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Sample records for abnormal involuntary movement

  1. Subjective awareness of abnormal involuntary movements in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R; Awerbuch, G I

    1993-01-01

    A wide majority of schizophrenic patients with Tardive dyskinesia, a neurological disorder produced by chronic neuroleptic therapy, lack awareness of their involuntary movements. This by contrast to patients with Parkinsonism who usually are aware of their abnormal movements. In the following communication we present a series of studies which are aimed at providing further insight into the issue of awareness of involuntary movements in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. In addition, we investigated whether edentulosness, which may be a risk factor for orofacial dyskinesias in the elderly, is also a risk factor for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias. We found that: (a) one's awareness of involuntary movements is related to some but not all muscle groups, (b) tardive dyskinesia may be associated with a significant distress, (c) lack of awareness may be a feature of frontal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia, (d) patients who lack awareness of their involuntary movements have a higher prevalence of pineal calcification, and (e) edentulosness, which is related to deficits in the orofacial sensorimotor system, increases the risk for neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesias. PMID:7916006

  2. Palmitoyl Serotonin Inhibits L-dopa-induced Abnormal Involuntary Movements in the Mouse Parkinson Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Go, Jun; Son, Eunjung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Kim, Mee Ree

    2016-08-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated. To investigate whether PA-5HT relieve LID in PD and decrease hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors, we used the 6-hydroxydopomine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD and treated the L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) for 10 days with PA-5HT (0.3 mg/kg/day). The number of wall contacts with the forelimb in the cylinder test was significantly decreased by 6-OHDA lesion in mice and the pharmacotherapeutic effect of L-DOPA was also revealed in PA-5HT-treated mice. Moreover, in AIMs test, PA-5HT-treated mice showed significant reduction of locomotive, axial, limb, and orofacial AIMs score compared to the vehicle-treated mice. LID-induced hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and overexpression of FosB/ΔFosB was markedly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum of PA-5HT-treated mice, indicating that PA-5HT decreased the dopamine D1 receptor-hyperactivation induced by chronic treatment of L-DOPA in dopamine-denervated striatum. These results suggest that PA-5HT effectively attenuates the development of LID and enhance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and FosB/ΔFosB expression in the hemi-parkinsonian mouse model. PA-5HT may have beneficial effect on the LID in PD. PMID:27574484

  3. Palmitoyl Serotonin Inhibits L-dopa-induced Abnormal Involuntary Movements in the Mouse Parkinson Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Go, Jun; Son, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated. To investigate whether PA-5HT relieve LID in PD and decrease hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors, we used the 6-hydroxydopomine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD and treated the L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) for 10 days with PA-5HT (0.3 mg/kg/day). The number of wall contacts with the forelimb in the cylinder test was significantly decreased by 6-OHDA lesion in mice and the pharmacotherapeutic effect of L-DOPA was also revealed in PA-5HT-treated mice. Moreover, in AIMs test, PA-5HT-treated mice showed significant reduction of locomotive, axial, limb, and orofacial AIMs score compared to the vehicle-treated mice. LID-induced hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and overexpression of FosB/ΔFosB was markedly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum of PA-5HT-treated mice, indicating that PA-5HT decreased the dopamine D1 receptor-hyperactivation induced by chronic treatment of L-DOPA in dopamine-denervated striatum. These results suggest that PA-5HT effectively attenuates the development of LID and enhance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and FosB/ΔFosB expression in the hemi-parkinsonian mouse model. PA-5HT may have beneficial effect on the LID in PD. PMID:27574484

  4. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  5. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    PubMed Central

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising) is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies. PMID:26283934

  6. Reliability and clinical utility of a Portuguese version of the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS) for tardive dyskinesia in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, H; Tonelli, D; Poiani, G R; Vital, M A B F; Andreatini, R

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and clinical utility of a Portuguese version of the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS). Videotaped interviews with 16 psychiatric inpatients treated with antipsychotic drugs for at least 5 years were evaluated. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between three raters, two with and one without clinical training in psychopathology. Clinical utility was assessed by the difference between the scores of patients with (N = 11) and without (N = 5) tardive dyskinesia (TD). Patients with TD exhibited a higher severity of global evaluation by the AIMS (sum of scores: 4.2 +/- 0.9 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2; score on item 8: 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2, TD vs controls). The ICC for the global evaluation was fair between the two skilled raters (0.58-0.62) and poor between these raters and the rater without clinical experience (0.05-0.29). Thus, we concluded that the Portuguese version of the AIMS shows an acceptable inter-rater reliability, but only between clinically skilled raters, and that it is clinically useful. PMID:12700830

  7. Impact of Levodopa Priming on Dopamine Neuron Transplant Efficacy and Induction of Abnormal Involuntary Movements in Parkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Steece-Collier, Kathy; Soderstrom, Katherine; Collier, Timothy; Sortwell, Caryl E.; Lad, Eleonora Maries

