85 +/- 3.64%, 3.42 +/- 0.94%, and 2.61 +/- 0.67% in the group with CMI, the sick control, and the control group, respectively. When compared to both control groups, patients with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) showed a significantly increased small bowel permeability. We conclude that themore » ({sup 51}Cr)EDTA test can be helpful for the diagnosis of cow's milk intolerance.« less

  17. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John R.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard; Hyland, Niall P.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging links between our gut microbiome and the central nervous system (CNS) are regarded as a paradigm shift in neuroscience with possible implications for not only understanding the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, but also their treatment. Thus the gut microbiome and its influence on host barrier function is positioned to be a critical node within the brain-gut axis. Mounting preclinical evidence broadly suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate brain development, function and behavior by immune, endocrine and neural pathways of the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Detailed mechanistic insights explaining these specific interactions are currently underdeveloped. However, the concept that a “leaky gut” may facilitate communication between the microbiota and these key signaling pathways has gained traction. Deficits in intestinal permeability may underpin the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in disorders such as depression and the gut microbiome plays a critical role in regulating intestinal permeability. In this review we will discuss the possible role played by the gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal barrier function and the CNS consequences when it becomes disrupted. We will draw on both clinical and preclinical evidence to support this concept as well as the key features of the gut microbiota which are necessary for normal intestinal barrier function. PMID:26528128

  18. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and gut permeability responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    March, Daniel S; Marchbank, Tania; Playford, Raymond J; Jones, Arwel W; Thatcher, Rhys; Davison, Glen

    2017-05-01

    Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal barrier integrity/permeability (5 h urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio, L/R). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 18 males completed two experimental arms (14 days of 20 g/day supplementation with Col or placebo, Plac). For each arm participants performed two baseline (resting) intestinal permeability assessments (L/R) pre-supplementation and one post-exercise following supplementation. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise to determine I-FABP concentration. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed an arm × time interaction for L/R and I-FABP (P < 0.001). Post hoc analyses showed urinary L/R increased post-exercise in Plac (273% of pre, P < 0.001) and Col (148% of pre, P < 0.001) with post-exercise values significantly lower with Col (P < 0.001). Plasma I-FABP increased post-exercise in Plac (191% of pre-exercise, P = 0.002) but not in the Col arm (107%, P = 0.862) with post-exercise values significantly lower with Col (P = 0.013). Correlations between the increase in I-FABP and L/R were evident for visit one (P = 0.044) but not visit two (P = 0.200) although overall plots/patterns do appear similar for each. These findings suggest that exercise-induced intestinal cellular damage/injury is partly implicated in changes in permeability but other factors must also contribute.

  19. Self dispersing mixed micelles forming systems for enhanced dissolution and intestinal permeability of hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Amal A; El-Gizawy, Sanaa A; Osman, Mohamed A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-01-01

    Mixed micelles provide promising strategy for enhancing dissolution and permeability of drugs. However, their fluid nature limited the stability of the loaded drug and hindered the development of stable oral dosage form. Accordingly, the objective was to develop solid self dispersing mixed micelle forming systems (MMFS) for enhanced dissolution and intestinal permeability of hydrochlorothiazide. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using sodium cholate, lecithin with either poloxamer 407 or PEG 4000 to determine the composition of MMFS. Both polymer free and poloxamer or PEG containing MMFS were prepared as homogenous matrices or as solid self dispersing powder. The later was developed by adsorption of MMFS on avicel-aerosil mixture. Differential scanning calorimetry provided an evidence for existence of hydrochlorothiazide as molecular dispersion in the MMFS. Dispersing polymer free, PEG 4000 or poloxamer based MMFS in aqueous medium produced micelles having size values of 119, 52.6 and 28nm, respectively. The zeta potential values were -61.8, -59.5 and -19.5mV for the same systems, respectively. Preparation of solid self dispersing MMFS enhanced the dissolution rate of hydrochlorothiazide. The intestinal absorption of hydrochlorothiazide from its aqueous solution and polymer incorporating mixed micellar systems was monitored using in situ rabbit intestinal perfusion technique. The permeability results showed a clear trend for enhanced membrane transport of the drug after being incorporated into poloxamer containing mixed micellar system. The study thus introduced a versatile easily formulated solid self dispersing system with high potential for solving the dissolution and permeability problems of class IV drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of the Caco-2 permeability assay to screen drug compounds for intestinal absorption and efflux.

    PubMed

    Press, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In vitro permeability assays are a valuable tool for scientists during lead compound optimization. As a majority of discovery projects are focused on the development of orally bioavailable drugs, correlation of in vitro permeability data to in vivo absorption results is critical for understanding the structural-physicochemical relationship (SPR) of drugs exhibiting low levels of absorption. For more than a decade, the Caco-2 screening assay has remained a popular, in vitro system to test compounds for both intestinal permeability and efflux liability. Despite advances in artificial membrane technology and in silico modeling systems, drug compounds still benefit from testing in cell-based epithelial monolayer assays for lead optimization. This chapter provides technical information for performing and optimizing the Caco-2 assay. In addition, techniques are discussed for dealing with some of the most pressing issues surrounding in vitro permeability assays (i.e., low aqueous solubility of test compounds and low postassay recovery). Insights are offered to help researchers avoid common pitfalls in the interpretation of in vitro permeability data, which can often lead to the perception of misleading results for correlation to in vivo data.

  1. Preinduced intestinal HSP70 improves visceral hypersensitivity and abnormal intestinal motility in PI-IBS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Xu-Chun; Yang, Bo; Huang, Bai-Li; Deng, Tao-Zhi; He, Zhou-Tao; Han, Xiang-Yang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the preinduced intestinal heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on the visceral hypersensitivity and abnormal intestinal motility in a post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) mouse model. Eighty-four female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups: control group (n = 21) and induction + PI-IBS group (n = 21), PI-IBS group (n = 21) and induction group (n = 21). The mice in PI-IBS group were infected in vivo with Trichinella spiralis by oral administration. The visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal motility were evaluated respectively with abdominal withdrawal reflex and colon transportation test. The intestinal HSP70 protein and mRNA level was measured by Western blot and real-time PCR. Meanwhile, the intestinal proinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TNF-α level was detected by ELISA. Compared with their counterparts in PI-IBS group, the animals in the Induction + PI-IBS group show significantly increased intestinal level of HSP70 and obviously ameliorative clinical figures, including abdominal withdrawal reflex score, intestine transportation time and Bristol scores (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the intestinal post-inflammatory cytokines remarkably changed, including increased IL-10 level and decreased TNF-α level (P < 0.05). Intestinal HSP70 may play a potential protective role through improving the imbalance between the intestinal post-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in PI-IBS. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional-dependent intestinal permeability and BCS classification: elucidation of pH-related complexity in rats using pseudoephedrine.

    PubMed

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik

    2013-04-01

    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (P(eff)) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized P(eff)-F(abs) correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the confusion in pseudoephedrine's BCS classification. Pseudoephedrine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Pseudoephedrine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All of the permeability studies revealed similar phenomenon; at any given intestinal segment/pH, the permeability of metoprolol was higher than that of pseudoephedrine, however, as the intestinal region becomes progressively distal, and the pH gradually increases, pseudoephedrine's permeability rises above that of metoprolol in the former segment. This unique permeability pattern likely explains pseudoephedrine's complete absorption. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine is a BCS Class I compound; no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) is involved in its absorption. Rather, it reflects the complexity behind P(eff) when considering the whole of the intestine. We propose to allow high-permeability classification to drugs with P(eff) that matches/exceeds the low/high class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract and not restricted necessarily to the jejunum.

  3. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    PubMed Central

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, as it disrupts the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem, potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10–11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was observed for all three antibiotics. Additionally, the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in the CTX group and both Lactobacillaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae were increased in the VAN group compared to the CON group. No changes in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Intestinal permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota may be linked to alterations in intestinal permeability, although the specific interactions remain to be elucidated as changes in permeability did

  4. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class.

    PubMed

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, as it disrupts the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem, potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was observed for all three antibiotics. Additionally, the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in the CTX group and both Lactobacillaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae were increased in the VAN group compared to the CON group. No changes in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Intestinal permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota may be linked to alterations in intestinal permeability, although the specific interactions remain to be elucidated as changes in permeability did

  5. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Leclercq-Foucart, J.; Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.

    1986-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in 14 children with cystic fibrosis making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. Ten normal young adults and 11 children served as controls. After oral administration of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA, 24 h urine was collected. Urinary radioactivity was calculated and results expressed as percentage of oral dose excreted in 24 h urine. Mean and SEM were as follows: 2.51 +/- 0.21, 2.35 +/- 0.24, and 13.19 +/- 1.72 for control children, normal adults, and cystic fibrosis patients, respectively. The permeability differences between cystic fibrosis patients and either control children or control adults are significant (p lessmore » than 0.001).« less

  6. Chitosan-modified porous silicon microparticles for enhanced permeability of insulin across intestinal cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Neha; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Araújo, Francisca; Zhang, Hongbo; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Kauppila, Jussi; Sarmento, Bruno; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-08-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) based particulate systems are emerging as an important drug delivery system due to its advantageous properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to tailor the particles' physicochemical properties. Here, annealed thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (AnnTHCPSi) and undecylenic acid modified AnnTHCPSi (AnnUnTHCPSi) microparticles were developed as a PSi-based platform for oral delivery of insulin. Chitosan (CS) was used to modify the AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles to enhance the intestinal permeation of insulin. Surface modification with CS led to significant increase in the interaction of PSi microparticles with Caco-2/HT-29 cell co-culture monolayers. Compared to pure insulin, the CS-conjugated microparticles significantly improved the permeation of insulin across the Caco-2/HT-29 cell monolayers, with ca. 20-fold increase in the amount of insulin permeated and ca. 7-fold increase in the apparent permeability (P(app)) value. Moreover, among all the investigated particles, the CS-conjugated microparticles also showed the highest amount of insulin associated with the mucus layer and the intestinal Caco-2 cells and mucus secreting HT-29 cells. Our results demonstrate that CS-conjugated AnnUnTHCPSi microparticles can efficiently enhance the insulin absorption across intestinal cells, and thus, they are promising microsystems for the oral delivery of proteins and peptides across the intestinal cell membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effect of multicomponent environment on intestinal permeability of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Dong, Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Dong, Hong-Huant; Hou, Cheng-Bo

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of permeability in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) requires multicomponent as a whole in order to conduct research, even in the study of a specific component, should also be put in the multicomponent environment. Based on this principle, the high content components in Gegen Qinlian decoction were used as multicomponent environmental impact factors in the experiment, and the relevant parameters of intestinal permeability about puerarin were measured with using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model, to investigate and evaluate the intestinal permeability of puerarin with other high content components. The experimental results showed that different proportions of baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid and berberine had certain influence on intestinal permeability of puerarin, and glycyrrhizic acid could significantly inhibit the intestinal absorption of puerarin, moreover, high concentration of berberine could promote the absorption of puerarin. The research results indicated that the important research ideas of permeability evaluation in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica with fully considering the effects of other ingredients in multicomponent environment.

  8. Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana Paula Boroni; Texeira, Tatiana Fiche Salles; Ferreira, Alessandra Barbosa; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may play an important role in chronic diseases through the activation of inflammatory responses. The type of diet consumed is of major concern for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Evidence from animal and human studies has shown that LPS can diffuse from the gut to the circulatory system in response to the intake of high amounts of fat. The method by which LPS move into the circulatory system is either through direct diffusion due to intestinal paracellular permeability or through absorption by enterocytes during chylomicron secretion. Considering the impact of metabolic diseases on public health and the association between these diseases and the levels of LPS in the circulatory system, this review will mainly discuss the current knowledge about high-fat diets and subclinical inflammation. It will also describe the new evidence that correlates gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and alkaline phosphatase activity with increased blood LPS levels and the biological effects of this increase, such as insulin resistance. Although the majority of the studies published so far have assessed the effects of dietary fat, additional studies are necessary to deepen the understanding of how the amount, the quality and the structure of the fat may affect endotoxaemia. The potential of food combinations to reduce the negative effects of fat intake should also be considered in future studies. In these studies, the effects of flavonoids, prebiotics and probiotics on endotoxaemia should be investigated. Thus, it is essential to identify dietetic strategies capable of minimising endotoxaemia and its postprandial inflammatory effects.

  9. Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

    2015-03-15

    Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic β-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion ofmore » /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.« less

  11. Segmental-dependent permeability throughout the small intestine following oral drug administration: Single-pass vs. Doluisio approach to in-situ rat perfusion.

    PubMed

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; Zur, Moran; Beig, Avital; Fine, Noa; Cohen, Yael; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Dahan, Arik

    2016-12-30

    Intestinal drug permeability is position dependent and pertains to a specific point along the intestinal membrane, and the resulted segmental-dependent permeability phenomenon has been recognized as a critical factor in the overall absorption of drug following oral administration. The aim of this research was to compare segmental-dependent permeability data obtained from two different rat intestinal perfusion approaches: the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model and the closed-loop (Doluisio) rat perfusion method. The rat intestinal permeability of 12 model drugs with different permeability characteristics (low, moderate, and high, as well as passively and actively absorbed) was assessed in three small intestinal regions: the upper jejunum, mid-small intestine, and the terminal ileum, using both the SPIP and the Doluisio experimental methods. Excellent correlation was evident between the two approaches, especially in the upper jejunum (R 2 =0.95). Significant regional-dependent permeability was found in half of drugs studied, illustrating the importance and relevance of segmental-dependent intestinal permeability. Despite the differences between the two methods, highly comparable results were obtained by both methods, especially in the medium-high P eff range. In conclusion, the SPIP and the Doluisio method are both equally useful in obtaining crucial segmental-dependent intestinal permeability data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of humic acids on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction model to induce intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maguey-Gonzalez, Jesús A; Michel, Matias A; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Tellez, Guillermo; Moore, Philip A; Solis-Cruz, Bruno; Hernández-Patlan, Daniel; Merino-Guzman, Rubén; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Latorre, Juan D; Hargis, Billy M; Gomez-Rosales, Sergio; Tellez-Isaias, Guillermo

    2018-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of humic acids (HA) on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction (FR) model to induce intestinal permeability in chickens. One-day-old male Cobb-Vantress broilers were randomly allocated to one of two groups (n = 25 chickens), with or without 0.2% of isolated HA from worm-compost, and placed in brooder batteries. Chicks had ad libitum access to water and feed for 14 days. Intestinal permeability was induced by 24 hr FR starting at 14 days. At 15 days of age, chickens in both groups were given an appropriate dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) by oral gavage. Intestine and liver samples were also collected to evaluate viscosity and bacterial translocation (BT), respectively. An increase (p < .05) in intestinal viscosity was observed in the experimental group consuming 0.2% of HA and was confirmed in a published in vitro digestion model that simulates the chemical and physical conditions of the crop, proventriculus and intestine of chickens. Furthermore, the treated group also showed a significant reduction in FITC-d, liver BT and ammonia in the manure. These results suggest that HA have a positive impact in intestinal integrity in chickens. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 9-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability contributes to the severity of experimental DSS colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Prashant; Al-Sadi, Rana; Guo, Shuhong; Watterson, D. Martin; Ma, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated a pathogenic role for matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) in inflammatory bowel disease. Although loss of epithelial barrier function has been shown to be a key pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9−/− mice were subjected to experimental dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. The mouse colonic permeability was measured in vivo by recycling perfusion of the entire colon using fluorescently labeled dextran. The DSS-induced increase in the colonic permeability was accompanied by an increase in intestinal epithelial cell MMP-9 expression in WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in intestinal permeability and the severity of DSS colitis was found to be attenuated in MMP-9−/− mice. The colonic protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and phospho-MLC was found to be significantly increased after DSS administration in WT mice but not in MMP-9−/− mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic permeability and colonic inflammation was attenuated in MLCK−/− mice and MLCK inhibitor ML-7-treated WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic surface epithelial cell MLCK mRNA was abolished in MMP-9−/− mice. Lastly, increased MMP-9 protein expression was detected within the colonic surface epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis cases. These data suggest a role of MMP-9 in modulation of colonic epithelial permeability and inflammation via MLCK. PMID:26514773

  14. Subchronic mild noise stress increases HRP permeability in rat small intestine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, P B; van Raaij, M T; Dobbe, C J; Timmerman, A; Kiliaan, A J; Taminiau, J A; Groot, J A

    2001-05-01

    Recently we reported an increased trans- and paracellular protein permeability in rat small intestine after acute cold restraint stress. In the present study, we applied randomized 95- or 105-dB white noise pulses during 45 min/h, 12 h/day, duration 8 days, as a milder, but more chronic stressor to male rats. At 8 days before the noise experiments, 50% of the animals were cannulated in the vena cava for blood sampling during the experimental period. The other 50% of the animals were sacrificed at Day 9, segments of ileum were mounted in Ussing chambers and perfused at 37 degrees C. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was added mucosally, serosal appearance was detected enzymatically and tissues were fixed for electron microscopy. In the animals exposed to 95-dB noise, plasma corticosterone levels were enhanced twofold compared to controls, and ileal HRP flux was enhanced twofold. Electron micrographs of tissue from stressed or control animals showed no detectable paracellular staining of HRP. Quantification of HRP-containing endosomes in enterocytes revealed a twofold increase in endosome number in the animals exposed to 95-db noise indicating that the increased HRP permeability was primarily due to increased endocytosis. In contrast to the animals exposed to 95-dB noise, rats exposed to 105-dB noise showed no increase in corticosterone levels and ileal HRP fluxes were not significantly different from controls. We conclude that mild subchronic noise stress may cause a decrease in intestinal barrier function by increased transcytosis of luminal antigens.

  15. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  16. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo. PMID:28829356

  17. Small intestinal permeability in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis during active phase and remission.

    PubMed

    Katzka, David A; Geno, Debra M; Blair, Hilary E; Lamsam, Jesse L; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Camilleri, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is presumed to be an isolated oesophageal disease; yet other allergic diseases associated with eosinophilic infiltration of target tissues, such as asthma and eczema, show perturbed functions of other sites that may be involved in the diathesis of allergy modulation. To analyse small intestinal permeability in patients with active EoE and in a separate group of patients in remission. Small bowel permeability was determined using a dual sugar method by calculating lactulose:mannitol (L:M) ratio in 17 patients who met consensus criteria for active EoE (>15 eos/HPF) and 8 patients in remission (<5 eos/HPF). Data from 28 healthy controls was used for comparison. Patients with active EoE had significantly higher L:M ratios when compared to controls (0.045 vs. 0.033, p<0.001) and to EoE in remission (0.041 vs. 0.027, p<.001). There was no significant difference in L:M between the group with EoEin remission and healthy controls. The current data show that L:M ratio of 0.033 also provides a reasonable cut-off that defined the active EoE group compared to patients in remission. The main component explaining the change in L:M ratio was increased absorption (and excretion) of lactulose ((1601 ± 106 ug) when compared to the EoE remission (969 ± 91 ug) and control (1043 ± 92 ug, p<.001) groups. Small bowel permeability is overall increased in patients with active EoE, and is normal in patients with EoE in remission when compared to healthy controls. The role of the small bowel in active EoE deserves further investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Toxicity of Graphene Oxide by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability under different Genetic Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Xiaoming; Jia, Ruhan; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is safe and useful for food and feed fermentation. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible beneficial effect of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) pretreatment against toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and the underlying mechanisms. LAB prevented GO toxicity on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in wild-type nematodes. LAB blocked translocation of GO into secondary targeted organs through intestinal barrier by maintaining normal intestinal permeability in wild-type nematodes. Moreover, LAB prevented GO damage on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in exposed nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes (sod-2, sod-3, gas-1, and aak-2) to GO toxicity by sustaining normal intestinal permeability. LAB also sustained the normal defecation behavior in both wild-type nematodes and nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes. Therefore, the beneficial role of LAB against GO toxicity under different genetic backgrounds may be due to the combinational effects on intestinal permeability and defecation behavior. Moreover, the beneficial effects of LAB against GO toxicity was dependent on the function of ACS-22, homologous to mammalian FATP4 to mammalian FATP4. Our study provides highlight on establishment of pharmacological strategy to protect intestinal barrier from toxicity of GO.

  19. Mdm4 loss in the intestinal epithelium leads to compartmentalized cell death but no tissue abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Valentin-Vega, Yasmine A.; Box, Neil; Terzian, Tamara; Lozano, Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Mdm4 is a critical inhibitor of the p53 tumor suppressor. Mdm4 null mice die early during embryogenesis due to increased p53 activity. In this study, we explore the role that Mdm4 plays in the intestinal epithelium by crossing mice carrying the Mdm4 floxed allele to mice with the Villin Cre transgene. Our data show that loss of Mdm4 (Mdm4intΔ) in this tissue resulted in viable animals with no obvious morphological abnormalities. However, these mutants displayed increased p53 levels and apoptosis exclusively in the proliferative compartment of the intestinal epithelium. This phenotype was completely rescued in a p53 null background. Notably, the observed compartmentalized apoptosis in proliferative intestinal epithelial cells was not due to restricted Mdm4 expression in this region. Thus, in this specific cellular context, p53 is negatively regulated by Mdm4 exclusively in highly proliferative cells. PMID:19371999

  20. Does biological sex impact intestinal epithelial injury, small intestine permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms and systemic cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress?

    PubMed

    Snipe, Rhiannon M J; Costa, Ricardo J S

    2018-05-23

    This study aimed to determine the influence of biological sex on intestinal injury, permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress. Male (n= 13) and eumenorrheic female (n= 11) endurance runners completed 2 h running at 60% V̇O 2max in 35°C. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise and during recovery to determine plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) and systemic cytokine profile. Urinary lactulose:L-rhamnose ratio was used to determine small intestine permeability. I-FABP increased 479% pre- to post-exercise (p< 0.001), with no difference between sexes (p= 0.432). No differences between sexes were observed for small intestine permeability (p= 0.808), gut discomfort, total, upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms. However, males reported significantly higher flatulence (p= 0.049) and abdominal stitch (p= 0.025) compared to females. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-1ra increased pre- to post-exercise (p< 0.05), with no difference between sexes. However, IL-1β increased post-exercise in males only, and was higher in males compared to females (p= 0.044). Findings suggest that when females are in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, biological sex has no effect on intestinal epithelial injury and permeability, and minimal effect on gastrointestinal symptoms and systemic cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress.

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 increases intestinal permeability through up-regulation of membrane PKC activity in alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Chen; Nie, Jiao; Lv, Dong; Wang, Tianyi; Xu, Youqing

    2013-09-01

    Intestinal hyperpermeability is a causal factor for the development of alcoholic endotoxemia and steatohepatitis. However, the mechanisms governing this link remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in ethanol's deleterious effects on the intestinal barrier. Caco-2 cells were incubated in vitro with 1-10% ethanol. The results indicated that ethanol had a dose-dependent effect in increasing TLR4 expression and intercellular permeability. Then the effects of TLR4 on protein kinase C (PKC) and the intercellular junction protein occludin were assessed with and without pretreatment with a TLR4 inhibitor. The results indicated that TLR4 increased nonspecific PKC activity and reduced the expression of phosphorylated occludin in the membrane, which increased intercellular permeability. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with TLR4 mAb. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed an ethanol or isocaloric liquid diet for 6 weeks. Hepatitis was diagnosed by the presence of an associated elevated blood endotoxin level. Chronic ethanol treatment significantly elevated blood endotoxin levels, intestinal permeability, and the expression of TLR4 in the ileum and colon. Moreover, ethanol exposure reduced the distribution of phosphorylated occludin in the intestinal epithelium because of PKC activation. In conclusion, chronic ethanol exposure induces a high response of TLR4 to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and TLR4 increases intestinal permeability through down-regulation of phosphorylated occludin expression in the intestinal epithelial barrier, accompanied by membrane PKC hyperactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves intestinal metabolism and prevents increased permeability in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S M; Chen, K; Usui, N; Iiboshi, Y; Okuyama, H; Masunari, A; Cui, L; Nezu, R; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the effects of alanyl-glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on mucosal metabolism, integrity, and permeability of the small intestine in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive TPN supplemented with a conventional amino acids mixture (STD group) or the same solution supplemented with alanyl-glutamine; both solutions were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On the seventh day of TPN, D-xylose and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran were administered orally. One hour later, superior mesenteric vein (SMV) D-xylose and plasma FITC-dextran concentration were measured. Intestinal blood flow and calculated intestinal substrates flux were measured with ultrasonic transit time flowmetery. RESULTS: Plasma FITC-dextran increased significantly in the STD group. Intestinal blood flow and SMV D-xylose concentration did not differ between the groups. Mucosa weight, villus height, mucosal wall thickness, mucosal protein, and DNA and RNA content in jejunal mucosa were significantly increased in the alanyl-glutamine group. Jejunal mucosal glutaminase activity and net intestinal uptake of glutamine (glutamine flux) were significantly higher in the alanyl-glutamine group as compared with the STD group. CONCLUSION: Addition of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide to the TPN solution improves intestinal glutamine metabolism and prevents mucosal atrophy and deterioration of permeability. PMID:8604914

  3. RIP3 AND pMLKL promote necroptosis-induced inflammation and alter membrane permeability in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Negroni, Anna; Colantoni, Eleonora; Pierdomenico, Maria; Palone, Francesca; Costanzo, Manuela; Oliva, Salvatore; Tiberti, Antonio; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Necroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death requiring receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL). The aim of this study is to examine in depth in vitro and ex vivo the contribution of necroptosis to intestinal inflammation. In vitro: we used an intestinal cell line, HCT116RIP3, produced in our laboratory and overexpressing RIP3. Ex vivo: intestinal mucosal biopsies were taken from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (20 with Crohn's disease; 20 with ulcerative colitis) and from 20 controls. RIP3-induced necroptosis triggers MLKL activation, increases cytokine/alarmin expression (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-33, HMGB1), NF-kBp65 translocation and NALP3 inflammasome assembly. It also affects membrane permeability by altering cell-cell junctional proteins (E-cadherin, Occludin, Zonulin-1). Targeting necroptosis through Necrostatin-1 significantly reduces intestinal inflammation in vitro and in cultured intestinal explants from IBD. We show for the first time in vitro and ex vivo that RIP3-driven necroptosis seriously affects intestinal inflammation by increasing pMLKL, activating different cytokines and alarmins, and altering epithelial permeability. The inhibition of necroptosis causes a significant decrease of all these effects. These data strongly support the view that targeting necroptosis may represent a promising new option for the treatment of inflammatory enteropathies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on intestinal permeability following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Luo, C C; Chen, H M; Chiu, C H; Lin, J N; Chen, J C

    2001-07-01

    Subclinical intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) causes an increase in mucosal permeability and may represent an early event in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Previous studies suggested that continuous, endogenous formation of nitric oxide (NO) maintains the mucosal integrity of the intestine, thus protecting the gut from injuries from blood-borne toxins and tissue-destructive mediators. This study was undertaken to assess whether the inhibition of NO production causes an increase in intestinal permeability in rats following IRI. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-300 g were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated group (normal control); (2) ischemia-reperfusion group; (3) early N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a specific inhibitor of NO production, treatment group, and (4) late L-NAME treatment group. Transient IRI was induced by 30-min occlusion, followed by reperfusion of the isolated ileal loop. The L-NAME was administered 15 min before and after mesenteric ischemia as a 25-mg/kg bolus. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D) was used to quantitatively assess the alteration in mucosal permeability of the intestine. There was no significant increase in the portal vein FITC-D level among normal controls, ischemia-reperfusion group and late L-NAME-treated group, but there was an approximately 6-fold increase in the early L-NAME treatment group. The pathological features of the intestine following IRI include denudation of the villus epithelium and reduction of villus height, associated with marked inflammatory cell infiltration over the lamina propria. These results suggest that endogenous NO may play a role in the protecting intestinal integrity after IRI. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. My gut feeling says rest: Increased intestinal permeability contributes to chronic diseases in high-intensity exercisers.

    PubMed

    Van Houten, Jason M; Wessells, Robert J; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and many of these conditions are linked to chronic inflammation. One potential cause of chronic inflammation is an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. Recent studies have demonstrated that parasympathetic stimulation via the efferent abdominal vagus nerve increases the expression and proper localization of tight junction proteins and decreases intestinal epithelial permeability. This finding may provide a novel approach for treating and preventing many chronic conditions. Importantly, physical activity is associated with increased resting parasympathetic (vagal) activity and lower risk of chronic diseases. However, high intensity long duration exercise can be harmful to overall health. Specifically, individuals who frequently exercise strenuously and for longer time intervals have the same mortality rates as sedentary individuals. This may be explained, in part, by longer periods of reduced vagal activity as vagal activity is markedly reduced both during and after intense exercise. We hypothesize that one mechanism by which exercise provides its health benefits is by increasing resting vagal activity and decreasing intestinal epithelial permeability, thus decreasing chronic inflammation. Additionally, we hypothesize that long periods of reduced vagal activity in individuals who exercise at high intensities and for longer durations, decrease the integrity of the intestinal barrier, putting them at greater risk of chronic inflammation and a host of chronic diseases. Thus, this hypothesis provides a conceptual link between the well-established benefits of frequent exercise and the paradoxical deleterious effects of prolonged, high-intensity exercise without adequate rest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Oral (99m)Tc-DTPA simultaneous determination of duodenobiliary reflux and intestinal permeability in patients after choledocholithotomy plus T-tube drainage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Long; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Bo

    2005-11-01

    The high choledocholithiasis recurrence rate after choledocholithotomy plus T-tube drainage is related to biliary bacterial infection. These bacteria are from the intestine, either via the major duodenal papilla, or the penetrating intestinal mucosa. It is therefore possible that duodenobiliary reflux and increased intestinal permeability exist in patients who have undergone choledocholithotomy. This study was undertaken to find the evidence of duodenobiliary reflux and to assess intestinal permeability in these patients. Twenty-one patients who underwent choledocholithotomy plus T-tube drainage 2 months ago, and 11 healthy volunteers (controls) took orally 185MBq of (99m)Tc-DTPA. The patients' bile was collected in the next 2 hours via a T-tube and the (99m)Tc-DTPA radioactivity in the bile was counted. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the 24-hour urinary excretion rate of ingested (99m)Tc-DTPA in both patients and controls. In 6 of the 21 patients, radioactivity in the bile was detected. The intestinal permeability was significantly higher in patients (11.45%+/-6.16%) than that in controls (3.61%+/-1.63%, t=3.28, P<0.05). Duodenobiliary reflux exists in patients who have undergone choledocholithotomy plus T-tube drainage. The intestinal permeability is higher in these patients than in healthy subjects. Duodenobiliary reflux and increased intestinal permeability may be factors of cholelithiasis recurrence.

  8. Plasma endocannabinoid levels in lean, overweight and obese humans: relationships with intestinal permeability markers, inflammation and incretin secretion.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Cvijanovic, Nada; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Argueta, Donovan A; Rayner, Christopher K; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L

    2018-02-13

    Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion. 20 lean, 18 overweight and 19 obese participants underwent intraduodenal Intralipid® infusion (2 kcal/min) with collection of endoscopic duodenal biopsies and blood. Plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA (HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (multiplex), and duodenal expression of occludin, zona-occludin-1 (ZO-1), intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase (IAP), and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) (RT-PCR), were assessed. Fasting plasma AEA was increased in obese, compared with lean and overweight (P<0.05), with no effect of BMI group or ID lipid infusion on plasma 2-AG or OEA. Duodenal expression of IAP and ZO-1 was reduced in obese, compared with lean (P<0.05), and these levels related negatively to plasma AEA (P<0.05). The iAUC for AEA was positively related to iAUC GIP (r=0.384, P=0.005). Obese individuals have increased plasma AEA and decreased duodenal expression of ZO-1 and IAP, in comparison to lean and overweight. The relationships between plasma AEA with duodenal ZO-1 and IAP, and GIP, suggest that altered endocannabinoid signalling may contribute to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and incretin release in human obesity.

  9. How to Catch a Smurf? - Ageing and Beyond… In vivo Assessment of Intestinal Permeability in Multiple Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Martins, Raquel R; McCracken, Andrew W; Simons, Mirre J P; Henriques, Catarina M; Rera, Michael

    2018-02-05

    The Smurf Assay (SA) was initially developed in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster where a dramatic increase of intestinal permeability has been shown to occur during aging (Rera et al. , 2011). We have since validated the protocol in multiple other model organisms (Dambroise et al. , 2016) and have utilized the assay to further our understanding of aging (Tricoire and Rera, 2015; Rera et al. , 2018). The SA has now also been used by other labs to assess intestinal barrier permeability (Clark et al. , 2015; Katzenberger et al. , 2015; Barekat et al. , 2016; Chakrabarti et al. , 2016; Gelino et al. , 2016). The SA in itself is simple; however, numerous small details can have a considerable impact on its experimental validity and subsequent interpretation. Here, we provide a detailed update on the SA technique and explain how to catch a Smurf while avoiding the most common experimental fallacies.

  10. In-situ intestinal rat perfusions for human Fabs prediction and BCS permeability class determination: Investigation of the single-pass vs. the Doluisio experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; Zur, Moran; Wolk, Omri; Beig, Avital; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival; Dahan, Arik

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal drug permeability has been recognized as a critical determinant of the fraction dose absorbed, with direct influence on bioavailability, bioequivalence and biowaiver. The purpose of this research was to compare intestinal permeability values obtained by two different intestinal rat perfusion methods: the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model and the Doluisio (closed-loop) rat perfusion method. A list of 15 model drugs with different permeability characteristics (low, moderate, and high, as well as passively and actively absorbed) was constructed. We assessed the rat intestinal permeability of these 15 model drugs in both SPIP and the Doluisio methods, and evaluated the correlation between them. We then evaluated the ability of each of these methods to predict the fraction dose absorbed (Fabs) in humans, and to assign the correct BCS permeability class membership. Excellent correlation was obtained between the two experimental methods (r(2)=0.93). An excellent correlation was also shown between literature Fabs values and the predictions made by both rat perfusion techniques. Similar BCS permeability class membership was designated by literature data and by both SPIP and Doluisio methods for all compounds. In conclusion, the SPIP model and the Doluisio (closed-loop) rat perfusion method are both equally useful for obtaining intestinal permeability values that can be used for Fabs prediction and BCS classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary management of acute diarrhoea in children: effect of fermented and amylase-digested weaning foods on intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Willumsen, J F; Darling, J C; Kitundu, J A; Kingamkono, R R; Msengi, A E; Mduma, B; Sullivan, K R; Tomkins, A M

    1997-03-01

    There is a strong relationship between diarrhoea, malnutrition, and intestinal integrity. To investigate the effect of different dietary-treatment on intestinal permeability during acute diarrhoea, 87 Tanzanian children aged 6-25 months were recruited to this study when admitted to hospital. Children with acute diarrhoea were rehydrated and then randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups: a conventional low-energy density porridge, a high-energy density amylase digested porridge (AMD), or a high-energy density amylase digested and then fermented porridge (FAD). Lactulose/mannitol permeability tests were performed on admission, at 3 days, and at follow-up 2 and 4 weeks after discharge. The lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratios were compared between dietary treatment groups and to a group of age-matched, healthy control subjects. Children with diarrhoea had higher L/M ratios (geometric mean 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.05) compared with control subjects (0.14, 0.12-0.17) on admission. There was a significant difference in the change in L/M ratio between admission and 3 days between dietary treatment groups in favour of the FAD group (p < 0.05). Dietary treatment and intestinal damage at admission explain 13.5% of the variation in L/M ratio, but when age at admission and age at weaning are included as covariants, 21.9% is explained. FAD porridge seems to be more effective in the treatment of intestinal permeability than AMD or conventional porridge. Urinary lactose concentrations in spot urine samples taken prior to the permeability test were also measured. There was a significant correlation with the L/M ratio (correlation coefficient = 0.62, p < 0.001).

  12. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress. PMID:28652650

  13. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-06-14

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress.

  14. Dai-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang Alleviates Intestinal Injury Associated with Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Regulating Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore of Intestinal Mucosa Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xin; Liang, Zhengkai; Zhan, Libin; Song, Jianbo; Wang, Yi; Yang, Yilun; Fan, Zhiwei; Bai, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine whether Dai-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang (DHFZT) could regulate mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) of intestinal mucosa epithelial cells for alleviating intestinal injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (sham group, SAP group, and DHFZT group, n = 24 per group). The rats in each group were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 6 per subgroup) accordingly at 1, 3, 6, and 12 h after the operation. The contents of serum amylase, D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase activity, and degree of MPTP were measured by dry chemical method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The change of mitochondria of intestinal epithelial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results The present study showed that DHFZT inhibited the openness of MPTP at 3, 6, and 12 h after the operation. Meanwhile, it reduced the contents of serum D-lactic acid and activity of diamine oxidase activity and also drastically relieved histopathological manifestations and epithelial cells injury of intestine. Conclusion DHFZT alleviates intestinal injury associated SAP via reducing the openness of MPTP. In addition, DHFZT could also decrease the content of serum diamine oxidase activity and D-lactic acid after SAP. PMID:29403537

  15. New biomarkers for increased intestinal permeability induced by dextran sodium sulphate and fasting in chickens.

    PubMed

    Gilani, S; Howarth, G S; Kitessa, S M; Tran, C D; Forder, R E A; Hughes, R J

    2017-10-01

    Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health in chickens. As there is limited literature on in vivo biomarkers to assess increased IP in chickens, the objective of this study was to identify a reliable biomarker of IP using DSS ingestion and fasting models. Male Ross chickens (n = 48) were reared until day 14 on the floor pen in an animal care facility, randomized into the following groups: control, DSS and fasting (each with n = 16), and then placed in metabolism cages. DSS was administered in drinking water at 0.75% from days 16 to 21, while controls and fasted groups received water. All birds had free access to feed and water except the birds in the fasting group that were denied feed for 19.5 h on day 20. On day 21, all chickens were given two separate oral gavages comprising fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d, 2.2 mg in 1 ml/bird) at time zero and lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugars (0.25 g L, 0.05 g M and 0.05 g R in 2 ml/bird) at 60 min. Whole blood was collected from the brachial vein in a syringe 90 min post-LMR sugar gavage. Serum FITC-d and plasma LMR sugar concentrations were measured by spectrophotometry and high-performance ion chromatography respectively. Plasma concentrations of intestinal fatty acid binding protein, diamine oxidase, tight junction protein (TJP), d-lactate and faecal α-antitrypsin inhibitor concentration were also analysed by ELISA. FITC-d increased significantly (p < 0.05) after fasting compared with control. L/M and L/R ratios for fasting and L/M ratio for DSS increased compared with control chickens (p < 0.05). TJP in plasma was significantly increased due to fasting but not DSS treatment, compared with controls. Other tests did not indicate changes in IP (p > 0.05). We concluded that FITC-d and LMR sugar tests can be used in chickens to assess changes in IP. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. In-situ single pass intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetic study of developed Lumefantrine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anuj; Bhalala, Kripal; Tomar, Devendra Singh; Wahajuddin

    2017-01-10

    The present investigation aims to develop lumefantrine loaded binary solid lipid nanoparticles (LF-SLNs) to improve its poor and variable oral bioavailability. The oral bioavailability of LF is poor and variable due to its limited aqueous solubility and P-gp mediated efflux occurring in small intestine. LF-SLNs were prepared using binary lipid mixture of stearic acid and caprylic acid stabilized with TPGS (D-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) and Poloxamer 188. Developed LF-SLNs were characterized for particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, solid state properties and biopharmaceutical properties including in situ intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability. The particle size distribution, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of optimized batch (LF-SLN7) was found to be 357.7±43.27nm, 25.29±1.15mV and 97.35±0.30%, respectively. DSC thermographs showed loss of crystalline nature of lumefantrine in LF-SLNs. In situ single pass intestinal permeability study (SPIP) study indicated significant enhancement in the effective intestinal permeability of LF from LF-SLN7 as compared to that of control. Pharmacokinetic study also showed significant increase in Cmax and area under curve (AUC0- ∞ ) from LF-SLN7 (3860±521ng/mL and 43181±2557h×ng/mL, respectively) as compared to that of LF-control suspension (1425±563ng/mL and 19586±1537h×ng/mL, respectively). Thus, developed LF-SLNs can be promising to overcome P-gp efflux pump and enhance the oral bioavailability of lumefantrine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and evaluation of lactic acid bacteria candidates for intestinal epithelial permeability and Salmonella Typhimurium colonization in neonatal turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Latorre, J D; Khatri, B; Kwon, Y M; Kong, B W; Teague, K D; Graham, L E; Wolfenden, A D; Mahaffey, B D; Baxter, M; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Merino-Guzman, R; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2018-02-01

    The present study evaluated the microbiological properties of three probiotic candidate strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (128; 131; CE11_2), their effect on intestinal epithelial permeability, and their ability to reduce intestinal colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) individually or as a batch culture in neonatal turkey poults. Isolates were characterized morphologically and identified using 16S rRNA sequence analyses. Each isolate was evaluated for tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic NaCl concentrations, and bile salts in broth medium. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity against different enteropathogenic bacteria was determined using an overlay technique. In vitro intestinal permeability was evaluated using a stressed Caco-2 cell culture assay treated with/without the probiotic candidates. The in vivo effect of the selected LAB strains on ST cecal colonization was determined in two independent trials with neonatal turkey poults. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the tolerance of LAB candidates to pH 3, a NaCl concentration of 6.5%, and high bile salts (0.6%). All strains evaluated exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella Enteritidis, ST, and Campylobacter jejuni. Candidates 128 and 131 exhibited a coccus morphology and were identified as Enterococcus faecium, and bacterial strain CE11_2 exhibited clusters of cocci-shaped cells and was identified as Pediococcus parvulus. All three candidate probiotics significantly (P < 0.05) increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Caco-2 cells following a 3-h incubation period with hydrogen peroxide compared to control and blank groups. The combination of all three candidates as a batch culture exhibited significant efficacy in controlling intestinal colonization of ST in neonatal turkey poults. Evaluation of the combination of these selected LAB strains according to performance and intestinal health parameters of chickens and turkeys are

  18. Ablation of ceramide synthase 2 exacerbates dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in mice due to increased intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ryung; Volpert, Giora; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, So-Yeon; Shin, Sun-Hye; Lee, Younghay; Sung, Sun Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Park, Woo-Jae; Futerman, Anthony H; Park, Joo-Won

    2017-12-01

    Ceramides mediate crucial cellular processes including cell death and inflammation and have recently been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Ceramides consist of a sphingoid long-chain base to which fatty acids of various length can be attached. We now investigate the effect of alerting the ceramide acyl chain length on a mouse model of colitis. Ceramide synthase (CerS) 2 null mice, which lack very-long acyl chain ceramides with concomitant increase of long chain bases and C16-ceramides, were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, and their survival rate was markedly decreased compared with that of wild-type littermates. Using mixed bone-marrow chimeric mice, we showed that the host environment is primarily responsible for intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased intestinal permeability. In the colon of CerS2 null mice, the expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A was markedly decreased and the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 was increased. In vitro experiments using Caco-2 cells also confirmed an important role of CerS2 in maintaining epithelial barrier function; CerS2-knockdown via CRISPR-Cas9 technology impaired barrier function. In vivo myriocin administration, which normalized long-chain bases and C16-ceramides of the colon of CerS2 null mice, increased intestinal permeability as measured by serum FITC-dextran levels, indicating that altered SLs including deficiency of very-long-chain ceramides are critical for epithelial barrier function. In conclusion, deficiency of CerS2 influences intestinal barrier function and the severity of experimental colitis and may represent a potential mechanism for inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  20. Abnormal permeability of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes contributes independently to mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver during acute endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Crouser, Elliott D; Julian, Mark W; Huff, Jennifer E; Joshi, Mandar S; Bauer, John A; Gadd, Martha E; Wewers, Mark D; Pfeiffer, Douglas R

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the role played by the mitochondrial permeability transition in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in a representative systemic organ during the acute phase of endotoxemia. A well-established, normotensive feline model was employed to determine whether pretreatment with cyclosporine A, a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition, normalizes mitochondrial ultrastructural injury and dysfunction in the liver during acute endotoxemia. The Ohio State University Medical Center research laboratory. Random source, adult, male conditioned cats. Hemodynamic resuscitation and maintenance of acid-base balance and tissue oxygen availability were provided, as needed, to minimize the potentially confounding effects of tissue hypoxia and/or acidosis on the experimental results. Treatment groups received isotonic saline vehicle (control; n = 6), lipopolysaccharide (3.0 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 8), or cyclosporine A (6.0 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 6) or tacrolimus (FK506, 0.1 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 4) followed in 30 mins by lipopolysaccharide (3.0 mg/kg, intravenously). Liver samples were obtained 4 hrs posttreatment, and mitochondrial ultrastructure, function, and cytochrome c, Bax, and ceramide contents were assessed. As expected, significant mitochondrial injury was apparent in the liver 4 hrs after lipopolysaccharide treatment, despite maintenance of regional tissue oxygen availability. Namely, mitochondria demonstrated high-amplitude swelling and exhibited altered respiratory function. Cyclosporine A pretreatment attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities and normalized mitochondrial respiratory control, reflecting protection against inner mitochondrial membrane damage. However, an abnormal permeability of outer mitochondrial membranes to cytochrome c was observed in all lipopolysaccharide-treated groups and was associated with increased mitochondrial

  1. Lipopolysaccharide regulation of intestinal tight junction permeability is mediated by TLR-4 signal transduction pathway activation of FAK and MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuhong; Nighot, Meghali; Al-Sadi, Rana; Alhmoud, Tarik; Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas Y.