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials of neural grafting for Parkinson's disease (PD) have produced variable, but overall, disappointing results. One particular disappointment has been the development of aberrant motor complications following dopamine (DA) neuron grafting. Despite a lack of consistent benefit, the utility of dopamine neuron replacement remains supported by clinical and basic data. In a continued effort to elucidate factors that might improve this therapy, we used a parkinsonian rat model to examine whether pre-graft chronic levodopa impacted graft efficacy and/or graft-induced dyskinesia (GID) induction. Indeed, all grafted PD patients to date have had a pre-graft history of long-term levodopa. It is well established that long-term levodopa results in a plethora of long-lasting neurochemical alterations, and genomic changes indicative of altered structural and synaptic plasticity. Thus, therapeutic dopamine terminal replacement in a striatal environment complicated by such changes could be expected to lead to abnormal or inappropriate connections between graft and host brain, and contribute to suboptimal efficacy and/or post-graft GID behaviors. To investigate the impact of pre-graft levodopa, one group of parkinsonian rats received levodopa for 4 weeks prior to grafting. A second levodopa naïve group was grafted and grafts allowed to mature for nine weeks prior to introducing chronic levodopa. We report here that in parkinsonian rats, pre-exposure to chronic levodopa significantly reduces behavioral and neurochemical efficacy of embryonic dopamine grafts. Further, dopamine terminal replacement prior to introduction of chronic levodopa is highly effective at preventing development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and GID-like behaviors occur regardless of pre-graft levodopa status. PMID:19399877

  8. RGS4 is involved in the generation of abnormal involuntary movements in the unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wai Kin D; Martin-Negrier, Marie-Laure; Bezard, Erwan; Crossman, Alan R; Ravenscroft, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins are implicated in striatal G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) sensitisation in the pathophysiology of l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), also known as dyskinesia (LID), in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated RGS protein subtype 4 in the expression of AIMs in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of LID. The effects of RGS4 antisense brain infusion on the behavioural and molecular correlates of l-DOPA priming in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were assessed. In situ hybridisation revealed that repeated l-DOPA/benserazide treatment caused an elevation of RGS4 mRNA levels in the striatum, predominantly in the lateral regions. The increased expression of RGS4 mRNA in the rostral striatum was found to positively correlate with the behavioural (AIM scores) and molecular (pre-proenkephalin B, PPE-B expression) markers of LID. We found that suppressing the elevation of RGS4 mRNA in the striatum by continuous infusion of RGS4 antisense oligonucleotides, via implanted osmotic mini-pumps, during l-DOPA priming, reduced the induction of AIMs. Moreover, ex vivo analyses of the rostral dorsolateral striatum showed that RGS4 antisense infusion attenuated l-DOPA-induced elevations of PPE-B mRNA and dopamine-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding, a marker used for measuring dopamine receptor super-sensitivity. Taken together, these data suggest that (i) RGS4 proteins play an important pathophysiological role in the development and expression of LID and (ii) suppressing the elevation of RGS4 mRNA levels in l-DOPA priming attenuates the associated pathological changes in LID, dampening its physiological expression. Thus, modulating RGS4 proteins could prove beneficial in the treatment of dyskinesia in PD. PMID:24969021

  9. The novel 5-HT1A receptor agonist, NLX-112 reduces l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in rat: A chronic administration study with microdialysis measurements.

    PubMed

    McCreary, Andrew C; Varney, Mark A; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Although l-DOPA alleviates the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), it elicits troublesome l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in a majority of PD patients after prolonged treatment. This is likely due to conversion of l-DOPA to dopamine as a 'false neurotransmitter' from serotoninergic neurons. The highly selective and efficacious 5-HT1A receptor agonist, NLX-112 (befiradol or F13640) shows potent activity in a rat model of LID (suppression of Abnormal Involuntary Movements, AIMs) but its anti-AIMs effects have not previously been investigated following repeated administration. Acute administration of NLX-112 (0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg i.p.) reversed l-DOPA (6 mg/kg)-induced AIMs in hemiparkinsonian rats with established dyskinesia. The activity of NLX-112 was maintained following repeated daily i.p. administration over 14 days and was accompanied by pronounced decrease of striatal 5-HT extracellular levels, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, indicative of the inhibition of serotonergic activity. A concurrent blunting of l-DOPA-induced surge in dopamine levels on the lesioned side of the brain was observed upon NLX-112 administration and these neurochemical responses were also seen after 14 days of treatment. NLX-112 also suppressed the expression of AIMs in rats that were being primed for dyskinesia by repeated l-DOPA administration. However, when treatment of these rats with NLX-112 was stopped, l-DOPA then induced AIMs with scores that resembled those of control rats. The present study shows that the potent anti-AIMs activity of NLX-112 is maintained upon repeated administration and supports the ongoing clinical development of NLX-112 as a novel antidyskinetic agent for PD patients receiving l-DOPA treatment. PMID:26777281

  10. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  11. Voluntary motor commands reveal awareness and control of involuntary movement.

    PubMed

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s. Participants achieved this by modulating agonist muscle activity, rather than by antagonist contraction. Specifically, agonist muscle activity plateaued during this voluntary inhibition, and resumed its previous increase thereafter. There was no discernible antagonist activation. Thus, some central signal appeared to temporarily counter the involuntary motor drive, without directly affecting the Kohnstamm generator itself. We hypothesise a form of "negative motor command" to account for this novel finding. We next tested the specificity of the negative motor command, by inducing bilateral Kohnstamm movements, and instructing voluntary inhibition for one arm only. The results suggested negative motor commands responsible for inhibition are initially broad, affecting both arms, and then become focused. Finally, a psychophysical investigation found that the perceived force of the aftercontraction was significantly overestimated, relative to voluntary contractions with similar EMG levels. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kohnstamm generator does not provide an efference copy signal. Our results shed new light on this interesting class of involuntary movement, and provide new information about voluntary inhibition of action. PMID:27399155

  12. Using voluntary motor commands to inhibit involuntary arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to stop an ongoing movement. Is voluntary motor inhibition a general neural mechanism that can be focused on any movement, including involuntary movements, or is it mere termination of a positive voluntary motor command? The involuntary arm lift, or 'floating arm trick', is a distinctive long-lasting reflex of the deltoid muscle. We investigated how a voluntary motor network inhibits this form of involuntary motor control. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during the floating arm trick produced a silent period in the reflexively contracting deltoid muscle, followed by a rebound of muscle activity. This pattern suggests a persistent generator of involuntary motor commands. Instructions to bring the arm down voluntarily reduced activity of deltoid muscle. When this voluntary effort was withdrawn, the involuntary arm lift resumed. Further, voluntary motor inhibition produced a strange illusion of physical resistance to bringing the arm down, as if ongoing involuntarily generated commands were located in a 'sensory blind-spot', inaccessible to conscious perception. Our results suggest that voluntary motor inhibition may be a specific neural function, distinct from absence of positive voluntary motor commands. PMID:25253453

  13. The combination of lithium and l-Dopa/Carbidopa reduces MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) via calpain-1 inhibition in a mouse model: Relevance for Parkinson׳s disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Lazzara, Carol A; Riley, Rebeccah R; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Lithium has recently been suggested to have neuroprotective effects in several models of neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Levodopa (l-Dopa) replacement therapy remains the most common and effective treatment for PD, although it induces the complication of l-Dopa induced dyskinesia after years of use. Here we examined the potential use of lithium in combination with l-Dopa/Carbidopa for both reducing MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) as well as protecting against cell death in MPTP-lesioned mice. Chronic lithium administration (0.127% LiCl in the feed) in the presence of daily l-Dopa/Carbidopa injection for a period of 2 months was sufficient to effectively reduce MPTP-induced AIMs in mice. Mechanistically, lithium was found to suppress MPTP-induced calpain activities in vivo coinciding with down-regulation of calpain-1 but not calpain-2 expression in both the striatum (ST) and the brain stem (BS). Calpain inhibition has previously been associated with increased levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is probably mediated by the up-regulation of the transcription factors MEF-2A and 2D. Lithium was found to induce up-regulation of TH expression in the ST and the BS, as well as in N27 rat dopaminergic cells. Further, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression was substantially up-regulated by lithium treatment in vitro. These results suggest the potential use of lithium in combination with l-Dopa/Carbidopa not only as a neuroprotectant, but also for reducing AIMs and possibly alleviating potential side-effects associated with the current treatment for PD. PMID:26119916

  14. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  15. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  16. [Involuntary Movement of Bilateral Lower Limbs Caused by Epidural Anesthesia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Toki, Keiko; Yokose, Masashi; Miyashita, Tetsuya; Sato, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Sayoko; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Regional anesthesia, especially epidural anesthesia, rarely causes involuntary movement Here we present a case of a patient who demonstrated myoclonus-like involuntary movement of the lower limbs during continuous infusion of ropivacaine, fentanyl, and droperidol through the thoracic epidural catheter. This movement disappeared when the epidural infusion was stopped, but reappeared when the epidural infusion was restarted. Naloxone did not eliminate the movement The patient was thereafter discharged uneventfully. This case and other reports in the literature suggest that involuntary movement associated with regional anesthesia is rare and self-limiting. However, careful consideration should be given to exclude other, potentially dangerous complications. PMID:27483662