    2015-01-01

    Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an essential role in inducing intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses and have been implicated as a pathogenic factor of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The defective intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier has been shown to be an important factor contributing to the development of intestinal inflammation. LPS, at physiological concentrations, cause an increase in intestinal tight junction permeability (TJP) via a TLR-4 dependent process; however the intracellular mechanisms that mediate LPS regulation of intestinal TJP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptor proteins and the signaling interactions that mediate LPS modulation of intestinal TJ barrier using an in-vitro and in-vivo model system. LPS caused a TLR-4 dependent activation of membrane-associated adaptor protein FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. LPS caused an activation of both MyD88-dependent and –independent pathways. SiRNA silencing of MyD88 prevented LPS-induced increase in TJP. LPS caused a MyD88-dependent activation of IRAK4. TLR-4, FAK and MyD88 were co-localized. SiRNA silencing of TLR-4 inhibited TLR-4 associated FAK activation; and FAK knockdown prevented MyD88 activation. In-vivo studies also confirmed that LPS-induced increase in mouse intestinal permeability was associated with FAK and MyD88 activation; knockdown of intestinal epithelial FAK prevented LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Additionally, high dose LPS-induced intestinal inflammation was also dependent on TLR-4/FAK/MyD88 signal-transduction axis. Our data show for the first time that LPS-induced increase in intestinal TJP and intestinal inflammation was regulated by TLR-4 dependent activation of FAK-MyD88-IRAK4 signaling pathway. PMID:26466961

  2. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    PubMed

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  3. Permeabilities of rebamipide via rat intestinal membranes and its colon specific delivery using chitosan capsule as a carrier

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bei-Bei; Li, Guo-Feng; Luo, Jing-Hui; Duan, Lian; Nobuaki, Kishimoto; Akira, Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the permeability characteristics of rebamipide across intestinal mucosa, and examine the effects of some absorption enhancers on the permeability across the colonic tissue. Another purpose is to demonstrate the colon-specific delivery of rebamipide with or without absorption enhancers using chitosan capsule as a carrier. METHODS: The permeability of rebamipide was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion chamber system, and the effects of some absorption enhancers on the permeability via colon were further investigated. The release of rebamipide from chitosan or gelatin capsule was studied by Japan Pharmacopoeia rotating basket method. The colonic and plasma concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate colon-targeting action after oral administration of various dosage forms, and rebamipide with absorption enhancers in chitosan dosage forms. RESULTS: The permeability of rebamipide across the jejunal or ileal membranes was higher than the colonic membranes. Both sodium laurate (C12) and labrasol significantly increased permeability across the colon membranes. On the other hand, the release of rebamipide from chitosan capsule was less than 10% totally within 6 h. The area under concentration-time profile of drug in the colon mucosa using chitosan capsules (AUCLI, 1 6011.2 ng·h/g) was 2.5 times and 4.4 times greater than using gelatin capsules and CMC suspension, respectively. Meanwhile, the area under concentration-time profile of drug in the plasma (AUCPL) was 1016.0 ng·h/mL for chitosan capsule, 1887.9 ng·h/mL for CMC suspension p and 2163.5 ng·h/mL for gelatin capsule. Overall, both AUCLI and AUCPL were increased when C12 was co-administrated, but the increase of AUCLI was much greater; the drug delivery index (DDI) was more than 1 compared with simple chitosan capsule group. CONCLUSION: There was a regional difference in the permeability of Rebamipide across the jejunum, ileum and the colon, and

  4. MiR-144 Increases Intestinal Permeability in IBS-D Rats by Targeting OCLN and ZO1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiuke; Huang, Yongquan; Zhu, Shuilian; Li, Peiwu; Chen, Xinlin; Hou, Zhengkun; Liu, Fengbin

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) is a chronic, functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or diarrhoea and altered bowel habits, which correlate with intestinal hyperpermeability. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating intestinal permeability in IBS-D. However, the role of miRNAs in regulating intestinal permeability and protecting the epithelial barrier remains unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify differential expression of miRNAs and their targets in the distal colon of IBS-D rats; (ii) verify in vitro whether occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens 1 (ZO1/TJP1) were direct targets of miR-144 and were down-regulated in IBS-D rats; and (iii) determine whether down-regulation of miR-144 in vitro could reverse the pathological hallmarks of intestinal hyperpermeability via targeting OCLN and ZO1. The IBS-D rat model was established using 4% acetic acid and evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The distal colon was obtained in order to perform miRNA microarray analysis and to isolate and culture colonic epithelial cells. When differential expression of miRNA was found, the results were verified by qRT-PCR, and the target genes were further explored by bioinformatics analysis. Correlation analyses were carried out to compare the expression of miRNA and target genes. Then, mutants, miRNA mimics and inhibitors of the target genes were constructed and transfected to colonic epithelial cells. qRT-PCR, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dual-luciferase assays were used to investigate the expression of miR-144 and OCLN, ZO1 in IBS-D rats. There were 8 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated miRNAs identified in the IBS-D rat model. Of these, miR-144 was markedly up-regulated and resulted in the down-regulation of OCLN and ZO1 expression. Overexpression of miR-144 by transfection of miR-144 precursor markedly inhibited the expression of OCLN and ZO1. Further studies confirmed that OCLN and ZO1 were direct

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase σ targets apical junction complex proteins in the intestine and regulates epithelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Murchie, Ryan; Guo, Cong-Hui; Persaud, Avinash; Muise, Aleixo; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)σ (PTPRS) was shown previously to be associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PTPσ−/− mice exhibit an IBD-like phenotype in the intestine and show increased susceptibility to acute models of murine colitis. However, the function of PTPσ in the intestine is uncharacterized. Here, we show an intestinal epithelial barrier defect in the PTPσ−/− mouse, demonstrated by a decrease in transepithelial resistance and a leaky intestinal epithelium that was determined by in vivo tracer analysis. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation was observed at the plasma membrane of epithelial cells lining the crypts of the small bowel and colon of the PTPσ−/− mouse, suggesting the presence of PTPσ substrates in these regions. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several putative PTPσ intestinal substrates that were hyper–tyrosine-phosphorylated in the PTPσ−/− mice relative to wild type. Among these were proteins that form or regulate the apical junction complex, including ezrin. We show that ezrin binds to and is dephosphorylated by PTPσ in vitro, suggesting it is a direct PTPσ substrate, and identified ezrin-Y353/Y145 as important sites targeted by PTPσ. Moreover, subcellular localization of the ezrin phosphomimetic Y353E or Y145 mutants were disrupted in colonic Caco-2 cells, similar to ezrin mislocalization in the colon of PTPσ−/− mice following induction of colitis. Our results suggest that PTPσ is a positive regulator of intestinal epithelial barrier, which mediates its effects by modulating epithelial cell adhesion through targeting of apical junction complex-associated proteins (including ezrin), a process impaired in IBD. PMID:24385580

  6. Resolution of common dietary sugars from probe sugars for test of intestinal permeability using capillary column gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z; Sheikh, Maliha; Banan, Ali

    2006-05-19

    The most widely accepted method for the evaluation of intestinal barrier integrity is the measurement of the permeation of sugar probes following an oral test dose of sugars. The most-widely used sugar probes are sucrose, lactulose, mannitol and sucralose. Measuring these sugars using a sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) method, we noticed interference on the area of the lactulose and mannitol peaks. We tested different sugars to detect the possible makeup of these interferences and finally detected that the lactose interferes with lactulose peak and fructose interferes with mannitol peak. On further developing of our method, we were able to reasonably separate these peaks using different columns and condition for our assay. Sample preparation was rapid and simple and included adding internal standard sugars, derivitization and silylation. We used two chromatographic methods. In the first method we used Megabore column and had a run time of 34 min. This resulted in partial separation of the peaks. In the second method we used thin capillary column and was able to reasonably separate the lactose and lactulose peaks and the mannitol and fructose peaks with run time of 22 min. The sugar probes including mannitol, sucrose, lactulose, sucralose, fructose and lactose were detected precisely, without interference. The assay was linear between lactulose concentrations of 0.5 and 40 g/L (r(2)=1.000, P<0.0001) and mannitol concentrations of 0.01 and 40 g/L (r(2)=1.000). The sensitivity of this method remained high using new column and assay condition. The minimum detectable concentration calculated for both methods was 0.5 mg/L for lactulose and 1 mg/L for mannitol. This is the first report of interference of commonly used sugars with test of intestinal permeability. These sugars are found in most of fruits and dairy products and could easily interfere with the result of permeability tests. Our new GC assay of urine sugar probes permits the simultaneous quantitation of

  7. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 plays a major role in the intestinal permeability and absorption of 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yehua; Hu, Yongjun; Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been widely used in photodynamic therapy and immunofluorescence of tumours. In the present study, the intestinal permeability and oral pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA were evaluated to probe the contribution of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) to the oral absorption and systemic exposure of this substrate. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusions and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed in wildtype and Pept1 knockout mice. Perfusion studies were performed as a function of concentration dependence, specificity and permeability of 5-ALA in different intestinal segments. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed after 0.2 and 2.0 μmoL·g(-1) doses of 5-ALA. The permeability of 5-ALA was substantial in duodenal, jejunal and ileal regions of wildtype mice, but the residual permeability of 5-ALA in the small intestine from Pept1 knockout mice was only about 10% of that in wildtype animals. The permeability of 5-ALA in jejunum was specific for PEPT1 with no apparent contribution of other transporters, including the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1). After oral dosing, the systemic exposure of 5-ALA was reduced by about twofold during PEPT1 ablation, and the pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional after the 0.2 and 2.0 µmol·g(-1) doses. PEPT1 had a minor effect on the disposition and peripheral tissue distribution of 5-ALA. Our findings suggested a major role of PEPT1 in the intestinal permeability and oral absorption of 5-ALA. In contrast, another proton-coupled transporter, PAT1, appeared to play a limited role, at best. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Association between intestinal permeability and faecal microbiota composition in Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, Claudio; Martina, Alessia; Corradi, Massimiliano; Quarella, Sara; Nori, Nicole; Torriani, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Contreas, Giovanna; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-10-01

    Pancreatic organ-specific autoimmunity in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased intestinal permeability and an aberrant gut microbiota, but these factors have not yet been simultaneously investigated in the same subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess both intestinal permeability and gut microbiota composition in an Italian sample of children at risk for T1D. Ten Italian children with beta cell autoimmunity at risk for T1D and 10 healthy children were involved in a case-control study. The lactulose/mannitol test was used to assess intestinal permeability. Analysis of microbiota composition was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, based on the 16S rRNA gene. Intestinal permeability was significantly higher in children at risk for T1D than in healthy controls. Moreover, the gut microbiota of the former differed from that of the latter group: Three microorganisms were detected - Dialister invisus, Gemella sanguinis and Bifidobacterium longum - in association with the pre-pathologic state. The results of this study validated the hypothesis that increased intestinal permeability together with differences in microbiota composition are contemporaneously associated with the pre-pathological condition of T1D in a sample of Italian children. Further studies are necessary to confirm the microbial markers identified in this sample of children as well as to clarify the involvement of microbiota modifications in the mechanisms leading to increased permeability and the autoimmune mechanisms that promote diabetes onset. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mast cells and histamine alter intestinal permeability during malaria parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Potts, Rashaun A; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Pakpour, Nazzy; Lokken, Kristen L; Tiffany, Connor R; Cheung, Kong; Tsolis, Renée M; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Co-infections with malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can present as life-threatening bacteremia, in contrast to self-resolving NTS diarrhea in healthy individuals. In previous work with our mouse model of malaria/NTS co-infection, we showed increased gut mastocytosis and increased ileal and plasma histamine levels that were temporally associated with increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Here, we report that gut mastocytosis and elevated plasma histamine are also associated with malaria in an animal model of falciparum malaria, suggesting a broader host distribution of this biology. In support of mast cell function in this phenotype, malaria/NTS co-infection in mast cell-deficient mice was associated with a reduction in gut permeability and bacteremia. Further, antihistamine treatment reduced bacterial translocation and gut permeability in mice with malaria, suggesting a contribution of mast cell-derived histamine to GI pathology and enhanced risk of bacteremia during malaria/NTS co-infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  11. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  12. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  13. In vitro solubility, dissolution and permeability studies combined with semi-mechanistic modeling to investigate the intestinal absorption of desvenlafaxine from an immediate- and extended release formulation.

    PubMed

    Franek, F; Jarlfors, A; Larsen, F; Holm, P; Steffansen, B

    2015-09-18

    Desvenlafaxine is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 1 (high solubility, high permeability) and biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) class 3, (high solubility, poor metabolism; implying low permeability) compound. Thus the rate-limiting step for desvenlafaxine absorption (i.e. intestinal dissolution or permeation) is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissolution and/or intestinal permeability rate-limit desvenlafaxine absorption from an immediate-release formulation (IRF) and Pristiq(®), an extended release formulation (ERF). Semi-mechanistic models of desvenlafaxine were built (using SimCyp(®)) by combining in vitro data on dissolution and permeation (mechanistic part of model) with clinical data (obtained from literature) on distribution and clearance (non-mechanistic part of model). The model predictions of desvenlafaxine pharmacokinetics after IRF and ERF administration were compared with published clinical data from 14 trials. Desvenlafaxine in vivo dissolution from the IRF and ERF was predicted from in vitro solubility studies and biorelevant dissolution studies (using the USP3 dissolution apparatus), respectively. Desvenlafaxine apparent permeability (Papp) at varying apical pH was investigated using the Caco-2 cell line and extrapolated to effective intestinal permeability (Peff) in human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Desvenlafaxine pKa-values and octanol-water partition coefficients (Do:w) were determined experimentally. Due to predicted rapid dissolution after IRF administration, desvenlafaxine was predicted to be available for permeation in the duodenum. Desvenlafaxine Do:w and Papp increased approximately 13-fold when increasing apical pH from 5.5 to 7.4. Desvenlafaxine Peff thus increased with pH down the small intestine. Consequently, desvenlafaxine absorption from an IRF appears rate-limited by low Peff in the upper small intestine, which "delays" the predicted

  14. Curcumin Encapsulated in Milk Exosomes Resists Human Digestion and Possesses Enhanced Intestinal Permeability in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Monika; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, the extracellular secretary nano-vesicles, act as carriers of biomolecules to the target cells. They exhibit several attributes of an efficient drug delivery system. Curcumin, despite having numerous bioactive and therapeutic properties, has limited pharmaceutical use due to its poor water solubility, stability, and low systemic bioavailability. Hence, this study aims to enhance the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a model hydrophobic drug, by its encapsulation into milk exosomes. In the present study, we investigated the stability of free curcumin and exosomal curcumin in PBS and in vitro digestive processes. Additionally, their uptake and trans-epithelial transport were studied on Caco-2 cells. Curcumin in milk exosomes had higher stability in PBS, sustained harsh digestive processes, and crossed the intestinal barrier than free curcumin. In conclusion, the encapsulation of curcumin into the exosomes enhances its stability, solubility, and bioavailability. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that milk exosomes act as stable oral drug delivery vehicles.

  15. Intestinal Fluid Permeability in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Is Affected by Dietary Protein Source.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibin; Kortner, Trond M; Gajardo, Karina; Chikwati, Elvis; Tinsley, John; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-01-01

    In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI). A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM) in which fish meal (72%) was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30%) and wheat gluten (22%); Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30%) and poultry meal (6%); Diet GMWG with guar meal (30%) and wheat gluten (14.5%); Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG) showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure.

  16. Sodium butyrate attenuates soybean oil-based lipid emulsion-induced increase in intestinal permeability of lipopolysaccharide by modulation of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jun-Kai; Gong, Zi-Zhen; Zhang, Tian

    Down-regulation of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SOLE) may cause elevated intestinal permeability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in patients with total parenteral nutrition, but the appropriate preventative treatment is currently limited. Recently, sodium butyrate (NaBut) has been demonstrated to regulate the expression of P-gp. Therefore, this study aimed to address whether treatment with NaBut could attenuate SOLE-induced increase in intestinal permeability of LPS by modulation of P-gp in vitro. Caco-2 cells were exposed to SOLE with or without NaBut. SOLE-induced down-regulation of P-gp was significantly attenuated by co-incubation with NaBut. Nuclear recruitment of FOXO 3a in response to NaButmore » was involved in P-gp regulation. Transport studies revealed that SOLE-induced increase in permeability of LPS was significantly attenuated by co-incubation with NaBut. Collectively, our results suggested that NaBut may be a potentially useful medication to prevent SOLE-induced increase in intestinal permeability of LPS. - Highlights: • Caco-2 cells were used as models for studying parenteral nutrition in vitro. • NaBut restored SOLE-induced down-regulation of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. • Regulation of P-gp by NaBut was mediated via nuclear recruitment of FOXO 3a. • NaBut modulated the permeability of LPS by P-gp function, not barrier function.« less

  17. Pitx2c attenuation results in cardiac defects and abnormalities of intestinal orientation in developing Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dagle, John M; Sabel, Jaime L; Littig, Jennifer L; Sutherland, Lillian B; Kolker, Sandra J; Weeks, Daniel L

    2003-10-15

    The experimental manipulation of early embryologic events, resulting in the misexpression of the homeobox transcription factor pitx2, is associated with subsequent defects of laterality in a number of vertebrate systems. To clarify the role of one pitx2 isoform, pitx2c, in determining the left-right axis of amphibian embryos, we examined the heart and gut morphology of Xenopus laevis embryos after attenuating pitx2c mRNA levels using chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that the partial depletion of pitx2c mRNA in these embryos results in alteration of both cardiac morphology and intestinal coiling. The most common cardiac abnormality seen was a failure of rightward migration of the outflow tract, while the most common intestinal laterality phenotype seen was a full reversal in the direction of coiling, each present in 23% of embryos injected with the pitx2c antisense oligonucleotide. An abnormality in either the heart or gut further predisposed to a malformation in the other. In addition, a number of other cardiac anomalies were observed after pitx2c mRNA attenuation, including abnormalities of atrial septation, extracellular matrix restriction, relative atrial-ventricular chamber positioning, and restriction of ventricular development. Many of these findings correlate with cardiac defects previously reported in pitx2 null and hypomorphic mice, but can now be assigned specifically to attenuation of the pitx2c isoform in Xenopus.

  18. Assessment of the Intestinal Barrier with Five Different Permeability Tests in Healthy C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ Mice.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Valentina; Reichold, Astrid; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; Rings, Andreas; Bleich, André; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal permeability is thought to be of major relevance for digestive and nutrition-related diseases, and therefore has been studied in numerous mouse models of disease. However, it is unclear which tools are the preferable ones, and how normal values should be defined. To compare different in vivo permeability tests in healthy mice of commonly used genetic backgrounds. We assessed the intestinal barrier in male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice of different ages, using four orally administered permeability markers, FITC-dextran 4000 (FITC-D4000) and ovalbumin (OVA) measured in plasma, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lactulose/mannitol (Lac/Man) measured in urine, and by assessing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in portal vein plasma. After gavage, FITC-D4000, OVA, Lac/Man, and PEG400, but not PEG4000, were detectable in plasma or urine. Female mice tended to have a higher permeability according to the FITC-D4000, OVA, and PEG400 tests, but the Lac/Man ratio was higher in males. No significant differences between the two mouse strains of young and old mice were observed except for mannitol recovery, which was higher in BALB/cJ mice compared to C57BL/6J mice (p < 0.05). Virtually no LPS was detected in healthy mice. For all markers, normal values have been defined based on 5th-95th percentile ranges of our data. Selected oral permeability tests, such as FITC-D4000, OVA, PEG400, and Lac/Man, as well as LPS measurements in portal vein plasma, could be suitable for the evaluation of the intestinal barrier in mice, if used in a standardized way.

  19. Simultaneous administration of lactulose and 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A test to distinguish colonic from small-intestinal permeability change.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A P; Nukajam, W S; Menzies, I S; Creamer, B

    1992-09-01

    In normal adults intestinal permeation of ingested 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is greater than that of lactulose. This difference is abolished in patients with ileostomies, suggesting that it results from colonic permeation of 51Cr-EDTA, which, unlike lactulose, resists bacterial degradation. To investigate the effect of an increase in colonic permeability on absorption of the two molecules, lactulose (5 g) and 51Cr-EDTA (50 microCi) were given orally in isosmolar solution to 11 patients with colitis, and their 24-h urinary excretion measured. By comparison the effect of an increase in small-intestinal permeability induced by ingestion of a hyperosmolar solution (4240 mosm/l) was measured in 10 healthy adults. Hyperosmolar stress increased the 24-h urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA above the normal mean + 2 standard deviations (3.31%) in all 10 healthy subjects, and in all of these excretion of lactulose was also increased (greater than 1.06%). In contrast, although seven colitics had a urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA above the normal mean + 2 SD, in only two of these patients was recovery of lactulose increased. This suggests that simultaneous administration of lactulose and 51Cr-EDTA may enable permeability changes affecting the colon alone to be distinguished from those involving the small intestine.

  20. Association of enteric parasitic infections with intestinal inflammation and permeability in asymptomatic infants of São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Marisol; Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Seixas, Jorge; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Alves, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa; Reis, Ana

    2017-05-01

    The cumulative effect of repeated asymptomatic enteric infections on intestinal barrier is not fully understood in infants. We aimed to evaluate the association between previous enteric parasitic infections and intestinal inflammation and permeability at 24-months of age, in asymptomatic infants of São Tomé Island. A subset of infants from a birth cohort, with intestinal parasite evaluations in at least four points of assessment, was eligible. Intestinal inflammatory response and permeability were assessed using fecal S100A12 and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), respectively. The cutoff <-1SD for weight-for-length and length-for-age was used to define wasting and stunting. Multivariable linear regression analysis explored if cumulative enteric parasitic infections explained variability of fecal biomarkers, after adjusting for potential confounders. Eighty infants were included. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) were the most frequent parasites. The median (interquartile range) levels were 2.87 μg/g (2.41-3.92) for S100A12 and 165.1 μg/g (66.0-275.6) for A1AT. Weak evidence of association was found between S100A12 levels and G. duodenalis (p = 0.080) and STH infections (p = 0.089), and between A1AT levels and parasitic infection of any etiology (p = 0.089), at 24-months of age. Significant associations between A1AT levels and wasting (p = 0.006) and stunting (p = 0.044) were found. Previous parasitic infections were not associated with fecal biomarkers at 24 months of age. To summarize, previous asymptomatic parasitic infections showed no association with intestinal barrier dysfunction. Notwithstanding, a tendency toward increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker was observed for current G. duodenalis and STH infections, and increased levels of the permeability biomarker were significantly associated with stunting and wasting.

  1. 51Cr-EDTA absorption blood test: an easy method for assessing small intestinal permeability in dogs.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2004-01-01

    The 51Cr-EDTA test is a valuable clinical tool for screening intestinal diseases in dogs. The test is performed by calculating the percentage of recovery from urine of a PO-ingested dose of 51Cr-EDTA after 6 or 24 hours. Careful urine collection is a practical limitation of this test in dogs, and our goal was to develop a simpler test that measures 51Cr-EDTA in blood. A 51Cr-EDTA absorption test was simultaneously performed on urine and serum 43 times in healthy Beagle Dogs. Timed blood samples were withdrawn, and urine was collected during a 6-hour period. Percentages of the ingested dose were then calculated in urine and serum. The mean +/- standard deviation (range) percentage in urine after 6 hours was 14.07 +/- 8.72% (3.81-34.18%), whereas results in serum from samples taken at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours were 0.49 +/- 0.45% (0.02-2.13%), 0.75 +/- 0.52% (0.03-1.89%), 0.82 +/- 0.57% (0.13-2.21%), 0.70 +/- 0.53% (0.12-1.99%), and 0.47 +/- 0.44% (0.11-1.79%), respectively. The results for blood specimens showed good concordance with those for urine, especially for the samples taken at 4 hours (r = 0.89). Moreover, the correlation between urine and blood was better when the sum of the percentages of the recovered analyte from various blood samples was compared with urine. The correlation coefficient when summing 4 blood samples was excellent (r = 0.97) and remained excellent when summing only 2 blood samples taken at 3 and 5 hours (r = 0.95) or at 3 and 4 hours (r = 0.94). We conclude that a serum 51Cr-EDTA test determined by summing successive blood samples provides an easier means of estimating small intestinal permeability in dogs and gives results comparable to those of the 6-hour urine test.

  2. Intestinal permeability enhancement of levothyroxine sodium by straight chain fatty acids studied in MDCK epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Pabla, Dimple; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Zia, Hossein

    2010-08-11

    Levothyroxine sodium (T4), administered orally, is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism. T4 is a narrow therapeutic index drug with highly variable bioavailability (40-80%). The purpose of the present study was to increase the transepithelial transport of T4 using straight chain fatty acids across Madin-Darby Canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12) and oleic acid (C18) were studied in molar ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (T4:fatty acid). Transport of the hydrophilic marker, Lucifer yellow, was also studied. All three fatty acids proved to significantly increase T4 transport and the order of enhancement was to the effect of C12 approximately C18>C10. This Increase in transport was accompanied by reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values, which indicates an opening of tight junctions. Cytotoxic effects of the fatty acids were evaluated by TEER measurements, lactate dehydrogenase release, percent viability and propidium iodide staining of the cells. At the lower molar concentrations of 1:1, the fatty acids did not show any toxicity. However, C12 and C18 when added, to T4:fatty acid molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, respectively showed severe toxicity with irreversible damage to the cells. Hence, addition of fatty acids to T4 formulations at low concentrations can significantly improve intestinal permeability of T4 without any toxicity potentially leading to improved bioavailability. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lubiprostone improves intestinal permeability in humans, a novel therapy for the leaky gut: A prospective randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yasushi; Kurita, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Kessoku, Takaomi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ogawa, Yuji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Usuda, Haruki; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called “leaky gut syndrome.” As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose. Methods Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day) for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR) after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points. Results The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group). The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, −0.022–−0.0001; p = 0.049). Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination. Conclusions This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate

  4. Lubiprostone improves intestinal permeability in humans, a novel therapy for the leaky gut: A prospective randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takayuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kurita, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Akito; Sato, Takamitsu; Kessoku, Takaomi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Ogawa, Yuji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Usuda, Haruki; Wada, Koichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    The barrier function of the small intestinal mucosa prevents the introduction of undesired pathogens into the body. Breakdown of this barrier function increases intestinal permeability. This has been proposed to induce not only gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, but also various other diseases, including allergies, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, and collagen diseases, which are associated with this so called "leaky gut syndrome." As such, a method to prevent leaky gut syndrome would have substantial clinical value. However, no drugs have been demonstrated to improve disturbed intestinal permeability in humans to date. Therefore, we investigated whether a drug used to treat chronic constipation, lubiprostone, was effective for this purpose. Healthy male volunteers were treated with lubiprostone (24 μg/day) for 28 days. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by measuring the lactulose-mannitol ratio (LMR) after administration of diclofenac and compared with an untreated group. The examination was conducted three times in total, i.e., at baseline before diclofenac administration and after 14 and 28 days of lubiprostone treatment. Blood endotoxin activity was also evaluated at the same time points. The final analysis was conducted on 28 subjects (14 in the lubiprostone group and 14 in the untreated group). The LMR after 28 days of treatment was significantly lower in the lubiprostone group than that in the untreated group (0.017 vs. 0.028, respectively; 95% confidence interval, -0.022--0.0001; p = 0.049). Blood endotoxin activity exhibited almost no change over time in the lubiprostone and untreated groups and displayed no significant differences at any time point of examination. This study is the first to report an improvement in leaky gut using an available drug in humans. The result suggests that lubiprostone may prevent and ameliorate "leaky gut syndrome". However, a pivotal trial is needed to confirm

  5. An in vitro methodology for forecasting luminal concentrations and precipitation of highly permeable lipophilic weak bases in the fasted upper small intestine.

    PubMed

    Psachoulias, Dimitrios; Vertzoni, Maria; Butler, James; Busby, David; Symillides, Moira; Dressman, Jennifer; Reppas, Christos

    2012-12-01

    To develop an in vitro methodology for prediction of concentrations and potential precipitation of highly permeable, lipophilic weak bases in fasted upper small intestine based on ketoconazole and dipyridamole luminal data. Evaluate usefulness of methodology in predicting luminal precipitation of AZD0865 and SB705498 based on plasma data. A three-compartment in vitro setup was used. Depending on the dosage form administered in in vivo studies, a solution or a suspension was placed in the gastric compartment. A medium simulating the luminal environment (FaSSIF-V2plus) was initially placed in the duodenal compartment. Concentrated FaSSIF-V2plus was placed in the reservoir compartment. In vitro ketoconazole and dipyridamole concentrations and precipitated fractions adequately reflected luminal data. Unlike luminal precipitates, in vitro ketoconazole precipitates were crystalline. In vitro AZD0865 data confirmed previously published human pharmacokinetic data suggesting that absorption rates are not affected by luminal precipitation. In vitro SB705498 data predicted that significant luminal precipitation occurs after a 100 mg or 400 mg but not after a 10 mg dose, consistent with human pharmacokinetic data. An in vitro methodology for predicting concentrations and potential precipitation in fasted upper small intestine, after administration of highly permeable, lipophilic weak bases in fasted upper small intestine was developed and evaluated for its predictability in regard to luminal precipitation.

  6. Glutamine Supplementation of Parenteral Nutrition Does Not Improve Intestinal Permeability, Nitrogen Balance, or Outcome in Newborns and Infants Undergoing Digestive-Tract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Hazebroek, Frans W. J.; Mourik, Marjan; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Rietveld, Trinet; Huijmans, Jan G. M.; Tibboel, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. Summary Background Data: Glutamine supplementation in critically ill and surgical adults may normalize intestinal permeability, attenuate nitrogen loss, improve survival, and lower the incidence of nosocomial infections. Previous studies in critically ill children were limited to very-low-birthweight infants and had equivocal results. Methods: Eighty newborns and infants were included in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing standard parenteral nutrition (sPN; n = 39) to glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (GlnPN; glutamine target intake, 0.4 g kg−1 day−1; n = 41), starting on day 2 after major digestive-tract surgery. Primary endpoints were intestinal permeability, as assessed by the urinary excretion ratio of lactulose and rhamnose (weeks 1 through 4); nitrogen balance (days 4 through 6), and urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (day 5). Secondary endpoints were mortality, length of stay in the ICU and the hospital, number of septic episodes, and usage of antibiotics and ICU resources. Results: Glutamine intake plateaued at 90% of the target on day 4. No differences were found between patients assigned sPN and patients assigned GlnPN regarding any of the endpoints. Glutamine supplementation was not associated with adverse effects. Conclusions: In newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery, we did not identify beneficial effects of isonitrogenous, isocaloric glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Glutamine supplementation in these patients therefore is not warranted until further research proves otherwise. PMID:15798461

  7. Gut Microbiota Richness and Composition and Dietary Intake of Overweight Pregnant Women Are Related to Serum Zonulin Concentration, a Marker for Intestinal Permeability.

    PubMed

    Mokkala, Kati; Röytiö, Henna; Munukka, Eveliina; Pietilä, Sami; Ekblad, Ulla; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Eerola, Erkki; Laiho, Asta; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2016-09-01

    Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown. The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (<17 wk of gestation; median: 13 wk). Serum zonulin (primary outcome) was determined by using ELISA, gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients from 3-d food diaries. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparisons and linear regression and Spearman's nonparametric correlations for relations between serum zonulin and other outcome variables. Women were divided into "low" (<46.4 ng/mL) and "high" (≥46.4 ng/mL) serum zonulin groups on the basis of the median concentration of zonulin (46.4 ng/mL). The richness of the gut microbiota (Chao 1, observed species and phylogenetic diversity) was higher in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group (P = 0.01). The abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Veillonellaceae, Bacteroides and Blautia, and Blautia sp. were lower and of Faecalibacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii higher (P < 0.05) in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group. Dietary quantitative intakes of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals were higher (P < 0.05) in women in the low zonulin group than those in the high zonulin group. The richness and composition of the gut microbiota and the intake of n-3 PUFAs, fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals in overweight pregnant women are associated with serum zonulin concentration. Modification of the gut microbiota and diet may beneficially affect intestinal

  8. Significance of Peptide Transporter 1 in the Intestinal Permeability of Valacyclovir in Wild-Type and PepT1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the contribution of PepT1 [peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1)] to the intestinal permeability of valacyclovir, an ester prodrug of the antiviral drug acyclovir. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusions were employed (pH 6.5 × 90 minutes) to assess the effective permeability (Peff) of 100 μM [3H]valacyclovir in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice. Acyclovir pharmacokinetics was also evaluated after oral administration of 25 nmol/g valacyclovir. In wild-type mice, jejunal uptake of valacyclovir was best described by both saturable (Km = 10.2 mM) and nonsaturable components where the saturable pathway accounted for 82% of total transport. Valacyclovir Peff was 2.4 × 10−4 cm/s in duodenum, 1.7 × 10−4 cm/s in jejunum, 2.1 × 10−4 cm/s in ileum, and 0.27 × 10−4 cm/s in colon. In Pept1 knockout mice, Peff values were about 10% of that in wild-type animals for these small intestinal segments. Valacyclovir Peff was similar in the colon of both genotypes. There were no differences in valacyclovir Peff between any of the intestinal segments of PepT1 knockout mice. Valacyclovir Peff was significantly reduced by the dipeptide glycylsarcosine and the aminocephalosporin cefadroxil, but not by the amino acids l-valine or l-histidine, the organic acid p-aminohippurate, or the organic base tetraethylammonium (all at 25 mM). PepT1 ablation resulted in 3- to 5-fold reductions in the in vivo rate and extent of valacyclovir absorption. Our findings conclusively demonstrate, using in situ and in vivo validations in genetically modified mice, that PepT1 has a major influence in improving the oral absorption of valacyclovir. PMID:23264448

  9. L-arginine supplementation prevents increases in intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation in male Swiss mice subjected to physical exercise under environmental heat stress.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Santos, Rosana das Graças Carvalho dos; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with l-arginine has been shown to improve the intestinal barrier in many experimental models. This study investigated the effects of arginine supplementation on the intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation (BT) induced by prolonged physical exercise under heat stress. Under anesthesia, male Swiss mice (5-wk-old) were implanted with an abdominal sensor to record their core body temperature (T(core)). After recovering from surgery, the mice were divided into 3 groups: a non-supplemented group that was fed the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G; control), a non-supplemented group that was fed the AIN-93G diet and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-NS), and a group supplemented with l-arginine at 2% and subjected to exertional hyperthermia (H-Arg). After 7 d of treatment, the H-NS and H-Arg mice were forced to run on a treadmill (60 min, 8 m/min) in a warm environment (34°C). The control mice remained at 24°C. Thirty min before the exercise or control trials, the mice received a diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or (99m)Tc-Escherichia coli by gavage to assess intestinal permeability and BT, respectively. The H-NS mice terminated the exercise with T(core) values of ∼40°C, and, 4 h later, presented a 12-fold increase in the blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA and higher bacterial contents in the blood and liver than the control mice. Although supplementation with arginine did not change the exercise-induced increase in T(core), it prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT caused by exertional hyperthermia. Our results indicate that dietary l-arginine supplementation preserves the integrity of the intestinal epithelium during exercise under heat stress, acting through mechanisms that are independent of T(core) regulation.

  10. Segmental dependent transport of low permeability compounds along the small intestine due to P-glycoprotein: the role of efflux transport in the oral absorption of BCS class III drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of P-gp efflux in the in vivo intestinal absorption process of BCS class III P-gp substrates, i.e. high-solubility low-permeability drugs. The in vivo permeability of two H (2)-antagonists, cimetidine and famotidine, was determined by the single-pass intestinal perfusion model in different regions of the rat small intestine, in the presence or absence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. The apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and the BL-AP transport of the compounds in the presence or absence of various efflux transporters inhibitors (verapamil, erythromycin, quinidine, MK-571 and fumitremorgin C) was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers. P-gp expression levels in the different intestinal segments were confirmed by immunoblotting. Cimetidine and famotidine exhibited segmental dependent permeability through the gut wall, with decreased P(eff) in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal regions of the intestine. Coperfusion of verapamil with the drugs significantly increased the permeability in the ileum, while no significant change in the jejunal permeability was observed. Both drugs exhibited significantly greater BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Concentration dependent decrease of this secretion was obtained by the P-gp inhibitors verapamil, erythromycin and quinidine, while no effect was evident by the MRP2 inhibitor MK-571 and the BCRP inhibitor FTC, indicating that P-gp is the transporter mediates the intestinal efflux of cimetidine and famotidine. P-gp levels throughout the intestine were inversely related to the in vivo permeability of the drugs from the different segments. The data demonstrate that for these high-solubility low-permeability P-gp substrates, P-gp limits in vivo intestinal absorption in the distal segments of the small intestine; however P-gp plays a minimal role in the proximal intestinal segments due to significant lower P-gp expression levels

  11. Lactulose/mannitol test and specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve of intestinal permeability parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Dastych, Milan; Dastych, Milan; Novotná, Hana; Cíhalová, J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve (AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery and their diagnostic value for intestinal permeability assessment within the absorption lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test. The value of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and the percentage of lactulose recovery in Crohn's disease (0.0763 +/- 0.0369; 99.62 +/- 67.87; 1.0478 +/- 0.6148) and in liver cirrhosis (0.0517 +/- 0.0365; 54.65 +/- 53.26; 0.838 +/- 0.929) were significantly different from the values measured in the control group (0.0123 +/- 0.0081; 10.95 +/- 7.07; 0.2438 +/- 0.1568), P < 0.0001-0.002). In Crohn's disease, specificity, sensitivity, and AUC were 100%, 89.5%, and 0.987, respectively, of the lactulose/mannitol ratio at a cut-off level of 0.022. In liver cirrhosis, the test characteristics were 88.5%, 84.2%, and 0.910 at a cut-off level of 0.018. The lactulose/mannitol ratio was evaluated to have the highest diagnostic value to assess intestinal permeability.