  17. Classification of involuntary movements in dogs: Tremors and twitches.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, Mark; Garosi, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on important new findings in the field of involuntary movements (IM) in dogs and illustrates the importance of developing a clear classification tool for diagnosing tremor and twitches. Developments over the last decade have changed our understanding of IM and highlight several caveats in the current tremor classification. Given the ambiguous association between tremor phenomenology and tremor aetiology, a more cautious definition of tremors based on clinical assessment is required. An algorithm for the characterisation of tremors is presented herein. The classification of tremors is based on the distinction between tremors that occur at rest and tremors that are action-related; tremors associated with action are divided into postural or kinetic. Controversial issues are outlined and thus reflect the open questions that are yet to be answered from an evidence base of peer-reviewed published literature. Peripheral nerve hyper-excitability (PNH; cramps and twitches) may manifest as fasciculations, myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps, tetany and tetanus. It is anticipated that as we learn more about the aetiology and pathogenesis of IMs, future revisions to the classification will be needed. It is therefore the intent of this work to stimulate discussions and thus contribute to the development of IM research. PMID:27387736

  18. Hypoglycemia-induced spontaneous unilateral jerking movement in bilateral internal capsule posterior limb abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Nobuhito; Ueda, Masayuki; Nagayama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Yasuo

    2014-03-15

    We report an 89-year-old woman who developed consciousness disturbance associated with marked hypoglycemia, and showed involuntary movements manifested as spontaneous quick-jerking flexion followed by slow relaxation, in the right leg. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed bilateral hyperintensities in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (P-IC). She was treated with intravenous glucose supplementation, and her symptoms dramatically improved. The P-IC lesions are common abnormalities on MRI in hypoglycemia, and may cause paralysis. However involuntary movements associated with the lesions are rarely observed. The spontaneous jerking movements observed in this patient might result from transient impairment of the pyramidal tract associated with hypoglycemia. PMID:24411408

  19. A Genetic Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Shows Involuntary Movements and Increased Postsynaptic Sensitivity to Apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Brehm, N; Bez, F; Carlsson, T; Kern, B; Gispert, S; Auburger, G; Cenci, M A

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) protein aggregation plays a causal role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The SNCA protein modulates neurotransmission via the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex assembly and presynaptic vesicle trafficking. The striatal presynaptic dopamine deficit is alleviated by treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA), but postsynaptic plastic changes induced by this treatment lead to a development of involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While this process is currently modeled in rodents harboring neurotoxin-induced lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway, we have here explored the postsynaptic supersensitivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling in a genetic mouse model of early PD. To this end, we used mice with prion promoter-driven overexpression of A53T-SNCA in the nigrostriatal and corticostriatal projections. At a symptomatic age (18 months), mice were challenged with apomorphine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and examined using both behavioral and molecular assays. After the administration of apomorphine, A53T-transgenic mice showed more severe stereotypic and dystonic movements in comparison with wild-type controls. Molecular markers of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and Fos messenger RNA (mRNA), were examined in striatal tissue at 30 and 100 min after apomorphine injection. At 30 min, wild-type and transgenic mice showed a similar induction of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA (two MAPK phosphatases). At the same time point, Fos mRNA was induced more strongly in mutant mice than in wild-type controls. At 100 min after apomorphine treatment, the induction of both Fos, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA was significantly larger in mutant mice than wild-type controls. At this time point, apomorphine caused a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 levels specifically in the transgenic mice. Our results document for the first time a disturbance of ERK1/2 signaling regulation associated with apomorphine-induced involuntary movements

  20. Dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy without involuntary movement or dementia--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kasahata, Naoki; Iwasaki, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    Recently, discussions about the clinical features of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), especially the existence of an ataxo-choreoathetoid type, have increased. Traditionally, DRPLA patients have been thought to present with involuntary movements and dementia. Here, we report a patient that presented with ataxia, spasticity of the right lower extremity and mild sensory disturbances. He did not show either apparent involuntary movement or dementia. Mini-mental state examination demonstrated a score of 29/30. The cerebellar output system involving the dentate nuclei and superior cerebellar peduncles seemed to be atrophic yet the cerebellar input system involving the middle cerebellar peduncles was preserved on MRI. In addition, there was an expansion of the atrophin1 (ATN1) CAG repeat of chromosome 12p: 9/61. This seems to be the first case report of a genetically confirmed DRPLA patient presenting with clinical manifestations of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3). PMID:20627552

  1. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety. PMID:21616774

  2. The influence of involuntary facial movements on craniofacial anthropometry: a survey using a three-dimensional photographic system.

    PubMed

    Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Medinger, Laurent; Kruse, Astrid L; Grätz, Klaus Wilhelm; Obwegeser, Joachim Anton; Matthews, Felix

    2012-03-01

    In the modern anthropometry of complex structures, such as the face, different technical approaches for acquisition of three-dimensional data have become increasingly more common. Results of meticulous evaluations have shown high degrees of precision and accuracy under both ideal and clinical circumstances. However, the question remains as to which level of accuracy is adequate to meet clinical needs. Apart from the measuring technique itself, potential sources of error must be identified and dealt with. Subjects' involuntary facial movements can potentially influence clinical reliability. The 3dMDface™ system was used clinically to investigate the influence of involuntary facial movements. Other factors of influence were systematically excluded. The mean technical error of the system (0.09mm) was investigated in a previous study and taken into account for interpretation of the data. The handling of the system was straightforward for both acquisition and analysis of data. Including technical error and the influence of involuntary facial movements, the mean global error was 0.41mm (range 0-3.3). Taking into account the technical error of the system known from the previous study, involuntary facial movements account for a mean error of 0.32mm. This range of involuntary facial movements clearly exceeds the known technical error of the three-dimensional photographic system used. Given this finding, future research should shift its focus from the analysis of the technical aspects of such systems to other influential factors. PMID:21236527