  12. Supplemental calcium attenuates the colitis-related increase in diarrhea, intestinal permeability, and extracellular matrix breakdown in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; Schonewille, Arjan J; Vink, Carolien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Kramer, Evelien; Hendriks, Thijs; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Keijer, Jaap; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2009-08-01

    We have shown in several controlled rat and human infection studies that dietary calcium improves intestinal resistance and strengthens the mucosal barrier. Reinforcement of gut barrier function may alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of supplemental calcium on spontaneous colitis development in an experimental rat model of IBD. HLA-B27 transgenic rats were fed a purified high-fat diet containing either a low or high calcium concentration (30 and 120 mmol CaHPO4/kg diet, respectively) for almost 7 wk. Inert chromium EDTA (CrEDTA) was added to the diets to quantify intestinal permeability by measuring urinary CrEDTA excretion. Relative fecal wet weight was determined to quantify diarrhea. Colonic inflammation was determined histologically and by measuring mucosal interleukin (IL)-1beta. In addition, colonic mucosal gene expression of individual rats was analyzed using whole-genome microarrays. The calcium diet significantly inhibited the increase in intestinal permeability and diarrhea with time in HLA-B27 rats developing colitis compared with the control transgenic rats. Mucosal IL-1beta levels were lower in calcium-fed rats and histological colitis scores tended to be lower (P = 0.08). Supplemental calcium prevented the colitis-induced increase in the expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases, procollagens, and fibronectin), which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and gelatin zymography. In conclusion, dietary calcium ameliorates several important aspects of colitis severity in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Reduction of mucosal irritation by luminal components might be part of the mechanism. These results show promise for supplemental calcium as effective adjunct therapy for IBD.

  13. Evaluation of a selected lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic on Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; Delgado-Machuca, Jaime de Jesus; Macedo-Barragan, Rafael J; Garcia-Márquez, Luis J; Morales-Barrera, Jesus E; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Tellez, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a lactic acid bacteria-based probiotic (FloraMax-B11 ® ) against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis intestinal colonization and intestinal permeability in broiler chickens. Experiment 1 consisted of two independent trials. In each trial, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of two groups: control + S. Enteritidis or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, haematology and caecal content were evaluated for S. Enteritidis colonization. In Experiment 2, day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four groups: negative control; probiotic; control + S. Enteritidis; or probiotic + S. Enteritidis. At 72 h post-S. Enteritidis challenge, chickens in all groups were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). In both trials of Experiment 1, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in colony-forming units/gram of S. Enteritidis in caecal content and a reduction in the incidence of S. Enteritidis enriched caecal samples were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens. In addition, significant heterophilia and lymphopaenia were observed in control + S. Enteritidis chickens. In Experiment 2, a decrease in numbers of S. Enteritidis in caeca were observed in probiotic + S. Enteritidis chickens when compared to control + S. Enteritidis. Also, an increase in serum FITC-d concentration was detected in control + S. Enteritidis. These results suggest that early infection with S. Enteritidis can increase intestinal permeability, but the adverse effects can be prevented by the administration of the probiotic tested.

  14. Use of a combination of in vitro models to investigate the impact of chlorpyrifos and inulin on the intestinal microbiota and the permeability of the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Réquilé, Marina; Gonzàlez Alvarez, Dubàn O; Delanaud, Stéphane; Rhazi, Larbi; Bach, Véronique; Depeint, Flore; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida

    2018-05-28

    Dietary exposure to the organophosphorothionate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has been linked to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. We therefore sought to investigate whether (i) CPF's impact extends to the intestinal barrier and (ii) the prebiotic inulin could prevent such an effect. In vitro models mimicking the intestinal environment (the SHIME®) and the intestinal mucosa (Caco-2/TC7 cells) were exposed to CPF. After the SHIME® had been exposed to CPF and/or inulin, we assessed the system's bacterial and metabolic profiles. Extracts from the SHIME®'s colon reactors were then transferred to Caco-2/TC7 cultures, and epithelial barrier integrity and function were assessed. We found that inulin co-treatment partially reversed CPF-induced dysbiosis and increased short-chain fatty acid production in the SHIME®. Furthermore, co-treatment impacted tight junction gene expression and inhibited pro-inflammatory signaling in the Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cell line. Whereas, an isolated in vitro assessment of CPF and inulin effects provides useful information on the mechanism of dysbiosis, combining two in vitro models increases the in vivo relevance.

  15. Investigation of the intestinal permeability of ciclosporin using the in situ technique in rats and the relevance of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Damani, Sanaz; Mehtari, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the intestinal permeability of ciclosporin (cyclosporine A, CsA, CAS 59865-13-3) using the single-pass intestinal perfusion technique (SPIP) and a range of concentrations in rats. The second objective was to assess the quantitative contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux in limiting the oral bioavailability of CsA using erythromycin (Ery, CAS 114-07-8) as an inhibitor of P-gp efflux transporter. A solution containing CsA and phenol red either in the presence or in the absence of Ery as a P-gp inhibitor was perfused through a cannulated jejunal segment in rats. Outlet samples were collected every 10 min in micro tubes up to 90 min. Samples were analyzed using a modified reverse phase HPLC method. The mean effective permeability coefficients (Peff) of CsA in concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 micromol/L in the perfusion solution were found to be 2.21 (+/- 0.26) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.34 (+/- 1.29) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.12 (+/- 0.23) x 10(-4) cm/s and 2.73 (+/- 0.28) x 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The corresponding values in the presence of Ery were found to be 3.96 (+/- 1.04) x 10(-4) cm/s, 5.34 (+/- 1.29) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.72 (+/- 0.21) x 10(-4) cm/s and 4.41 (+/- 0.89) x 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The two-tailed Student's t-test showed that the intestinal permeability of CsA was significantly increased by Ery in all four CsA concentrations used (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the Peff values of CsA in different concentrations, indicating that the CsA permeation was independent of the concentration. Therefore it is concluded that at least some part of the observed clinical interaction between Ery and CsA is due to the interaction in absorption level.

  16. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category. PMID:28234919

  17. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category.

  18. Intestinal and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Ginkgolides and Bilobalide: In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study intestinal and blood brain barrier (BBB) transport of ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, isolated from Ginkgo biloba (Family-Ginkgoaceae), was evaluated in Caco-2 and MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer models. Transepithelial transport was examined for 2 hours in both absorptive and secretor...

  19. Significance and Regional Dependency of Peptide Transporter (PEPT) 1 in the Intestinal Permeability of Glycylsarcosine: In Situ Single-Pass Perfusion Studies in Wild-Type and Pept1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jappar, Dilara; Wu, Shu-Pei; Hu, Yongjun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role, relevance, and regional dependence of peptide transporter (PEPT) 1 expression and function in mouse intestines using the model dipeptide glycylsarcosine (GlySar). After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass perfusions were performed in wild-type and Pept1 knockout mice. The permeability of [3H]GlySar was measured as a function of perfusate pH, dipeptide concentration, potential inhibitors, and intestinal segment, along with PEPT1 mRNA and protein. We found the permeability of GlySar to be saturable (Km = 5.7 mM), pH-dependent (maximal value at pH 5.5), and specific for PEPT1; other peptide transporters, such as PHT1 and PHT2, were not involved, as judged by the lack of GlySar inhibition by excess concentrations of histidine. GlySar permeabilities were comparable in the duodenum and jejunum of wild-type mice but were much larger than that in ileum (approximately 2-fold). A PEPT1-mediated permeability was not observed for GlySar in the colon of wild-type mice (<10% residual uptake compared to proximal small intestine). Moreover, GlySar permeabilities were very low and not different in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of Pept1 knockout mice. Functional activity of intestinal PEPT1 was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Our findings suggest that a loss of PEPT1 activity (e.g., due to polymorphisms, disease, or drug interactions) should have a major effect in reducing the intestinal absorption of di-/tripeptides, peptidomimetics, and peptide-like drugs. PMID:20660104

  20. Transport of decursin and decursinol angelate across Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK cell monolayers: in vitro models for intestinal and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Madgula, Vamsi L; Avula, Bharathi; Reddy V L, Niranjan; Khan, Ikhlas A; Khan, Shabana I

    2007-04-01

    Decursin (DE) and decursinol angelate (DA) were isolated from the roots of Angelica gigas (Apiaceae) and purified by HPLC. DE and DA have been reported to exhibit significant neuropharmacological activities, but their intestinal transport and permeability in terms of CNS penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the IN VITRO intestinal and BBB transport of DE and DA using Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK cell monolayer models, respectively. The bidirectional transport of DE and DA across Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers was examined for 2 hours. Integrity of the monolayer was determined by TEER value and by monitoring the transport of Lucifer yellow (Ly) across the monolayers. Quantitation of DE and DA was performed by HPLC. DE and DA exhibited bidirectional transport with a Papp value in the range of 9.0-12.0x10(-6) cm/sec and 7.2-11.7x10(-6) cm/sec in Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers, respectively. The TEER values were in the range of 410-440 and 1170-1230 ohm cm2 for Caco-2 and MDR-MDCK monolayers, respectively. Ly measurement, the fluorescent marker of passive paracellular diffusion, resulted in Papp values of 2.5-5.0x10(-6) in Caco-2 and 6.0-8.0x10(-6) cm/sec in MDR-MDCK monolayers, confirming that the monolayer integrity was intact at the end of the experiment. Caco-2:human colonic adenocarcinoma DA:decursinol angelate DE:decursin Ly:Lucifer yellow MDCK:Madin-Darby canine kidney MDR:multidrug resistant Papp:apparent permeability TEER:transepithelial electrical resistance.

  1. Permeability of the small intestine to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with acute gastroenteritis or eczema

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.; Zappitelli, A.

    1985-06-01

    Increased gut permeability to macromolecules is thought to be an important factor in the development of food hypersensitivity. The latter can develop in the course of acute gastroenteritis and could play a role in infantile eczema. The authors studied gut permeability in 10 normal adults, 11 control children, 7 children with acute gastroenteritis, and 8 patients with infantile eczema, making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was given orally (50-100 microCi); 24-h urinary excretion of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA was measured and expressed as a percentage of the oral dose. Mean and standard error were 2.35 +/- 0.24, 2.51more » +/- 0.21, 9.96 +/- 3.44, and 10.90 +/- 2.05 in normal adults, control children, and gastroenteritis and eczema patients, respectively. Differences between controls and either gastroenteritis (p less than 0.001) or eczema (p less than 0.001) patients are significant. The results support the hypothesis that increased gut permeability could play a role in food hypersensitivity.« less

  2. Small intestinal function and dietary status in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed Central

    Gawkrodger, D J; McDonald, C; O'Mahony, S; Ferguson, A

    1991-01-01

    Small intestinal morphology and function were assessed in 82 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, 51 of whom were taking a normal diet and 31 a gluten free diet. Methods used were histopathological evaluation of jejunal mucosal biopsy specimens, quantitation of intraepithelial lymphocytes, cellobiose/mannitol permeability test, tissue disaccharidase values, serum antigliadin antibodies, and formal assessment of dietary gluten content by a dietician. There was no correlation between dietary gluten intake and the degree of enteropathy in the 51 patients taking a normal diet, whereas biopsy specimens were normal in 24 of the 31 patients on a gluten free diet, all previously having been abnormal. Eighteen patients on gluten containing diets had normal jejunal histology and in seven of these all tests of small intestinal morphology and function were entirely normal. Intestinal permeability was abnormal and serum antigliadin antibodies were present in most patients with enteropathy. Studies of acid secretion in seven patients showed that hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria did not lead to abnormal permeability in the absence of enteropathy. This study shows that a combination of objective tests of small intestinal architecture and function will detect abnormalities in most dermatitis herpetiformis patients, including some with histologically normal jejunal biopsy specimens. Nevertheless there is a small group in whom all conventional intestinal investigations are entirely normal. PMID:2026337

  3. Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Shin-Ichiro; Ishikawa, Junji; Tomizawa, Yuka; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2016-05-01

    ε-Viniferin is a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, a polyphenol synthesized in many plants, including grapevine. The present study investigated the effects of ε-viniferin and resveratrol on epithelial secretory and barrier functions in isolated rat small and large intestinal mucosa. Mucosa-submucosa tissue preparations of various segments of the rat large and small intestines were mounted on Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (Gt) were continuously measured. The mucosal addition of ε-viniferin (>10(-5) mol/L) and resveratrol (>10(-4) mol/L) to the cecal mucosa, which was the most sensitive region, induced an increase in Isc and a rapid phase decrease (P-1) followed by rapid (P-2) and broad (P-3) peak increases in Gt in concentration-dependent manners. Mucosal ε-viniferin (10(-4) mol/L), but not resveratrol (10(-4) mol/L), increased the permeability of FITC-conjugated dextran (4 kDa). The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked changes in Isc (Cl(-) secretion), but not in Gt, were attenuated by a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor and a selective EP4 prostaglandin receptor. The mucosal ε-viniferin-evoked increase in Isc was partially attenuated, and P-2, but not P-1 or P-3, change in Gt was abolished by a transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) inhibitor. Moreover, the mucosal ε-viniferin concentration-dependently attenuated the mucosal propionate (1 mmol/L)-evoked increases in Isc and Gt Immunohistochemical studies revealed COX-1-immunoreactive epithelial cells in the cecal crypt. The present study showed that mucosal ε-viniferin modulated transepithelial ion transport and permeability, possibly by activating sensory epithelial cells expressing COX-1 and TRPA1. Moreover, mucosal ε-viniferin decreased mucosal sensitivity to other luminal molecules such as short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that ε-viniferin modifies intestinal mucosal transport and barrier

  4. Fecal Markers of Intestinal Inflammation and Permeability Associated with the Subsequent Acquisition of Linear Growth Deficits in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Qureshi, Shahida; Amidou, Samie; Mduma, Estomih; Lee, Gwenyth; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Guerrant, Richard L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Mason, Carl; Kang, Gagandeep; Kabir, Mamun; Amour, Caroline; Bessong, Pascal; Turab, Ali; Seidman, Jessica; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Quetz, Josiane; Lang, Dennis; Gratz, Jean; Miller, Mark; Gottlieb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections are associated with linear growth failure in children. To quantify the association between intestinal inflammation and linear growth failure three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (neopterin [NEO], alpha-anti-trypsin [AAT], and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were performed in a structured sampling of asymptomatic stool from children under longitudinal surveillance for diarrheal illness in eight countries. Samples from 537 children contributed 1,169 AAT, 916 MPO, and 954 NEO test results that were significantly associated with linear growth. When combined to form a disease activity score, children with the highest score grew 1.08 cm less than children with the lowest score over the 6-month period following the tests after controlling for the incidence of diarrheal disease. This set of affordable non-invasive tests delineates those at risk of linear growth failure and may be used for the improved assessments of interventions to optimize growth during a critical period of early childhood. PMID:23185075

  5. Dietary Glutamate Supplementation Ameliorates Mycotoxin-Induced Abnormalities in the Intestinal Structure and Expression of Amino Acid Transporters in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaomiao; Liao, Peng; Deng, Dun; Liu, Gang; Wen, Qingqi; Wang, Yongfei; Qiu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wu, Xingli; Ren, Wenkai; Tan, Bie; Chen, Minghong; Xiao, Hao; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Adeola, Olayiwola; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with glutamic acid has beneficial effects on growth performance, antioxidant system, intestinal morphology, serum amino acid profile and the gene expression of intestinal amino acid transporters in growing swine fed mold-contaminated feed. Fifteen pigs (Landrace×Large White) with a mean body weight (BW) of 55 kg were randomly divided into control group (basal feed), mycotoxin group (contaminated feed) and glutamate group (2% glutamate+contaminated feed). Compared with control group, mold-contaminated feed decreased average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed conversion rate (FCR). Meanwhile, fed mold-contaminated feed impaired anti-oxidative system and intestinal morphology, as well as modified the serum amino acid profile in growing pigs. However, supplementation with glutamate exhibited potential positive effects on growth performance of pigs fed mold-contaminated feed, ameliorated the imbalance antioxidant system and abnormalities of intestinal structure caused by mycotoxins. In addition, dietary glutamate supplementation to some extent restored changed serum amino acid profile caused by mold-contaminated feed. In conclusion, glutamic acid may be act as a nutritional regulating factor to ameliorate the adverse effects induced by mycotoxins. PMID:25405987

  6. Labrasol® and Salts of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Can Be Combined in Low Concentrations to Increase the Permeability of a Macromolecule Marker Across Isolated Rat Intestinal Mucosae.

    PubMed

    Heade, Joanne; Maher, Sam; Bleiel, Sinead B; Brayden, David J

    2018-06-01

    In addition to their solubilizing properties, excipients used in lipid-based formulations can improve intestinal permeability of macromolecules. We determined whether admixing of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) permeation enhancers with a lipoidal excipient (Labrasol ® ) could potentiate transepithelial flux of a poorly permeable macromolecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4 kDa [FD4]) across rat intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. Low concentrations of sodium caprate (C 10 ), sodium undecylenate (C 11:1 ), or sodium laurate (C 12 ) combined with Labrasol ® increased the apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of FD4 to values typically seen with higher concentrations of MCFAs or Labrasol ® alone. For example, combination of C 11:1 (0.5 mg/mL) with Labrasol ® (1 mg/mL) increased the P app of FD4 by 10- and 11-fold over the respective individual agents at the same concentrations where no enhancement was evident. The increased enhancement ratios seen with the combinations were associated with some perturbation in intestinal histology and with attenuation of an epithelial functional measure, carbachol-stimulated inward short-circuit current. In conclusion, combining three MCFAs separately with Labrasol ® increased the P app of FD4 to values greater than those seen for MCFAs or Labrasol ® alone. Ultimately, this may permit lower concentrations of MCFA to be used in combination with other excipients in oral formulations of poorly permeable molecules. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment improves intestinal permeability and modulates inflammatory response and homeostasis of spleen and colon in experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Khailova, Ludmila; Baird, Christine H; Rush, Aubri A; Barnes, Christopher; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-01

    Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia. Studies were performed in 6-8 week old FVB/N mice treated (o.g.) with or without LGG (10 9  CFU/ml) and intratracheally injected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or saline. At 4, 12, and 24 h post-bacterial treatment spleen and colonic tissue were collected for analysis. Pneumonia significantly increased intestinal permeability and gut claudin-2. LGG significantly attenuated increased gut permeability and claudin-2 following pneumonia back to sham control levels. As mucin expression is key to gut barrier homeostasis we demonstrate that LGG can enhance goblet cell expression and mucin barrier formation versus control pneumonia animals. Further as Muc2 is a key gut mucin, we show LGG corrected deficient Muc2 expression post-pneumonia. Apoptosis increased in both colon and spleen post-pneumonia, and this increase was significantly attenuated by LGG. Concomitantly, LGG corrected pneumonia-mediated loss of cell proliferation in colon and significantly enhanced cell proliferation in spleen. Finally, LGG significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in colon and spleen post-pneumonia. These data demonstrate LGG can maintain intestinal barrier homeostasis by enhancing gut mucin expression/barrier formation, reducing apoptosis, and improving cell proliferation. This was accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the

  8. Critical determinant of intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability of pegylated all trans-retinoic acid prodrug-based nanomicelles: Chain length of poly (ethylene glycol) corona.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenbao; Han, Xiaopeng; Zhai, Yinglei; Lian, He; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui; Liu, Zheng; Sun, Jin

    2015-06-01

    Pegylation method is widely used to prolong the blood circulation time of proteins and nanoparticles after intravenous administration, but the effect of surface poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain length on oral absorption of the pegylated nanoparticles is poorly reported. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of PEG corona chain length on membrane permeability and oral bioavailability of the amphiphilic pegylated prodrug-based nanomicelles, taking all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) as a model drug. The amphiphilic ATRA-PEG conjugates were synthesized by esterification reaction between all trans-retinoic acid and mPEGs (mPEG500, mPEG1000, mPEG2000, and mPEG5000). The conjugates could self-assemble in aqueous medium to form nanomicelles by emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The resultant nanomicelles were in spherical shape with an average diameter of 13-20 nm. The drug loading efficiency of ATRA-PEG500, ATRA-PEG1000, ATRA-PEG2000, and ATRA-PEG5000 was about 38.4, 26.6, 13.1, and 5.68 wt%, respectively. With PEG chain length ranging from 500 to 5000, ATRA-PEG nanomicelles exhibited a bell shape of chemical stability in different pH buffers, intestinal homogenate and plasma. More importantly, they were all rapidly hydrolyzed into the parent drug in hepatic homogenate, with the half-time values being 0.3-0.4h. In comparison to ATRA solution and ATRA prodrug-based nanomicelles, ATRA-PEG1000 showed the highest intestinal permeability. After oral administration, ATRA-PEG2000 and ATRA-PEG5000 nanomicelles were not nearly absorbed, while the oral bioavailability of ATRA-PEG500 and ATRA-PEG1000 demonstrated about 1.2- and 2.0-fold higher than ATRA solution. Our results indicated that PEG1000 chain length of ATRA-PEG prodrug nanomicelles has the optimal oral bioavailability probably due to improved stability and balanced mucus penetration capability and cell binding, and that the PEG chain length on a surface of nanoparticles cannot exceed a key threshold with

  9. Effects of dietary live yeast supplementation on growth performance, diarrhoea severity, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Qin; Wu, Cheng; Luo, Yuheng; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Bo; Auclair, Eric; Kiros, Tadele; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Feng, Bin; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT-ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON-ETEC, ANT-ZnO-ETEC and LY-ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT-ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT-ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY-ETEC or ANT-ZnO-ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON-ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON-ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY-ETEC or ANT-ZnO-ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.

  10. NMR-based urinary profiling of lactulose/mannitol ratio used to assess the altered intestinal permeability in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Pandey, Gaurav; Bansal, Deepak; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Umesh; Dubey, Durgesh; Guleria, Anupam; Saraswat, Vivek Anand

    2017-04-01

    The article presents a simplified NMR-based protocol for urinary profiling of lactulose/mannitol ratio (LMR) and demonstrates here its utility to assess increased intestinal permeability (IP) in patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF). ACLF is a serious clinical complication associated with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis). The major risk factor in its development is increased IP ('leaky gut'), which has been linked to disease progression and to infectious complications. However, IP has seldom been investigated in patients with ACLF, even though patients frequently report gastrointestinal disorders and associated complications. To this end, we first optimized the NMR-based targeted profiling of urinary metabolites (i.e. actulose, mannitol, and creatinine) and subsequently used this resulted protocol (a) first to evaluate the altered IP in ACLF patients and then (b) to explore its utility for monitoring the treatment response in these patients. The normal profiles were obtained for 7 age and sex matched healthy volunteers. The results revealed that the urinary LMR excretion was significantly higher in ACLF patients compared to normal controls (median ~0.7, range (0.12-2.84), vs median ~0.11, range (0.02-0.28), p < 0.001) suggesting that the ACLF patients' exhibit altered IP. However, the LMR excretion in six clinically improved follow-up ACLF patients was comparable to normal controls indicating restored IP after the treatment. The protocol-as demonstrated here with ACLF-is equally applicable for evaluating IP or mucosal barrier function in other intestinal disorders with reasonable sensitivity and specificity, highlighting its general utility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Artificial Lipid Membrane Permeability Method for Predicting Intestinal Drug Transport: Probing the Determining Step in the Oral Absorption of Sulfadiazine; Influence of the Formation of Binary and Ternary Complexes with Cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Delrivo, Alicia; Aloisio, Carolina; Longhi, Marcela R; Granero, Gladys

    2018-04-01

    We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility. On the other hand, with this method, we successfully predicted the transport characteristics of oral sulfadiazine (SDZ). Also, the tradeoff between the increase in the solubility of SDZ by its complex formation with cyclodextrins and/or aminoacids and its oral permeability was assessed. Results suggest that SDZ is transported through the gastrointestinal epithelium by passive diffusion in a pH-dependent manner. These results support the classification of SDZ as a high/low borderline permeability compound and are in agreement with the Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). This conclusion is consistent with the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of SDZ.

  12. Oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats via reducing intestinal permeability and modulating gut microbial composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n = 8), the cirrhotic group (n = 10), the preventive group (n = 8), and the treatment group (n = 8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis.

  13. Purification and cDNA cloning of a protein derived from Flammulina velutipes that increases the permeability of the intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Narai, A; Shimizu, M

    1999-06-01

    A new protein that decreases transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer was found in a water-soluble fraction of the mushroom Flammulina velutipes. This protein, termed TEER-decreasing protein (TDP), is not cytotoxic and does not induce cell detachment, but rapidly increases the tight junctional permeability for water-soluble marker substances such as Lucifer Yellow CH (Mr 457) through the paracellular pathway. TDP was isolated and purified from the aqueous extract of F. velutipes by chromatographic means. Purified TDP was found to be a simple, nonglycosylated protein without intermolecular disulfide bonds, and the apparent molecular mass as estimated by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration is 30 kDa. It was revealed that the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of purified TDP is identical to the recently reported N-terminal sequence of flammutoxin, a membrane-perturbing hemolytic protein, for which the complete primary structure has not yet been reported [Tomita, T., Ishikawa, D., Noguchi, T., Katayama, E., and Hashimoto, Y. (1998) Biochem. J. 333, 24794-24799]. The cDNA coding for TDP was cloned by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The ORF encodes a protein with 272 amino-acid residues showing no homology to known proteins. Relevant studies using TDP cDNA will provide insight into the structure-function relationships of membrane pore-forming toxins.

  14. Retrograded starch/pectin coated gellan gum-microparticles for oral administration of insulin: A technological platform for protection against enzymatic degradation and improvement of intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia B; Beyssac, Eric; Garrait, Ghislain; Hsein, Hassana; Cury, Beatriz S F

    2018-02-01

    Gellan gum microparticles coated with colon-specific films based on retrograded starch and pectin was developed for enhancing the oral release of insulin (INS). The system developed promoted an impressive protection of INS (80%) after 120 min of incubation with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin, while only 3% of free INS remained intact after the same time, possibility due to the calcium chelating activity of the polymers in inhibiting the proteolytic activity. In vitro INS release in media simulating the gastrointestinal portions revealed a pH-dependent behavior, as well as the significance of the coating in lowering the release rates in relation to their counterparts. The permeability of INS on Caco-2 cells monolayers and excised rat intestine were significantly improved, mainly due to the influence of the anionic polymers on tight junctions opening, along with the excellent mucoadhesive properties of the gellan gum. All these features together contributed greatly to the hypoglycemic effect observed after the oral administration of the INS-loaded MP in diabetic rats, with reduction of up to 51% of blood glucose levels. The important findings of this work should contribute to the advances about the search of alternatives for oral administration of INS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Enhanced intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability of enalapril maleate upon complexation with the cationic polymethacrylate Eudragit E100.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rigo, María V; Olivera, María E; Rubio, Modesto; Manzo, Ruben H

    2014-05-13

    The low bioavailability of enalapril maleate associated to its instability in solid state motivated the development of a polyelectrolyte-drug complex between enalapril maleate and the cationic polymethacrylate Eudragit E100. The solid complexes were characterized by DSC-TG, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction. Their aqueous dispersions were evaluated for drug delivery in bicompartimental Franz cells and electrokinetic potentials. Stability in solid state was also evaluated using an HPLC-UV stability indicating method. Absorption of enalapril maleate was assessed thorough the rat everted gut sac model. In addition, urinary recovery after oral administration in rats was used as an indicator of systemic exposition. The solid materials are stable amorphous solids in which both moieties of enalapril maleate are ionically bonded to the polymer. Their aqueous dispersions exhibited controlled release over more than 7h in physiologic saline solution, being ionic exchange the fundamental mechanism that modified the extent and rate of drug release. Intestinal permeation of enalapril maleate was 1.7 times higher in the presence of the cationic polymer. This increase can be related with the capacity to adhere the mucosa due to the positive zeta potential of the complexes. As a consequence bioavailability was significantly improved (1.39 times) after oral administration of the complexes. In addition, no signs of chemical decomposition were observed after a 14months period. The results indicated that the products are new chemical entities that improve unfavorable properties of a useful drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral Supplementation with Non-Absorbable Antibiotics or Curcumin Attenuates Western Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis and Glucose Intolerance in LDLR−/− Mice – Role of Intestinal Permeability and Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Bie, Jinghua; Wang, Jing; Ghosh, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and metabolic diseases (such as Type 2 Diabetes and atherosclerosis) has shifted the focus from Western diet-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products into circulation as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. Under physiological conditions, an intact intestinal barrier prevents this release of LPS underscoring the importance of examining and modulating the direct effects of Western diet on intestinal barrier function. In the present study we evaluated two strategies, namely selective gut decontamination and supplementation with oral curcumin, to modulate Western-diet (WD) induced changes in intestinal barrier function and subsequent development of glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. LDLR−/− mice were fed WD for 16 weeks and either received non-absorbable antibiotics (Neomycin and polymyxin) in drinking water for selective gut decontamination or gavaged daily with curcumin. WD significantly increased intestinal permeability as assessed by in vivo translocation of FITC-dextran and plasma LPS levels. Selective gut decontamination and supplementation with curcumin significantly attenuated the WD-induced increase in plasma LPS levels (3.32 vs 1.90 or 1.51 EU/ml, respectively) and improved intestinal barrier function at multiple levels (restoring intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and Claudin-1). Consequently, both these interventions significantly reduced WD-induced glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice. Activation of macrophages by low levels of LPS (50 ng/ml) and its exacerbation by fatty acids is likely the mechanism by which release of trace amounts of LPS into circulation due to disruption of intestinal barrier function induces the development of these diseases. These studies not only establish the important role of

  17. Dual-sugar tests of small intestinal permeability are poor predictors of bacterial infections and mortality in cirrhosis: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Anika; Reuken, Philipp A; Stengel, Sven; Stallmach, Andreas; Bruns, Tony

    2016-03-21

    To prospectively analyze the impact of increased intestinal permeability (IP) on mortality and the occurrence of infections in patients with cirrhosis. IP was quantified using the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test in 46 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis (25 Child-Pugh A/B, 21 Child-Pugh C) and in 16 healthy controls. Markers of inflammation [LPS-binding protein, Interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and enterocyte death [intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP)] were determined in serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were followed for one year and assessed for survival, liver transplantation, the necessity of hospitalization and the occurrence of bacterial infections. The primary endpoint of the study was defined as differences in survival between patients with pathological and without pathological lactulose/mannitol test. Thirty-nine (85%) patients with cirrhosis had a pathologically increased IP index (L/M ratio > 0.07) compared to 4 (25%) healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The IP index correlated with the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.484, P = 0.001) and with serum IL-6 (r = 0.342, P = 0.02). Within one year, nineteen (41%) patients developed a total of 33 episodes of hospitalization with bacterial or fungal infections. Although patients who developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (n = 7) had a higher IP index than patients who did not (0.27 vs 0.14, P = 0.018), the baseline IP index did not predict time to infection, infection-free survival or overall survival, neither when assessed as linear variable, as tertiles, nor dichotomized using an established cut-off. In contrast, model for end-stage liver disease score, Child-Pugh score, the presence of ascites, serum IL-6 and I-FABP were univariate predictors of infection-free survival. Although increased IP is a frequent phenomenon in advanced cirrhosis and may predispose to SBP, it failed to predict infection-free and overall survival in this prospective cohort study.

  18. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  19. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and “secondary” changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple’s disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn’s disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following

  20. Assessment of the Effect of Intestinal Permeability Probes (Lactulose And Mannitol) and Other Liquids on Digesta Residence Times in Various Segments of the Gut Determined by Wireless Motility Capsule: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Whilst the use of the mannitol/lactulose test for intestinal permeability has been long established it is not known whether the doses of these sugars modify transit time Similarly it is not known whether substances such as aspirin that are known to increase intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol and those such as ascorbic acid which are stated to be beneficial to gastrointestinal health also influence intestinal transit time. Gastric and intestinal transit times were determined with a SmartPill following consumption of either a lactulose mannitol solution, a solution containing 600 mg aspirin, a solution containing 500 mg of ascorbic acid or an extract of blackcurrant, and compared by doubly repeated measures ANOVA with those following consumption of the same volume of a control in a cross-over study in six healthy female volunteers. The dominant frequencies of cyclic variations in gastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill were determined by fast Fourier transforms. The gastric transit times of lactulose mannitol solutions, of aspirin solutions and of blackcurrant juice did not differ from those of the control. The gastric transit times of the ascorbic acid solutions were significantly shorter than those of the other solutions. There were no significant differences between the various solutions either in the total small intestinal or colonic transit times. The intraluminal pHs during the initial quartiles of the small intestinal transit times were lower than those in the succeeding quartiles. This pattern did not vary with the solution that was consumed. The power of the frequencies of cyclic variation in intragastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill declined exponentially with increase in frequency and did not peak at the reported physiological frequencies of gastric contractile activity. Whilst the segmental residence times were broadly similar to those using other methods, the high degree of variation between subjects generally precluded the

  1. Validation of UHPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of kaempferol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and application to in vitro blood-brain barrier and intestinal drug permeability studies.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Afrapoli, Fahimeh; Oufir, Mouhssin; Walter, Fruzsina R; Deli, Maria A; Smiesko, Martin; Zabela, Volha; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias

    2016-09-05

    Sedative and anxiolytic-like properties of flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin, and of some of their intestinal metabolites, have been demonstrated in pharmacological studies. However, routes of administration were shown to be critical for observing in vivo activity. Therefore, the ability to cross intestinal and blood-brain barriers was assessed in cell-based models for kaempferol (KMF), and for the major intestinal metabolite of KMF, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA). Intestinal transport studies were performed with Caco-2 cells, and blood-brain barrier transport studies with an immortalized monoculture human model and a primary triple-co-culture rat model. UHPLC-MS/MS methods for KMF and 4-HPAA in Ringer-HEPES buffer and in Hank's balanced salt solution were validated according to industry guidelines. For all methods, calibration curves were fitted by least-squares quadratic regression with 1/X(2) as weighing factor, and mean coefficients of determination (R(2)) were >0.99. Data obtained with all barrier models showed high intestinal and blood-brain barrier permeation of KMF, and no permeability of 4-HPAA, when compared to barrier integrity markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Propylene glycol-linked amino acid/dipeptide diester prodrugs of oleanolic acid for PepT1-mediated transport: synthesis, intestinal permeability, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Gao, Yahan; Wang, Meng; Fang, Lei; Ping, Qineng

    2013-04-01

    In our previous studies, ethylene glycol-linked amino acid diester prodrugs of oleanolic acid (OA), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV drug, designed to target peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) have been synthesized and evaluated. Unlike ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is of very low toxicity in vivo. In this study, propylene glycol was used as a linker to further compare the effect of the type of linker on the stability, permeability, affinity, and bioavailability of the prodrugs of OA. Seven diester prodrugs with amino acid/dipeptide promoieties containing L-Val ester (7a), L-Phe ester (7b), L-Ile ester (7c), D-Val-L-Val ester (9a), L-Val-L-Val ester (9b), L-Ala-L-Val ester (9c), and L-Ala-L-Ile ester (9d) were designed and successfully synthesized. In situ rat single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model was performed to screen the effective permeability (P(eff)) of the prodrugs. P(eff) of 7a, 7b, 7c, 9a, 9b, 9c, and 9d (6.7-fold, 2.4-fold, 1.24-fold, 1.22-fold, 4.15-fold, 2.2-fold, and 1.4-fold, respectively) in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid buffer (MES) with pH 6.0 showed significant increase compared to that of OA (p < 0.01). In hydroxyethyl piperazine ethanesulfonic acid buffer (HEPES) of pH 7.4, except for 7c, 9a, and 9d, P(eff) of the other prodrugs containing 7a (5.2-fold), 7b (2.0-fold), 9b (3.1-fold), and 9c (1.7-fold) exhibited significantly higher values than that of OA (p < 0.01). In inhibition studies with glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, a typical substrate of PepT1), P(eff) of 7a (5.2-fold), 7b (2.0-fold), 9b (3.1-fold), and 9c (2.3-fold) had significantly reduced values (p < 0.01). Compared to the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) of OA with Caco-2 cell monolayer, significant enhancement of the P(app) of 7a (5.27-fold), 9b (3.31-fold), 9a (2.26-fold), 7b (2.10-fold), 7c (2.03-fold), 9c (1.87-fold), and 9d (1.39-fold) was also observed (p < 0.01). Inhibition studies with Gly-Sar (1 mM) showed that P(app) of 7a, 9b, and

  3. Ethylene glycol-linked amino acid diester prodrugs of oleanolic acid for PepT1-mediated transport: synthesis, intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Jia, Jinghao; Yin, Zhi; Gao, Yahan; Sha, Lei; Lai, Yisheng; Ping, Qineng; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-08-06

    The purposes of this study were to expand the structure of parent drugs selected for peptide transporter 1 (PepT1)-targeted ester prodrug design and to improve oral bioavailability of oleanolic acid (OA), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV drug. Through an ethoxy linker the carboxylic acid group of OA was conjugated with the carboxylic acid group of different amino acid promoieties to form six diester prodrugs. The effective permeability (P(eff)) of prodrugs was screened by in situ rat single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model in two buffers with different pH (6.0 and 7.4) as PepT1 employs a proton-gradient as the driving force. Compared to OA, 2.5-fold, 2.3-fold, 2.2-fold, 2.1-fold, and 1.9-fold enhancement of P(eff) in buffer with pH 6.0 was observed for L-Phe ester (5c), L-Val ester (5a), L-Lys ester (5e), D-Phe ester (5d), and D-Val ester (5b), respectively. Furthermore, P(eff) of 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e in pH 6.0 was significantly higher than that in pH 7.4 (p < 0.01), respectively. These results showed that the H(+) concentration of perfusion solution had great effect on the transport of the prodrugs across intestinal membrane. For the further evaluation of affinity to PepT1, inhibition studies were performed by coperfusing 0.1 mM prodrug with 50 mM glycyl-sarcosine (Gly-Sar, a typical substrate of PepT1). It turned out that the P(eff) of 5a, 5b, 5c and L-Tyr ester (6f) significantly reduced in the presence of Gly-Sar (1.7-fold, 2.2-fold, 1.9-fold, and 1.4-fold, respectively). We supposed that it may be attributed to PepT1 mediated transport of these prodrugs. 5a and 6f were selected as the optimal target prodrugs for oral absorption in vivo. Following intragastric administration of 300 mg/kg (calculated as OA) 5a, 6f and OA in three groups of rats, compared with group OA, Cmax for the group of 5a and 6f was enhanced by 1.56-fold and 1.54-fold, respectively. Fapp of group 5a and 6f was 2.21- and 2.04-fold increased, respectively, indicating

  4. Abnormal Barrier Function in Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Farré, Ricard; Vicario, María

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern in identifying the mechanisms underlying the intimate control of the intestinal barrier, as deregulation of its function is strongly associated with digestive (organic and functional) and a number of non-digestive (schizophrenia, diabetes, sepsis, among others) disorders. The intestinal barrier is a complex and effective defensive functional system that operates to limit luminal antigen access to the internal milieu while maintaining nutrient and electrolyte absorption. Intestinal permeability to substances is mainly determined by the physicochemical properties of the barrier, with the epithelium, mucosal immunity, and neural activity playing a major role. In functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain chronic symptoms is probably close to its end, as recent research is providing evidence of structural gut alterations, at least in certain subsets, mainly in functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These alterations are associated with increased permeability, which seems to reflect mucosal inflammation and neural activation. The participation of each anatomical and functional component of barrier function in homeostasis and intestinal dysfunction is described, with a special focus on FGIDs.

  5. Cyclophosphamide priming reduces intestinal damage in man following high dose melphalan chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, P. J.; Lopes, N.; Mundy, J.; Crofts, M.; Millar, J. L.; McElwain, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    A small pre-treatment 'priming' dose of cyclophosphamide will reduce gut damage due to high dose i.v. melphalan in mice and sheep but efforts to demonstrate this effect in man have been hampered by difficulty in the measurement of gut damage. We have evaluated the 51CR EDTA absorption test, a new method for measuring intestinal permeability, as a means of assessing damage due to high dose melphalan. The test was reliable, with a narrow normal range, easy to use and well tolerated. It detected an increase in intestinal permeability after high dose melphalan with a maximum occurring between 9 and 15 days after treatment and subsequently returning to normal. It was shown in 19 patients that a pre-treatment dose of cyclophosphamide was capable of significantly reducing the abnormalities in intestinal permeability which resulted from high dose melphalan. PMID:3111515

  6. Effect of permeability enhancers on paracellular permeability of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Ates, Muge; Kaynak, Mustafa Sinan; Sahin, Selma

    2016-06-01

    According to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), acyclovir is a class III (high solubility, low permeability) compound, and it is transported through paracellular route by passive diffusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various pharmaceutical excipients on the intestinal permeability of acyclovir. The single-pass in-situ intestinal perfusion (SPIP) method was used to estimate the permeability values of acyclovir and metoprolol across different intestinal segments (jejunum, ileum and colon). Permeability coefficient (Peff ) of acyclovir was determined in the absence and presence of a permeation enhancer such as dimethyl β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium caprate (Cap-Na) and chitosan chloride. All enhancers increased the permeability of paracellularly transported acyclovir. Although Cap-Na has the highest permeability-enhancing effect in all segments, permeation-enhancing effect of chitosan and SLS was only significant in ileum. On the other hand, DM-β-CD slightly decreased the permeability in all intestinal segments. These findings have potential implication concerning the enhancement of absorption of paracellularly transported compounds with limited oral bioavailability. In the case of acyclovir, Cap-Na either alone or in combination with SLS or chitosan has the potential to improve its absorption and bioavailability and has yet to be explored. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. "Green" synthesized and coated nanaosilver alters the membrance permeability of barrier (intestinal, brain, endothelial) cells and stimulates oxidative stress pathways in neurons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosilver's (nanoAg) use in medical applications and consumer products is increasing. Because of this, its "green" synthesis and surface modification with beneficial coatings are desirable. Given nanoAg's potential exposure routes (e.g., dermal, intestin...

  8. Perturbed zinc homeostasis in rural 3-5-y-old Malawian children is associated with abnormalities in intestinal permeability attributed to tropical enteropathy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical enteropathy and zinc deficiency are major public health problems worldwide. Tropical enteropathy is characterized by reduced mannitol absorption with normal or increased lactulose absorption when a dual sugar absorption test is administered, the results of which are reported as the lactulos...

  9. Simultaneous determination of intestinal permeability and potential drug interactions of complex mixtures using Caco-2 cells and high-resolution mass spectrometry: Studies with Rauwolfia serpentina extract.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Thomas J; Vohra, Sanah N

    2018-06-25

    Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components. Because of potential interactions between components of complex mixtures, more reliable safety assessments can be obtained by studying the commercial products "as consumed" rather than by testing individual chemical components one at a time. The present study evaluated the apparent intestinal permeability (P app ) of a model herbal extract, Rauwolfia serpentina, using both whole plant extracts and the individual purified Rauwolfia alkaloids. All test compounds, endpoint substrates, and their metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The P app values for individual Rauwolfia alkaloids were comparable whether measured individually or as components of the complete extract. Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except yohimbine inhibited CYP3A4 activity (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation). Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except corynanthine and reserpic acid significantly increased glucuronosyltransferase activity (glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone). The positive control, ketoconazole, significantly inhibited both CYP3A4 and glucuronosyltransferase activities. These findings suggest that the Caco-2 assay is capable of simultaneously identifying both bioavailability and potentially hazardous intestinal drug-supplement interactions in complex mixtures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Intestinal infection with Giardia spp. reduces epithelial barrier function in a myosin light chain kinase-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kevin G-E; Meddings, Jonathon B; Kirk, David R; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Buret, André G

    2002-10-01

    Giardiasis causes malabsorptive diarrhea, and symptoms can be present in the absence of any significant morphologic injury to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of giardiasis on epithelial permeability in vivo remain unknown, and the role of T cells and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in altered intestinal barrier function is unclear. This study was conducted to determine whether Giardia spp. alters intestinal permeability in vivo, to assess whether these abnormalities are dependent on T cells, and to assess the role of MLCK in altered epithelial barrier function. Immunocompetent and isogenic athymic mice were inoculated with axenic Giardia muris trophozoites or sterile vehicle (control), then assessed for trophozoite colonization and gastrointestinal permeability. Mechanistic studies using nontransformed human duodenal epithelial monolayers (SCBN) determined the effects of Giardia on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, transepithelial fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran fluxes, cytoskeletal F-actin, tight junctional zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and MLCK. Giardia infection caused a significant increase in small intestinal, but not gastric or colonic, permeability that correlated with trophozoite colonization in both immunocompetent and athymic mice. In vitro, Giardia increased permeability and phosphorylation of MLC and reorganized F-actin and ZO-1. These alterations were abolished with an MLCK inhibitor. Disruption of small intestinal barrier function is T cell independent, disappears on parasite clearance, and correlates with reorganization of cytoskeletal F-actin and tight junctional ZO-1 in an MLCK-dependent fashion.

  11. Increased conjunctival expression of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: a role for abnormal conjunctival epithelial permeability in disease pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Yeoh, S; Church, M; Lackie, P; McGill, J; Mota, M; Hossain, P

    2011-09-01

    Aeroallergen exposure to the conjunctival epithelium in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) may induce a cellular stress response that disrupts the barrier properties of the conjunctival epithelium, resulting in allergic disease. Whether such changes occur in SAC is unknown. Epithelial permeability is known to be increased when protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is activated. We evaluated the expression of PAR-2 in patients with SAC-in-season (SACS) and compared it with control non-atopic subjects or those with out-of-season allergic conjunctivitis (OSAC). Six SACS, eight normal and four OSAC specimens were examined immunohistochemically for PAR-2 and quantified in a masked fashion for the percentage of epithelia stained for each marker using Image-J software. Conjunctival epithelial heights were measured in all groups to confirm the presence of allergic eye disease. Mean percentage staining of PAR-2 was significantly greater in SACS that in normal specimens (73.4 ± 15.4% vs 32.8 ± 30.0%, p=0.038) or in OSAC (73.4 ± 15.4% vs 1.4 ± 2.2%, p=0.01). Mean conjunctival epithelial height was significantly raised in SACS (63.8 ± 9.0 μm) versus controls (44.7 ± 11.2 μm) (p=0.003, unpaired t test). Conjunctival epithelial PAR-2 is significantly upregulated in SAC. This supports the view that disruption of the barrier properties of the conjunctival epithelium is an important event in SAC pathogenesis.

  12. Crustal permeability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  13. Nano-sized water-in-oil-in-water emulsion enhances intestinal absorption of calcein, a high solubility and low permeability compound.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kenjiro; Takarada, Nobuo; Takada, Kanji

    2010-02-01

    Our goal was to develop safe and stable multilayer emulsions capable of enhancing intestinal absorption of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class III drugs. First, w/o emulsions were prepared using calcein as a model BCS class III compound and condensed ricinoleic acid tetraglycerin ester as a hydrophobic emulsifier. Then water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions were prepared with shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes. Particle size analyses and calcein leakage from oil droplets in w/o/w emulsions led us to select stearic acid hexaglycerin esters (HS-11) and Gelucire 44/14 as hydrophilic emulsifiers. Analyses of the absorption-enhancing effects of w/o/w emulsions on intestinal calcein absorption in rats showed that calcein bioavailability after intraduodenal (i.d.) administration of HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) w/o/w emulsions prepared with 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs was significantly higher than that of the calcein control. However, serum calcein concentration vs. time profiles after i.d. administration of w/o/w emulsions prepared with 1.1-microm and 30-microm pore-sized SPGs and an emulsion prepared with a calcein-containing outer water phase were comparable to control profiles. These results suggested that HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+PVA are safe outer water phase additives and that 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs are important for preparing w/o/w emulsions that enhanced intestinal calcein absorption. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  15. Crustal permeability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Permeability is the dominant parameter in most hydrogeologic studies. There is abundant evidence for dynamic variations in permeability in time as well as space, and throughout the crust. Whether this dynamic behavior should be included in quantitative models depends on the problem at hand.

  16. A strategy for oral chemotherapy via dual pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles to achieve gastric survivability, intestinal permeability, hemodynamic stability and intracellular activity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liandong; Dong, Hongxu; Dong, Anjie; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    Efficient oral administration of anticancer agents requires a nanocarrier to long survive in the stomach, effectively penetrate across the small intestine, tightly retain the drug during bloodstream and quickly release drug in tumor cells. Herein a kind of dual pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (CNPs) was developed by employing electrostatic interaction between positively charged chitosan (CS) and negative poly (L-glutamic acid) grafted polyethylene glycol-doxorubicin conjugate nanoparticles (PG-g-PEG-hyd-DOX NPs) with acid-labile hydrazone linkages. The obtained NPs and CNPs were characterized for their morphology, particle size, ζ-potential, pH-sensitivity under the simulated physiological conditions, drug release, as well as in vivo antitumor activity and biodistribution. The results indicated that CNPs can remain intact structure in pH range from 3.0 to 6.5. After detaching CS layer due to the pH-induced deprotonation with increasing pH to 7.4 in the mucus layer of the small intestine, the inner NPs would be released and effectively absorbed into blood circulation via opening the tight junctions by CS. PG-g-PEG-hyd-DOX NPs with demonstrated long-circulating properties can be accumulated in the tumor via EPR effect and dump the drug within tumor cells by acid-cleavage of hydrazone bonds between PG-g-PEG and DOX, achieving high therapeutic efficacy and low systemic toxicity. These results suggest that the design presented here, combining the functions of the gastrointestinal pH-sensitive electrostatic complex and intracellular acid-sensitive macromolecular prodrugs NPs, can sequentially overcome the biological barriers of oral anticancer drug delivery, which thus provides a promising nanomedicine platform for oral chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  18. ACF7 regulates colonic permeability.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Shi, Chenzhang; Yang, Jun; Chen, Hongqi; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Feng; Han, Huazhong; Qin, Huanlong

    2013-04-01

    Colonic paracellular permeability is regulated by various factors, including dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Recently, ACF7 has been found to play a critical role in cytoskeletal dynamics as an essential integrator. To elucidate the physiological importance of ACF7 and paracellular permeability, we conditionally knocked out ACF7 in the intestinal mucosa of mice. Histopathological findings indicated that ACF7 deficiency resulted in significant interstitial proliferation and columnar epithelial cell rearrangement. Decreased colonic paracellular permeability was detected using a Ussing chamber and the FITC-inulin method. In order to clarify the underlying mechanism, we further analyzed the expression levels of three important tight junction proteins. Downregulation of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was identified. Immunofluorescence provided strong evidence that ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 were weakly stained. We hypothesized that ACF7 regulates cytoskeleton dynamics to alter mucosal epithelial arrangement and colonic paracellular permeability.

  19. Clotrimazole ameliorates intestinal inflammation and abnormal angiogenesis by inhibiting interleukin-8 expression through a nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Su-Young; Bae, Yun-Hee; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Kwon, Jun Bum; Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Young-Joon; Choi, Han Gon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2008-11-01

    Increased interleukin (IL)-8 plays an important role not only in activation and recruitment of neutrophils but also in inducing exaggerated angiogenesis at the inflamed site. In the present study, we investigated the fact that clotrimazole (CLT) inhibits intestinal inflammation, and the inhibitory action is mediated through suppression of IL-8 expression. In the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model, CLT dose-dependently protected from the TNBS-induced weight loss, colon ulceration, and myeloperoxidase activity increase. In the lesion site, CLT also suppressed the TNBS-induced angiogenesis, IL-8 expression, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. In a cellular model of colitis using tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-stimulated HT29 colon epithelial cells, treatment with CLT significantly suppressed TNF-alpha-mediated IL-8 induction and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity revealed by a luciferase reporter gene assay. Furthermore, cotreatment with CLT and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a NF-kappaB inhibitor, synergistically reduced the NF-kappaB transcriptional activity as well as IL-8 expression. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay, CLT suppressed IL-8-induced proliferation, tube formation, and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The in vivo angiogenesis assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane also showed that CLT significantly inhibited the IL-8-induced formation of new blood vessels. Taken together, these results suggest that CLT may prevent the progression of intestinal inflammation by not only down-regulating IL-8 expression but also inhibiting the action of IL-8 in both colon epithelial and vascular endothelial cells during pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation.

  20. Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut inhibits expression and release of inflammatory mediators and reverts the increase of paracellular permeability in IL-1β-exposed human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gentile, C; Perrone, A; Attanzio, A; Tesoriere, L; Livrea, M A

    2015-08-01

    Dietary approaches to control inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may include proanthocyanidin-rich foods. Our previous research showed that a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian pistachio nut (HPE) contains substantial amounts of proanthocyanidins and possesses anti-inflammatory activities. We studied the effects of HPE and of its polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction (PPF) in a cell model that simulated some conditions of IBD, consisting of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated Caco-2 cells. HPE was prepared by Pistacia vera L. nuts, and PPF was isolated from HPE by adsorbance chromatography. Proanthocyanidins were quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were pre-incubated with HPE or PPF and then were exposed to IL-1β. Cell viability and parameters associated with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed. Adsorption of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the cell membrane was investigated by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements. HPE decreased prostaglandin (PG)E2 production, IL-6 and IL-8 release, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. HPE also inhibited the increase in paracellular permeability and reduced NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, tested at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, produced effects comparable to HPE. Finally, cell exposure to PPF increases TEER of the epithelial monolayers. Our results provide evidence that pistachio nut components inhibit inflammatory response of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the major bioactive nut components. The protection implies inhibition of NF-κB activation and occurs in parallel with the adsorption of polymeric proanthocyanidins to cell membrane. Our findings suggest that intake of small amounts of pistachio nut can exert beneficial effects to gastrointestinal pathophysiology.

  1. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  2. Cell permeability beyond the rule of 5.

    PubMed

    Matsson, Pär; Doak, Bradley C; Over, Björn; Kihlberg, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Drug discovery for difficult targets that have large and flat binding sites is often better suited to compounds beyond the "rule of 5" (bRo5). However, such compounds carry higher pharmacokinetic risks, such as low solubility and permeability, and increased efflux and metabolism. Interestingly, recent drug approvals and studies suggest that cell permeable and orally bioavailable drugs can be discovered far into bRo5 space. Tactics such as reduction or shielding of polarity by N-methylation, bulky side chains and intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be used to increase cell permeability in this space, but often results in decreased solubility. Conformationally flexible compounds can, however, combine high permeability and solubility, properties that are keys for cell permeability and intestinal absorption. Recent developments in computational conformational analysis will aid design of such compounds and hence prediction of cell permeability. Transporter mediated efflux occurs for most investigated drugs in bRo5 space, however it is commonly overcome by high local intestinal concentrations on oral administration. In contrast, there is little data to support significant impact of transporter-mediated intestinal absorption in bRo5 space. Current knowledge of compound properties that govern transporter effects of bRo5 drugs is limited and requires further fundamental and comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  4. Rifaximin alters intestinal bacteria and prevents stress-induced gut inflammation and visceral hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y; Owyang, Chung

    2014-02-01

    Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

  6. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. EPA Permeable Surface Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA recognizes permeable surfaces as an effective post-construction infiltration-based Best Management Practice to mitigate the adverse effects of stormwater runoff. The professional user community conceptually embraces permeable surfaces as a tool for making runoff more closely...

  9. Film Permeability Determination Using Static Permeability Cells

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The permeability of tarps to soil fumigant pesticides varies depending on the active ingredient chemical: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methyl bromide, chloropicrin, or other. The diffusion rate can be represented by the mass transfer coefficient (MTC).

  10. The utility of rat jejunal permeability for biopharmaceutics classification system.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Tajerzadeh, Hosnieh; Islambulchilar, Ziba

    2009-12-01

    The biopharmaceutical classification system has been developed to provide a scientific approach for classifying drug compounds based on their dose/solubility ratio and human intestinal permeability. Therefore in this study a new classification is presented, which is based on a correlation between rat and human intestinal permeability values. In situ technique in rat jejunum was used to determine the effective intestinal permeability of tested drugs. Then three dimensionless parameters--dose number, absorption number, and dissolution number (D(o), A(n), and D(n))--were calculated for each drug. Four classes of drugs were defined, that is, class I, D(0) < 0.5, P(eff(rat)) > 5.09 x 10(-5) cm/s; class II, D(o) > 1, P(eff(rat)) > 5.09 x 10( -5) cm/s; class III, D(0) < 0.5, P(eff(rat)) < 4.2 x 10(-5) cm/s; and class IV, D(o) > 1, P(eff(rat)) < 4.2 x 10(-5) cm/s. A region of borderline drugs (0.5 < D(o) < 1, 4.2 x 10(-5) < P(eff(rat)) < 5.09 x 10(-5) cm/s) was also defined. According to obtained results and proposed classification for drugs, it is concluded that drugs could be categorized correctly based on dose number and their intestinal permeability values in rat model using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique. This classification enables us to remark defined characteristics for intestinal absorption of all four classes using suitable cutoff points for both dose number and rat effective intestinal permeability values.

  11. Distinguishing between the permeability relationships with absorption and metabolism to improve BCS and BDDCS predictions in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Larregieu, Caroline A; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-04-07

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biopharmaceutics drug distribution classification system (BDDCS) are complementary classification systems that can improve, simplify, and accelerate drug discovery, development, and regulatory processes. Drug permeability has been widely accepted as a screening tool for determining intestinal absorption via the BCS during the drug development and regulatory approval processes. Currently, predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a known challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. The BDDCS, a modification of BCS that utilizes drug metabolism instead of intestinal permeability, predicts drug disposition and potential drug-drug interactions in the intestine, the liver, and most recently the brain. Although correlations between BCS and BDDCS have been observed with drug permeability rates, discrepancies have been noted in drug classifications between the two systems utilizing different permeability models, which are accepted as surrogate models for demonstrating human intestinal permeability by the FDA. Here, we recommend the most applicable permeability models for improving the prediction of BCS and BDDCS classifications. We demonstrate that the passive transcellular permeability rate, characterized by means of permeability models that are deficient in transporter expression and paracellular junctions (e.g., PAMPA and Caco-2), will most accurately predict BDDCS metabolism. These systems will inaccurately predict BCS classifications for drugs that particularly are substrates of highly expressed intestinal transporters. Moreover, in this latter case, a system more representative of complete human intestinal permeability is needed to accurately predict BCS absorption.

  12. Distinguishing between the Permeability Relationships with Absorption and Metabolism To Improve BCS and BDDCS Predictions in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biopharmaceutics drug distribution classification system (BDDCS) are complementary classification systems that can improve, simplify, and accelerate drug discovery, development, and regulatory processes. Drug permeability has been widely accepted as a screening tool for determining intestinal absorption via the BCS during the drug development and regulatory approval processes. Currently, predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a known challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. The BDDCS, a modification of BCS that utilizes drug metabolism instead of intestinal permeability, predicts drug disposition and potential drug–drug interactions in the intestine, the liver, and most recently the brain. Although correlations between BCS and BDDCS have been observed with drug permeability rates, discrepancies have been noted in drug classifications between the two systems utilizing different permeability models, which are accepted as surrogate models for demonstrating human intestinal permeability by the FDA. Here, we recommend the most applicable permeability models for improving the prediction of BCS and BDDCS classifications. We demonstrate that the passive transcellular permeability rate, characterized by means of permeability models that are deficient in transporter expression and paracellular junctions (e.g., PAMPA and Caco-2), will most accurately predict BDDCS metabolism. These systems will inaccurately predict BCS classifications for drugs that particularly are substrates of highly expressed intestinal transporters. Moreover, in this latter case, a system more representative of complete human intestinal permeability is needed to accurately predict BCS absorption. PMID:24628254

  13. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  14. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  15. Decision trees to characterise the roles of permeability and solubility on the prediction of oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Newby, Danielle; Freitas, Alex A; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-27

    Oral absorption of compounds depends on many physiological, physiochemical and formulation factors. Two important properties that govern oral absorption are in vitro permeability and solubility, which are commonly used as indicators of human intestinal absorption. Despite this, the nature and exact characteristics of the relationship between these parameters are not well understood. In this study a large dataset of human intestinal absorption was collated along with in vitro permeability, aqueous solubility, melting point, and maximum dose for the same compounds. The dataset allowed a permeability threshold to be established objectively to predict high or low intestinal absorption. Using this permeability threshold, classification decision trees incorporating a solubility-related parameter such as experimental or predicted solubility, or the melting point based absorption potential (MPbAP), along with structural molecular descriptors were developed and validated to predict oral absorption class. The decision trees were able to determine the individual roles of permeability and solubility in oral absorption process. Poorly permeable compounds with high solubility show low intestinal absorption, whereas poorly water soluble compounds with high or low permeability may have high intestinal absorption provided that they have certain molecular characteristics such as a small polar surface or specific topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  17. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bowel may be due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  18. Intestinal Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hormone medications, such as estrogen Cocaine or methamphetamine use Vigorous exercise, such as long-distance running ... anti-phospholipid syndrome. Illegal drug use. Cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked to intestinal ischemia. Complications ...

  19. Intestinal Malrotation

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel twists on itself, cutting off the blood flow to the tissue and causing the tissue to ... stomach and upper intestines. This keeps fluid and gas from building up in the abdomen. The child ...

  20. Starved Guts: Morphologic and Functional Intestinal Changes in Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Attia, Suzanna; Feenstra, Marjon; Swain, Nathan; Cuesta, Melina; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-11-01

    Malnutrition contributes significantly to death and illness worldwide and especially to the deaths of children younger than 5 years. The relation between intestinal changes in malnutrition and morbidity and mortality has not been well characterized; however, recent research indicates that the functional and morphologic changes of the intestine secondary to malnutrition itself contribute significantly to these negative clinical outcomes and may be potent targets of intervention. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of experimental and clinically observed changes in the intestine from malnutrition preclinical models and human studies. Limited clinical studies have shown villous blunting, intestinal inflammation, and changes in the intestinal microbiome of malnourished children. In addition to these findings, experimental data using various animal models of malnutrition have found evidence of increased intestinal permeability, upregulated intestinal inflammation, and loss of goblet cells. More mechanistic studies are urgently needed to improve our understanding of malnutrition-related intestinal dysfunction and to identify potential novel targets for intervention.

  1. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  2. Do the recommended standards for in vitro biopharmaceutic classification of drug permeability meet the "passive transport" criterion for biowaivers?

    PubMed

    Žakelj, Simon; Berginc, Katja; Roškar, Robert; Kraljič, Bor; Kristl, Albin

    2013-01-01

    BCS based biowaivers are recognized by major regulatory agencies. An application for a biowaiver can be supported by or even based on "in vitro" measurements of drug permeability. However, guidelines limit the application of biowaivers to drug substances that are transported only by passive mechanisms. Regarding published permeability data as well as measurements obtained in our institution, one can rarely observe drug substances that conform to this very strict criterion. Therefore, we measured the apparent permeability coefficients of 13 drugs recommended by FDA's Guidance to be used as standards for "in vitro" permeability classification. The asymmetry of permeability data determined for both directions (mucosal-to-serosal and serosalto- mucosal) through the rat small intestine revealed significant active transport for four out of the nine high-permeability standards and for all four low-permeability standard drugs. As could be expected, this asymmetry was abolished at 4°C on rat intestine. The permeability of all nine high-permeability, but none of the low permeability standards, was also much lower when measured with intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cell monolayers or artificial membranes at 4°C compared to standard conditions (37°C). Additionally, concurrent testing of several standard drugs revealed that membrane transport can be affected by the use of internal permeability standards. The implications of the results are discussed regarding the regulatory aspects of biopharmaceutical classification, good practice in drug permeability evaluation and regarding the general relevance of transport proteins with broad specificity in drug absorption.

  3. Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides prevent development of obese phenotype, impairment of gut permeability, and microbial dysbiosis in high fat-fed mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Microbial dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability is a target for prevention or reversal of weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO); however, it is not known whether decreased intestinal permeability is necessary or sufficient for weight loss. Prebiotic milk oligos...

  4. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  5. Benchmarking of relative permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relative permeability is the key relation in terms of multi-phase flow through porous media. There are hundreds of published relative permeability curves for various media, some classic (Oak 90 and 91), some contradictory. This can lead to a confusing situation if one is trying to benchmark simulation results to "experimental data". Coming from the experimental side, I have found that modelers have too much trust in relative permeability data sets. In this talk, I will discuss reasons for discrepancies within and between data sets, and give guidance on which portions of the data sets are most solid in terms of matching through models.

  6. Protective effect of aged garlic extract on the small intestinal damage of rats induced by methotrexate administration.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Matsumoto, H; Kasagi, M; Sugiyama, A; Kikuchi, M; Karasawa, C; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    1999-08-01

    The methotrexate (MTX) administration to rats causes the damage of small intestine. The small intestinal damage was evaluated by measuring the intestinal permeability of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran (average molecular weight, 4,400) (FD-4) using the in vitro everted intestine technique and by determining the FD-4 that appeared in plasma using the in situ closed loop intestine technique. The MTX administration to rats fed with the standard laboratory diet increased the small intestinal permeability of FD-4 due to the damage of the small intestine. Interestingly, the permeability of FD-4, when MTX was administered to rats fed with the aged garlic extract containing diet, was depressed almost to the level of control rats without the MTX treatment. The present study showed that the aged garlic extract protected the small intestine from the damage induced by the action of MTX on the crypt cells.

  7. Alternative functional in vitro models of human intestinal epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Amanda L.; Gyurdieva, Alexandra V.; Mabus, John R.; Ferguson, Chrissa; Yan, Zhengyin; Hornby, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We compared two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, intestinal organogenesis was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport. PMID:23847534

  8. Alternative functional in vitro models of human intestinal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Amanda L; Gyurdieva, Alexandra V; Mabus, John R; Ferguson, Chrissa; Yan, Zhengyin; Hornby, Pamela J

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We compared two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, intestinal organogenesis was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  9. Effect of Lactobacilli on Paracellular Permeability in the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Ahrne, Siv; Hagslatt, Marie-Louise Johansson

    2011-01-01

    Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a methotrexate-induced colitis model in the rat. Subsequently, many animal models and cell culture systems have shown indications that lactobacilli are able to counteract increased paracellular permeability evoked by cytokines, chemicals, infections, or stress. There have been few human studies focusing on the effect of lactobacilli on intestinal paracellular permeability but recently it has been shown that they could influence the tight junctions. More precisely, short-term administration of L. plantarum WCSF1 to healthy volunteers increased the relocation of occludin and ZO-1 into the tight junction area between duodenal epithelial cells. PMID:22254077

  10. Effect of lactobacilli on paracellular permeability in the gut.

    PubMed

    Ahrne, Siv; Hagslatt, Marie-Louise Johansson

    2011-01-01

    Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a methotrexate-induced colitis model in the rat. Subsequently, many animal models and cell culture systems have shown indications that lactobacilli are able to counteract increased paracellular permeability evoked by cytokines, chemicals, infections, or stress. There have been few human studies focusing on the effect of lactobacilli on intestinal paracellular permeability but recently it has been shown that they could influence the tight junctions. More precisely, short-term administration of L. plantarum WCSF1 to healthy volunteers increased the relocation of occludin and ZO-1 into the tight junction area between duodenal epithelial cells.

  11. Polyethylene glycol versus dual sugar assay for gastrointestinal permeability analysis: is it time to choose?

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Kim; Bessems, Babs Afm; van Eijk, Hans Mh; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis Hc; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2012-01-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is an important measure of disease activity and prognosis. Currently, many permeability tests are available and no consensus has been reached as to which test is most suitable. The aim of this study was to compare urinary probe excretion and accuracy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) assay and dual sugar assay in a double-blinded crossover study to evaluate probe excretion and the accuracy of both tests. Gastrointestinal permeability was measured in nine volunteers using PEG 400, PEG 1500, and PEG 3350 or lactulose-rhamnose. On 4 separate days, permeability was analyzed after oral intake of placebo or indomethacin, a drug known to increase intestinal permeability. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein and calprotectin levels were determined to verify compromised intestinal integrity after indomethacin consumption. Urinary samples were collected at baseline, hourly up to 5 hours after probe intake, and between 5 and 24 hours. Urinary excretion of PEG and sugars was determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Intake of indomethacin increased plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and calprotectin levels, reflecting loss of intestinal integrity and inflammation. In this state of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal compromise, urinary excretion of the three PEG probes and lactulose increased compared with placebo. Urinary PEG 400 excretion, the PEG 3350/PEG 400 ratio, and the lactulose/rhamnose ratio could accurately detect indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability, especially within 2 hours of probe intake. Hourly urinary excretion and diagnostic accuracy of PEG and sugar probes show high concordance for detection of indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability. This comparative study improves our knowledge of permeability analysis in man by providing a clear overview of both

  12. Polyethylene glycol versus dual sugar assay for gastrointestinal permeability analysis: is it time to choose?

    PubMed Central

    van Wijck, Kim; Bessems, Babs AFM; van Eijk, Hans MH; Buurman, Wim A; Dejong, Cornelis HC; Lenaerts, Kaatje

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased intestinal permeability is an important measure of disease activity and prognosis. Currently, many permeability tests are available and no consensus has been reached as to which test is most suitable. The aim of this study was to compare urinary probe excretion and accuracy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) assay and dual sugar assay in a double-blinded crossover study to evaluate probe excretion and the accuracy of both tests. Methods Gastrointestinal permeability was measured in nine volunteers using PEG 400, PEG 1500, and PEG 3350 or lactulose-rhamnose. On 4 separate days, permeability was analyzed after oral intake of placebo or indomethacin, a drug known to increase intestinal permeability. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein and calprotectin levels were determined to verify compromised intestinal integrity after indomethacin consumption. Urinary samples were collected at baseline, hourly up to 5 hours after probe intake, and between 5 and 24 hours. Urinary excretion of PEG and sugars was determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Results Intake of indomethacin increased plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and calprotectin levels, reflecting loss of intestinal integrity and inflammation. In this state of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal compromise, urinary excretion of the three PEG probes and lactulose increased compared with placebo. Urinary PEG 400 excretion, the PEG 3350/PEG 400 ratio, and the lactulose/rhamnose ratio could accurately detect indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability, especially within 2 hours of probe intake. Conclusion Hourly urinary excretion and diagnostic accuracy of PEG and sugar probes show high concordance for detection of indomethacin-induced increases in gastrointestinal permeability. This comparative study improves our knowledge of permeability analysis in man

  13. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults.

  14. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

  15. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m2, lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m3 tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry de

  16. Slow intestinal transit contributes to elevate urinary p-cresol level in Italian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Altieri, Laura; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Bravaccio, Carmela; Riccio, Maria Pia; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Bombace, Francesca; De Magistris, Laura; Persico, Antonio M

    2016-07-01

    The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp. strains in the gut by means of an in vitro fecal stool test and of Clostridium difficile-derived toxin A/B in the feces, (b) intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol (LA/MA) test, (c) frequent use of antibiotics due to recurrent infections during the first 2 years of postnatal life, and (d) stool habits with the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Chronic constipation was the only variable significantly associated with total urinary p-cresol concentration (P < 0.05). No association was found with presence of Clostridium spp. in the gut flora (P = 0.92), augmented intestinal permeability (P = 0.18), or frequent use of antibiotics in early infancy (P = 0.47). No ASD child was found to carry C. difficile in the gut or to release toxin A/B in the feces. In conclusion, urinary p-cresol levels are elevated in young ASD children with increased intestinal transit time and chronic constipation. Autism Res 2016, 9: 752-759. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Biopharmaceutics permeability classification of lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C agonist: method suitability and permeability class membership.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Ma, Michael G; Fullenwider, Cody L; Chen, Weichao G; Sadeque, Abu J M

    2013-12-02

    The objectives of the study were (1) to demonstrate that a Caco-2 cell-based permeability assay, developed in our laboratory, is suitable to identify the permeability classification according to the US Food and Drug Administration Biopharmaceutics Classification System guidance, and (2) to use the validated Caco-2 method to determine permeability class membership of lorcaserin. Lorcaserin, marketed in United States as Belviq, is a selective human 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C agonist used for weight management. First, the permeability of twenty commercially available drugs was determined in the apical-to-basolateral direction at a final concentration of 10 μM, with the pH of transporter buffer in the apical and basolateral compartments being 6.8 and 7.4, respectively. A rank-order relationship between in vitro permeability results and the extent of human intestinal absorption for the drugs tested was observed. Second, the apparent permeability coefficient values of lorcaserin at 2, 20, and 200 μM and apical pH values of 6.8 and 7.4 in the apical-to-basolateral direction were determined using the validated method and found to be comparable to those of the high-permeability internal standard metoprolol. Lorcaserin permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers was not dependent on the variation of apical pH. Furthermore, lorcaserin was not a substrate for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, using the validated Caco-2 permeability assay, it was shown that lorcaserin is a highly permeable compound.

  18. Targeting immunoproteasome and glutamine supplementation prevent intestinal hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Ghouzali, Ibtissem; Lemaitre, Caroline; Bahlouli, Wafa; Azhar, Saïda; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Meleine, Mathieu; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal hyperpermeability has been reported in several intestinal and non-intestinal disorders. We aimed to investigate the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in gut barrier regulation in two mice models: the water avoidance stress model (WAS) and a post-inflammatory model (post-TNBS). Both models were applied in C57BL/6 male mice (n=7-8/group); Proteasome was targeted by injection of a selective proteasome inhibitor or by using knock-out mice for β2i proteasome subunit. Finally, glutamine supplementation was evaluated. In both models (WAS at day 10, post-TNBS at day 28), we observed an increase in proteasome trypsin-like activity and in inducible β2/constitutive β2 subunit protein expression ratio, associated with an increase in intestinal permeability. Moreover, intestinal hyperpermeability was blunted by intraperitoneal injection of selective proteasome inhibitor in WAS and post-TNBS mice. Of note, knock-out mice for the β2i subunit exhibited a significant decrease in intestinal permeability and fecal pellet output during WAS. Glutamine supplementation also improved colonic permeability in both models. In conclusion, the proteasome system is altered in the colonic mucosa of WAS and post-TNBS mice with increased trypsin-like activity. Associated intestinal hyperpermeability was blunted by immunoproteasome inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing solubility and permeability of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 antibiotic drug using lipophilic fragments disturbing the crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Tehler, Ulrika; Fagerberg, Jonas H; Svensson, Richard; Larhed, Mats; Artursson, Per; Bergström, Christel A S

    2013-03-28

    Esterification was used to simultaneously increase solubility and permeability of ciprofloxacin, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 drug (low solubility/low permeability) with solid-state limited solubility. Molecular flexibility was increased to disturb the crystal lattice, lower the melting point, and thereby improve the solubility, whereas lipophilicity was increased to enhance the intestinal permeability. These structural changes resulted in BCS class 1 analogues (high solubility/high permeability) emphasizing that simple medicinal chemistry may improve both these properties.

  20. Predicting the extent of metabolism using in vitro permeability rate measurements and in silico permeability rate predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, Chelsea M; Benet, Leslie Z

    2015-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) can be utilized to predict drug disposition, including interactions with other drugs and transporter or metabolizing enzyme effects based on the extent of metabolism and solubility of a drug. However, defining the extent of metabolism relies upon clinical data. Drugs exhibiting high passive intestinal permeability rates are extensively metabolized. Therefore, we aimed to determine if in vitro measures of permeability rate or in silico permeability rate predictions could predict the extent of metabolism, to determine a reference compound representing the permeability rate above which compounds would be expected to be extensively metabolized, and to predict the major route of elimination of compounds in a two-tier approach utilizing permeability rate and a previously published model predicting the major route of elimination of parent drug. Twenty-two in vitro permeability rate measurement data sets in Caco-2 and MDCK cell lines and PAMPA were collected from the literature, while in silico permeability rate predictions were calculated using ADMET Predictor™ or VolSurf+. The potential for permeability rate to differentiate between extensively and poorly metabolized compounds was analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Compounds that yielded the highest sensitivity-specificity average were selected as permeability rate reference standards. The major route of elimination of poorly permeable drugs was predicted by our previously published model and the accuracies and predictive values were calculated. The areas under the receiver operating curves were >0.90 for in vitro measures of permeability rate and >0.80 for the VolSurf+ model of permeability rate, indicating they were able to predict the extent of metabolism of compounds. Labetalol and zidovudine predicted greater than 80% of extensively metabolized drugs correctly and greater than 80% of poorly metabolized drugs correctly in Caco

  1. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is protective to the preterm rat pup intestine.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Nathan P; Liedel, Jennifer L; Welak, Scott R; Fredrich, Katherine; Biesterveld, Ben E; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Gourlay, David M

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common surgical emergency in neonates, with a mortality rate between 10 and 50%. The onset of necrotizing enterocolitis is highly variable and associated with numerous risk factors. Prior research has shown that enteral supplementation with intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases the severity of NEC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IAP is protective to the preterm intestine in the presence of formula feeding and in the absence of NEC. Preterm rat pups were fed formula with or without supplementation with IAP, and intestine was obtained on day of life 3 for analysis of IAP activity, mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-6 and iNOS and permeability and cytokine expression after LPS exposure. There was no difference in the absolute and intestine specific alkaline phosphatase activity in both groups. Rat pups fed IAP had decreased mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-6 and iNOS. Pups supplemented with IAP had decreased permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression after exposure to LPS ex vivo when compared to formula fed controls. Our results support that IAP is beneficial to preterm intestine and decreases intestinal injury and inflammation caused by LPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Is Protective to the Preterm Rat Pup Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Heinzerling, Nathan P.; Liedel, Jennifer L.; Welak, Scott R.; Fredrich, Katherine; Biesterveld, Ben E.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Gourlay, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common surgical emergency in neonates, with a mortality rate between 10 and 50%. The onset of necrotizing enterocolitis is highly variable and associated with numerous risk factors. Prior research has shown enteral supplementation with intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases the severity of NEC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IAP is protective to the preterm intestine in the presence of formula feeding and in the absence of NEC. Methods Preterm rat pups were fed formula with or without supplementation with IAP, and intestine was obtained on day of life 3 for analysis of IAP activity, mRNA expression of TNF-a, IL-6 and iNOS and permeability and cytokine expression after LPS. exposure. Results There was no difference in the absolute and intestine specific alkaline phosphatase activity in both groups. Rat pups fed IAP had decreased mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-6 and iNOS. Pups supplemented with IAP had decreased permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression after exposure to LPS ex vivo when compared to formula fed controls. Conclusions Our results support that IAP is beneficial to preterm intestine and decreases intestinal injury and inflammation caused by LPS. PMID:24888842

  3. EPA Permeable Surface Research - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA recognizes permeable surfaces as an effective post-construction infiltration-based Best Management Practice to mitigate the adverse effects of stormwater runoff. The professional user community conceptually embraces permeable surfaces as a tool for making runoff more closely...

  4. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  5. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 by cariporide reduces burn-induced intestinal barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuekang; Chen, Ji; Bai, Hua; Tao, Ke; Zhou, Qin; Hou, Hongyi; Hu, Dahai

    2013-12-01

    Severe burns initiate an inflammatory cascade within the gut, which leads to intestinal mucosal injury. Although Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) is recognised as a pivotal player in several inflammatory processes, its role in burn-induced intestinal injury is relatively unknown. We hypothesised that NHE1 might be involved in the increased intestinal permeability and barrier breakdown after severe burns. Thus, we here investigate whether the inhibition of NHE1 has a protective effect on burn-induced intestinal injury. Mice were subjected to a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness steam burn. Cariporide was used to assess the function of NHE1 in mice with burn-induced intestinal injury by fluorescence spectrophotometry, Western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that severe burn increased intestinal permeability, associated with the up-regulation of NHE1 and raised inflammatory cytokine levels. Mice treated with the NHE1 inhibitor cariporide had significantly attenuated burn-induced intestinal permeability and a reduced inflammatory response. NHE1 inhibition also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and attenuated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Our study suggests that NHE1 plays an important role in burn-induced intestinal permeability through the regulation of the inflammatory response. Inhibition of NHE1 may be adopted as a potential therapeutic strategy for attenuating intestinal barrier breakdown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Intestinal coccidiosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Franson, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Coccidia are a complex and diverse group of protozoan (single-celled organisms) parasites; the coccidia group contains many species, most of which do not cause clinical disease. In birds, most disease-causing or pathogenic forms of coccidia parasites belong to the genus Eimeria. Coccidia usually invade the intestinal tract, but some invade other organs, such as the liver and kidney (see Chapter 27).Clinical illness caused by infection with these parasites is referred to as coccidiosis, but their presence without disease is called coccidiasis. In most cases, a bird that is infected by coccidia will develop immunity from disease and it will recover unless it is reinfected. The occurrence of disease depends, in part, upon the number of host cells that are destroyed by the juvenile form of the parasite, and this is moderated by many factors. Severely infected birds may die very quickly. Often, tissue damage to the bird’s intestine results in interrupted feeding; disruption of digestive processes or nutrient absorption; dehydration; anemia; and increased susceptibility to other disease agents. In cranes, coccidia that normally inhabit the intestine sometimes become widely distributed throughout the body. The resulting disease, disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) of cranes, is characterized by nodules, or granulomas, on the surface of organs and tissues that contain developmental stages of the parasite.Collectively, coccidia are important parasites of domestic animals, but, because each coccidia species has a preference for parasitizing a particular bird species and because of the self-limiting nature of most infections, coccidiosis in freeranging birds has not been of great concern. However, habitat losses that concentrate bird populations and the increasing numbers of captive-reared birds that are released into the wild enhance the potential for problems with coccidiosis.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  9. Current and evolving approaches for improving the oral permeability of BCS Class III or analogous molecules.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek S; Gupta, Deepak; Yu, Monica; Nguyen, Phuong; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba

    2017-02-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classifies pharmaceutical compounds based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS Class III compounds are hydrophilic molecules (high aqueous solubility) with low permeability across the biological membranes. While these compounds are pharmacologically effective, poor absorption due to low permeability becomes the rate-limiting step in achieving adequate bioavailability. Several approaches have been explored and utilized for improving the permeability profiles of these compounds. The approaches include traditional methods such as prodrugs, permeation enhancers, ion-pairing, etc., as well as relatively modern approaches such as nanoencapsulation and nanosizing. The most recent approaches include a combination/hybridization of one or more traditional approaches to improve drug permeability. While some of these approaches have been extremely successful, i.e. drug products utilizing the approach have progressed through the USFDA approval for marketing; others require further investigation to be applicable. This article discusses the commonly studied approaches for improving the permeability of BCS Class III compounds.