  3. Involuntary rhythmic leg movements time-locked with the respiratory cycle.

    PubMed

    Leal, A J; Calado, E

    2001-11-01

    Involuntary rhythmic leg movements in childhood is an uncommon condition, the generators of which remain unknown. We report on a male 3 years of age with distinct features providing important clues concerning the location of one of these generators. At the age of 7 months, the previously healthy young male started with low frequency, rhythmic, and continuous (both during wakefulness and sleep) flexion/extension movements of the lower limbs. Movements interfered significantly with gait acquisition, and, despite normal cognitive development, he was able to walk only at age 2 years, 4 months. The neurologic examination revealed the absence of automatic stepping in the neonatal period, but was otherwise normal. A polygraphic electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) recording, at the age of 2 years, 9 months, revealed rhythmic and synchronous legs with EMG activity at 0.5 Hz. A more complete polygraphic recording at the age of 3 years, 10 months, showed a lower frequency (0.35 Hz) for the movements, which were time-locked with the respiratory cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed an increased T(2) signal in the upper medulla-lower pons regions. The generator of the rhythmic legs movements is postulated to be the respiratory center, connecting with the reticulospinal projecting neurons through an aberrant pathway. PMID:11744317

  4. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  5. Eye movement abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L; Zaccara, G; Ramacciotti, A B; Arnetoli, G

    1998-03-20

    The aim of the present study is to investigate smooth pursuit eye movement and saccadic performance in anorexia nervosa during a restored weight period and to determine if functional links can be made between eye movement performance and clinical features. SPEM parameters were recorded for 28 female anorectic out-patients (DSM IV), who had a body weight loss of up to 20% of ideal body weight. Twenty-eight comparison subjects were also tested. Clinically, each patient was assessed using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Structured Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID II), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Hamilton Scale for Depression (HRSD). The anorectic patients performed slightly worse than the comparison subjects on a number of SPEM measures. No relationship was found between SPEM impairment and a global severity index of psychopathology (SCL 90-R GSI) or depressive symptoms. Moreover, OCD symptoms and scores on some EDI scales (such as perfectionism) appear related to the severity of the eye movement alterations. The evidence of SPEM abnormalities in a subgroup of anorectic patients during the remitted state and the relationship of the abnormalities to obsessive-compulsive symptoms are discussed. Results are in agreement with the hypothesis regarding the persistence of neurophysiological as well as psychopathological traits of disorder in anorectic patients. PMID:9579703

  6. A hand-held micro surgical device for contact force regulation against involuntary movements.

    PubMed

    Seulki Kyeong; Dongjune Chang; Yunjoo Kim; Gwang Min Gu; Seungkey Lee; Soohoa Jeong; Jung Kim

    2015-08-01

    Involuntary movements such as heart beating in surgical environment and surgeon's tremor disturb a micro surgical manipulation and cause a risk of patient wound. Although the delicate operation is performed by a skilled surgeon, the sensitivity of the surgeon is limited to quantify the range of safe contact forces. In this paper, we developed a compact hand-held surgical device to maintain a required contact force to maintain a required contact force using a custom force sensor and a linear delta mechanism. The custom optical force sensor measured the contact force of the device tip and the linear delta mechanism compensated undesired forces to maintain a consistent contact force. The proposed device is consisted of force sensing unit and actuating unit. The device was improved from our previous Linear Delta mechanism based prototype in terms of size, weight, and force sensing capability. The developed device was validated by investigation of contact force accuracy in a fixed condition and a hand-held condition. In hand-held condition, the visual feedback of the current contact force was provided, and the performance of the contact force regulation was investigated by comparing the root mean square (RMS) contact force errors and standard deviation in with and without control cases. The fluctuation (less than 50 mN) of the force regulation control of the device showed the feasibility of the device for the use in delicate operations. PMID:26736400

  7. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  8. Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management. PMID:24167489