  10. Human Intestinal Barrier Function in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    König, Julia; Wells, Jerry; Cani, Patrice D; García-Ródenas, Clara L; MacDonald, Tom; Mercenier, Annick; Whyte, Jacqueline; Troost, Freddy; Brummer, Robert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed. In addition, the effect of the frequently prescribed drugs proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability, as well as commonly used methods to assess barrier function will be reviewed. PMID:27763627

  11. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOEpatents

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  12. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  13. Helminths and intestinal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Derek M.; Shute, Adam; Lopes, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approximately one-sixth of the worlds' population is infected with helminths and this class of parasite takes a major toll on domestic livestock. The majority of species of parasitic helminth that infect mammals live in the gut (the only niche for tapeworms) where they contact the hosts' epithelial cells. Here, the helminth-intestinal epithelial interface is reviewed in terms of the impact on, and regulation of epithelial barrier function, both intrinsic (epithelial permeability) and extrinsic (mucin, bacterial peptides, commensal bacteria) elements of the barrier. The data available on direct effects of helminths on epithelial permeability are scant, fragmentary and pales in comparison with knowledge of mobilization of immune reactions and effector cells in response to helminth parasites and how these impact intestinal barrier function. The interaction of helminth-host and helminth-host-bacteria is an important determinant of gut form and function and precisely defining these interactions will radically alter our understanding of normal gut physiology and pathophysiological reactions, revealing new approaches to infection with parasitic helminths, bacterial pathogens and idiopathic auto-inflammatory disease. PMID:28452686

  14. Improving permeability and oral absorption of mangiferin by phospholipid complexation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hequn; Chen, Hongming; Sun, Le; Tong, Lijin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2014-03-01

    Mangiferin is an active ingredient of medicinal plant with poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity. Many reports focused on improving aqueous solubility, but oral bioavailability of mangiferin was still limited. In this study, we intended to increase not only solubility, but also membrane permeability of mangiferin by a phospholipid complexation technique. The new complex's physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR), aqueous solubility, oil-water partition coefficient and in vitro dissolution. The intestinal absorption of the complex was studied by the rat in situ intestinal perfusion model. After oral administration of mangiferin-phospholipid complex and crude mangiferin in rats, the concentrations of mangiferin were determined by a validated RP-HPLC method. Results showed that the solubility of the complex in water and in n-octanol was enhanced and the oil-water partition coefficient was improved by 6.2 times and the intestinal permeability in rats was enhanced significantly. Peak plasma concentration and AUC of mangiferin from the complex (Cmax: 377.66 μg/L, AUC: 1039.94 μg/L*h) were higher than crude mangiferin (Cmax: 180 μg/L, AUC: 2355.63 μg/L*h). In view of improved solubility and enhanced permeability, phospholipid complexation technique can increase bioavailability of mangiferin by 2.3 times in comparison to the crude mangiferin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of themore » role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.« less

  16. Intestinal myiasis.

    PubMed

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  17. Mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Yoseph, Benyam P.; Klingensmith, Nathan J.; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R.; Burd, Eileen M.; Mittal, Rohit; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Petrie, Benjamin; Ford, Mandy L.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Although there are similarities in clinical course following sepsis, there are significant differences in the host response depending on the initiating organism and time course of the disease, and pathways of gut injury vary widely in different preclinical models of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timecourse and mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction are similar in disparate mouse models of sepsis with similar mortalities. FVB/N mice were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy, and permeability was measured to fluoresceinisothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FD-4) six to 48 hours later. Intestinal permeability was elevated following CLP at all timepoints measured, peaking at six to 12 hours. Tight junction proteins claudin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13 and 15, JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 were than assayed by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry 12 hours after CLP to determine potential mechanisms underlying increases in intestinal permeability. Claudin 2 and JAM-A were increased by sepsis whereas claudin-5 and occludin were decreased by sepsis. All other tight junction proteins were unchanged. A further timecourse experiment demonstrated that alterations in claudin-2 and occludin were detectable as early as 1 hour after the onset of sepsis. Similar experiments were then performed in a different group of mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Mice with pneumonia had an increase in intestinal permeability similar in timecourse and magnitude to that seen in CLP. Similar changes in tight junction proteins were seen in both models of sepsis although mice subjected to pneumonia also had a marked decrease in ZO-1 not seen in CLP. These results indicate that two disparate, clinically relevant models of sepsis induce a significant increase

  18. Mechanisms of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yoseph, Benyam P; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Burd, Eileen M; Mittal, Rohit; Dominguez, Jessica A; Petrie, Benjamin; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Although there are similarities in clinical course following sepsis, there are significant differences in the host response depending on the initiating organism and time course of the disease, and pathways of gut injury vary widely in different preclinical models of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timecourse and mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction are similar in disparate mouse models of sepsis with similar mortalities. FVB/N mice were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy, and permeability was measured to fluoresceinisothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FD-4) six to 48 h later. Intestinal permeability was elevated following CLP at all timepoints measured, peaking at 6 to 12 h. Tight junction proteins claudin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13, and 15, Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), occludin, and ZO-1 were than assayed by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry 12 h after CLP to determine potential mechanisms underlying increases in intestinal permeability. Claudin 2 and JAM-A were increased by sepsis, whereas claudin-5 and occludin were decreased by sepsis. All other tight junction proteins were unchanged. A further timecourse experiment demonstrated that alterations in claudin-2 and occludin were detectable as early as 1 h after the onset of sepsis. Similar experiments were then performed in a different group of mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Mice with pneumonia had an increase in intestinal permeability similar in timecourse and magnitude to that seen in CLP. Similar changes in tight junction proteins were seen in both models of sepsis although mice subjected to pneumonia also had a marked decrease in ZO-1 not seen in CLP. These results indicate that two disparate, clinically relevant models of sepsis

  19. The low/high BCS permeability class boundary: physicochemical comparison of metoprolol and labetalol.

    PubMed

    Zur, Moran; Gasparini, Marisa; Wolk, Omri; Amidon, Gordon L; Dahan, Arik

    2014-05-05

    Although recognized as overly conservative, metoprolol is currently the common low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound, while labetalol was suggested as a potential alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify the various characteristics that the optimal marker should exhibit, and to investigate the suitability of labetalol as the permeability class reference drug. Labetalol's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Labetalol was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. In the pH range throughout the small intestine (6.5-7.5), labetalol exhibited pH-dependent permeability, with higher permeability at higher pH values. While in vitro octanol-buffer partitioning (Log D) values of labetalol were significantly higher than those of metoprolol, the opposite was evident in the in vitro PAMPA permeability assay. The results of the in vivo perfusion studies in rats lay between the two contradictory in vitro studies; metoprolol was shown to have moderately higher rat intestinal permeability than labetalol. Theoretical distribution of the ionic species of the drugs was in corroboration with the experimental in vitro and the in vivo data. We propose three characteristics that the optimal permeability class reference drug should exhibit: (1) fraction dose absorbed in the range of 90%; (2) the optimal marker drug should be absorbed largely via passive transcellular permeability, with no/negligible carrier-mediated active intestinal transport (influx or efflux); and (3) the optimal marker drug should preferably be nonionizable. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that neither metoprolol nor labetalol can be regarded as optimal low/high-permeability class boundary standard. While metoprolol is too conservative due to its complete absorption

  20. Effects of Aspirin on Gastroduodenal Permeability in Alcoholics and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kwasny, Mary J.; Shaikh, Maliha; Fogg, Louis; Lau, Cynthia; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Forsyth, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    ). Our data show that alcoholics have greater gastroduodenal permeability than healthy controls. This difference was independent of the duration of any preceding period of sobriety, gender, smoking history, or illicit drug abuse. The injurious effects of alcohol on the gastroduodenal epithelial barrier are long lasting, persisting even after 7 days of sobriety. Although, acute aspirin and chronic alcohol each increase intestinal permeability in alcoholics, their effects appear to be additive rather than synergistic. PMID:20598487

  1. Sex differences in NSAID-induced perturbation of human intestinal barrier function and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Edogawa, Shoko; Peters, Stephanie A; Jenkins, Gregory D; Gurunathan, Sakteesh V; Sundt, Wendy J; Johnson, Stephen; Lennon, Ryan J; Dyer, Roy B; Camilleri, Michael; Kashyap, Purna C; Farrugia, Gianrico; Chen, Jun; Singh, Ravinder J; Grover, Madhusudan

    2018-06-13

    Intestinal barrier function and microbiota are integrally related and play critical roles in maintenance of host physiology. Sex is a key biologic variable for several disorders. Our aim was to determine sex-based differences in response to perturbation and subsequent recovery of intestinal barrier function and microbiota in healthy humans. Twenty-three volunteers underwent duodenal biopsies, mucosal impedance, and in vivo permeability measurement. Permeability testing was repeated after administration of indomethacin, then 4 to 6 wk after its discontinuation. Duodenal and fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Healthy women had lower intestinal permeability and higher duodenal and fecal microbial diversity than healthy men. Intestinal permeability increases after indomethacin administration in both sexes. However, only women demonstrated decreased fecal microbial diversity, including an increase in Prevotella abundance, after indomethacin administration. Duodenal microbiota composition did not show sex-specific changes. The increase in permeability and microbiota changes normalized after discontinuation of indomethacin. In summary, women have lower intestinal permeability and higher microbial diversity. Intestinal permeability is sensitive to perturbation but recovers to baseline. Gut microbiota in women is sensitive to perturbation but appears to be more stable in men. Sex-based differences in intestinal barrier function and microbiome should be considered in future studies.-Edogawa, S., Peters, S. A., Jenkins, G. D., Gurunathan, S. V., Sundt, W. J., Johnson, S., Lennon, R. J., Dyer, R. B., Camilleri, M., Kashyap, P. C., Farrugia, G., Chen, J., Singh, R. J., Grover, M. Sex differences in NSAID-induced perturbation of human intestinal barrier function and microbiota.

  2. Burns, inflammation, and intestinal injury: protective effects of an anti-inflammatory resuscitation strategy.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Todd W; Peterson, Carrie Y; Kroll, Lauren; Loomis, William H; Putnam, James G; Wolf, Paul; Eliceiri, Brian P; Baird, Andrew; Bansal, Vishal; Coimbra, Raul

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal barrier breakdown after severe burn can lead to intestinal inflammation, which may act as the source of the systemic inflammatory response. In vitro intestinal cell studies have shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is an important modulator of intestinal inflammation. We have previously observed that pentoxifylline (PTX) attenuates burn-induced intestinal permeability and tight junction breakdown. We hypothesized that PTX would limit intestinal barrier breakdown and attenuate inflammatory signaling via the MAPK pathway. Male balb/c mice underwent 30% total body surface area full-thickness steam burn. Immediately after burn, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PTX (12.5 mg/kg) in normal saline or normal saline alone. In vivo intestinal permeability to 4 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was measured. Intestinal extracts were obtained to measure interleukin-6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (1/2) (ERK (1/2)), and ERK (1/2) by immunoblotting. Acute lung injury was assessed by histology at 24 hours after burn. Administration of PTX immediately after injury attenuated burn-induced intestinal permeability. PTX also decreased the burn-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of ERK (1/2) at 2 hours and 24 hours after injury. Animals given PTX had decreased intestinal interleukin-6 levels. A single dose of PTX also decreased histologic lung injury at 24 hours after burn. PTX attenuates burn-induced intestinal permeability and subsequent intestinal inflammation. Use of PTX after burn was also associated with decreased acute lung injury. Because of its compelling anti-inflammatory effects, PTX may be an ideal candidate for use as an immunomodulatory adjunct to resuscitation fluid.

  3. Modeling of the relationship between dipeptide structure and dipeptide stability, permeability, and ACE inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Martin; van Buren, Leo; Klaffke, Werner; Duchateau, Guus S M J E

    2009-09-01

    Selected di- and tripeptides exhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in vitro. However, the efficacy in vivo is most likely limited for most peptides due to low bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to identify descriptors of intestinal stability, permeability, and ACE inhibitory activity of dipeptides. A total of 228 dipeptides were synthesized; intestinal stability was obtained by in vitro digestion, intestinal permeability using Caco-2 cells and ACE inhibitory activity by an in vitro assay. Databases were constructed to study the relationship between structure and activity, permeability, and stability. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling was performed based on computed models using partial least squares regression based on 400 molecular descriptors. QSAR modeling of dipeptide stability revealed high correlation coefficients (R > 0.65) for models based on Z and X scales. However, amino acid (AA) clustering showed the best results in describing stability of dipeptides. The N-terminal AA residues Asp, Gly, and Pro as well as the C-terminal residues Pro, Ser, Thr, and Asp stabilize dipeptides toward luminal enzymatic peptide hydrolysis. QSAR modeling did not reveal significant correlation models for intestinal permeability. 2D-fingerprint models were identified describing ACE inhibitory activity of dipeptides. The intestinal stability of 12 peptides was predicted. Peptides were synthesized and stability was confirmed in simulated digestion experiments. Based on the results, specific dipeptides can be designed to meet both stability and activity criteria. However, postabsorptive ACE inhibitory activities of dipeptides in vivo are most likely limited due to the very low intestinal permeability of dipeptides.

  4. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase deficiency leads to dysbiosis and bacterial translocation in the newborn intestine.

    PubMed

    Fawley, Jason; Koehler, Shannon; Cabrera, Susan; Lam, Vy; Fredrich, Katherine; Hessner, Martin; Salzman, Nita; Gourlay, David

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning. The microbiotas of terminal ileum (TI) and colon was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of subphylum-specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. RT-PCR was performed on TI for inflammatory cytokines. Intestinal permeability was quantified by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability and bacterial translocation by qRT-PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in mesenteric lymph nodes. Statistical analysis was done by chi-square analysis. All three genotypes had similar concentrations of bacteria in the TI and colon. However, IAP knockout (IAP-KO) had significantly decreased diversity of bacterial species in their colonic stool compared with heterozygous and wild-type (WT). IAP-KO pups had a nonstatistically significant 3.9-fold increased inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression compared with WT (IAP-KO, 3.92 ± 1.36; WT, 1.0 ± 0.27; P = 0.03). IAP-KO also had significantly increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred in IAP-KO (IAP-KO, 7625 RFU/g ± 3469; WT, 4957 RFU/g ± 1552; P = 0.04). Furthermore, IAP-KO had increased permeability (IAP-KO, 0.297 mg/mL ± 0.2; WT, 0.189 mg/mL ± 0.15 P = 0.07), but was not statistically significant. Deficiency of IAP in the newborn intestine is associated with dysbiosis and increased inflammation, permeability, and bacterial translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  6. Measurement of intestinal edema using an impedance analyzer circuit.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Shah, Kunal; Xue, Hasen; Moore-Olufemi, Stacey D; Moore, Frederick A; Weisbrodt, Norman W; Allen, Steven J; Gill, Brijesh; Cox, Charles S

    2007-03-01

    Acute intestinal edema adversely affects intestinal transit, permeability, and contractility. Current resuscitation modalities, while effective, are associated with development of acute intestinal edema. Knowledge of levels of tissue edema would allow clinicians to monitor intestinal tissue water and may help prevent the detrimental effects of edema. However, there is no simple method to measure intestinal tissue water without biopsy. We sought to develop a tissue impedance analyzer to measure tissue edema, without the need for invasive biopsy. Oscillating voltage input was applied to the analyzer circuit and an oscilloscope measured the voltage output across any load. Rats were randomized to three groups: sham, mild edema (80 mL/kg of NS resuscitation), and severe edema (80 mL/kg of NS resuscitation with intestinal venous hypertension). Intestinal edema was measured by wet-to-dry tissue weight ratio. Bowel impedance was measured and converted to capacitance using a standard curve. Acute intestinal edema causes a significant increase in bowel capacitance. This capacitance can be used to predict tissue water concentration. Using an impedance analyzer circuit, it is possible to measure intestinal edema reliably and quickly. This may prove to be a useful tool in the resuscitation of critically ill patients.

  7. Regulation of intestinal health by branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Yu, Bing; Gao, Jun; Htoo, John Khun; Chen, Daiwen

    2018-01-01

    Besides its primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, the intestine also interacts with a complex external milieu, and is the first defense line against noxious pathogens and antigens. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier is associated with enhanced intestinal permeability and development of various gastrointestinal diseases. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important nutrients, which are the essential substrates for protein biosynthesis. Recently, emerging evidence showed that BCAAs are involved in maintaining intestinal barrier function. It has been reported that dietary supplementation with BCAAs promotes intestinal development, enhances enterocyte proliferation, increases intestinal absorption of amino acids (AA) and glucose, and improves the immune defenses of piglets. The underlying mechanism of these effects is mediated by regulating expression of genes and proteins associate with various signaling pathways. In addition, BCAAs promote the production of beneficial bacteria in the intestine of mice. Compelling evidence supports the notion that BCAAs play important roles in both nutrition and intestinal health. Therefore, as functional amino acids with various physiological effects, BCAAs hold key roles in promoting intestinal development and health in animals and humans. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. [Adult intestinal malrotation associated with intestinal volvulus].

    PubMed

    Hernando-Almudí, Ernesto; Cerdán-Pascual, Rafael; Vallejo-Bernad, Cristina; Martín-Cuartero, Joaquín; Sánchez-Rubio, María; Casamayor-Franco, Carmen

    Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestinal rotation and fixation, and usually occurs in the neonatal age. Description of a clinical case associated with acute occlusive symptoms. A case of intestinal malrotation is presented in a previously asymptomatic woman of 46 years old with an intestinal obstruction, with radiology and surgical findings showing an absence of intestinal rotation. Intestinal malrotation in adults is often asymptomatic, and is diagnosed as a casual finding during a radiological examination performed for other reasons. Infrequently, it can be diagnosed in adults, associated with an acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal Ostomy.

    PubMed

    Ambe, Peter C; Kurz, Nadja Rebecca; Nitschke, Claudia; Odeh, Siad F; Möslein, Gabriela; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2018-03-16

    About 100 000 ostomy carriers are estimated to live in Germany today. The creation of an ostomy represents a major life event that can be associated with impaired quality of life. Optimal ostomy creation and proper ostomy care are crucially important determinants of the success of treatment and of the patients' quality of life. This article is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, GoogleScholar, and Scopus, and on the authors' experience. Intestinal stomata can be created using either the small or the large bowel. More than 75% of all stomata are placed as part of the treatment of colorectal cancer. The incidence of stoma-related complications is reported to be 10-70%. Skin irritation, erosion, and ulceration are the most common early complications, with a combined incidence of 25-34%, while stoma prolapse is the most common late complication, with an incidence of 8-75%. Most early complications can be managed conservatively, while most late complications require surgical revision. In 19% of cases, an ostomy that was initially planned to be temporary becomes permanent. Inappropriate stoma location and inadequate ostomy care are the most common causes of early complications. Both surgical and patient-related factors influence late complications. Every step from the planning of a stoma to its postoperative care should be discussed with the patient in detail. Preoperative marking is essential for an optimal stoma site. Optimal patient management with the involvement of an ostomy nurse increases ostomy acceptance, reduces ostomy-related complications, and improves the quality of life of ostomy carriers.

  10. Protective effects of lactoferrin against intestinal mucosal damage induced by lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Ikeda, Kenji; Kato, Ryuji; Myotoku, Michiaki; Umeda, Takashi; Ijiri, Yoshio; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), a major iron-binding protein in human milk, induces enterocyte growth and proliferation, depending on its concentration and affects the function and permeability of the intestinal mucosa. The bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is known to cause mucosal hyperpermeability in vivo. However, protective effects of Lf against LPS-mediated intestinal mucosal damage and barrier function in epithelial cells are not yet fully clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Lf can reduce the cellular injury and alter epithelial hyperpermeability caused by LPS in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. When cell viability was measured by a WST-1 assay (tetrazolium salt-based assay), the protective effects against LPS-induced damage to Caco-2 cells were observed at doses of 800 and 1000 microg/ml Lf. The barrier function of Caco-2 monolayer tight junctions was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of FITC-labeled dextran 4000 (FD-4). The treatment of Caco-2 cells with Lf at doses of 400 and 1000 microg/ml significantly increased TEER as compared to treatment with LPS alone for 2 h (p<0.05). Further, at doses of 400 and 1000 microg/ml, Lf inhibited the enhancement of LPS-mediated permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayer. The results of this study suggest that Lf may have protective effects against LPS-mediated intestinal mucosal damage and impairment of barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells.

  11. The Bile Acid Receptor GPBAR-1 (TGR5) Modulates Integrity of Intestinal Barrier and Immune Response to Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Distrutti, Eleonora; Renga, Barbara; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Baldelli, Franco; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Background GP-BAR1, a member G protein coupled receptor superfamily, is a cell surface bile acid-activated receptor highly expressed in the ileum and colon. In monocytes, ligation of GP-BAR1 by secondary bile acids results in a cAMP-dependent attenuation of cytokine generation. Aims To investigate the role GP-BAR1 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in rodent models of colitis. Methods Colitis was induced in wild type and GP-BAR1−/− mice by DSS and TNBS administration. Potential GP-BAR1 agonists were identified by in silico screening and computational docking studies. Results GP-BAR1−/− mice develop an abnormal morphology of colonic mucous cells and an altered molecular architecture of epithelial tight junctions with increased expression and abnormal subcellular distribution of zonulin 1 resulting in increased intestinal permeability and susceptibility to develop severe colitis in response to DSS at early stage of life. By in silico screening and docking studies we identified ciprofloxacin as a GP-BAR1 ligand. In monocytes, ciprofloxacin increases cAMP concentrations and attenuates TNFα release induced by TLR4 ligation in a GP-BAR1 dependent manner. Treating mice rendered colitic by TNBS with ciprofloxacin and oleanolic acid, a well characterized GP-BAR1 ligand, abrogates signs and symptoms of colitis. Colonic expression of GP-BAR1 mRNA increases in rodent models of colitis and tissues from Crohn's disease patients. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that ≈90% of CD14+ cells isolated from the lamina propria of TNBS-treated mice stained positively for GP-BAR1. Conclusions GP-BAR1 regulates intestinal barrier structure. Its expression increases in rodent models of colitis and Crohn's disease. Ciprofloxacin is a GP-BAR1 ligand. PMID:22046243

  12. Measurements on stress dependent permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risnes, R.; Faldaas, I.; Korsnes, R. I.; Norland, T.

    2003-04-01

    Hydrostatic loading is the conventional test procedure to determine the stress dependence of permeability. However, hydrostatic tests do not truly reflect the deviatoric stress state that exists in most reservoirs. The main objective of the present project was to study permeability changes under deviatoric stresses, like encountered in standard triaxial tests. However in measuring permeability in a triaxial cell, end effects may be important. The friction between the axial steel pistons and the sample may cause stress concentrations and thereby a non-homogeneous strain pattern towards the sample ends. To overcome this problem, the cell was modified to have pressure outlets from the mid-section of the sample, with the pressure tubes connected to the outside of the cell for pressure recording. The cell was designed for 1.5 in plugs with plug lengths of about 80 mm. Tests have been performed on two types of high porosity outcrop chalk: Liège chalk with porosity around 40 percent and permeability 1-2 millidarcy, and Aalborg chalk with porosity around 45 percent and permeability in the range 3-5 millidarcy. Methanol was used as saturating fluid for the chalks. In addition some sandstone samples from core material were included. The porosity values were rather high, around 30 percent, and the permeability ranged from around 50 millidarcy to over one Darcy. Synthetic oil was used as saturating fluid for the sandstone samples, to avoid any reactions with clay minerals. The results so far can be summarized as follows:(1) In almost all the tests, the permeability calculated by the overall pressure drop is smaller than the mid-section permeability. The reduction could typically be around 20 percent. This means that end-effects play an important role.(2) The permeability generally decrease with increasing hydrostatic stresses. This is in agreement with observations from other sources.(3) During deviatoric phases the average stress level is increasing, but the changes in

  13. Evaluation of the membrane permeability (PAMPA and skin) of benzimidazoles with potential cannabinoid activity and their relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Palavecino-González, M Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E

    2011-06-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying these molecules as very permeable, independent of their thermodynamic solubility, if and only if these have a Log P(oct) value <3.0. In contrast, transdermal permeability is conditioned on the solubility of the molecule so that it can only serve as a model for classifying the permeability of molecules that possess high solubility (class I: high solubility, high permeability; class III: high solubility, low permeability).

  14. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of ... Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of ...

  15. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the ...

  16. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying in bed for long periods of time (bedridden). Taking drugs that slow intestinal movements. These include ... be tried: Colonoscopy may be used to remove air from the large intestine. Fluids can be given ...

  17. Use of Methacrylic Acid-Containing Hydrogels to Increase Protein Transport Across the Intestinal Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, James; Lopez, Jennifer; Park, Kinam; Peppas, Nicholas

    2002-03-01

    Oral protein delivery requires protection from the harsh environment of the stomach, release in the small intestine and passage from the intestinal lumen into the circulation. Hydrogels that swell in response to the pH change when passing from the stomach to the small intestine can accomplish the first two points. The ability to enhance the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells is currently under investigation. Methacrylic acid-containing hydrogels have shown the ability to bind calcium ions that decreases the concentration of free extracellular calcium for these epithelial cells. This change triggers a number of intracellular events including rearrangement of the cytoskeleton leading to increased permeability. Studies done on Caco-2 cells (human colon adenocarcinoma) measuring changes in transepithelial resistance are used to assess the effect of the polymer-cell interactions on the integrity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.

  18. Intestinal development and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Taeko K.; Donahue, Bridgitte; Shroyer, Noah F.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we present an overview of intestinal development and cellular differentiation of the intestinal epithelium. The review is separated into two sections: Section one summarizes organogenesis of the small and large intestines, including endoderm and gut tube formation in early embryogenesis, villus morphogenesis, and crypt formation. Section two reviews cell fate specification and differentiation of each cell type within the intestinal epithelium. Growth factor and transcriptional networks that regulate these developmental processes are summarized. PMID:21978911

  19. Uncoupling of intestinal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase are required for the development of NSAID-enteropathy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, S; Sigthorsson, G; Simpson, R J; Watts, J; Jacob, M; Tavares, I A; Rafi, S; Roseth, A; Foster, R; Price, A B; Wrigglesworth, J M; Bjarnason, I

    2000-05-01

    The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage is believed to involve a nonprostaglandin dependent effect as well as prostaglandin dependent effects. One suggestion is that the nonprostaglandin mechanism involves uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To assess the role of uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the pathogenesis of small intestinal damage in the rat. We compared key pathophysiologic events in the small bowel following (i) dinitrophenol, an uncoupling agent (ii) parenteral aspirin, to inhibit cyclooxygenase without causing a 'topical' effect and (iii) the two together, using (iv) indomethacin as a positive control. Dinitrophenol altered intestinal mitochondrial morphology, increased intestinal permeability and caused inflammation without affecting gastric permeability or intestinal prostanoid levels. Parenteral aspirin decreased mucosal prostanoids without affecting intestinal mitochondria in vivo, gastric or intestinal permeability. Aspirin caused no inflammation or ulcers. When dinitrophenol and aspirin were given together the changes in intestinal mitochondrial morphology, permeability, inflammation and prostanoid levels and the macro- and microscopic appearances of intestinal ulcers were similar to indomethacin. These studies allow dissociation of the contribution and consequences of uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase inhibition in the pathophysiology of NSAID enteropathy. While uncoupling of enterocyte mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation leads to increased intestinal permeability and low grade inflammation, concurrent decreases in mucosal prostanoids appear to be important in the development of ulcers.

  20. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Albert J

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management. In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies. PMID:27895415

  1. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2016-11-14

    The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management. In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies.

  2. Intestinal malrotation and catastrophic volvulus in infancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Henry Chong; Pickard, Sarah S; Sridhar, Sunita; Dutta, Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    Intestinal malrotation in the newborn is usually diagnosed after signs of intestinal obstruction, such as bilious emesis, and corrected with the Ladd procedure. The objective of this report is to describe the presentation of severe cases of midgut volvulus presenting in infancy, and to discuss the characteristics of these cases. We performed a 7-year review at our institution and present two cases of catastrophic midgut volvulus presenting in the post-neonatal period, ending in death soon after the onset of symptoms. These two patients also had significant laboratory abnormalities compared to patients with more typical presentations resulting in favorable outcomes. Although most cases of intestinal malrotation in infancy can be treated successfully, in some circumstances, patients' symptoms may not be detected early enough for effective treatment, and therefore may result in catastrophic midgut volvulus and death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers.

    PubMed

    Parr, Alan; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bode, Chris; Brown, William; Yazdanian, Mehran; Gonzalez, Mario A; Sagawa, Kazuko; Miller, Kevin; Jiang, Wenlei; Stippler, Erika S

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds. Data on the effects of excipients on drug permeability are needed to demonstrate that commonly used excipients do not affect the permeability of BCS Class III compounds, which would support the application of biowaivers to Class III compounds. This study was designed to generate such data by assessing the permeability of four BCS Class III compounds and one Class I compound in the presence and absence of five commonly used excipients. The permeability of each of the compounds was assessed, at three to five concentrations, with each excipient in two different models: Caco-2 cell monolayers, and in situ rat intestinal perfusion. No substantial increases in the permeability of any of the compounds were observed in the presence of any of the tested excipients in either of the models, with the exception of disruption of Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity by sodium lauryl sulfate at 0.1 mg/ml and higher. The results suggest that the absorption of these four BCS Class III compounds would not be greatly affected by the tested excipients. This may have implications in supporting biowaivers for BCS Class III compounds in general.

  4. Revisiting atenolol as a low passive permeability marker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Slättengren, Tim; de Lange, Elizabeth C M; Smith, David E; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2017-10-31

    Atenolol, a hydrophilic beta blocker, has been used as a model drug for studying passive permeability of biological membranes such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the intestinal epithelium. However, the extent of S-atenolol (the active enantiomer) distribution in brain has never been evaluated, at equilibrium, to confirm that no transporters are involved in its transport at the BBB. To assess whether S-atenolol, in fact, depicts the characteristics of a low passive permeable drug at the BBB, a microdialysis study was performed in rats to monitor the unbound concentrations of S-atenolol in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and plasma during and after intravenous infusion. A pharmacokinetic model was developed, based on the microdialysis data, to estimate the permeability clearance of S-atenolol into and out of brain. In addition, the nonspecific binding of S-atenolol in brain homogenate was evaluated using equilibrium dialysis. The steady-state ratio of unbound S-atenolol concentrations in brain ECF to that in plasma (i.e., K p,uu,brain ) was 3.5% ± 0.4%, a value much less than unity. The unbound volume of distribution in brain (V u, brain ) of S-atenolol was also calculated as 0.69 ± 0.10 mL/g brain, indicating that S-atenolol is evenly distributed within brain parenchyma. Lastly, equilibrium dialysis showed limited nonspecific binding of S-atenolol in brain homogenate with an unbound fraction (f u,brain ) of 0.88 ± 0.07. It is concluded, based on K p,uu,brain being much smaller than unity, that S-atenolol is actively effluxed at the BBB, indicating the need to re-consider S-atenolol as a model drug for passive permeability studies of BBB transport or intestinal absorption.

  5. Is intestinal inflammation linking dysbiosis to gut barrier dysfunction during liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the intestinal microbiota composition contribute to the pathogenesis of many disorders including gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Recent studies have broadened our understanding of the “gut-liver” axis. Dietary changes, other environmental and genetic factors can lead to alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis can further disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier leading to pathological bacterial translocation and the initiation of an inflammatory response in the liver. In this article, the authors dissect the different steps involved in disease pathogenesis to further refine approaches for the medical management of liver diseases. The authors will specifically discuss the role of dysbiosis in inducing intestinal inflammation and increasing intestinal permeability. PMID:26088524

  6. Asphalt permeability testing between laboratories.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    Problems with water penetrating into pavement were observed with the early coarse asphalt Superpave mixtures. There was justified concern that water would cause early deterioration; therefore, an effort was made to investigate the permeability proble...

  7. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  8. Permeability of soils in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Hara, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    The permeability of soils in Mississippi was determined and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). Soil permeabilities in Mississippi were determined to range in value from nearly 0.0 to values exceeding 5.0 inches per hour. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service's State Soil Geographic Data Base (STATSGO) was used as the primary source of data for the determination of area-weighted soil permeability. STATSGO provides soil layer properties that are spatially referenced to mapped areas. These mapped areas are referred to as polygons in the GIS. The polygons arc boundaries of soils mapped as a group and are given unique Map Unit Identifiers (MUIDs). The data describing the physical characteristics of the soils within each polygon are stored in a tabular data base format and are referred to as attributes. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service developed STATSGO to be primarily used as a guide for regional resource planning, management, and monitoring. STATSGO was designed so that soil information could be extracted from properties tables at the layer level, combined by component, and statistically expanded to cover the entire map unit. The results of this study provide a mapped value for permeability which is representative of the vertical permeability of soils in that area. The resultant permeability map provides a representative vertical soil permeability for a given area sufficient for county, multi- county, and area planning, and will be used as the soil permeability data component in the evaluation of the susceptibility of major aquifers to contami- nation in Mississippi.

  9. Permeability of cork to gases.

    PubMed

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  10. Claudins, dietary milk proteins, and intestinal barrier regulation.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Gasdermin D (Gsdmd) is dispensable for mouse intestinal epithelium development.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomoaki; Tamura, Masaru; Tanaka, Shigekazu; Kato, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Mizushina, Youichi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2008-08-01

    Members of the novel gene family Gasdermin (Gsdm) are exclusively expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner in the epithelium of skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Based on their expression patterns and the phenotype of the Gsdma3 spontaneous mutations, it is inferred that the Gsdm family genes are involved in epithelial cell growth and/or differentiations in different tissues. To investigate possible roles of the Gsdm gene family in the development of intestinal tracts, we generated a Gsdmd mutant mouse, which is a solitary member of the Gsdmd subfamily and which is predominantly expressed in the intestinal tract by means of targeted disruption. In the mutant homozygotes, we found no abnormality of intestinal tract morphology. Moreover, in mutant mice, there was normal differentiation of all constituent cell types of the intestinal epithelium. Thus, this study clearly shows that Gsdmd is not essential for development of mouse intestinal tract or epithelial cell differentiation.

  12. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

  13. The solubility-permeability interplay and its implications in formulation design and development for poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    While each of the two key parameters of oral drug absorption, the solubility and the permeability, has been comprehensively studied separately, the relationship and interplay between the two have been largely ignored. For instance, when formulating a low-solubility drug using various solubilization techniques: what are we doing to the apparent permeability when we increase the solubility? Permeability is equal to the drug's diffusion coefficient through the membrane times the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient divided by the membrane thickness. The direct correlation between the intestinal permeability and the membrane/aqueous partitioning, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggests that the solubility and the permeability are closely associated, exhibiting a certain interplay between them, and the current view of treating the one irrespectively of the other may not be sufficient. In this paper, we describe the research that has been done thus far, and present new data, to shed light on this solubility-permeability interplay. It has been shown that decreased apparent permeability accompanies the solubility increase when using different solubilization methods. Overall, the weight of the evidence indicates that the solubility-permeability interplay cannot be ignored when using solubility-enabling formulations; looking solely at the solubility enhancement that the formulation enables may be misleading with regards to predicting the resulting absorption, and hence, the solubility-permeability interplay must be taken into account to strike the optimal solubility-permeability balance, in order to maximize the overall absorption.

  14. Permeability Asymmetry in Composite Porous Ceramic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurcharov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Uvarov, V. I.; Kurchatova, O. V.

    The results from the investigation of transport characteristics and gas transport asymmetry in bilayer composite membranes are submitted. These membranes are produced by SHS method. Asymmetric effect and hysteresis of permeability in nanoporous membranes are detected. It's shown, that permeability ratio (asymmetry value of permeability) increases up to several times. The asymmetry of permeability usually decreases monotonically with the pressure decrease.

  15. Permeability of stylolite-bearing chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, I.; Nykjaer, O.; Priisholm, S.

    1994-11-01

    Permeabilities were measured on core plugs from stylolite-bearing chalk of the Gorm field in the Danish North Sea. Air and liquid permeabilities were measured in directions parallel to and perpendicular to the stylolite surface. Permeability was measured with sleeve pressure equal to in-situ reservoir stress. Permeabilities of plugs with stylolites but without stylolite-associated fractures were equal in the two directions. The permeability is equal to the matrix permeability of non-stylolite-bearing chalk. In contrast, when fractures were associated with the stylolites, permeability was enhanced. The enhancement was most significant in the horizontal direction parallel to the stylolites.

  16. Intestinal "bioavailability" of solutes and water: we know how but not why.

    PubMed Central

    Charney, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Only minimal quantities of ingested and normally secreted solutes and water are excreted in the stool. This near 100% bioavailability means that the diet and kidneys are relatively more important determinants of solute, water and acid-base balance than the intestine. Intestinal bioavailability is based on excess transport capacity under normal conditions and the ability to adapt to altered or abnormal conditions. Indeed, the regulatory system of the intestine is as complex, segmented and multi factorial as in the kidney. Alterations in the rate and intestinal site of absorption reflect this regulation, and the diagnosis and treatment of various clinical abnormalities depend on the integrity of intestinal absorptive processes. However, the basis for this regulation an bioavailability are uncertain. Perhaps they had survival value for mammals, a phylogenic class that faced the twin threats of intestinal pathogens and shortages of solutes and water. PMID:9273987

  17. Paranodal permeability in `myelin mutants'

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, S.; Mierzwa, A.; Scherer, S.S.; Peles, E.; Arevalo, J.C.; Chao, M.V.; Rosenbluth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three `myelin mutant' mice, Caspr-null, cst-null and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3kDa, 10kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40kDa, 70kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of transverse bands in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of transverse bands. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of transverse bands but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of `pathway 3', the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  18. Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a Rome foundation report

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, Giovanni; Flint, Harry J; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Spiller, Robin C; Vanner, Stephen; Verdu, Elena F; Whorwell, Peter J; Zoetendal, Erwin G

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly perceived that gut host–microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been a great deal of interest in the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS. However, this theory has generated much debate because the evidence is largely based on breath tests which have not been validated. The introduction of culture-independent molecular techniques provides a major advancement in our understanding of the microbial community in FGID. Results from 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling approaches demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative changes of mucosal and faecal gut microbiota, particularly in IBS. Investigators are also starting to measure host–microbial interactions in IBS. The current working hypothesis is that abnormal microbiota activate mucosal innate immune responses which increase epithelial permeability, activate nociceptive sensory pathways and dysregulate the enteric nervous system. While we await important insights in this field, the microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Existing controlled trials of dietary manipulation, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and non-absorbable antibiotics are promising, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of current hypotheses regarding the pathogenetic involvement of microbiota in FGID and evaluate the results of microbiota-directed interventions. The authors also provide clinical guidance on modulation of gut microbiota in IBS. PMID:22730468

  19. Intestinal M cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer’s patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions. PMID:26634447

  20. Diet, Microbiome, and the Intestinal Epithelium: An Essential Triumvirate?

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Javier Rivera; Conlin, Victoria Susan; Jobin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a critical barrier protecting the host against diverse luminal noxious agents, as well as preventing the uncontrolled uptake of bacteria that could activate an immune response in a susceptible host. The epithelial monolayer that constitutes this barrier is regulated by a meshwork of proteins that orchestrate complex biological function such as permeability, transepithelial electrical resistance, and movement of various macromolecules. Because of its key role in maintaining host homeostasis, factors regulating barrier function have attracted sustained attention from the research community. This paper will address the role of bacteria, bacterial-derived metabolism, and the interplay of dietary factors in controlling intestinal barrier function. PMID:23586037

  1. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  2. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. METHODS: After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. RESULTS: Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. CONCLUSION: After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity. PMID:25400453

  3. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  4. Permeability of human jejunal segments to gonyautoxins measured by the Ussing chamber technique.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Pamela; Andrinolo, Darío; Csendes, Attila; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms involved in intestinal permeability of gonyautoxins. For this purpose, the influence on transmucosal resistance of gonyautoxins and their permeability was investigated in excised human jejunal segments. To evaluate these events, the isolated mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological characterization. The organic gonyautoxin cations were applied to the mucosal side and samples collected on the serosal side. The permeability of gonyautoxins measured at 37 degrees C was 4.3-fold greater than at 4 degrees C, indicative of high cation selective transcellular permeability. In order to characterize the permeability of gonyautoxins, the effects of choline, ouabain, phlorizin and fluorescein were studied. The inhibition by these compounds was expressed as percent inhibition of the maximal flux of gonyautoxins at 120 min. Replacement of sodium ion by choline, showed the highest inhibition (85.5% from control). Ouabain, fluorescein and phlorizin inhibit the gonyautoxins flux by 53.9, 41.0 and 9.64%, respectively. The inhibition of gonyautoxins' permeability produced by ouabain and phlorizin go in parallel with an increase in the transmucosal electrical resistance (TER). This study shows that permeability of gonyautoxin cations occurred predominantly by the transcellular pathway (76%) when toxins were applied in the mucosal-serosal direction. The paracellular pathway of gonyautoxins was 24% of total permeability when compared with [3H] mannitol permeability. These findings suggests that permeability of gonyautoxins depends on temperature and processes involving sodium ion. Replacing sodium ions by choline ions showed a marked effect on TER.

  5. Tacrolimus is a class II low-solubility high-permeability drug: the effect of P-glycoprotein efflux on regional permeability of tacrolimus in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shigeki; Ohike, Atsuo; Ibuki, Rinta; Amidon, Gordon L; Yamashita, Shinji

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane efflux pump associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) and a known substrate for tacrolimus, in determining the regional intestinal permeability of tacrolimus in rats. Thus, isolated segments of rat jejunum, ileum, or colon were perfused with tacrolimus solutions containing polyethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil 60 surfactant, and with or without verapamil, a P-gp substrate used to reverse the MDR phenotype. The results indicated that the intrinsic permeability of tacrolimus in the jejunum, calculated on the basis of the concentration of non-micellized free tacrolimus, was quite high ( approximately 1.4 x 10(-4) cm/s). The apparent permeability (P(app)) in the jejunum was unaffected by the presence of verapamil; however, the P(app) in the ileum and the colon increased significantly in the presence of verapamil and were similar to the values observed in the jejunum. The results suggest that systemic absorption of tacrolimus from the gastrointestinal tract could be significantly affected by P-gp efflux mechanisms. It is also possible that differences in P-gp function at various intestinal sites in a subject or at a given intestinal site in various subjects could lead to large intra- and interindividual variability in bioavailability of tacrolimus following oral administration. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association .

  6. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  7. DENTAL ABNORMALITIES OF EIGHT WILD QINLING GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA QINLINGENSIS), SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yipeng; Chen, Si; Chao, Yanqiao; Pu, Tianchun; Xu, Hongqian; Liu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Kaihui; Nie, Yonggang; Wei, Wei; Lin, Degui

    2015-10-01

    Eight adult (six male and two female) wild Qinling giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) from China National Foping Nature Reserve were tracked, and their dental data collected and recorded from October 2010 to April 2014. Each panda had dental abnormalities of varying severity. Dental wear and fracture were the most common conditions. Absent teeth were common, with premolars missing most often. Mild caries were present in five molar teeth between two animals. Different degrees of dental plaque and calculus occurred in all animals but without severe periodontal disease. Two animals with severe dental abnormalities died due to intestinal problems. Large segments of bamboo were found in their intestinal tracts, and intestinal perforation and ulcers were evident, indicating dental abnormalities can be an important factor in the health of wild giant pandas and may lead to death. Further research with larger sample sizes of wild and captive giant pandas will be required to substantiate the relationship between dental abnormalities and mortality in giant pandas.

  8. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  9. [Research progress of relationship between diabetes and intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier and intervetion of berberine].

    PubMed

    Qin, Xin; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fu-Er

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal tight junction is an important part of the small intestinal mucosa barrier. It plays a very significant role in maintaining the intestinal mucosal permeability and integrity, preventing the bacterial endotoxin and toxic macromolecular substances into the body so as to keep a stable internal environment. Numerous studies have shown that intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction is closely related to the development of diabetes. Therefore, protecting intestinal tight junction and maintaining the mucosal barrier have great significance in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The effect of berberine in diabetes treatment is obvious. However, the pharmacological study found that the bioavailability of berberine is extremely low. Some scholars put forward that the major site of pharmaceutical action of berberine might be in the gut. Studies have shown that berberine could regulate the intestinal flora and intestinal hormone secretion, protect the intestinal barrier, inhibit the absorption of glucose, eliminate the intestinal inflammation and so on. Recently studies have found that the hypoglycemic effect of berberine is likely to relate with the influence on intestinal tight junction and the protection of mucosal barrier. Here is the review about the association between intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction and diabetes, and the related hypoglycemic mechanism of berberine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Host-microbiota interactions in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Elson, Charles O; Alexander, Katie L

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive collection of bacterial species, termed microbiota, within human and other mammalian hosts has profound effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Multiple host innate mechanisms contribute to intestinal homeostasis, including epithelial production of protective mucin layers maintaining spatial segregation in the intestine as well as epithelial cell secretion of a broad range of antimicrobial peptides. Additionally, epithelial cells employ autophagy to contain and eliminate invading bacteria; interestingly, genetic variants in specific autophagy genes are linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Innate lymphoid cells, which rapidly respond to cytokine and microbial signals, have emerged as important regulators of the intestinal immune response to the microbiota. With regard to adaptive immunity, specific microbial species stimulate induction of regulatory T cells while others induce effector T cells within the gut. Such stimulation is subject to dysregulation during inflammation and disease, contributing to 'dysbiosis' or an abnormal microbiota composition that has been associated with a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease. The microbiota communicates with the immune system and vice versa; thus, an abnormal microbiota composition likely translates into an altered host immune response, though the exact mechanisms of such are not yet clear. Immunoglobulin A plays a critical role in limiting bacterial access to the host and in maintaining mutualism with the microbiota. Perturbation of the mucosal barrier via infection or other means can induce effector T cells reactive to the intestinal microbiota, and these cells can persist as memory cells for extended periods of time and potentially serve as pathogenic effector cells upon re-encounter with antigen. Health is associated with a diverse microbiota that functions to maintain the balance between T effector and T regulatory cells in the intestine. Whether

  11. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Mediates Intestinal Barrier Disruption following Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuanli; Wang, Pei; Su, Qin; Wang, Shiliang; Wang, Fengjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK) is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. Methodology/Principal Findings Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control) or 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg), an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. Conclusions/Significance The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury. PMID:22529961

  12. Can lipid nanoparticles improve intestinal absorption?

    PubMed

    Mendes, M; Soares, H T; Arnaut, L G; Sousa, J J; Pais, A A C C; Vitorino, C

    2016-12-30

    Lipid nanoparticles and their multiple designs have been considered appealing nanocarrier systems. Bringing the benefits of these nanosystems together with conventional coating technology clearly results in product differentiation. This work aimed at developing an innovative solid dosage form for oral administration based on tableting nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), coated with conventional polymer agents. NLC dispersions co-encapsulating olanzapine and simvastatin (Combo-NLC) were produced by high pressure homogenization, and evaluated in terms of scalability, drying procedure, tableting and performance from in vitro release, cytotoxicity and intestinal permeability stand points. Factorial design indicated that the scaling-up of the NLC production is clearly feasible. Spray-drying was the method selected to obtain dry particles, not only because it consists of a single step procedure, but also because it facilitates the coating process of NLC with different polymers. Modified NLC formulations with the polymers allowed obtaining distinct release mechanisms, comprising immediate, delayed and prolonged release. Sureteric:Combo-NLC provided a low cytotoxicity profile, along with a ca. 12-fold OL/3-fold SV higher intestinal permeability, compared to those obtained with commercial tablets. Such findings can be ascribed to drug protection and control over release promoted by NLC, supporting them as a versatile platform able to be modified according to the intended needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrotropic Solubilization of Lipophilic Drugs for Oral Delivery: The Effects of Urea and Nicotinamide on Carbamazepine Solubility–Permeability Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Beig, Avital; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M.; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2016-01-01

    Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs’ permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility–permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility–permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ∼30-fold). A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in vitro and in vivo (∼17-fold for nicotinamide and ∼9-fold for urea), revealing a solubility–permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility–permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility–permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure. PMID:27826241

  14. Altered intestinal microbiota and blood T cell phenotype are shared by patients with Crohn's disease and their unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Charlotte R; McCarthy, Neil E; Louis, Petra; Farquharson, Freda M; McCartney, Sara; Taylor, Kirstin; Prescott, Natalie J; Murrells, Trevor; Stagg, Andrew J; Whelan, Kevin; Lindsay, James O

    2014-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis, altered blood T cell populations, elevated faecal calprotectin (FC) and increased intestinal permeability (IP). CD-associated features present in siblings (increased risk of CD) but not in healthy controls, provide insight into early CD pathogenesis. We aimed to (1) Delineate the genetic, immune and microbiological profile of patients with CD, their siblings and controls and (2) Determine which factors discriminate between groups. Faecal microbiology was analysed by quantitative PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA, FC by ELISA, blood T cell phenotype by flow cytometry and IP by differential lactulose-rhamnose absorption in 22 patients with inactive CD, 21 of their healthy siblings and 25 controls. Subject's genotype relative risk was determined by Illumina Immuno BeadChip. Strikingly, siblings shared aspects of intestinal dysbiosis with patients with CD (lower concentrations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (p=0.048), Clostridia cluster IV (p=0.003) and Roseburia spp. (p=0.09) compared with controls). As in CD, siblings demonstrated a predominance of memory T cells (p=0.002) and elevated naïve CD4 T cell β7 integrin expression (p=0.01) compared with controls. FC was elevated (>50 μg/g) in 8/21 (38%) siblings compared with 2/25 (8%) controls (p=0.028); whereas IP did not differ between siblings and controls. Discriminant function analysis determined that combinations of these factors significantly discriminated between groups (χ(2)=80.4, df=20, p<0.001). Siblings were separated from controls by immunological and microbiological variables. Healthy siblings of patients with CD manifest immune and microbiological abnormalities associated with CD distinct from their genotype-related risk and provide an excellent model in which to investigate early CD pathogenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Suresh, N; Ganesh, R; Sankar, Janani; Sathiyasekaran, Malathi

    2009-10-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of intestinal lymphatics presenting with hypoproteinemia, bilateral lower limb edema, ascites, and protein losing enteropathy. We report a series of 4 children from Chennai, India presenting with anasarca, recurrent diarrhea, hypoproteinemia and confirmatory features of PIL on endoscopy and histopathology.

  16. The protective effect of supplemental calcium on colonic permeability depends on a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Schonewille, Arjan J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2012-04-01

    An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Previously, we have shown that dietary Ca decreases colonic permeability in rats. This might be explained by a calcium-phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity, which protects against an acidic pH due to microbial fermentation. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary phosphate is a co-player in the effect of Ca on permeability. Rats were fed a humanised low-Ca diet, or a similar diet supplemented with Ca and containing either high, medium or low phosphate concentrations. Chromium-EDTA was added as an inert dietary intestinal permeability marker. After dietary adaptation, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) were added to all diets to stimulate fermentation, acidify the colonic contents and induce an increase in permeability. Dietary Ca prevented the scFOS-induced increase in intestinal permeability in rats fed medium- and high-phosphate diets but not in those fed the low-phosphate diet. This was associated with higher faecal water cytotoxicity and higher caecal lactate levels in the latter group. Moreover, food intake and body weight during scFOS supplementation were adversely affected by the low-phosphate diet. Importantly, luminal buffering capacity was higher in rats fed the medium- and high-phosphate diets compared with those fed the low-phosphate diet. The protective effect of dietary Ca on intestinal permeability is impaired if dietary phosphate is low. This is associated with a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity. Dragging phosphate into the colon and thereby increasing the colonic phosphate concentration is at least part of the mechanism behind the protective effect of Ca on intestinal permeability.

  17. Increased gut permeability in cancer cachexia: mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Loumaye, Audrey; Catry, Emilie; Walgrave, Hannah; Cherbuy, Claire; Leclercq, Sophie; Van Hul, Matthias; Plovier, Hubert; Pachikian, Barbara; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-04-06

    Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any chemotherapy. These alterations occurred independently of anorexia and were driven by interleukin 6. Gut dysfunction was found to be resistant to treatments with an anti-inflammatory bacterium ( Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) or with gut peptides involved in intestinal cell renewal (teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue). The translational value of our findings was evaluated in 152 colorectal and lung cancer patients with or without cachexia. The serum level of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, often presented as a reflection of the bacterial antigen load, was not only increased in cachectic mice and cancer patients, but also strongly correlated with the serum IL-6 level and predictive of death and cachexia occurrence in these patients. Altogether, our data highlight profound alterations of the intestinal homeostasis in cancer cachexia occurring independently of any chemotherapy and food intake reduction, with potential relevance in humans. In addition, we point out the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein as a new biomarker of cancer cachexia related to gut dysbiosis.

  18. Increased gut permeability in cancer cachexia: mechanisms and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bindels, Laure B.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Loumaye, Audrey; Catry, Emilie; Walgrave, Hannah; Cherbuy, Claire; Leclercq, Sophie; Van Hul, Matthias; Plovier, Hubert; Pachikian, Barbara; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Langella, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D.; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any chemotherapy. These alterations occurred independently of anorexia and were driven by interleukin 6. Gut dysfunction was found to be resistant to treatments with an anti-inflammatory bacterium (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) or with gut peptides involved in intestinal cell renewal (teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue). The translational value of our findings was evaluated in 152 colorectal and lung cancer patients with or without cachexia. The serum level of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, often presented as a reflection of the bacterial antigen load, was not only increased in cachectic mice and cancer patients, but also strongly correlated with the serum IL-6 level and predictive of death and cachexia occurrence in these patients. Altogether, our data highlight profound alterations of the intestinal homeostasis in cancer cachexia occurring independently of any chemotherapy and food intake reduction, with potential relevance in humans. In addition, we point out the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein as a new biomarker of cancer cachexia related to gut dysbiosis. PMID:29719601

  19. [Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    PubMed

    Popović, Dugan D j; Spuran, Milan; Alempijević, Tamara; Krstić, Miodrag; Djuranović, Srdjan; Kovacević, Nada; Damnjanović, Svetozar; Micev, Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and supportive therapy. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  20. Permeability of compacting porous lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hess, K.-U.; von Aulock, F. W.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Vasseur, J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-03-01

    The highly transient nature of outgassing commonly observed at volcanoes is in part controlled by the permeability of lava domes and shallow conduits. Lava domes generally consist of a porous outer carapace surrounding a denser lava core with internal shear zones of variable porosity. Here we examine densification using uniaxial compression experiments on variably crystalline and porous rhyolitic dome lavas from the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Experiments were conducted at 900°C and an applied stress of 3 MPa to 60% strain, while monitoring acoustic emissions to track cracking. The evolution of the porous network was assessed via X-ray computed tomography, He-pycnometry, and relative gas permeability. High starting connected porosities led to low apparent viscosities and high strain rates, initially accompanied by abundant acoustic emissions. As compaction ensued, the lavas evolved; apparent viscosity increased and strain rate decreased due to strain hardening of the suspensions. Permeability fluctuations resulted from the interplay between viscous flow and brittle failure. Where phenocrysts were abundant, cracks had limited spatial extent, and pore closure decreased axial and radial permeability proportionally, maintaining the initial anisotropy. In crystal-poor lavas, axial cracks had a more profound effect, and permeability anisotropy switched to favor axial flow. Irrespective of porosity, both crystalline samples compacted to a threshold minimum porosity of 17-19%, whereas the crystal-poor sample did not achieve its compaction limit. This indicates that unconfined loading of porous dome lavas does not necessarily form an impermeable plug and may be hindered, in part by the presence of crystals.

  1. Effect of cortisone treatment on the active transport of calcium by the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kimberg, D V; Baerg, R D; Gershon, E; Graudusius, R T

    1971-06-01

    It is generally recognized that glucocorticoid administration may diminish calcium absorption in vivo as well as the active transport of calcium by the intestine in vitro. Recent studies by others have emphasized the possibility of an alteration in the metabolism of vitamin D to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in accounting for the steroid effects on calcium absorption. The results obtained in the present studies fail to support this hypothesis. The present studies confirm that the administration of cortisone or other glucocorticoids to the rat interferes with the active transport of calcium by duodenal gut sacs in vitro. This abnormality is not due to an alteration in the permeability of the intestine to calcium, and it cannot be corrected by the administration of either massive doses of vitamin D(2) or modest doses of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Experiments concerned with the effects of cortisone on the level of the vitamin D-dependent duodenal calcium-binding protein, the amount of bioassayable vitamin D activity in the mucosa, and the distribution and metabolism of (3)H-vitamin D(3), did not provide evidence in favor of a harmone-related defect in either the localization of vitamin D or its metabolism to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Alterations in the transport of iron and D-galactose, not dependent on vitamin D, suggest that cortisone treatment may be responsible for more than a simple antagonism to the effects of vitamin D. The results of the present studies indicate that cortisone administration affects the cellular mechanisms mediating calcium transport in a manner that is opposite to the effects of vitamin D, but seems to be independent of any direct interaction with the parent vitamin or its metabolites. If a disorder in vitamin D metabolism is at all involved, it is at a step subsequent to 25-hydroxylation.

  2. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  3. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  4. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Helminths as an alternative therapy for intestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Baptista, Daniel Machado

    2017-09-07

    Animal models and clinical studies have shown that helminth infections exert immunomodulatory activity, altering intestinal permeability and providing a potential beneficial action on autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in human beings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. This is consistent with the theory that intestinal microbiota is responsible for shaping human immunological responses. With the arrival of the immunobiologic era and the use of antibodies, we propose a distinctive pathway for treating patients with IBD and celiac disease. We have some evidence about the safety and tolerability of helminth use, but evidence about their impact on disease activity is lacking. Using worms to treat diseases could be a possible way to lower treatment costs, since the era of immunobiologic agents is responsible for a significant rise in expenses. Some questions remain to be investigated regarding the use of helminths in intestinal disease, such as the importance of the specific species of helminths used, appropriate dosing regimens, optimal timing of treatment, the role of host genetics, diet, environment, and the elucidation of the exact mechanisms of action. One promising approach is the use of helminth-derived anti-inflammatory molecules as drugs. Yet there are still many challenges with this method, especially with regard to safety. Studies on intestinal permeability point to Strongyloides stercoralis as a useful nematode for these purposes.

  6. Vapor-liquid phase separator permeability results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1981-01-01

    Continued studies are described in the area of vapor-liquid phase separator work with emphasis on permeabilities of porous sintered plugs (stainless steel, nominal pore size 2 micrometer). The temperature dependence of the permeability has been evaluated in classical fluid using He-4 gas at atmospheric pressure and in He-2 on the basis of a modified, thermosmotic permeability of the normal fluid.

  7. Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability.

    PubMed

    Cani, P D; Possemiers, S; Van de Wiele, T; Guiot, Y; Everard, A; Rottier, O; Geurts, L; Naslain, D; Neyrinck, A; Lambert, D M; Muccioli, G G; Delzenne, N M

    2009-08-01

    Obese and diabetic mice display enhanced intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia that participate in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. Our recent data support the idea that a selective increase of Bifidobacterium spp. reduces the impact of high-fat diet-induced metabolic endotoxaemia and inflammatory disorders. Here, we hypothesised that prebiotic modulation of gut microbiota lowers intestinal permeability, by a mechanism involving glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) thereby improving inflammation and metabolic disorders during obesity and diabetes. Study 1: ob/ob mice (Ob-CT) were treated with either prebiotic (Ob-Pre) or non-prebiotic carbohydrates as control (Ob-Cell). Study 2: Ob-CT and Ob-Pre mice were treated with GLP-2 antagonist or saline. Study 3: Ob-CT mice were treated with a GLP-2 agonist or saline. We assessed changes in the gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, gut peptides, intestinal epithelial tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin (qPCR and immunohistochemistry), hepatic and systemic inflammation. Prebiotic-treated mice exhibited a lower plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines, and a decreased hepatic expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. This decreased inflammatory tone was associated with a lower intestinal permeability and improved tight-junction integrity compared to controls. Prebiotic increased the endogenous intestinotrophic proglucagon-derived peptide (GLP-2) production whereas the GLP-2 antagonist abolished most of the prebiotic effects. Finally, pharmacological GLP-2 treatment decreased gut permeability, systemic and hepatic inflammatory phenotype associated with obesity to a similar extent as that observed following prebiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota. We found that a selective gut microbiota change controls and increases endogenous GLP-2 production, and consequently improves gut barrier functions by a GLP-2-dependent mechanism, contributing to the improvement of gut barrier functions

  8. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  9. Application of laboratory permeability data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    Some of the basic material contained in this report originally was prepared in 1952 as instructional handouts for ground-water short courses and for training of foreign participants. The material has been revised and expanded and is presented in the present form to make it more readily available to the field hydrologist. Illustrations now present published examples of the applications suggested in the 1952 material. For small areas, a field pumping test is sufficient to predict the characteristics of an aquifer. With a large area under study, the aquifer properties must be determined at many different locations and it is not usually economically feasible to make sufficient field tests to define the aquifer properties in detail for the whole aquifer. By supplementing a few field tests with laboratory permeability data and geologic interpretation, more point measurements representative of the hydrologic properties of the aquifer may be obtained. A sufficient number of samples seldom can be obtained to completely identify the permeability or transmissibility in detail for a project area. However, a few judiciously chosen samples of high quality, combined with good geologic interpretation, often will permit the extrapolation of permeability information over a large area with a fair degree of reliability. The importance of adequate geologic information, as well as the importance of collecting samples representative of at least all major textural units lying within the section or area of study, cannot be overemphasized.

  10. Oral Delivery of Lipophilic Drugs: The Tradeoff between Solubility Increase and Permeability Decrease When Using Cyclodextrin-Based Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Beig, Avital; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oral cyclodextrin-based formulation on both the apparent solubility and intestinal permeability of lipophilic drugs. The apparent solubility of the lipophilic drug dexamethasone was measured in the presence of various HPβCD levels. The drug’s permeability was measured in the absence vs. presence of HPβCD in the rat intestinal perfusion model, and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The role of the unstirred water layer (UWL) in dexamethasone’s absorption was studied, and a simplified mass-transport analysis was developed to describe the solubility-permeability interplay. The PAMPA permeability of dexamethasone was measured in the presence of various HPβCD levels, and the correlation with the theoretical predictions was evaluated. While the solubility of dexamethasone was greatly enhanced by the presence of HPβCD (K1∶1 = 2311 M−1), all experimental models showed that the drug’s permeability was significantly reduced following the cyclodextrin complexation. The UWL was found to have no impact on the absorption of dexamethasone. A mass transport analysis was employed to describe the solubility-permeability interplay. The model enabled excellent quantitative prediction of dexamethasone’s permeability as a function of the HPβCD level. This work demonstrates that when using cyclodextrins in solubility-enabling formulations, a tradeoff exists between solubility increase and permeability decrease that must not be overlooked. This tradeoff was found to be independent of the unstirred water layer. The transport model presented here can aid in striking the appropriate solubility-permeability balance in order to achieve optimal overall absorption. PMID:23874557

  11. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition as adults. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction may be acute, occurring suddenly and lasting a short time, or it may be chronic, or long lasting. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, also called Ogilvie syndrome or ...

  12. Congenital solitary intestinal fibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Numanoglu, A; Davies, J; Millar, A J W; Rode, H

    2002-10-01

    Neonatal intestinal obstruction due to a tumour is rare. We report a six-day-old male neonate who presented with abdominal distension and vomiting. Laparotomy revealed colonic obstruction caused by a stenosing fibrotic lesion in the proximal transverse colon. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed fibromatosis. We believe this represents the third reported case of solitary colonic fibromatosis. The literature on neonatal intestinal fibromatosis is reviewed.

  13. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. End effects on stress dependent permeability measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsnes, R. I.; Risnes, R.; Faldaas, I.; Norland, T.

    2006-10-01

    Permeability changes have been studied under deviatoric stresses for chalk cores and under both hydrostatic- and deviatoric stresses for sandstone cores at room temperature. To avoid end effects in the triaxial cell, caused by friction between the axial steel pistons and the sample, the cell was modified to have pressure outlets from the mid-section of the sample with pressure tubes connected to the outside of the cell for pressure recording. Both permeabilities over the mid-section and over the total core were determined during the action of stresses. The chalk cores with permeability in the range of 1-3 × 10 - 15 m 2 and porosity of about 40-45% were flooded with methanol, while the sandstone cores with permeability values varying from 8 to 100 × 10 - 15 m 2 and porosity of about 30% were flooded with a mineral oil. Major observations were: For the chalk cores, 4 out of 8 samples showed a mid-section permeability with a factor of 1.2 to 1.4 higher than the overall permeability, the remaining 4 samples did not show differences in permeability values taking into account the error on measurements. For the sandstone samples, the mid-section permeability was a factor of 1.2 to 2.4 higher than the overall permeability. In all cases during the deviatoric phase, the change in permeability was rather small, even if the tests were run beyond the yield point. The permeability generally decreased with increasing hydrostatic stresses.

  15. Intestinal M cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnane X receptor agonists enhance intestinal epithelial wound healing and repair of the intestinal barrier following the induction of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Terc, Joshua; Hansen, Ashleigh; Alston, Laurie; Hirota, Simon A

    2014-05-13

    The intestinal epithelial barrier plays a key role in the maintenance of homeostasis within the gastrointestinal tract. Barrier dysfunction leading to increased epithelial permeability is associated with a number of gastrointestinal disorders including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is thought that the increased permeability in patients with IBD may be driven by alterations in the epithelial wound healing response. To this end considerable study has been undertaken to identify signaling pathways that may accelerate intestinal epithelial wound healing and normalize the barrier dysfunction observed in IBD. In the current study we examined the role of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in modulating the intestinal epithelial wound healing response. Mutations and reduced mucosal expression of the PXR are associated with IBD, and others have reported that PXR agonists can dampen intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, stimulation of the PXR has been associated with increased cell migration and proliferation, two of the key processes involved in wound healing. We hypothesized that PXR agonists would enhance intestinal epithelial repair. Stimulation of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells with rifaximin, rifampicin and SR12813, all potent agonists of the PXR, significantly increased wound closure. This effect was driven by p38 MAP kinase-dependent cell migration, and occurred in the absence of cell proliferation. Treating mice with a rodent specific PXR agonist, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN), attenuated the intestinal barrier dysfunction observed in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental colitis, an effect that occurred independent of the known anti-inflammatory effects of PCN. Taken together our data indicate that the activation of the PXR can enhance intestinal epithelial repair and suggest that targeting the PXR may help to normalize intestinal barrier dysfunction observed in patients with IBD

  17. Antibiotics Suppress Activation of Intestinal Mucosal Mast Cells and Reduce Dietary Lipid Absorption in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirokazu; Zhang, Linda S; Martinez, Kristina; Chang, Eugene B; Yang, Qing; Wang, Fei; Howles, Philip N; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Tso, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects intestinal permeability and mucosal mast cells (MMCs) responses. Activation of MMCs has been associated with absorption of dietary fat. We investigated whether the gut microbiota contributes to the fat-induced activation of MMCs in rats, and how antibiotics might affect this process. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given streptomycin and penicillin for 4 days (n = 6-8) to reduce the abundance of their gut flora, or normal drinking water (controls, n = 6-8). They underwent lymph fistula surgery and after an overnight recovery were given an intraduodenal bolus of intralipid. We collected intestinal tissues and lymph fluid and assessed activation of MMCs, intestinal permeability, and fat transport parameters. Compared with controls, intestinal lymph from rats given antibiotics had reduced levels of mucosal mast cell protease II (produced by MMCs) and decreased activity of diamine oxidase (produced by enterocytes) (P < .05). Rats given antibiotics had reduced intestinal permeability in response to dietary lipid compared with controls (P < .01). Unexpectedly, antibiotics also reduced lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipid (P < .01), concomitant with decreased levels of mucosal apolipoproteins B, A-I, and A-IV (P < .01). No differences were found in intestinal motility or luminal pancreatic lipase activity between rats given antibiotics and controls. These effects were not seen with an acute dose of antibiotics or 4 weeks after the antibiotic regimen ended. The intestinal microbiota appears to activate MMCs after the ingestion of fat in rats; this contributes to fat-induced intestinal permeability. We found that the gut microbiome promotes absorption of lipid, probably by intestinal production of apolipoproteins and secretion of chylomicrons. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Permeability evolution of shale during spontaneous imbibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Liu, S.

    Shales have small pore and throat sizes ranging from nano to micron scales, low porosity and limited permeability. The poor permeability and complex pore connectivity of shales pose technical challenges to (a) understanding flow and transport mechanisms in such systems and, (b) in predicting permeability changes under dynamic saturation conditions. This paper presents quantitative experimental evidence of the migration of water through a generic shale core plug using micro CT imaging. In addition, in-situ measurements of gas permeability were performed during counter-current spontaneous imbibition of water in nano-darcy permeability Marcellus and Haynesville core plugs. It was seen that water blocksmore » severely reduced the effective permeability of the core plugs, leading to losses of up to 99.5% of the initial permeability in experiments lasting 30 days. There was also evidence of clay swelling which further hindered gas flow. When results from this study were compared with similar counter-current gas permeability experiments reported in the literature, the initial (base) permeability of the rock was found to be a key factor in determining the time evolution of effective gas permeability during spontaneous imbibition. With time, a recovery of effective permeability was seen in the higher permeability rocks, while becoming progressively detrimental and irreversible in tighter rocks. Finally, these results suggest that matrix permeability of ultra-tight rocks is susceptible to water damage following hydraulic fracturing stimulation and, while shut-in/soaking time helps clearing-up fractures from resident fluid, its effect on the adjacent matrix permeability could be detrimental.« less

  19. Permeability evolution of shale during spontaneous imbibition

    DOE PAGES

    Chakraborty, N.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Liu, S.; ...

    2017-01-05

    Shales have small pore and throat sizes ranging from nano to micron scales, low porosity and limited permeability. The poor permeability and complex pore connectivity of shales pose technical challenges to (a) understanding flow and transport mechanisms in such systems and, (b) in predicting permeability changes under dynamic saturation conditions. This paper presents quantitative experimental evidence of the migration of water through a generic shale core plug using micro CT imaging. In addition, in-situ measurements of gas permeability were performed during counter-current spontaneous imbibition of water in nano-darcy permeability Marcellus and Haynesville core plugs. It was seen that water blocksmore » severely reduced the effective permeability of the core plugs, leading to losses of up to 99.5% of the initial permeability in experiments lasting 30 days. There was also evidence of clay swelling which further hindered gas flow. When results from this study were compared with similar counter-current gas permeability experiments reported in the literature, the initial (base) permeability of the rock was found to be a key factor in determining the time evolution of effective gas permeability during spontaneous imbibition. With time, a recovery of effective permeability was seen in the higher permeability rocks, while becoming progressively detrimental and irreversible in tighter rocks. Finally, these results suggest that matrix permeability of ultra-tight rocks is susceptible to water damage following hydraulic fracturing stimulation and, while shut-in/soaking time helps clearing-up fractures from resident fluid, its effect on the adjacent matrix permeability could be detrimental.« less

  20. Intestinal absorption of forsythoside A in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vitro Caco-2 cell models

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Di, Liu-qing; Wang, Juan; Shan, Jin-jun; Liu, Shi-jia; Ju, Wen-zheng; Cai, Bao-chang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of the major bioactive component forsythoside A (FTA) extracted from Forsythiae fructus. Methods: An in vitro Caco-2 cell model and a single-pass intestinal perfusion in situ model in SD rats were used. Results: In the in vitro Caco-2 cell model, the mean apparent permeability value (Papp-value) was 4.15×10-7 cm/s in the apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) direction. At the concentrations of 2.6–10.4 μg/mL, the efflux ratio of FTA in the bi-directional transport experiments was approximately 1.00. After the transport, >96% of the apically loaded FTA was retained on the apical side, while >97% of the basolaterally loaded FTA was retained on the basolateral side. The Papp-values of FTA were inversely correlated with the transepithelial electrical resistance. The paracellular permeability enhancers sodium caprate and EDTA, the P-gp inhibitor verapamil and the multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) inhibitors cyclosporine and MK571 could concentration-dependently increase the Papp-values, while the uptake (OATP) transporter inhibitors diclofenac sodium and indomethacin could concentration-dependently decrease the Papp-values. The intake transporter SGLT1 inhibitor mannitol did not cause significant change in the Papp-values. In the in situ intestinal perfusion model, both the absorption rate constant (Ka) and the effective permeability (Peff-values) following perfusion of FTA 2.6, 5.2 and 10.4 μg/mL via the duodenum, jejunum and ileum had no significant difference, although the values were slightly higher for the duodenum as compared to those in the jejunum and ileum. The low, medium and high concentrations of verapamil caused the largest increase in the Peff-values for duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively. Sodium caprate, EDTA and cyclosporine resulted in concentration-dependent increase in the Peff-values. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin caused concentration-dependent decrease in the

  1. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and thymic hypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, R U; Halpin, T C; Abramowsky, C R; Hornick, D L; Miller, K M; Naylor, P; Incefy, G S

    1985-01-01

    We have evaluated the immunological abnormalities present in a 6 year old patient with primary intestinal and generalized lymphangiectasia confirmed by intestinal, lung and lymph node biopsies. Lymphocyte loss through the gut was confirmed by the detection of lymphocytes in her stool. An increased enteric protein loss was suggested by hypoproteinaemia, peripheral oedema, and a very short half-life for i.v. immune serum globulin (3 days). Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed a selective loss of T lymphocytes, with a proportionally increased loss of the OKT4 positive helper/inducer subpopulation. Functionally, there was a decrease in proliferative responses to some mitogens and to allogeneic cells, and a lack of T cell help for in vitro B lymphocyte differentiation into immunoglobulin secreting cells. Natural killer function was normal. In this patient, a concomitant thymic deficiency was documented by failure to identify thymic tissue on a thymus biopsy and by an absence or decrease of the serum thymic factor (thymulin) and thymosin alpha 1. No compensatory lymphopoiesis was detected in the bone marrow. In an attempt to increase T lymphocyte development, the patient was treated with thymosin fraction 5. Daily treatment with this preparation resulted in a transient clinical improvement which could not be sustained on a weekly thymosin treatment schedule. However, lymphocyte numbers did not increase during this treatment. The findings in this patient support the notion that T lymphocytes are needed to stimulate thymic epithelium. In situations of excessive loss of long lived T lymphocytes a secondary thymic atrophy may occur and further contribute to the development of a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3971596

  2. Dopamine enhances duodenal epithelial permeability via the dopamine D5 receptor in rodent.

    PubMed

    Feng, X-Y; Zhang, D-N; Wang, Y-A; Fan, R-F; Hong, F; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, J-X

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal barrier is made up of epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes to regulate epithelial ion transport and permeability. Dopamine (DA) is able to promote duodenal epithelial ion transport through D1-like receptors, which includes subtypes of D 1 (D 1 R) and D 5 (D 5 R), but whether D1-like receptors influence the duodenal permeability is unclear. FITC-dextran permeability, short-circuit current (I SC ), Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used in human D 5 R transgenic mice and hyperendogenous enteric DA (HEnD) rats in this study. Dopamine induced a downward deflection in I SC and an increase in FITC-dextran permeability of control rat duodenum, which were inhibited by the D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390. However, DA decreased duodenal transepithelial resistance (TER), an effect also reversed by SCH-23390. A strong immunofluorescence signal for D 5 R, but not D 1 R, was observed in the duodenum of control rat. In human D 5 R knock-in transgenic mice, duodenal mucosa displayed an increased basal I SC with high FITC-dextran permeability and decreased TER with a lowered expression of tight junction proteins, suggesting attenuated duodenal barrier function in these transgenic mice. D 5 R knock-down transgenic mice manifested a decreased basal I SC with lowered FITC-dextran permeability. Moreover, an increased FITC-dextran permeability combined with decreased TER and tight junction protein expression in duodenal mucosa were also observed in HEnD rats. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that DA enhances duodenal permeability of control rat via D 5 R, which provides new experimental and theoretical evidence for the influence of DA on duodenal epithelial barrier function. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ⁵¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions.

  4. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tonic regulation of vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Fitz-Roy E.; Adamson, Roger H.

    2014-01-01

    Our major theme is that the layered structure of the endothelial barrier requires continuous activation of signaling pathways regulated by S1P and intracellular cAMP. These pathways modulate the adherens junction, continuity of tight junction strands, and the balance of synthesis and degradation of glycocalyx components. We evaluate recent evidence that baseline permeability is maintained by constant activity of mechanisms involving the small GTPases Rap1 and Rac1. In the basal state, the barrier is compromised when activities of the small GTPases are reduced by low S1P supply or delivery. With inflammatory stimulus, increased permeability can be understood in part as the action of signaling to reduce Rap1 and Rac1 activation. With the hypothesis that microvessel permeability and selectivity under both normal and inflammatory conditions are regulated by mechanisms that are continuously active it follows that when S1P or intracellular cAMP are elevated at the time of inflammatory stimulus, they can buffer changes induced by inflammatory agents and maintain normal barrier stability. When endothelium is exposed to inflammatory conditions and subsequently exposed to elevated S1P or intracellular cAMP, the same processes restore the functional barrier by first reestablishing the adherens junction, then modulating tight junctions and glycocalyx. In more extreme inflammatory conditions, loss of the inhibitory actions of Rac1 dependent mechanisms may promote expression of more inflammatory endothelial phenotypes by contributing to the up-regulation of RhoA dependent contractile mechanisms and the sustained loss of surface glycocalyx allowing access of inflammatory cells to the endothelium. PMID:23374222

  6. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Tight Junction Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Hu, Dong; Huo, Haizhong; Zhang, Weifeng; Adiliaghdam, Fatemeh; Morrison, Sarah; Ramirez, Juan M; Gul, Sarah S; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. STUDY DESIGN The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice. Regulation of TJPs by IAP was assayed in the human colon cancer Caco-2 and T84 cells by overexpressing the human IAP gene. Tight junction protein levels and localization were measured by using RT q-PCR and antibodies targeting the specific TJPs. Finally, the effect of IAP on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability was measured by in vitro trans-well epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). RESULTS Intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene deletion in MEFs resulted in significantly lower levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin compared with levels in wild-type control cells; IAP over-expression in Caco-2 and T84 cells resulted in approximate 2-fold increases in the mRNA levels of ZO-1 and ZO-2. The IAP treatment ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced increased permeability in the Caco-2 trans-well system. Furthermore, IAP treatment preserved the localization of the ZO-1 and Occludin proteins during inflammation and was also associated with improved epithelial barrier function. CONCLUSIONS Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a major regulator of gut mucosal permeability and appears to work at least partly through improving TJP levels and localization. These data provide a strong foundation to develop IAP as a novel therapy to maintain gut barrier function. PMID:27106638

  7. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Tight Junction Protein Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hu, Dong; Huo, Haizhong; Zhang, Weifeng; Adiliaghdam, Fatemeh; Morrison, Sarah; Ramirez, Juan M; Gul, Sarah S; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice. Regulation of TJPs by IAP was assayed in the human colon cancer Caco-2 and T84 cells by overexpressing the human IAP gene. Tight junction protein levels and localization were measured by using RT q-PCR and antibodies targeting the specific TJPs. Finally, the effect of IAP on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability was measured by in vitro trans-well epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene deletion in MEFs resulted in significantly lower levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin compared with levels in wild-type control cells; IAP overexpression in Caco-2 and T84 cells resulted in approximate 2-fold increases in the mRNA levels of ZO-1 and ZO-2. The IAP treatment ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced increased permeability in the Caco-2 trans-well system. Furthermore, IAP treatment preserved the localization of the ZO-1 and Occludin proteins during inflammation and was also associated with improved epithelial barrier function. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a major regulator of gut mucosal permeability and appears to work at least partly through improving TJP levels and localization. These data provide a strong foundation to develop IAP as a novel therapy to maintain gut barrier function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  9. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  10. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  11. Hemodynamic and permeability characteristics of acute experimental necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.; Adams, J.; Gu, X.A.

    1990-10-01

    We examined the local hemodynamic response of intestinal loops during acute necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in anesthetized rabbits. NEC was induced in ileal loops by transmural injection of a solution containing casein (10 mg/ml) and calcium gluconate (50 mg/ml) acidified to pH 4.0 with propionic or acetic acid. Control loops received casein only (pH 5.0). Mucosal damage was quantified by the blood-to-lumen movement of (51Cr)EDTA, fluid shifts into the lumen, and histology. Mean arterial pressure and loop blood flow were steady over the 3-hr period, loop fluid volume decreased, and there was no evidence of necrosis or epithelial damage. In loopsmore » receiving acidified casein and calcium gluconate, there was an immediate dramatic increase in loop blood flow that returned to baseline by 50 min. In addition, loop fluid volume was dramatically increased, necrosis was noted in the form of blunting and loss of villi, and sevenfold increase in (51Cr)EDTA permeability was evident. Administration of CV 1808 (30 mg/kg/hr), a selective adenosine2 agonist, which maintained and elevated loop blood flow throughout the 3 hr protocol, failed to alter the changes in loop fluid volume or prevent necrosis. Histamine levels in loop fluid levels were significantly elevated 20-30 min after NEC induction when compared to saline controls, indicating an early activation of mucosal defenses with this luminal insult. Thus, this model of NEC is characterized by a transient, acute hyperemia, increased intestinal permeability, and histamine release. As mucosal damage was independent of ischemia and could not be prevented by vasodilatory therapy, this model supports the clinical findings that NEC is correlated with luminal factors related to feeding and independent of cardiovascular stress.« less

  12. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. Case presentation A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. PMID:23316917

  13. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Li-Na; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2013-01-14

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Mass Spectrometry Imaging proves differential absorption profiles of well-characterised permeability markers along the crypt-villus axis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anna; Peric, Alexandra; Strimfors, Marie; Goodwin, Richard J A; Hayes, Martin A; Andrén, Per E; Hilgendorf, Constanze

    2017-07-25

    Knowledge about the region-specific absorption profiles from the gastrointestinal tract of orally administered drugs is a critical factor guiding dosage form selection in drug development. We have used a novel approach to study three well-characterized permeability and absorption marker drugs in the intestine. Propranolol and metoprolol (highly permeable compounds) and atenolol (low-moderate permeability compound) were orally co-administered to rats. The site of drug absorption was revealed by high spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and complemented by quantitative measurement of drug concentration in tissue homogenates. MALDI-MSI identified endogenous molecular markers that illustrated the villi structures and confirmed the different absorption sites assigned to histological landmarks for the three drugs. Propranolol and metoprolol showed a rapid absorption and shorter transit distance in contrast to atenolol, which was absorbed more slowly from more distal sites. This study provides novel insights into site specific absorption for each of the compounds along the crypt-villus axis, as well as confirming a proximal-distal absorption gradient along the intestine. The combined analytical approach allowed the quantification and spatial resolution of drug distribution in the intestine and provided experimental evidence for the suggested absorption behaviour of low and highly permeable compounds.

  16. Visceral adipose tissue and leptin increase colonic epithelial tight junction permeability via a RhoA-ROCK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Le Dréan, Gwenola; Haure-Mirande, Vianney; Ferrier, Laurent; Bonnet, Christian; Hulin, Philippe; de Coppet, Pierre; Segain, Jean-Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells play a central role in the increased intestinal epithelial permeability during inflammation. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is currently considered a consequence of intestinal inflammation. Whether VAT per se plays a role in early modifications of intestinal barrier remains unknown. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the direct role of adipocytes in regulating paracellular permeability of colonic epithelial cells (CECs). We show in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation, a model of VAT hypertrophy, and in rats with VAT graft on the colon, that colonic permeability was increased without any inflammation. This effect was associated with altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1. In coculture experiments, adipocytes decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 CECs and induced a disorganization of ZO-1 on TJs. Intraperitoneal administration of leptin to lean rats increased colonic epithelial permeability and altered ZO-1 expression and organization. Treatment of HT29-19A CECs with leptin, but not adiponectin, dose-dependently decreased TER and altered TJ and F-actin cytoskeleton organization through a RhoA-ROCK-dependent pathway. Our data show that adipocytes and leptin directly alter TJ function in CECs and suggest that VAT could impair colonic epithelial barrier.

  17. [Bacterial Translocation from Intestine: Microbiological, Immunological and Pathophysiological Aspects].