  9. Gamma-Band Modulation and Coherence in the EEG by Involuntary Eye Movements in Patients in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balazs, Susanne; Kermanshahi, Kazem; Binder, Heinrich; Rattay, Frank; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Gamma power and coherence in the electroencephalogram increase in healthy individuals in association with voluntary eye movements, saccades. Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome show repetitive involuntary eye movements that are similar to saccades but progress at a much lower speed. In the present study, we explored the changes in gamma power and coherence related to these eye movements and investigated whether any relationship to the patients' clinical status could be found that would indicate first neurophysiological signs of recovery. To this end, we assessed the clinical status and registered classical scalp electroencephalography with 19 surface electrodes and electro-oculogram of 45 consecutive patients at admission and at 4 weekly intervals. Slow gamma activity (in the frequency range of 37-40 Hz) was analyzed before, during, and after eye movements (pre, -intra and post-eye movement) by means of "continuous wavelet transform." We graded recovery using clinical behavioral scales, taking into account the variables, age, gender, recovery (yes or no), as well as the patients diagnoses (traumatic brain injury, hypoxia, hemorrhage, infection). Statistical evaluation was performed using DataLab, R, and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Based on the clinical status, we distinguished between recovering and chronic groups of patients. In comparison with the chronic group, the recovering group showed significantly higher gamma power over the posterior electrodes and significant higher values of coherence in the gamma-band activity during the presaccadic period of eye movements. We suggest that our findings on the onset of involuntary eye movements in the recovering group of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome indicates a first neurophysiological sign of favorable prognosis. PMID:26346965

  10. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  11. Assessment of Specific Characteristics of Abnormal General Movements: Does It Enhance the Prediction of Cerebral Palsy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal general movements at around 3 months corrected age indicate a high risk of cerebral palsy (CP). We aimed to determine whether specific movement characteristics can improve the predictive power of definitely abnormal general movements. Method: Video recordings of 46 infants with definitely abnormal general movements at 9 to 13 weeks…

  12. Abnormal head movement in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The bobble-head doll syndrome is characterised by abnormal head movements. These head movements are usually 'yes-yes' (up and down) type; rarely, head movements are 'no-no' (side-to-side) type. Commonly described causes of the bobble-head doll syndrome include third ventricular tumours, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, aqueductal stenosis and other lesions in the region of the third ventricle of the brain. We report a case of tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus; in this patient bobble-head doll syndrome developed following external ventricular drainage. In our patient, placement of intraventricular drain led to massive dilatation of the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle because of blocked foramina of Monro on the left side. The bobble-head doll syndrome, presumably, developed because of the pressure effect of the dilated third ventricle on the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, red nucleus and dentatorubrothalamic pathways. We think that distortion of the third ventricle was responsible for the impairment of the functions of all these structures. PMID:23035162

  13. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John

    1993-01-01

    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  14. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  15. [The concept of tic in the history of abnormal movements].

    PubMed

    Dordain, G

    1986-01-01

    History of abnormal movements started during the 14th century. At that time the St Vitus' Dance was described, but the nosology of dyskinesias remained confusing during the next five centuries. The concept of tic was elaborated in France during the 18th century. It remained too large a concept however. Definitive semiologies appeared at the end of the 19th century, thus allowing tics to emerge from the "chaos of choreas". The etymology of the word "tic" still remains mysterious. In 1905, Meige thought that the word tic was used for the first time by reference to horses. He referred to the tic of the bear in the horse described by Rudler and Chomel at The Société de Neurologie de Paris in 1903. Veterinarians were thus probably the first to describe the word. If so, however, the horse must leave anteriority to the goat. The word Ticq was used in 1611 as mentioned by the French dictionary Robert. The word is said to be an onomatopea and is compared to the italian word ticchio which means caprice. Another dictionary (Littré) suggest the german word "ticken", which means "to touch slightly", the galic word tacaid (sudden pain) and the german ziki (young goat), a word which could have lead to ticchio as capra, goat in italian, gave capricio. PMID:3547545

  16. Saccadic Eye Movement Abnormalities in Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, Judith; Donovan, Tim; Litchfield, Damien; Lewis, Charlie; Davies, Robert; Crawford, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Childhood onset epilepsy is associated with disrupted developmental integration of sensorimotor and cognitive functions that contribute to persistent neurobehavioural comorbidities. The role of epilepsy and its treatment on the development of functional integration of motor and cognitive domains is unclear. Oculomotor tasks can probe neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms vulnerable to developmental disruptions by epilepsy-related factors. The study involved 26 patients and 48 typically developing children aged 8–18 years old who performed a prosaccade and an antisaccade task. Analyses compared medicated chronic epilepsy patients and unmedicated controlled epilepsy patients to healthy control children on saccade latency, accuracy and dynamics, errors and correction rate, and express saccades. Patients with medicated chronic epilepsy had impaired and more variable processing speed, reduced accuracy, increased peak velocity and a greater number of inhibitory errors, younger unmedicated patients also showed deficits in error monitoring. Deficits were related to reported behavioural problems in patients. Epilepsy factors were significant predictors of oculomotor functions. An earlier age at onset predicted reduced latency of prosaccades and increased express saccades, and the typical relationship between express saccades and inhibitory errors was absent in chronic patients, indicating a persistent reduction in tonic cortical inhibition and aberrant cortical connectivity. In contrast, onset in later childhood predicted altered antisaccade dynamics indicating disrupted neurotransmission in frontoparietal and oculomotor networks with greater demand on inhibitory control. The observed saccadic abnormalities are consistent with a dysmaturation of subcortical-cortical functional connectivity and aberrant neurotransmission. Eye movements could be used to monitor the impact of epilepsy on neurocognitive development and help assess the risk for poor neurobehavioural