    PubMed

    Podoprigora, G I; Kafarskaya, L I; Bainov, N A; Shkoporov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is both pathology and physiology phenomenon. In healthy newborns it accompanies the process of establishing the autochthonous intestinal microbiota and the host microbiome. In immunodeficiency it can be an aethio-pathogenetic link and a manifestation of infection or septic complications. The host colonization resistance to exogenous microbic colonizers is provided by gastrointestinal microbiota in concert with complex constitutional and adaptive defense mechanisms. BT may be result of barrier dysfunction and self-purification mechanisms involving the host myeloid cell phagocytic system and opsonins. Dynamic cell humoral response to microbial molecular patterns that occurs on the mucous membranes initiates receptorsignalingpathways and cascade ofreactions. Their vector and results are largely determined by cross-reactivity between microbiome and the host genome. Enterocyte barriers interacting with microbiota play leading role in providing adaptive, homeostatic and stress host reactivity. Microcirculatory ischemic tissue alterations and inflammatory reactions increase the intestinal barrier permeability and BT These processes a well as mechanisms for apoptotic cells and bacteria clearance are justified to be of prospective research interest. The inflammatory and related diseases caused by alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal barrier are reasonably considered as diseases of single origin. Maternal microbiota affects theformation of the innate immune system and the microbiota of the newborn, including intestinal commensal translocation during lactation. Deeper understanding of intestinal barrier mechanisms needs complex microbiological, immunological, pathophysiological, etc. investigations using adequate biomodels, including gnotobiotic animals.

  18. Intraepithelial gammadelta+ lymphocytes maintain the integrity of intestinal epithelial tight junctions in response to infection.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Jane E; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Egan, Charlotte E; Mears, Rainy; Newton, Darren J; Andrew, Elizabeth M; Lawrence, Beth; Howell, Gareth; Else, Kathryn J; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Smith, Judith E; White, Stanley J; Carding, Simon R

    2006-09-01

    Intestinal epithelial integrity and permeability is dependent on intercellular tight junction (TJ) complexes. How TJ integrity is regulated remains unclear, although phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the integral membrane protein occludin is an important determinant of TJ formation and epithelial permeability. We have investigated the role intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs) play in regulating epithelial permeability in response to infection. Recombinant strains of Toxoplasma gondii were used to assess intestinal epithelial barrier function and TJ integrity in mice with intact or depleted populations of iIELs. Alterations in epithelial permeability were correlated with TJ structure and the state of phosphorylation of occludin. iIEL in vivo reconstitution experiments were used to identify the iIELs required to maintain epithelial permeability and TJ integrity. In the absence of gammadelta+ iIELs, intestinal epithelial barrier function and the ability to restrict epithelial transmigration of Toxoplasma and the unrelated intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was severely compromised. Leaky epithelium in gammadelta+ iIEL-deficient mice was associated with the absence of phosphorylation of serine residues of occludin and lack of claudin 3 and zona occludens-1 proteins in TJ complexes. These deficiencies were attributable to the absence of a single subset of gammadelta T-cell receptor (TCR-Vgamma7+) iIELs that, after reconstituting gammadelta iIEL-deficient mice, restored epithelial barrier function and TJ complexes, resulting in increased resistance to infection. These findings identify a novel role for gammadelta+ iIELs in maintaining TJ integrity and epithelial barrier function that have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammatory diseases associated with disruption of TJ complexes.

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  20. Metabolic pathways and pharmacokinetics of natural medicines with low permeability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei; Yang, Lan; He, Dan; Li, Yao; Shi, Mingxin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2017-11-01

    Drug metabolism plays an important role in the drug disposal process. Differences in pharmacokinetics among individuals are the basis for personalized medicine. Natural medicines, formed by long-term evolution of nature, prioritize the action of a target protein with a drug. Natural medicines are valued for structural diversity, low toxicity, low cost, and definite biological activities. Metabolic pathway and pharmacokinetic research of natural medicines is highly beneficial for clinical dose adjustment and the development of personalized medicine. This review was performed using a systematic search of all available literature. It provides an overview and discussion of metabolic pathways and the pharmacokinetics of natural medicines with low permeability. The related enzymes and factors affecting them are analyzed. The series of metabolic reactions, including phase I reactions(oxidation hydrolysis, and reduction reactions) and phase II reactions (binding reactions), catalyzed by intracellular metabolic enzymes (such as CYP450, esterase, SULT, and UGT enzymes) in tissues (such as liver and gastro-intestinal tract) or in the body fluid environment were examined. The administration route, drug dose, and delivery system had a large influence on absorption, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics. Natural medicines with low permeability had distinctive metabolisms and pharmacokinetics. The metabolic and in vivo kinetic properties were favorably modified by choosing suitable drug delivery systems, administration routes and drug doses, among other variables. This study provides valuable information for clinicians and pharmacists to guide patients safe, effective, and rational drug use. The research of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is significant in guiding personalized clinical medicine.

  1. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  2. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Experimental Study on Permeability of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Honglu; Liu, Rentai; Zheng, Zhuo; Liu, Haojie; Gao, Yan; Liu, Yankai

    2018-01-01

    To study the influencing factors on permeability of pervious concrete, by adding inorganic organic composite materials obtained experimental results show that different aggregate size, aggregate cement ratio of different, different water cement ratio on the permeability performance. The permeability of the concrete was tested by using the self - made permeable device. The experimental results showed that the permeation coefficient of the experiment was obtained and the factors influencing the permeability of the concrete were compared and analyzed. At the same time, the porosity of pervious concrete was measured, the influence of various variables on porosity was studied, and the influence of various factors on the permeability of voids was found. Finally, through comprehensive analysis of a variety of factors, the optimal water cement ratio is 0.28. At this time, the pervious performance of concrete is optimal.

  4. Clogging in permeable concrete: A review.

    PubMed

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2017-05-15

    Permeable concrete (or "pervious concrete" in North America) is used to reduce local flooding in urban areas and is an important sustainable urban drainage system. However, permeable concrete exhibits reduction in permeability due to clogging by particulates, which severely limits service life. This paper reviews the clogging mechanism and current mitigating strategies in order to inform future research needs. The pore structure of permeable concrete and characteristics of flowing particulates influence clogging, which occurs when particles build-up and block connected porosity. Permeable concrete requires regular maintenance by vacuum sweeping and pressure washing, but the effectiveness and viability of these methods is questionable. The potential for clogging is related to the tortuosity of the connected porosity, with greater tortuosity resulting in increased potential for clogging. Research is required to develop permeable concrete that can be poured on-site, which produces a pore structure with significantly reduced tortuosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vortex rings impinging on permeable boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujal-Colilles, Anna; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Bateman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with vortex rings impinging permeable and solid boundaries are presented in order to investigate the influence of permeability. Utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry, we compared the behaviour of a vortex ring impinging four different reticulated foams (with permeability k ˜ 26 - 85 × 10-8 m2) and a solid boundary. Results show how permeability affects the stretching phenomena of the vortex ring and the formation and evolution of the secondary vortex ring with opposite sign. Moreover, permeability also affects the macroscopic no-slip boundary condition found on the solid boundary, turning it into an apparent slip boundary condition for the most permeable boundary. The apparent slip-boundary condition and the flux exchange between the ambient fluid and the foam are jointly responsible for both the modified formation of the secondary vortex and changes on the vortex ring diameter increase.

  6. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  7. Permeability hysterisis of limestone during isotropic compression.

    PubMed

    Selvadurai, A P S; Głowacki, A

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of permeability hysterisis in Indiana Limestone during application of isotropic confining pressures up to 60 MPa was measured by conducting one-dimensional constant flow rate tests. These tests were carried out either during monotonic application of the confining pressure or during loading-partial unloading cycles. Irreversible permeability changes occurred during both monotonic and repeated incremental compression of the limestone. Mathematical relationships are developed for describing the evolution of path-dependent permeability during isotropic compression.

  8. In Vitro Plasma Stability, Permeability and Solubility of Mercaptoacetamide Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Konsoula, Roula; Jung, Mira

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are emerging as a new class of therapeutic agents with potent antitumor activities in a broad spectrum of human cancers. In this study, the in vitro plasma stability, permeability, solubility, and lipophilicity (logD) of two mercaptoacetamide-based HDACIs (coded as W2 and S2) were evaluated and compared to Vorinostat (SAHA). The results demonstrated that the compounds manifested high solubility in HCl (pH 1.2) but lower in PBS (pH 7.4) than SAHA. Moreover, mercaptoacetamide-based HDACIs exhibited higher lipophilicity values compared to SAHA. The permeability of these compounds was evaluated using the Caco-2 cell monolayer as a model of the intestinal mucosa. The Caco-2 studies revealed that the compounds S2 and W2 are highly permeable with apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) in the apical to basolateral direction of 7.33 × 10−6 and 15.0 × 10−6 cm/s, respectively. The in vitro stability was determined in human, mouse, porcine and rat plasma. Data showed that the compound W2 is more stable in human and rat plasma and the S2 is more stable in all plasma species than SAHA. Taken together, these results indicate that the mercaptoacetamide-based HDACIs possess favorable solubility, lipophilicity, permeability and plasma stability features. PMID:18562136

  9. Intestinal barrier integrity and function in infants with cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Abu Faddan, Nagla H; Sherif, Tahra M K; Mohammed, Omnia A; Nasif, Khalid A; El Gezawy, Ebtesam M

    2017-01-01

    The safety of the human body is maintained by effective monitoring of the mucosal surface integrity and protection against potentially harmful compounds. This function of the gut called intestinal barrier function can be affected by cholestasis and the absence of bile in the intestinal lumen. We aimed to determine whether the gut barrier integrity is impaired in infants with cholestasis by evaluation of the intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABP) and ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP) as markers of intestinal epithelial cell damage and plasma D-lactate level as a marker of gut wall permeability. This case-control study included 53 infants with cholestasis and 29 controls. Serum levels of I-FABP, I-BABP, and D-lactate were measured in all subjects. Both groups of patients with neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia showed significantly higher levels of I-FABP and I-BABP than the controls. There were no differences in the serum D-lactate level between the cases and controls. There was no difference between the two groups of patients (I and II) regarding any of the parameters studied. No significant correlations between serum levels of I-FABP, I-BABP, or D-lactate and total or direct bilirubin levels were found in the cholestatic infants. The intestinal epithelial barrier integrity is breached nearly in all parts of the intestine in infants with cholestasis. Further research is recommended to determine the impact of this finding on the management of these infants. The relationship between physical intestinal barrier damage and its functional failure remains subject for further research.

  10. Polymer as Permeability Modifier in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, S.; Weitz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Polymer flow through porous media is of particular interest in applications such as enhanced oil recovery and ground water remediation. We measure the effects of polymer flow on the permeability and local velocity distribution of a single phase flow in 3D micromodel of porous media using confocal microscopy and bulk permeability measurement. Our measurements show considerable reduction in permeability and increased velocity fluctuations with fluid velocities being diverted in some pores after polymer flow. We also find that the average velocity in the medium at constant imposed flow rate scales with the inverse square root of permeability.

  11. Increasing the throughput and productivity of Caco-2 cell permeability assays using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to resveratrol absorption and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Shin, Young Geun; Yu, Chongwoo; Kosmeder, Jerome W; Hirschelman, Wendy H; Pezzuto, John M; van Breemen, Richard B

    2003-12-01

    The Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability assay has become a standard model of human intestinal absorption and transport. This paper reviews recent progress in increasing the throughput of Caco-2 cell monolayer assays and in expanding the scope of this assay to include modeling intestinal drug metabolism. The state-of-the-art in Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability assays combines multi-well plates fitted with semi-permeable inserts on which Caco-2 cells have been cultured with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) for the quantitative analysis of test compounds and the identification of their intestinal metabolites. After reviewing the progress in increasing the throughput of Caco-2 cell monolayer assays for both modeling human intestinal permeability or transport and the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, we demonstrate the application of LC-MS and LC-MS-MS to the measurement of resveratrol permeability and metabolism in the Caco-2 model. trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic compound occurring in grapes, peanuts and other food sources, that is under investigation as a cancer chemoprevention agent. The apparent permeability coefficient for apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) movement of resveratrol was 2.0 x 10(-5)cm/sec. Resveratrol was not a substrate for P-glycoprotein or the multi-drug resistance associated proteins (MRP). No phase I metabolites were observed, but the phase II conjugates resveratrol-3-glucuronide and resveratrol-3-sulfate was identified based on LC-MS and LC-MS-MS analysis and comparison with synthetic standards. Although these data indicate that resveratrol diffuses rapidly across the intestinal epithelium, extensive phase II metabolism during absorption might reduce resveratrol bioavailability.

  12. Effect of chronic hypo and hypervitaminosis C on the brush border enzymes and the intestinal uptake of glucose and alanine.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, A; Chauhan, V P; Lyall, V; Sarkar, A K

    1979-08-15

    Brush border sucrase and alkaline phosphatase activities are considerably enhanced in the intestine of ascorbic acid deficient guinea-pigs. Similar increase in the uptake of D-glucose and L-alanine also occurs in chronic vitamin C deficiency. However the permeability of D-glucose and L-alanine in the intestine of animals fed with large doses of vitamin C is severely depressed, with a reduction in the levels of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase activities.

  13. Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides prevent development of obese phenotype, impairment of gut permeability, and microbial dysbiosis in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Ronveaux, Charlotte C; Rust, Bret M; Newman, John W; Hawley, Melissa; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-05-01

    Microbial dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability are targets for prevention or reversal of weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides (MO) have been shown to benefit the host intestine but have not been used in DIO. We hypothesized that supplementation with bovine MO would prevent the deleterious effect of HF diet on the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability and attenuate development of the obese phenotype. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, HF (40% fat/kcal), or HF + prebiotic [6%/kg bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) or inulin] for 1, 3, or 6 wk. Gut microbiota and intestinal permeability were assessed in the ileum, cecum, and colon. Addition of BMO to the HF diet significantly attenuated weight gain, decreased adiposity, and decreased caloric intake; inulin supplementation also lowered weight gain and adiposity, but this did not reach significance. BMO and inulin completely abolished the HF diet-induced increase in paracellular and transcellular permeability in the small and large intestine. Both BMO and inulin increased abundance of beneficial microbes Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the ileum. However, inulin supplementation altered phylogenetic diversity and decreased species richness. We conclude that addition of BMO to the HF diet completely prevented increases in intestinal permeability and microbial dysbiosis and was partially effective to prevent weight gain in DIO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first report of the effects of prebiotic bovine milk oligosaccharides on the host phenotype of high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides prevent development of obese phenotype, impairment of gut permeability, and microbial dysbiosis in high fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Ronveaux, Charlotte C.; Rust, Bret M.; Newman, John W.; Hawley, Melissa; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability are targets for prevention or reversal of weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides (MO) have been shown to benefit the host intestine but have not been used in DIO. We hypothesized that supplementation with bovine MO would prevent the deleterious effect of HF diet on the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability and attenuate development of the obese phenotype. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, HF (40% fat/kcal), or HF + prebiotic [6%/kg bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) or inulin] for 1, 3, or 6 wk. Gut microbiota and intestinal permeability were assessed in the ileum, cecum, and colon. Addition of BMO to the HF diet significantly attenuated weight gain, decreased adiposity, and decreased caloric intake; inulin supplementation also lowered weight gain and adiposity, but this did not reach significance. BMO and inulin completely abolished the HF diet-induced increase in paracellular and transcellular permeability in the small and large intestine. Both BMO and inulin increased abundance of beneficial microbes Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the ileum. However, inulin supplementation altered phylogenetic diversity and decreased species richness. We conclude that addition of BMO to the HF diet completely prevented increases in intestinal permeability and microbial dysbiosis and was partially effective to prevent weight gain in DIO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first report of the effects of prebiotic bovine milk oligosaccharides on the host phenotype of high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:28280143

  15. Intraluminal polyethylene glycol stabilizes tight junctions and improves intestinal preservation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oltean, M; Joshi, M; Björkman, E; Oltean, S; Casselbrant, A; Herlenius, G; Olausson, M

    2012-08-01

    Rapidly progressing mucosal breakdown limits the intestinal preservation time below 10 h. Recent studies indicate that intraluminal solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) alleviate preservation injury of intestines stored in UW-Viaspan. We investigated whether a low-sodium PEG solution is beneficial for intestines stored in histidine-tryptophane-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solution. Rat intestines used as control tissue (group 1) were perfused with HTK, groups 2 and 3 received either a customized PEG-3350 (group 2) or an electrolyte solution (group 3) intraluminally before cold storage. Tissue injury, brush-border maltase activity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 expression in the tight junctions (TJ) were analyzed after 8, 14 and 20 h. We measured epithelial resistance and permeability (Ussing chamber) after 8 and 14 h. Group 2 had superior morphology while maltase activity was similar in all groups. TJ proteins rapidly decreased and decolocalized in groups 1 3; these negative events were delayed in group 2, where colocalization persisted for about 14 h. Intestines in group 2 had higher epithelial resistance and lower permeability than the other groups. These results suggest that a customized PEG solution intraluminally reduces the intestinal preservation injury by improving several major epithelial characteristics without negatively affecting the brush-border enzymes or promoting edema. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Adenosine A2B receptor modulates intestinal barrier function under hypoxic and ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Hanwenbo; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Sun, Li-Hua; Yang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier function failure from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and acute hypoxia has been implicated as a critical determinant in the predisposition to intestinal inflammation and a number of inflammatory disorders. Here, we identified the role of Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) in the regulation of intestinal barrier function under I/R and acute hypoxic conditions. C57BL/6J mice were used, and were randomized into three groups: Sham, I/R, IR+PSB1115 (a specific A2BAR antagonist) groups. After surgery, the small bowel was harvested for immunohistochemical staining, RNA and protein content, and intestinal permeability analyses. Using an epithelial cell culture model, we investigated the influence of hypoxia on the epithelial function, and the role of A2BAR in the expressions of tight junction and epithelial permeability. The expressions of Claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-Blot. Epithelial barrier function was assessed with transepithelial resistance (TER). The A2BAR antagonist, PSB1115, significantly increased tight junction protein expression after intestinal I/R or acute hypoxia conditions. PSB1115 also attenuated the disrupted distribution of TJ proteins. Furthermore, inhibition of A2BAR attenuated the decrease in TER induced by I/R or acute hypoxic conditions, and maintained intestinal barrier function. Antagonism of A2BAR activity improves intestinal epithelial structure and barrier function in a mouse model of intestinal I/R and a cell model of acute hypoxia. These findings support a potentially destructive role for A2BAR under intestinal I/R and acute hypoxic conditions.

  17. Electrical parameters and water permeability properties of monolayers formed by T84 cells cultured on permeable supports.

    PubMed

    Ozu, M; Toriano, R; Capurro, C; Parisi, M

    2005-01-01

    T84 is an established cell line expressing an enterocyte phenotype whose permeability properties have been widely explored. Osmotic permeability (POSM), hydraulic permeability (PHYDR) and transport-associated net water fluxes (JW-transp), as well as short-circuit current (ISC), transepithelial resistance (RT), and potential difference (deltaVT) were measured in T84 monolayers with the following results: POSM 1.3 +/- 0.1 cm.s-1 x 10-3; PHYDR 0.27 +/- 0.02 cm.s-1; RT 2426 +/- 109 omega.cm2, and deltaVT 1.31 +/- 0.38 mV. The effect of 50 microM 5,6-dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (DCEBIO), a "net Cl- secretory agent", on T84 cells was also studied. We confirm the reported important increase in ISC induced by DCEBIO which was associated here with a modest secretory deltaJW-transp. The present results were compared with those reported using the same experimental approach applied to established cell lines originating from intestinal and renal epithelial cells (Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and RCCD-1). No clear association between PHYDR and RT could be demonstrated and high PHYDR values were observed in an electrically tight epithelium, supporting the view that a "water leaky" barrier is not necessarily an "electrically leaky" one. Furthermore, the modest secretory deltaJW-transp was not consistent with previous results obtained with RCCD-1 cells stimulated with vasopressin (absorptive fluxes) or with T84 cells secreting water under the action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin. We conclude that, while the presence of aquaporins is necessary to dissipate an external osmotic gradient, coupling between water and ion transport cannot be explained by a simple and common underlying mechanism.

  18. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde increases paracellular drug permeability in vitro and oral bioavailability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Scott J; Swaan, Peter W; Eddington, Natalie D

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to the production of the highly reactive ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, which may affect intestinal tight junctions and increase paracellular permeability. We examined the effects of elevated acetaldehyde within the gastrointestinal tract on the permeability and bioavailability of hydrophilic markers and drug molecules of variable molecular weight and geometry. In vitro permeability was measured unidirectionally in Caco-2 and MDCKII cell models in the presence of acetaldehyde, ethanol, or disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, which causes acetaldehyde formation when coadministered with ethanol in vivo. Acetaldehyde significantly lowered transepithelial resistance in cell monolayers and increased permeability of the low-molecular-weight markers, mannitol and sucrose; however, permeability of high-molecular-weight markers, polyethylene glycol and inulin, was not affected. In vivo permeability was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 6 days with ethanol, disulfiram, or saline alone or in combination. Bioavailability of naproxen was not affected by any treatment, whereas that of paclitaxel was increased upon acetaldehyde exposure. Although disulfiram has been shown to inhibit multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, our data demonstrate that the known P-gp substrate paclitaxel is not affected by coadministration of disulfiram. In conclusion, we demonstrate that acetaldehyde significantly modulates tight junctions and paracellular permeability in vitro as well as the oral bioavailability of low-molecular-weight hydrophilic probes and therapeutic molecules in vivo even when these molecules are substrates for efflux transporters. These studies emphasize the significance of ethanol metabolism and drug interactions outside of the liver.

  19. The interaction of nifedipine with selected cyclodextrins and the subsequent solubility-permeability trade-off.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD) with the lipophilic drug nifedipine and to investigate the subsequent solubility-permeability interplay. Solubility curves of nifedipine with HPβCD and DMβCD in MES buffer were evaluated using phase solubility methods. Then, the apparent permeability of nifedipine was investigated as a function of increasing HPβCD/DMβCD concentration in the hexadecane-based PAMPA model. The interaction with nifedipine was CD dependent; significantly higher stability constant was obtained for DMβCD in comparison with HPβCD. Moreover, nifedipine displays different type of interaction with these CDs; a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex was apparent with HPβCD, while 1:2 stoichiometry was apparent for DMβCD. In all cases, decreased apparent intestinal permeability of nifedipine as a function of increasing CD level and nifedipine apparent solubility was obtained. A quasi-equilibrium mass transport analysis was developed to explain this solubility-permeability interplay; the model enabled excellent quantitative prediction of nifedipine's permeability as a function of CD concentrations. This work demonstrates that when using CDs in solubility-enabling formulations, a trade-off exists between solubility increase and permeability decrease that must not be overlooked. This trade-off was found to be independent of the type of CD-drug interaction. The transport model presented here can aid in striking the appropriate solubility-permeability balance in order to achieve optimal overall absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PERMEABILITY OF BACTERIAL SPORES II.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Philipp; Black, S. H.

    1961-01-01

    Gerhardt, Philipp (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) and S. H. Black. Permeability of bacterial spores. II. Molecular variables affecting solute permeation. J. Bacteriol. 82:750–760. 1961.—More than 100 compounds were tested for their uptake by dormant spores of a bacillus. The extent of penetration was found to be dependent on at least three molecular properties: (i) The dissociation of electrolytes usually resulted in high or low uptake predictable from their charge. (ii) Lipid insolubility restricted permeation of small molecules. (iii) The molecular weight of unsubstituted glycol and sugar polymers exponentially limited penetration to eventual exclusion at mol wt above 160,000. The results were plotted as a generalized curve, calculations from which permitted an interpretation that the effective spore surface contains pores varying in diameter from 10 to 200 A. PMID:13897940

  1. The effect of abnormal hemoglobins on the membrane regulation of cell hydration.

    PubMed

    Clark, M R; Shohet, S B

    Several hemoglobinopathies are associated with abnormalities in the permeability of the red cell membrane, in some cases leading to permanent alterations of the intracellular milieu. Homozygous sickle cell disease is the most thoroughly studied example. Deoxygenation of sickle cells causes a transient increase in the permeability to monovalent cations and Ca; prolonged deoxygenation can lead to a permanent accumulation of Ca and loss of total cations and water. Although the mechanisms for the permeability changes are not yet defined, mechanical stress on the membrane, with subsequent damages by excess Ca or membrane-associated hemoglobin have been suggested to play a role. Loss of cell water and increase in mean cell hemoglobin concentration causes massive reduction of cell deformability in the oxygenated state and makes the hemoglobin more likely to undergo sickling because of the strong concentration dependence of the sickling process. Limited evidence suggests the occurrence of permeability defects in other hemoglobinopathies and the thalassemias. The suggested alterations range from a slight increase in K permeability of incubated thalassemia cells to substantial dehydration of cells from patients with homozygous hemoglobin C disease. Oxidative damage to the membrane, involving an abnormal hemoglobin-membrane association, may underly the permeability changes in these cells.

  2. Tight junctions and IBS--the link between epithelial permeability, low-grade inflammation, and symptom generation?

    PubMed

    Piche, T

    2014-03-01

    In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Dr Ewa Wilcz-Villega and colleagues report low expression of E-cadherin, a tight junction protein involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability, in the colonic mucosa of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with predominance of diarrhea (IBS-D) or alternating symptoms (IBS-A). These findings constitute an improvement in our knowledge of epithelial barrier disruption associated with IBS. There is mounting evidence to indicate that a compromised epithelial barrier is associated with low-grade immune activation and intestinal dysfunction in at least a proportion of IBS patients. During the last 10 years of research, much interest has focused on the increase in the number of different types of immune cells in the gut mucosa of IBS patients including: mast cells, T lymphocytes, and other local cells such as enteroendocrine cells. The inflammatory mediators released by these cells or other luminal factors could be at the origin of altered epithelial barrier functions and enteric nervous system signaling, which lead to gut hypersensitivity. A current conceptual framework states that clinical symptoms of IBS could be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the mucosal barrier, highlighting the crucial importance of elucidating the contributory role of epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of IBS. More importantly, disruption of the epithelial barrier could also participate in the generation of persistent abdominal pain and discomfort mimicking IBS in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases considered in remission. This mini review gives a brief summary of clinical and experimental evidence concerning the mechanisms underlying epithelial barrier defects in IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition.

  4. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  5. Standardising the Lactulose Mannitol Test of Gut Permeability to Minimise Error and Promote Comparability

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ivana R.; Lentle, Roger G.; Kruger, Marlena C.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactulose mannitol ratio tests are clinically useful for assessing disorders characterised by changes in gut permeability and for assessing mixing in the intestinal lumen. Variations between currently used test protocols preclude meaningful comparisons between studies. We determined the optimal sampling period and related this to intestinal residence. Methods Half-hourly lactulose and mannitol urinary excretions were determined over 6 hours in 40 healthy female volunteers after administration of either 600 mg aspirin or placebo, in randomised order at weekly intervals. Gastric and small intestinal transit times were assessed by the SmartPill in 6 subjects from the same population. Half-hourly percentage recoveries of lactulose and mannitol were grouped on a basis of compartment transit time. The rate of increase or decrease of each sugar within each group was explored by simple linear regression to assess the optimal period of sampling. Key Results The between subject standard errors for each half-hourly lactulose and mannitol excretion were lowest, the correlation of the quantity of each sugar excreted with time was optimal and the difference between the two sugars in this temporal relationship maximal during the period from 2½-4 h after ingestion. Half-hourly lactulose excretions were generally increased after dosage with aspirin whilst those of mannitol were unchanged as was the temporal pattern and period of lowest between subject standard error for both sugars. Conclusion The results indicate that between subject variation in the percentage excretion of the two sugars would be minimised and the differences in the temporal patterns of excretion would be maximised if the period of collection of urine used in clinical tests of small intestinal permeability were restricted to 2½-4 h post dosage. This period corresponds to a period when the column of digesta column containing the probes is passing from the small to the large intestine. PMID:24901524

  6. Intestinal absorption of hawthorn flavonoids--in vitro, in situ and in vivo correlations.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Limin; Chang, Qi; Chow, Moses

    2006-11-25

    Our previous studies identified hyperoside (HP), isoquercitrin (IQ) and epicatechin (EC) to be the major active flavonoid components of the hawthorn phenolic extract from hawthorn fruits demonstrating inhibitory effect on in vitro Cu(+2)-mediated low density lipoproteins oxidation. Among these three hawthorn flavonoids, EC was the only one detectable in plasma after the oral administration of hawthorn phenolic extract to rats. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of these three hawthorn flavonoids by in vitro Caco-2 monolayer model, rat in situ intestinal perfusion model and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rats. In addition, in order to investigate the effect of the co-occurring components in hawthorn phenolic extract on the intestinal absorption of these three major hawthorn flavonoids, intestinal absorption transport profiles of HP, IQ and EC in forms of individual pure compound, mixture of pure compounds and hawthorn phenolic extract were studied and compared. The observations from in vitro Caco-2 monolayer model and in situ intestinal perfusion model indicated that all three studied hawthorn flavonoids have quite limited permeabilities. EC and IQ demonstrated more extensive metabolism in the rat in situ intestinal perfusion model and in vivo study than in Caco-2 monolayer model. Moreover, results from the Caco-2 monolayer model, rat in situ intestinal perfusion model as well as the in vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rats consistently showed that the co-occurring components in hawthorn phenolic extract might not have significant effect on the intestinal absorption of the three major hawthorn flavonoids studied.

  7. Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Migration in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-02-08

    The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit. Enterocyte migration rate was decreased from 24-96 hours following sepsis. BrdU was not detectable on villi 6 days after sham laparotomy, meaning all cells had migrated the length of the gut and been exfoliated into its lumen. However, BrdU positive cells were detectable on villi 10 days after sepsis. Multiple components of gut integrity altered enterocyte migration. Sepsis decreased crypt proliferation, which further slowed enterocyte transit as mice injected with BrdU after the onset of sepsis (decreased proliferation) had slower migration than mice injected with BrdU prior to the onset of sepsis (normal proliferation). Decreasing intestinal apoptosis via gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented sepsis-induced slowing of enterocyte migration. In contrast, worsened intestinal hyperpermeability by genetic deletion of JAM-A increased enterocyte migration. Sepsis therefore significantly slows enterocyte migration, and intestinal proliferation, apoptosis and permeability all affect migration time, which can potentially be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically.

  8. Advantageous Solubility-Permeability Interplay When Using Amorphous Solid Dispersion (ASD) Formulation for the BCS Class IV P-gp Substrate Rifaximin: Simultaneous Increase of Both the Solubility and the Permeability.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Fine-Shamir, Noa; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik

    2017-05-01

    Rifaximin is a BCS class IV (low-solubility, low-permeability) drug and also a P-gp substrate. The aims of this work were to assess the efficiency of different rifaximin amorphous solid dispersion (ASDs) formulations in achieving and maintaining supersaturation and to investigate the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. Spray-dried rifaximin ASDs were prepared with different hydrophilic polymers and their ability to achieve and maintain supersaturation was assessed. Then, rifaximin's apparent intestinal permeability was investigated as a function of increasing supersaturation both in vitro using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and in vivo using the single-pass rat intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. The efficiency of the different ASDs to achieve and maintain supersaturation of rifaximin was found to be highly polymer dependent, and the copovidone/HPC-SL formulation was found to be superior to the other two, allowing supersaturation of 200× that of the crystalline solubility for 20 h. In vitro, rifaximin flux was increased and the apparent permeability was constant as a function of increasing supersaturation level. In vivo, on the other hand, absorption rate coefficient (k a ) was first constant as a function of increasing supersaturation, but at 250×, the crystalline solubility k a was doubled, similar to the k a in the presence of the strong P-gp inhibitor GF120918. In conclusion, a new and favorable nature of solubility-permeability interplay was revealed in this work: delivering high supersaturation level of the BCS class IV drug rifaximin via ASD, thereby saturating the drugs' P-gp-mediated efflux transport, led to the favorable unique win-win situation, where both the solubility and the permeability increased simultaneously.

  9. [Intrauterine intestinal volvulus].

    PubMed

    Gawrych, Elzbieta; Chojnacka, Hanna; Wegrzynowski, Jerzy; Rajewska, Justyna

    2009-07-01

    Intrauterine intestinal volvulus is an extremely rare case of acute congenital intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is usually possible in the third trimester of a pregnancy. Fetal midgut volvulus is most likely to be recognized by observing a typical clockwise whirlpool sign during color Doppler investigation. Multiple dilated intestinal loops with fluid levels are usually visible during the antenatal ultrasound as well. Physical and radiographic findings in the newborn indicate intestinal obstruction and an emergency surgery is required. The authors describe intrauterine volvulus in 3 female newborns in which surgical treatment was individualized. The decision about primary or delayed anastomosis after resection of the gangrenous part of the small bowel was made at the time of the surgery and depended on the general condition of the newborn, as well as presence or absence of meconium peritonitis. Double loop jejunostomy was performed in case of two newborns, followed by a delayed end-to-end anastomosis. In case of the third newborn, good blood supply of the small intestine after untwisting and 0.25% lignocaine injections into mesentery led to the assumption that the torsion was not complete and ischemia was reversible. In the two cases of incomplete rotation the cecum was sutured to the left abdominal wall to prevent further twisting. The postoperative course was uneventful and oral alimentation caused no problems. Physical development of all these children has been normal (current age: 1-2 years) and the parents have not observed any disorders or problems regarding passage of food through the alimentary canal. Prompt antenatal diagnosis of this surgical emergency and adequate choice of intervention may greatly reduce mortality due to intrauterine volvulus.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota and Its Relationship with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia W.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants born prematurely. After birth, the neonatal gut must acquire a healthy complement of commensal bacteria. Disruption or delay of this critical process, leading to deficient or abnormal microbial colonization of the gut, has been implicated as key risk factor in the pathogenesis of NEC. Conversely, a beneficial complement of commensal intestinal microbiota may protect the immature gut from inflammation and injury. Interventions aimed at providing or restoring a healthy complement of commensal bacteria, such as probiotic therapy, are currently the most promising treatment to prevent NEC. Shifting the balance of intestinal microbiota from a pathogenic to protective complement of bacteria can protect the gut from inflammation and subsequent injury that leads to NEC. Herein, we review the relationship of intestinal microbiota and NEC in preterm infants. PMID:25992911

  11. Influence of fiber packing structure on permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Berdichevsky, Alexander L.

    1993-01-01

    The study on the permeability of an aligned fiber bundle is the key building block in modeling the permeability of advanced woven and braided preforms. Available results on the permeability of fiber bundles in the literature show that a substantial difference exists between numerical and analytical calculations on idealized fiber packing structures, such as square and hexagonal packing, and experimental measurements on practical fiber bundles. The present study focuses on the variation of the permeability of a fiber bundle under practical process conditions. Fiber bundles are considered as containing openings and fiber clusters within the bundle. Numerical simulations on the influence of various openings on the permeability were conducted. Idealized packing structures are used, but with introduced openings distributed in different patterns. Both longitudinal and transverse flow are considered. The results show that openings within the fiber bundle have substantial effect on the permeability. In the longitudinal flow case, the openings become the dominant flow path. In the transverse flow case, the fiber clusters reduce the gap sizes among fibers. Therefore the permeability is greatly influenced by these openings and clusters, respectively. In addition to the porosity or fiber volume fraction, which is commonly used in the permeability expression, another fiber bundle status parameter, the ultimate fiber volume fraction, is introduced to capture the disturbance within a fiber bundle.

  12. Permeability-porosity data sets for sandstones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the variable nature of permeability-porosity relations, core should be obtained and permeability (k) and porosity (??) should be determined on core plugs in the laboratory for the formation of interest. A catalog of k versus (??) data sets is now available on the Web. Examples from the catalog are considered to illustrate some aspects of k versus ?? dependencies in siliciclastic reservoirs.

  13. Pressure sensitivity of low permeability sandstones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilmer, N.H.; Morrow, N.R.; Pitman, Janet K.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed core analysis has been carried out on 32 tight sandstones with permeabilities ranging over four orders of magnitude (0.0002 to 4.8 mD at 5000 psi confining pressure). Relationships between gas permeability and net confining pressure were measured for cycles of loading and unloading. For some samples, permeabilities were measured both along and across bedding planes. Large variations in stress sensitivity of permeability were observed from one sample to another. The ratio of permeability at a nominal confining pressure of 500 psi to that at 5000 psi was used to define a stress sensitivity ratio. For a given sample, confining pressure vs permeability followed a linear log-log relationship, the slope of which provided an index of pressure sensitivity. This index, as obtained for first unloading data, was used in testing relationships between stress sensitivity and other measured rock properties. Pressure sensitivity tended to increase with increase in carbonate content and depth, and with decrease in porosity, permeability and sodium feldspar. However, scatter in these relationships increased as permeability decreased. Tests for correlations between pressure sensitivity and various linear combinations of variables are reported. Details of pore structure related to diagenetic changes appears to be of much greater significance to pressure sensitivity than mineral composition. ?? 1987.

  14. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  15. Using FLIM in the study of permeability barrier function of aged and young skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Choi, E. H.; Man, M. Q.; Crumrine, D.; Mauro, T.; Elias, P.

    2006-02-01

    Aged skin commonly is afflicted by inflammatory skin diseases or xerosis/eczema that can be triggered or exacerbated by impaired epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. It has been previously described a permeability barrier defect in humans of advanced age (> 75 years), which in a murine analog >18 mos, could be attributed to reduced lipid synthesis synthesis. However, the functional abnormality in moderately aged mice is due not to decreased lipid synthesis, but rather to a specific defect in stratum corneum (SC) acidification causing impaired lipid processing processing. Endogenous Na +/H + antiporter (NHE1) level was found declined in moderately aged mouse epidermis. This acidification defect leads to perturbed permeability barrier homeostasis through more than one pathways, we addressed suboptimal activation of the essential, lipid-processing enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase (BGC) is linked to elevated SC pH. Finally, the importance of the epidermis acidity is shown by the normalization of barrier function after exogenous acidification of moderately aged skin.

  16. Enteric nervous system abnormalities are present in human necrotizing enterocolitis: potential neurotransplantation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal dysmotility following human necrotizing enterocolitis suggests that the enteric nervous system is injured during the disease. We examined human intestinal specimens to characterize the enteric nervous system injury that occurs in necrotizing enterocolitis, and then used an animal model of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis to determine whether transplantation of neural stem cells can protect the enteric nervous system from injury. Methods Human intestinal specimens resected from patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 18), from control patients with bowel atresia (n = 8), and from necrotizing enterocolitis and control patients undergoing stoma closure several months later (n = 14 and n = 6 respectively) were subjected to histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to examine the myenteric plexus structure and neurotransmitter expression. In addition, experimental necrotizing enterocolitis was induced in newborn rat pups and neurotransplantation was performed by administration of fluorescently labeled neural stem cells, with subsequent visualization of transplanted cells and determination of intestinal integrity and intestinal motility. Results There was significant enteric nervous system damage with increased enteric nervous system apoptosis, and decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in myenteric ganglia from human intestine resected for necrotizing enterocolitis compared with control intestine. Structural and functional abnormalities persisted months later at the time of stoma closure. Similar abnormalities were identified in rat pups exposed to experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pups receiving neural stem cell transplantation had improved enteric nervous system and intestinal integrity, differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells into functional neurons, significantly improved intestinal transit, and significantly decreased

  17. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  18. Permeability measurement and control for epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsun-Hsu; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Wong, Wei-Syuan; Chen, Yen-Ren; Chao, Hsien-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of the electric and magnetic fields leads to a strong interplay in materials' permittivity and permeability. Here, we proposed a specially designed cavity, called the mu cavity. The mu cavity, consisting of a mushroom structure inside a cylindrical resonator, is exclusively sensitive to permeability, but not to permittivity. It decouples materials' electromagnetic properties and allows an accurate measurement of the permeability. With the help of an epsilon cavity, these two cavities jointly determine the complex permeability and permittivity of the materials at microwave frequencies. Homemade epoxy-based composite materials were prepared and tested. Measurement and manipulation of the permeability and permittivity of the epoxy composites will be shown. The results will be compared with the effective medium theories.

  19. Permeability of canine vocal fold lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jacob P; Kvit, Anton A; Devine, Erin E; Jiang, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Determine the permeability of excised canine vocal fold lamina propria. Basic science. Vocal folds were excised from canine larynges and mounted within a device to measure the flow of 0.9% saline through the tissue over time. The resultant fluid volume displaced over time was then used in a variation of Darcy's law to calculate the permeability of the tissue. Permeability was found through each anatomical plane of the vocal fold, with five samples per plane. Permeability was also found for lamina propria stretched to 10%, 20%, and 30% of its initial length to determine the effects of tensile strain on permeability, with five samples per level of strain. Permeability was found to be 1.40 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the sagittal plane, 1.00 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the coronal plane, and 4.02 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg through the axial plane. It was significantly greater through the axial plane than both the sagittal (P = .025) and coronal (P = .009) planes. Permeability under strain through the sagittal plane was found to be 1.94 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 10% strain, 3.35 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 20% strain, and 4.80 × 10(-13) m(3) s/kg under 30% strain. The permeability significantly increased after 20% strain (P < .05). Permeability in canine vocal fold lamina propria was found to be increased along the anterior-posterior axis, following the length of the vocal folds. This may influence fluid distribution within the lamina propria during and after vibration. Similarly, permeability increased after 20% strain was imposed on the lamina propria, and may influence vocal fold dynamics during certain phonation tasks. NA Laryngoscope, 125:941-945, 2015. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Permeability During Magma Expansion and Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge. M.; Giachetti, Thomas; Fliedner, Céline; Nguyen, Chinh T.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Crozier, Joshua A.; Carey, Rebecca J.

    2017-12-01

    Plinian lapilli from the 1060 Common Era Glass Mountain rhyolitic eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, were collected and analyzed for vesicularity and permeability. A subset of the samples were deformed at a temperature of 975°, under shear and normal stress, and postdeformation porosities and permeabilities were measured. Almost all undeformed samples fall within a narrow range of vesicularity (0.7-0.9), encompassing permeabilities between approximately 10-15 m2 and 10-10 m2. A percolation threshold of approximately 0.7 is required to fit the data by a power law, whereas a percolation threshold of approximately 0.5 is estimated by fitting connected and total vesicularity using percolation modeling. The Glass Mountain samples completely overlap with a range of explosively erupted silicic samples, and it remains unclear whether the erupting magmas became permeable at porosities of approximately 0.7 or at lower values. Sample deformation resulted in compaction and vesicle connectivity either increased or decreased. At small strains permeability of some samples increased, but at higher strains permeability decreased. Samples remain permeable down to vesicularities of less than 0.2, consistent with a potential hysteresis in permeability-porosity between expansion (vesiculation) and compaction (outgassing). We attribute this to retention of vesicle interconnectivity, albeit at reduced vesicle size, as well as bubble coalescence during shear deformation. We provide an equation that approximates the change in permeability during compaction. Based on a comparison with data from effusively erupted silicic samples, we propose that this equation can be used to model the change in permeability during compaction of effusively erupting magmas.

  1. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    So, Stephanie; Patterson, Catherine; Gold, Anna; Rogers, Alaine; Kosar, Christina; de Silva, Nicole; Burghardt, Karolina Maria; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    The survival rate of infants and children with intestinal failure is increasing, necessitating a greater focus on their developmental trajectory. To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with intestinal failure at 0-15months corrected age. Analysis of clinical, demographic and developmental assessment results of 33 children followed in an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2014. Outcome measures included: Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements, Movement Assessment of Infants, Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Clinical factors were correlated with poorer developmental outcomes at 12-15months corrected age. Thirty-three infants (17 males), median gestational age 34weeks (interquartile range 29.5-36.0) with birth weight 1.98kg (interquartile range 1.17-2.50). Twenty-nine (88%) infants had abnormal General Movements. More than half had suspect or abnormal scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and medium to high-risk scores for future neuromotor delay on the Movement Assessment of Infants. Delays were seen across all Mullen subscales, most notably in gross motor skills. Factors significantly associated with poorer outcomes at 12-15months included: prematurity, low birth weight, central nervous system co-morbidity, longer neonatal intensive care admission, necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosis, number of operations and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Multiple risk factors contribute to early developmental delay in children with intestinal failure, highlighting the importance of close developmental follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Sheng; Tian, Zhao-Tao; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability. Methods: Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers. Results: A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture. Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2

  3. Artificial sweetener saccharin disrupts intestinal epithelial cells' barrier function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Santos, P S; Caria, C R P; Gotardo, E M F; Ribeiro, M L; Pedrazzoli, J; Gambero, A

    2018-06-25

    Consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) is a dietary practice used by those who wish to lose weight or by patients on a sugar-restricted diet such as those with DM2. Although these substances are safe, possible biological interactions with the digestive tract, particularly in relation to intestinal permeability, have not been studied. Thus, the current work sought to investigate the action of different NNS on intestinal permeability using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model. Caco-2 cells were incubated with acesulfame K, aspartame, saccharin, or sucralose at equimolar concentrations. Acesulfame K, aspartame, and sucralose did not disrupt monolayer integrity in the cells. However, saccharin increased paracellular permeability and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) via a non-cytotoxic mechanism. The levels of the tight junction protein claudin-1 were reduced in Caco-2 cells that had previously been exposed to saccharin. The inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was able to prevent the reduction in TEER induced by saccharin treatment. Thalidomide, as an inhibitor of ubiquitin ligase, was able to prevent the decrease in claudin-1 protein expression and the TEER reduction in Caco-2 cells. Saccharin disrupts monolayer integrity and alters paracellular permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model, via a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, resulting in the ubiquitination of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Saccharin consumption may potentially alter the intestinal integrity in humans.

  4. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Michael A.; Högenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

  5. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enhances Heat Stress-Impaired Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guizhen; Tang, Liqun; Yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shaoheng; Liu, Zhifeng; Geng, Yan; Qiu, Xiaowen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) barrier is known to have an important etiologic role in the pathophysiology of heat stroke. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), play a role in maintaining and protecting the TJ structure and function. This study is aimed at investigating whether n-3 PUFAs could alleviate heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal tight junction. Methods Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were pre-incubated with EPA, DHA or arachidonic acid (AA) and then exposed to heat stress. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) permeability were measured to analyze barrier integrity. Levels of TJ proteins, including occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-2, were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Messenger RNA levels were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). TJ morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results EPA effectively attenuated the decrease in TEER and impairment of intestinal permeability in HRP flux induced by heat exposure. EPA significantly elevated the expression of occludin and ZO-1, while DHA was less effective and AA was not at all effective. The distortion and redistribution of TJ proteins, and disruption of morphology were also effectively prevented by pretreatment with EPA. Conclusion This study indicates for the first time that EPA is more potent than DHA in protecting against heat-induced permeability dysfunction and epithelial barrier damage of tight junction. PMID:24066055

  6. Effects of fasting on intestinal transfer of sugars and amino acids in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Newey, H.; Sanford, P. A.; Smyth, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Transfer of sugars, amino acids and fluid and metabolism of glucose were studied with everted sacs of small intestine prepared from fed and 3-day fasted rats. 2. In the absence of glucose there was some evidence for increased intestinal transfer of sugars and amino acids in fasted animals. In the presence of glucose there was in general decrease in transfer of amino acids and fluid. 3. In fasted animals glucose transfer was reduced except in the lower ileum, and there was a general reduction in glucose metabolism. 4. Because of the large reduction in gut weight in fasted animals, expressing transfer on a weight basis is considered not to be a valid procedure in studying the effects of fasting on intestinal transfer. 5. The results have been discussed in relation to effects of fasting on energy availability, efficiency of transfer mechanisms, permeability of the intestine and the value of in vitro methods in the study of physiological absorption. PMID:5499792

  7. Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein Enables Intestinal Epithelial Restitution Despite Lipopolysaccharide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Juli M.; Schanbacher, Brandon L.; Huang, Hong; Xue, Jianjing; Bauer, John A.; Giannone, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial restitution is the first part in the process of mucosal repair after injury in the intestine. Integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier is important as a first line of defense against bacteria and endotoxin. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely low birth weight infants, but its mechanisms are not well defined. Abnormal bacterial colonization, immature barrier function, innate immunity activation and inflammation likely play a role. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein (LBP) is secreted by enterocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli and has concentration-dependent effects. At basal concentrations, LBP stimulates the inflammatory response by presenting LPS to its receptor. However, at high concentrations, LBP is able to neutralize LPS and prevent an exaggerated inflammatory response. We sought to determine how LBP would affect wound healing in an in vitro model of intestinal cell restitution and protect against intestinal injury in a rodent model of NEC. Immature intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were seeded in poly-l-lysine coated 8 chamber slides and grown to confluence. A 500μm wound was created using a cell scraper mounted on the microscope to achieve uniform wounding. Media was replaced with media containing LPS +/− LBP. Slide wells were imaged after 0, 8, and 24 hours and then fixed. Cellular restitution was evaluated via digital images captured on an inverted microscope and wound closure was determined by automated analysis. TLR4 was determined by rtPCR after RNA isolation from wounded cells 24 hours after treatment. LPS alone attenuated wound healing in immature intestinal epithelium. This attenuation is reversed by 24 hours with increasing concentrations of LBP so that wound healing is equivalent to control (p< 0.001). TLR4 was increased with LPS alone but levels returned to that of control after addition of LBP in the higher concentrations. LBP had no effect on the

  8. High-fat enteral nutrition reduces intestinal mucosal barrier damage after peritoneal air exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shan-Jun; Yu, Chao; Yu, Zhen; Lin, Zhi-Liang; Wu, Guo-Hao; Yu, Wen-Kui; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Peritoneal air exposure is needed in open abdominal surgery, but long-time exposure could induce intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction followed by many postoperative complications. High-fat enteral nutrition can ameliorate intestinal injury and improve intestinal function in many gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-fat enteral nutrition on intestinal mucosal barrier after peritoneal air exposure and the underlying mechanism. Male adult rats were administrated saline, low-fat or high-fat enteral nutrition via gavage before and after peritoneal air exposure for 3 h. Rats undergoing anesthesia without laparotomy received saline as control. Twenty four hours after surgery, samples were collected to assess intestinal mucosal barrier changes in serum D-lactate levels, intestinal permeability, intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin levels, and intestinal histopathology. The levels of malondialdehyde and the activity of superoxide dismutase in the ileum tissue were also measured to assess the status of intestinal oxidative stress. High-fat enteral nutrition significantly decreased the serum D-lactate level and increased the intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1 level when compared to the group treated with low-fat enteral nutrition (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, histopathologic findings showed that the intestinal mucosal injury assessed by the Chiu's score and the intestinal epithelial tight junction were also improved much more in the high-fat enteral nutrition-treated group (P < 0.05). In addition, the intestinal malondialdehyde level was lower, and the intestinal superoxide dismutase activity was higher in the high-fat enteral nutrition-treated group than that in the low-fat enteral nutrition-treated group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that high-fat enteral nutrition could reduce intestinal mucosal barrier damage after peritoneal air exposure, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with its antioxidative

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  11. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  12. Geometric estimation of intestinal contraction for motion tracking of video capsule endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Liang; Bao, Guanqun; Pahlavan, Kaveh

    2014-03-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscope (VCE) provides a noninvasive method to examine the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially small intestine, where other endoscopic instruments can barely reach. VCE is able to continuously provide clear pictures in short fixed intervals, and as such researchers have attempted to use image processing methods to track the video capsule in order to locate the abnormalities inside the GI tract. To correctly estimate the speed of the motion of the endoscope capsule, the radius of the intestinal track must be known a priori. Physiological factors such as intestinal contraction, however, dynamically change the radius of the small intestine, which could bring large errors in speed estimation. In this paper, we are aiming to estimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. First a geometric model is presented for estimating the radius of small intestine based on the black hole on endoscopic images. To validate our proposed model, a 3-dimentional virtual testbed that emulates the intestinal contraction is then introduced in details. After measuring the size of the black holes on the test images, we used our model to esimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. Comparision between analytical results and the emulation model parameters has verified that our proposed method could preciously estimate the radius of the contracted small intestine based on endoscopic images.

  13. Influence of fentanyl and morphine on intestinal circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.

    The influence of fentanyl and morphine on the intestinal circulation was evaluated in an isolated loop preparation in 37 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital intravenously. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mm Hg. A mixture of /sup 86/Rb and 9-micron spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A strong correlation was found between the clearances of rubidium and microspheres (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001), suggesting that the shunting of 9-micron spheres through the intestinesmore » reflects the shunting of blood through nonnutritive vessels. Intravenous fentanyl decreased oxygen uptake (O/sub 2/up), and vascular resistance (VR), and increased blood flow (BF), rubidium and microsphere clearances (Cl-Rb, Cl-Sph, respectively), and permeability--surface area product (PS) in a dose-related fashion. Intravenous morphine in a dose of 1 mg X kg-1 increased Cl-Rb (nutritive BF) without changes in total (nutritive and nonnutritive) BF. This increase in nutritive BF is probably related to morphine-induced histamine release. Morphine in a dose of 5 mg X kg-1 was accompanied by vasoconstriction that was completely abolished by alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. The data suggest that morphine-induced intestinal vasoconstriction is mediated via a release of epinephrine, apparently from the adrenal medulla. It is concluded that changes in the intestinal circulation during anesthesia with narcotics might play a certain role in the cardiovascular homeostasis during anesthesia and surgery. An increase in oxygen content in portal venous blood, resulting from a decrease in intestinal oxygen uptake, should facilitate hepatic oxygenation.« less

  14. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rene L; Pontoppidan, Peter E L; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping; Hansen, Carl Frederik; Buddington, Randal K; Heegaard, Peter M H; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per T

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We used preweaned piglets as models to test our hypothesis that the immunomodulatory and GI trophic effects of bovine colostrum would reduce the severity of GI complications associated with doxorubicin (DOX) treatment. Five-day-old pigs were administered DOX (1 × 100 mg/m(2)) or an equivalent volume of saline (SAL) and either fed formula (DOX-Form, n = 9, or SAL-Form, n = 7) or bovine colostrum (DOX-Colos, n = 9, or SAL-Colos, n = 7). Pigs were euthanized 5 days after initiation of chemotherapy to assess markers of small intestinal function and inflammation. All DOX-treated animals developed diarrhea, growth deficits, and leukopenia. However, the intestines of DOX-Colos pigs had lower intestinal permeability, longer intestinal villi with higher activities of brush border enzymes, and lower tissue IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P < 0.05). DOX-Form pigs, but not DOX-Colos pigs, had significantly higher plasma C-reactive protein, compared with SAL-Form. Plasma citrulline was not affected by DOX treatment or diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected to chemotherapy and subsequent intestinal toxicity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Characterization of tumor microvascular structure and permeability: comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and intravital confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Nina Kristine; Thuen, Marte; Goa, Pa˚L. Erik; de Lange Davies, Catharina

    2010-05-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by abnormal blood vessel organization, structure, and function. These abnormalities give rise to enhanced vascular permeability and may predict therapeutic responses. The permeability and architecture of the microvasculature in human osteosarcoma tumors growing in dorsal window chambers in athymic mice were measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Dextran (40 kDa) and Gadomer were used as molecular tracers for CLSM and DCE-MRI, respectively. A significant correlation was found between permeability indicators. The extravasation rate Ki as measured by CLSM correlated positively with DCE-MRI parameters, such as the volume transfer constant Ktrans and the initial slope of the contrast agent concentration-time curve. This demonstrates that these two techniques give complementary information. Extravasation was further related to microvascular structure and was found to correlate with the fractal dimension and vascular density. The structural parameter values that were obtained from CLSM images were higher for abnormal tumor vasculature than for normal vessels.

  16. Localized intestinal perforations as a potential complication of brain hypothermic therapy for perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Naoto; Maiguma, Atsuko; Obinata, Kaoru; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Brain hypothermic therapy (BHT) is becoming a frequently used standard of care for perinatal asphyxia. Although cardiovascular side effects, coagulation disorders, renal impairment, electrolyte abnormalities, impaired liver function, opportunistic infections, and skin lesions are well-known adverse effects of BHT in newborns, little information is available on the clinical features of intestinal perforation-related BHT. We herein report a case of therapeutic brain cooling for perinatal asphyxia complicated by localized intestinal perforation. In practice, the neonatologist should be aware that intestinal perforation in an infant with perinatal asphyxia is possible, particularly following BHT.

  17. Imaging diagnosis--muscular hypertrophy of the small intestine and pseudodiverticula in a horse.

    PubMed

    Navas De Solís, Cristobal; Biscoe, Elisabeth W; Lund, Caleb M; Labbe, Karyn; Muñoz, Juan; Farnsworth, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A 14-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was presented for chronic colic and weight loss. Transcutaneous and transrectal abdominal ultrasonography revealed distended, thickened small intestine with primary thickening of the muscularis and a focally more thickened loop with an echoic structure crossing the wall from the mucosa to the serosa. Visualization of diffuse thickening of the muscularis (muscular hypertrophy of the small intestine) and a focal lesion (pseudodiverticulum) helped clinicians make informed decisions. This case illustrates the importance of transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonography in horses with chronic colic and the relevance of considering the abnormalities in layering pattern of the intestinal wall. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    PubMed

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  19. Relative Permeabilities of Plastic Films to Water and Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Joseph T.

    1967-01-01

    The permeabilities of several types of plastic films to water and to carbon dioxide were measured. No material was found to have a carbon dioxide permeability as great as its water permeability. PMID:16656548

  20. Issues pertaining to the permeability characteristics of coarsegraded Superpave mixes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-07-01

    In order to evaluate the relationships between in-place air voids, lift thickness, and permeability, 23 on-going HMA construction projects were visited and field permeability tests conducted. Field permeability tests were conducted at 15 randomly det...

  1. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  2. Effect of Chelerythrine on Intestinal Cell Turnover following Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Sukhotnik, Igor; Bitterman, Sivan; Shahar, Yoav Ben; Pollak, Yulia; Bitterman, Nir; Halabi, Salim; Coran, Arnold G; Bitterman, Arie

    2017-02-01

    Background  Chelerythrine (CHE) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that is a potent, selective, and cell-permeable protein kinase C inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of CHE on intestinal recovery and enterocyte turnover after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. Methods  Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) sham rats underwent laparotomy, (2) sham-CHE rats underwent laparotomy and were treated with intraperitoneal CHE; (3) IR-rats underwent occlusion of both superior mesenteric artery and portal vein for 30 minutes followed by 48 hours of reperfusion, and (4) IR-CHE rats underwent IR and were treated with intraperitoneal CHE immediately before abdominal closure. Intestinal structural changes, Park injury score, enterocyte proliferation, and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 24 hours following IR. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, p-ERK, and caspase-3 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using real Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results  Treatment with CHE resulted in a significant decrease in Park injury score in jejunum (threefold decrease) and ileum (twofold decrease), and parallel increase in mucosal weight in jejunum and ileum, villus height in jejunum and ileum, and crypt depth in ileum compared with IR animals. IR-CHE rats also experienced a significantly lower apoptotic index in jejunum and ileum, which was accompanied by a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio compared with IR animals. Conclusions  Treatment with CHE inhibits programmed cell death and prevents intestinal mucosal damage following intestinal IR in a rat. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Gas Permeable Chemochromic Compositions for Hydrogen Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Bokerman, Gary (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A (H2) sensor composition includes a gas permeable matrix material intermixed and encapsulating at least one chemochromic pigment. The chemochromic pigment produces a detectable change in color of the overall sensor composition in the presence of H2 gas. The matrix material provides high H2 permeability, which permits fast permeation of H2 gas. In one embodiment, the chemochromic pigment comprises PdO/TiO2. The sensor can be embodied as a two layer structure with the gas permeable matrix material intermixed with the chemochromic pigment in one layer and a second layer which provides a support or overcoat layer.

  4. Lipid rafts are disrupted in mildly inflamed intestinal microenvironments without overt disruption of the epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Rachel V; Donatello, Simona; Lyes, Clíona; Owens, Mark B; Babina, Irina S; Hudson, Lance; Walsh, Shaun V; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid P; Amu, Sylvie; Barry, Sean P; Fallon, Padraic G; Hopkins, Ann M

    2012-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial barrier disruption is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but whether barrier disruption precedes or merely accompanies inflammation remains controversial. Tight junction (TJ) adhesion complexes control epithelial barrier integrity. Since some TJ proteins reside in cholesterol-enriched regions of the cell membrane termed lipid rafts, we sought to elucidate the relationship between rafts and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Lipid rafts were isolated from Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells primed with the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a positive control for raft disruption. Rafts were also isolated from the ilea of mice in which colitis had been induced in conjunction with in vivo intestinal permeability measurements, and lastly from intestinal biopsies of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with predominantly mild or quiescent disease. Raft distribution was analyzed by measuring activity of the raft-associated enzyme alkaline phosphatase and by performing Western blot analysis for flotillin-1. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial resistance in cytokine-treated cells or in vivo permeability to fluorescent dextran in colitic mice. Raft and nonraft fractions were analyzed by Western blotting for the TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Our results revealed that lipid rafts were disrupted in IFN-γ-treated cells, in the ilea of mice with subclinical colitis, and in UC patients with quiescent inflammation. This was not associated with a clear pattern of occludin or ZO-1 relocalization from raft to nonraft fractions. Significantly, a time-course study in colitic mice revealed that disruption of lipid rafts preceded the onset of increased intestinal permeability. Our data suggest for the first time that lipid raft disruption occurs early in the inflammatory cascade in murine and human colitis and, we speculate, may contribute to

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Knudsen, David; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sundh, Henrik; Sundell, Kristina; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2008-07-01

    Saponins are naturally occurring amphiphilic molecules and have been associated with many biological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether soya saponins trigger the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and to examine if dietary soya saponins increase the epithelial permeability of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon. Seven experimental diets containing different levels of soya saponins were fed to seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon for 53 d. The diets included a fishmeal-based control diet, two fishmeal-based diets with different levels of added soya saponins, one diet containing 25% lupin kernel meal, two diets based on 25% lupin kernel meal with different levels of added soya saponins, and one diet containing 25% defatted soyabean meal. The effect on intestinal morphology, intestinal epithelial permeability and faecal DM content was examined. Fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal displayed severe enteritis, whereas fish fed 25% lupin kernel meal had normal intestinal morphology. The combination of soya saponins and fishmeal did not induce morphological changes but fish fed soya saponins in combination with lupin kernel meal displayed significant enteritis. Increased epithelial permeability was observed in fish fed 25% defatted soyabean meal and in fish fed soya saponin concentrate independent of the protein source in the feed. The study demonstrates that soya saponins, in combination with one or several unidentified components present in legumes, induce an inflammatory reaction in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. Soya saponins increase the intestinal epithelial permeability but do not, per se, induce enteritis.

  7. Increased platelet factor 4 and aberrant permeability of follicular fluid in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Chun; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih; Chen, Mei-Jou

    2018-05-17

    Abnormal folliculogenesis is one of the cardinal presentations of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and permeability of follicular wall has been proposed to be involved in the normal follicular growth. However, whether or not there is a change in intrafollicular permeability underlies PCOS is unknown. This was a tertiary center-based case-control study. From 2014 to 2015, thirteen patients with PCOS who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were enrolled. Eleven normo-ovulatory patients who underwent IVF-ET due to male factor and/or tubal factor infertility were enrolled as the control group. The influence of ovarian follicular fluid (FF) on endothelial cell permeability was evaluated using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer permeability assay. The intrafollicular expression profiles of angiogenesis-related proteins were analyzed using a Human Angiogenesis Protein Array Kit. The FF from PCOS patients caused significantly poorer endothelial cell permeability comparing with the effect of FF from the control group (46% ± 12% vs. 58% ± 9%, P = 0.023). Among the 55 angiogenesis-related proteins tested, there was a significantly higher level of intrafollicular platelet factor 4 (PF4) and PF4/IL-8 complex in the PCOS group (p = 0.004). The anti-permeability effect of PF4 was related to the decrease in the intercellular gaps and antagonistic binding with IL-8. Our study provides the first evidence of the pathophysiologic contribution of the well-known angiostatic protein, PF4, on human reproductive biology. The increase of the intrafollicular PF4 and its anti-permeability effect might affect the formation of FF and folliculogenesis in PCOS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Advanced three-dimensional culture of equine intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A Stieler; Freund, J M; Gonzalez, L M

    2018-03-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities. Descriptive study. Intestinal samples were collected by sharp dissection immediately after euthanasia. Intestinal crypts containing intestinal stem cells were dissociated from the underlying tissue layers, plated in a 3D matrix and supplemented with growth factors. After several days, resultant 3D enteroids were prepared for immunofluorescent imaging and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to detect and characterise specific cell types present. Intestinal crypts were cryopreserved immediately following collection and viability assessed. Intestinal crypts were successfully cultured and matured into 3D enteroids containing a lumen and budding structures. Immunofluorescence and PCR were used to confirm the existence of stem cells and all post mitotic, mature cell types, described to exist in the horse intestinal epithelium. Previously frozen crypts were successfully cultured following a freeze-thaw cycle. Tissues were all derived from normal horses. Application of this technique for the study of specific disease was not performed at this time. The successful culture of equine intestinal crypts into 3D "mini-guts" allows for in vitro studies of the equine intestine. Additionally, these results have relevance to future development of novel therapies that harness the regenerative potential of equine intestine in horses with gastrointestinal disease

  9. Prediction of drug intestinal absorption in human using the Ussing chamber system: A comparison of intestinal tissues from animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Koga, Toshihisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Yoda, Noriaki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    An adequate evaluation system for drug intestinal absorption is essential in the pharmaceutical industry. Previously, we established a novel prediction system of drug intestinal absorption in humans, using the mini-Ussing chamber equipped with human intestinal tissues. In this system, the TI value was defined as the sum of drug amounts transported to the basal-side component (X corr ) and drug amounts accumulated in the tissue (T corr ), which are normalized by AUC of a drug in the apical compartment, as an index for drug absorption. In order to apply this system to the screening assay, it is important to understand the differences between animal and human tissues in the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this study, the transport index (TI) values of three drugs, with different levels of membrane permeability, were determined to evaluate the rank order of drug absorbability in intestinal tissues from rats, dogs, and monkeys. The TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs showed a good correlation with those in humans. On the other hand, the correlation of TI values in monkeys was lower compared to rats and dogs. The rank order of the correlation coefficient between human and investigated animal tissues was as follows: dog (r 2 =0.978), rat (r 2 =0.955), and monkey (r 2 =0.620). TI values in large intestinal tissues from rats (r 2 =0.929) and dogs (r 2 =0.808) also showed a good correlation. The obtained TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs were well correlated with the fraction of drug absorbed (F a ) in humans. From these results, the mini-Ussing chamber, equipped with intestinal tissues in rats and dogs, would be useful as a screening tool in the drug discovery stage. In addition, the obtained TI values can be used for the prediction of the F a in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii (Seed of Burdock) Reinforces Intestinal Barrier Function in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Soon; Jung, Sun Young; Back, Su Yeon; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Fructus Arctii is used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in oriental countries. This study aimed to investigate effect of F. Arctii extract on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and to reveal the active component of F. Arctii. We measured transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value (as an index of barrier function) and ovalbumin (OVA) permeation (as an index of permeability) to observe the changes of intestinal barrier function. The treatment of F. Arctii increased TEER value and decreased OVA influx on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, we found that arctigenin as an active component of F. Arctii increased TEER value and reduced permeability of OVA from apical to the basolateral side but not arctiin. In the present study, we revealed that F. Arctii could enhance intestinal barrier function, and its active component was an arctigenin on the functionality. We expect that the arctigenin from F. Arctii could contribute to prevention of inflammatory, allergic, and infectious diseases by reinforcing intestinal barrier function. PMID:26550018

  11. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  12. The Role of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Inflammatory Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Jan; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Wojcik, Dagmara; Zahradnik-Bilska, Janina; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Magierowski, Marcin; Mach, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events. Diminished activity of IAP could increase the risk of disease through changes in the microbiome, intestinal inflammation, and intestinal permeability. Exogenous IAP exerts a protective effect against intestinal and systemic inflammation in a variety of diseases and represents a potential therapeutic agent in diseases driven by gut barrier dysfunction such as IBD. The intestinal protective mechanisms are impaired in IBD patients due to lower synthesis and activity of endogenous IAP, but the pathomechanism of this enzyme deficiency remains unclear. IAP has been safely administered to humans and the human recombinant form of IAP has been developed. This review was designed to provide an update in recent research on the involvement of IAP in intestinal inflammatory processes with focus on IBD in experimental animal models and human patients.

  13. The Role of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Inflammatory Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Dagmara; Zahradnik-Bilska, Janina; Mach, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events. Diminished activity of IAP could increase the risk of disease through changes in the microbiome, intestinal inflammation, and intestinal permeability. Exogenous IAP exerts a protective effect against intestinal and systemic inflammation in a variety of diseases and represents a potential therapeutic agent in diseases driven by gut barrier dysfunction such as IBD. The intestinal protective mechanisms are impaired in IBD patients due to lower synthesis and activity of endogenous IAP, but the pathomechanism of this enzyme deficiency remains unclear. IAP has been safely administered to humans and the human recombinant form of IAP has been developed. This review was designed to provide an update in recent research on the involvement of IAP in intestinal inflammatory processes with focus on IBD in experimental animal models and human patients. PMID:28316376

  14. Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen’s agreement between microbiota and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Caricilli, Andrea Moro; Castoldi, Angela; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host’s adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier. PMID:24891972

  15. Effects of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin in the small intestine of mice.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Leandro M; Redondo, Enzo A; Dailoff, Gabriela C; Leiva, Carlos L; Díaz-Carrasco, Juan M; Bruzzone, Octavio A; Cangelosi, Adriana; Geoghegan, Patricia; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2017-12-01

    Iota toxin is a binary toxin solely produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains, and is structurally related to CDT from C. difficile and CST from C. spiroforme. As type E causes hemorrhagic enteritis in cattle, it is usually assumed that associated diseases are mediated by iota toxin, although evidence in this regard has not been provided. In the present report, iota toxin intestinal effects were evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. Histological damage was observed in ileal loops treated with purified iota toxin after 4 h of incubation. Luminal iota toxin induced fluid accumulation in the small intestine in a dose dependent manner, as determined by the enteropooling and the intestinal loop assays. None of these changes were observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that C. perfringens iota toxin alters intestinal permeability, predominantly by inducing necrosis and degenerative changes in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine, as well as changes in intestinal motility. The obtained results suggest a central role for iota toxin in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type E hemorrhagic enteritis, and contribute to remark the importance of clostridial binary toxins in digestive diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Application of fluorescent tracer agent technology to point-of-care gastrointestinal permeability measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Shieh, Jeng-Jong; Rogers, Thomas E.; Hall-Moore, Carla; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Talcott, Michael; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2016-03-01

    Gut dysfunction, often accompanied by increased mucosal permeability to gut contents, frequently accompanies a variety of human intestinal inflammatory conditions. These disorders include inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn's Disease) and environmental enteropathy and enteric dysfunction, a condition strongly associated with childhood malnutrition and stunting in resource poor areas of the world. The most widely used diagnostic assay for gastrointestinal permeability is the lactulose to mannitol ratio (L:M) measurement. These sugars are administered orally, differentially absorbed by the gut, and then cleared from the body by glomerular filtration in the kidney. The amount of each sugar excreted in the urine is measured. The larger sugar, lactulose, is minimally absorbed through a healthy gut. The smaller sugar, mannitol, in contrast, is readily absorbed through both a healthy and injured gut. Thus a higher ratio of lactulose to mannitol reflects increased intestinal permeability. However, several issues prevent widespread use of the L:M ratio in clinical practice. Urine needs to be collected over time intervals of several hours, the specimen then needs to be transported to an analytical laboratory, and sophisticated equipment is required to measure the concentration of each sugar in the urine. In this presentation we show that fluorescent tracer agents with molecular weights similar to those of the sugars, selected from our portfolio of biocompatible renally cleared fluorophores, mimic the L:M ratio test for gut permeability. This fluorescent tracer agent detection technology can be used to overcome the limitations of the L:M assay, and is amenable to point-of-care clinical use.

  17. Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike; Blöcher, Guido

    2011-09-01

    We report on changes in rock permeability induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air (dry) for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the reaction kinetics, so induced changes in porosity, and the concurrent evolution of sample permeability were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate and complete dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity showed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% to 30%, whilst the initial bulk volume remained unchanged. Within these limits permeability significantly increased with porosity by almost three orders of magnitude from approximately 7 × 10-19 m2 to 3 × 10-16 m2. We show that - when mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks can be excluded - permeability, reaction progress, and porosity are related unequivocally.

  18. Lunar electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Improved analytical techniques are applied to a large Apollo magnetometer data set to yield values of electroconductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance. Average bulk electroconductivity of the moon is calculated to be .0007 mho/m; a rapid increase with depth to about .003 mho/m within 250 km is indicated. The temperature profile, obtained from the electroconductivity profile for olivine, indicates high lunar temperatures at relatively shallow depths. Magnetic permeability of the moon relative to its environment is calculated to be 1.008 plus or minus .005; a permeability relative to free space of 1.012 plus 0.011, minus 0.008 is obtained. Lunar iron abundances corresponding to this permeability value are 2.5 plus 2.3, minus 1.7 wt% free iron and 5.0-13.5 wt% total iron for a moon composed of a combination of free iron, olivine, and orthopyroxene.

  19. Measuring Permeability of Composite Cryotank Laminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.; Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a test method developed to identify whether certain materials and material systems are suitable candidates for large pressurized reusable cryogenic tanks intended for use in current and future manned launch systems. It provides a quick way to screen numerous candidate materials for permeability under anticipated loading environments consistent with flight conditions, as well as addressing reusability issues. cryogenic tank, where the major design issue was hydrogen permeability. It was successfully used to evaluate samples subjected to biaxial loading while maintaining test temperatures near liquid hydrogen. After each sample was thermally preconditioned, a cyclic pressure load was applied to simulate the in-plane strain. First permeability was measured while a sample was under load. Then the sample was unloaded and allowed to return to ambient temperature. The test was repeated to simulate reusability, in order to evaluate its effects on material permeability.

  20. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  1. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A.T.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  2. Permeable Reactive Zones for Groundwater Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will cover aspects of the application of permeable reactive zones to treat contaminated ground water. Specific field studies will be discussed covering both granular iron-based and organic carbon-based reactive barriers. Specific contaminants addressed include:...

  3. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This a presentation for a Community Outreach Event called "Chemistry Works and Celebration of International Year of Chemistry." It will review the permeable pavement research project at the Edison Environmental center.

  4. Low Permeability Oil and Gas Plays

    EIA Publications

    The map shows boundaries, structure (elevation of the top contours), and isopachs (thickness contours) for major low permeability oil and gas plays in the lower 48 States. Additionally, related oil and gas infrastructure layers are included

  5. NASA In-step: Permeable Membrane Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Permeable Membrane Experiment are presented. An experiment overview is given. The Membrane Phase Separation Experiment, Membrane Diffusion Interference Experiment, and Membrane Wetting Experiment are described. Finally, summary and conclusions are discussed.

  6. Octopus microvasculature: permeability to ferritin and carbon.

    PubMed

    Browning, J

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Octopus microvasculature was investigated by intravascular injection of carbon and ferritin. Vessels were tight to carbon while ferritin penetrated the pericyte junction, and was found extravascularly 1-2 min after its introduction. Vesicles occurred rarely in pericytes; fenestrae were absent. The discontinuous endothelial layer did not consitute a permeability barrier. The basement membrane, although retarding the movement of ferritin, was permeable to it; carbon did not penetrate the basement membrane. Evidence indicated that ferritin, and thus similarly sized and smaller water soluble materials, traverse the pericyte junction as a result of bulk fluid flow. Comparisons are made with the convective (or junctional) and slower, diffusive (or vesicular) passage of materials known to occur across the endothelium of continuous capillaries in mammals. Previous macrophysiological determinations concerning the permeability of Octopus vessels are questioned in view of these findings. Possible reasons for some major structural differences in the microcirculatory systems of cephalopods and vertebrates are briefly discussed.

  7. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle J; Frederiksen, Jette L; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2015-09-01

    Optic neuritis is an acute inflammatory condition that is highly associated with multiple sclerosis. Currently, the best predictor of future development of multiple sclerosis is the number of T2 lesions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Previous research has found abnormalities in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging as part of the diagnostic work-up at time of diagnosis. Eighteen healthy controls were included for comparison. Patients had magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture performed within 4 weeks of onset of optic neuritis. Information on multiple sclerosis conversion was acquired from hospital records 2 years after optic neuritis onset. Logistic regression analysis showed that baseline permeability in normal-appearing white matter significantly improved prediction of multiple sclerosis conversion (according to the 2010 revised McDonald diagnostic criteria) within 2 years compared to T2 lesion count alone. There was no correlation between permeability and T2 lesion count. An increase in permeability in normal-appearing white matter of 0.1 ml/100 g/min increased the risk of multiple sclerosis 8.5 times whereas having more than nine T2 lesions increased the risk 52.6 times. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of permeability in normal-appearing white matter gave a cut-off of 0.13 ml/100 g/min, which predicted conversion to multiple sclerosis with a sensitivity of

  8. Pneumatic fracturing of low permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    Schuring, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Pneumatic fracturing of soils to enhance the removal and treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids is described. The process involves gas injection at a pressure exceeding the natural stresses and at a flow rate exceeding the permeability of the formation. The paper outlines geologic considerations, advantages and disadvantages, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, efficiency, and costs. Five case histories of remediation using pneumatic fracturing are briefly summarized. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Macrocyclic Prodrugs of a Selective Nonpeptidic Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Display High Permeability, Efficient Bioconversion but Low Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Vincent; Bergström, Fredrik; Brånalt, Jonas; Grönberg, Gunnar; Gustafsson, David; Karlsson, Staffan; Polla, Magnus; Bergman, Joakim; Kihlberg, Jan

    2016-07-28

    The only oral direct thrombin inhibitors that have reached the market, ximelagatran and dabigatran etexilat, are double prodrugs with low bioavailability in humans. We have evaluated an alternative strategy: the preparation of a nonpeptidic, polar direct thrombin inhibitor as a single, macrocyclic esterase-cleavable (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrug. Two homologous prodrugs were synthesized and displayed high solubilities and Caco-2 cell permeabilities, suggesting high absorption from the intestine. In addition, they were rapidly and completely converted to the active zwitterionic thrombin inhibitor in human hepatocytes. Unexpectedly, the most promising prodrug displayed only moderately higher oral bioavailability in rat than the polar direct thrombin inhibitor, most likely due to rapid metabolism in the intestine or the intestinal wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vivo ADME study of macrocyclic (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrugs, and it remains to be established if the modest increase in bioavailability is a general feature of this category of prodrugs or not.

  10. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    PubMed

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  12. Caprock integrity susceptibility to permeable fracture creation

    DOE PAGES

    Frash, Luke; Carey, James William; Ickes, Timothy Lee; ...

    2017-07-14

    Caprock leakage is of crucial concern for environmentally and economically sustainable development of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization operations. One potential leakage pathway is through fractures or faults that penetrate the caprock. In this study, we investigate the permeability induced by fracturing initially intact Marcellus shale outcrop specimens at stressed conditions using a triaxial direct-shear method. Measurements of induced permeability, fracture geometry, displacement, and applied stresses were all obtained at stressed conditions to investigate the coupled processes of fracturing and fluid flow as may occur in the subsurface. Fracture geometry was directly observed at stressed conditions using X-ray radiography video.more » Numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stress distribution developed in the experiments. Our experiments show that permeability induced by fracturing is strongly dependent on the stresses at which the fractures are created, the magnitude of shearing displacement, and the duration of flow. The strongest permeability contrast was observed when comparing specimens fractured at low stress to others fractured at higher stress. Measureable fracture permeability decreased by up to 7 orders of magnitude over a corresponding triaxial confining stress range of 3.5 MPa to 30 MPa. These results show that increasing stress, depth, and time are all significant permeability inhibitors that may limit potential leakage through fractured caprock.« less

  13. Charge Inversion in semi-permeable membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha; Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan

    Role of semi-permeable membranes like lipid bilayer is ubiquitous in a myriad of physiological and pathological phenomena. Typically, lipid membranes are impermeable to ions and solutes; however, protein channels embedded in the membrane allow the passage of selective, small ions across the membrane enabling the membrane to adopt a semi-permeable nature. This semi-permeability, in turn, leads to electrostatic potential jump across the membrane, leading to effects such as regulation of intracellular calcium, extracellular-vesicle-membrane interactions, etc. In this study, we theoretically demonstrate that this semi-permeable nature may trigger the most remarkable charge inversion (CI) phenomenon in the cytosol-side of the negatively-charged lipid bilayer membrane that are selectively permeable to only positive ions of a given salt. This CI is manifested as the changing of the sign of the electrostatic potential from negative to positive from the membrane-cytosol interface to deep within the cytosol. We study the impact of the parameters such as the concentration of this salt with selectively permeable ions as well as the concentration of an external salt in the development of this CI phenomenon. We anticipate such CI will profoundly influence the interaction of membrane and intra-cellular moieties (e.g., exosome or multi-cellular vesicles) having implications for a host of biophysical processes.

  14. Transformable ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changjun; Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Xue, Desheng

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic permeability, which measures the response of a material to an applied magnetic field, is crucial to the performance of magnetic devices and related technologies. Its dynamic value is usually a complex number with real and imaginary parts that describe, respectively, how much magnetic power can be stored and lost in the material. Control of permeability is therefore closely related to energy redistribution within a magnetic system or energy exchange between magnetic and other degrees of freedom via certain spin-dependent interactions. To avoid a high power consumption, direct manipulation of the permeability with an electric field through magnetoelectric coupling leads to high efficiency and simple operation, but remains a big challenge in both the fundamental physics and material science. Here we report unambiguous evidence of ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability in a Co /Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure, in which the ferroelectric PMN-PT acts as an energy source for the ferromagnetic Co film via an interfacial linear magnetoelectric interaction. The electric field tuning of the magnitude and line shape of the permeability offers a highly localized means of controlling magnetization with ultralow power consumption. Additionally, the emergence of negative permeability promises a new way of realizing functional nanoscale metamaterials with adjustable refraction index.

  15. Caprock integrity susceptibility to permeable fracture creation

    SciTech Connect

    Frash, Luke; Carey, James William; Ickes, Timothy Lee

    Caprock leakage is of crucial concern for environmentally and economically sustainable development of carbon dioxide sequestration and utilization operations. One potential leakage pathway is through fractures or faults that penetrate the caprock. In this study, we investigate the permeability induced by fracturing initially intact Marcellus shale outcrop specimens at stressed conditions using a triaxial direct-shear method. Measurements of induced permeability, fracture geometry, displacement, and applied stresses were all obtained at stressed conditions to investigate the coupled processes of fracturing and fluid flow as may occur in the subsurface. Fracture geometry was directly observed at stressed conditions using X-ray radiography video.more » Numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stress distribution developed in the experiments. Our experiments show that permeability induced by fracturing is strongly dependent on the stresses at which the fractures are created, the magnitude of shearing displacement, and the duration of flow. The strongest permeability contrast was observed when comparing specimens fractured at low stress to others fractured at higher stress. Measureable fracture permeability decreased by up to 7 orders of magnitude over a corresponding triaxial confining stress range of 3.5 MPa to 30 MPa. These results show that increasing stress, depth, and time are all significant permeability inhibitors that may limit potential leakage through fractured caprock.« less

  16. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE PAGES

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; ...

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  17. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    PubMed

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  18. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    PubMed Central

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-01-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis. Images PMID:8102380

  19. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Frictional stability-permeability re