  17. Saccadic Eye Movement Abnormalities in Children with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Judith; Donovan, Tim; Litchfield, Damien; Lewis, Charlie; Davies, Robert; Crawford, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Childhood onset epilepsy is associated with disrupted developmental integration of sensorimotor and cognitive functions that contribute to persistent neurobehavioural comorbidities. The role of epilepsy and its treatment on the development of functional integration of motor and cognitive domains is unclear. Oculomotor tasks can probe neurophysiological and neurocognitive mechanisms vulnerable to developmental disruptions by epilepsy-related factors. The study involved 26 patients and 48 typically developing children aged 8-18 years old who performed a prosaccade and an antisaccade task. Analyses compared medicated chronic epilepsy patients and unmedicated controlled epilepsy patients to healthy control children on saccade latency, accuracy and dynamics, errors and correction rate, and express saccades. Patients with medicated chronic epilepsy had impaired and more variable processing speed, reduced accuracy, increased peak velocity and a greater number of inhibitory errors, younger unmedicated patients also showed deficits in error monitoring. Deficits were related to reported behavioural problems in patients. Epilepsy factors were significant predictors of oculomotor functions. An earlier age at onset predicted reduced latency of prosaccades and increased express saccades, and the typical relationship between express saccades and inhibitory errors was absent in chronic patients, indicating a persistent reduction in tonic cortical inhibition and aberrant cortical connectivity. In contrast, onset in later childhood predicted altered antisaccade dynamics indicating disrupted neurotransmission in frontoparietal and oculomotor networks with greater demand on inhibitory control. The observed saccadic abnormalities are consistent with a dysmaturation of subcortical-cortical functional connectivity and aberrant neurotransmission. Eye movements could be used to monitor the impact of epilepsy on neurocognitive development and help assess the risk for poor neurobehavioural

  18. Unidirectional abnormal eye movement without gaze nystagmus - Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masahiro; Shibasaki, Osamu; Shindo, Susumu; Ito, Akinori; Kase, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case with unidirectional abnormalities of smooth eye movements without gaze nystagmus. Abnormalities of eye movements were confined to unidirectional (leftward) horizontal pursuit and slow phase of OKN; however, horizontal VOR (slow phase of caloric nystagmus) and saccade were normal, and vertical eye movements were also normal. No lesions were detected in the central nervous system, and any history of drug intake was denied. Although the cause of the unidirectional abnormality in eye movement of this case is still not clear, a congenital origin seems to be the most probable. PMID:26386498

  19. Abnormal Cortex-Muscle Interactions in Subjects with X-linked Kallmann's Syndrome and Mirror Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, S. F.; Harrison, L. M.; Mayston, M. J.; Parekh, A.; James, L. M.; Stephens, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    X-linked Kallmann's (XKS) subjects, who display mirror movements, have abnormal corticospinal tracts which innervate motoneurons of the left and right distal muscles of the upper limb. The size of the abnormal ipsilateral projection is variable. We have used coherence and cumulant analysis between EEG and first dorsal interosseous muscle (1DI) EMG…

  20. Amphetamine-induced abnormal movements occur independently of both transplant- and host-derived serotonin innervation following neural grafting in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emma Louise; Brundin, Patrik; Cenci, M Angela

    2009-07-01

    Serotonin has been postulated to play a role in the transplant-induced involuntary movements that occur following intrastriatal grafts of ventral mesencephalic tissue in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Serotonin innervation of the striatum may be derived from either the donor graft tissue or the normal host projections from the midbrain. In two sets of experiments we study the impact of graft- versus host-derived serotonin innervation. All experiments were performed in l-DOPA treated rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. As expected, following intrastriatal transplantation of embryonic ventral mesencephalon all the transplanted rats exhibited pronounced contralateral rotation in response to amphetamine and some animals also showed severe abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). In the first set of experiments, all types of AIMs (axial, limb, orolingual and locomotor) were markedly reduced when amphetamine was co-administered with either the D(2) dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride or the D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390. Cotreatment with the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT significantly attenuated the amphetamine-induced axial and limb dyskinesias, whilst locomotor scores remained unchanged. These data point to a major role for dopamine receptors, and to a modulatory role for 5-HT(1A) receptors, in post-grafting dyskinesias. In the second experiment, grafted rats exhibiting amphetamine-induced dyskinesia were subjected to 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections into the midbrain in order to destroy the host serotonin innervation. This intervention had no effect on either amphetamine-induced AIMs or contralateral rotation. Histological examination of all grafted rats showed similar numbers of dopaminergic neurons and a very low number of serotonin neurons within the transplants, regardless of AIMs expression. Our results suggest that amphetamine-induced AIMs in grafted animals primarily depend on an activation of dopamine receptors, and that serotonin

  1. Abnormal movements in first-episode, nonaffective psychosis: dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs.

    PubMed

    Compton, Michael T; Fantes, Francisco; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Johnson, Stephanie; Walker, Elaine F

    2015-03-30

    Motor abnormalities represent a neurobehavioral domain of signs intrinsic to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, though they are commonly attributed to medication side effects and remain understudied. Individuals with first-episode psychosis represent an ideal group to study innate movement disorders due to minimal prior antipsychotic exposure. We measured dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like signs and examined their associations with: (1) age at onset of psychotic symptoms and duration of untreated psychosis; (2) positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms; (3) neurocognition; and (4) neurological soft signs. Among 47 predominantly African American first-episode psychosis patients in a public-sector hospital, the presence and severity of dyskinesias, stereotypies, and catatonic-like features were assessed using approximately 30-min video recordings. Movement abnormalities were rated utilizing three scales (Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale, Stereotypy Checklist, and Catatonia Rating Scale). Correlational analyses were conducted. Scores for each of three movement abnormality types were modestly inter-correlated (r=0.29-0.40). Stereotypy score was significantly associated with age at onset of psychotic symptoms (r=0.32) and positive symptom severity scores (r=0.29-0.41). There were no meaningful or consistent associations with negative symptom severity, neurocognition, or neurological soft signs. Abnormal movements appear to represent a relatively distinct phenotypic domain deserving of further research. PMID:25619434

  2. Quantitative Study on the Effect of Abnormalities on Respiration-Induced Kidney Movement.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, Rakkunedeth H; Chauhan, Sunita; Che, Ma Voon; Ooi, Chin-Chin; Bakar, Rafidah Abu; Lo, Richard H G

    2016-07-01

    Respiration-induced movement of abdominal organs hampers the targeting accuracy of non-invasive surgical techniques such as focused ultrasound surgery and radiosurgery. Unaccounted organ movement can result in either under dosage or damage to intervening healthy tissues. The respiration-induced movement is known to be significantly large in kidneys; however, the impact of abnormalities such as tumors and cysts on kidney movement is poorly understood. In this study, we quantified the movement patterns of kidneys in 48 normal and 62 affected kidneys (43 calcified cysts, 11 angiomyolipomas, 4 renal cell carcinomas and 4 polycystic kidneys) using ultrasound and simultaneously tracked the respiratory movement patterns using a stereo camera system. The kidneys were localized from 2-D ultrasound sequences using a template matching technique. The average movements of the right and left kidneys were, respectively, 24.54 ± 6.4 and 17.06 ± 3.66 mm in the superior-inferior and 13.62 ± 3.71 and 9.80 ± 3.32 mm in the transverse directions. Average movement in the superior-inferior direction of normal kidneys was greater than that of affected kidneys for both right (26.9 ± 5.1 vs. 22.6 ± 3.3, p < 0.001) and left (17.8 ± 2.5 vs. 16.1 ± 4.2, p = 0.01) kidneys. On the basis of spatial extent of abnormality, affected kidneys were categorized as category A (<10 mm in 26 patients), category B (10-20 mm in 22 patients) and category C (>20 mm in 14 patients). Compared with normal patients, the extent of movement was significantly reduced in abnormal categories B (p < 0.001) and C (p < 0.001), but the change was not significant in category A (p = 0.04). Hysteresis plots of the kidneys revealed a maximum change of 12.3 mm. The movement patterns of the kidneys also closely correlated with the respiratory movement pattern (Pearson correlation = 0.89 [right] and 0.87 [left]). We expect that the movement pattern analyses and quantification carried out

  3. [A case of pontine hemorrhage presenting with abnormal vertical ocular movements].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, A; Iwasaki, S; Hamaguchi, K

    1994-10-01

    A 52-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of sudden loss of consciousness. Neurological examination on admission revealed a comatose consciousness level, horizontal and upward palsies of both eyes and quadriparesis. The diagnosis of pontine hemorrhage was confirmed based on a brain CT scan, which showed a high density area involving the bilateral pontine tegmentum and right midbrain tegmentum at the inferior collicular level. The left eye moved downward below its primary position, and the movements usually comprised rapid downward and slow upward excursions and, on occasion, slow downward and rapid upward excursions, and were arrhythmical with irregular amplitudes. Oculocephalic maneuver did not modify the ocular movements. No horizontal movements were seen with ice-cold water irrigation into the ear canal on either side. Sixty days after hemorrhage onset, her right eye began to assume the same abnormal vertical movements as the left one, and 90 days after their onset, the ocular movements became oscillations. The abnormal vertical ocular movements in our patient were characterized by irregularities of phase, rhythm and amplitude. Accordingly, they were easily differentiated from ocular bobbing and ocular dipping. As these abnormal ocular movements resembled those of a float pulled by a fish, we propose they be termed ocular floating. The paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF) is believed to excite the burst neurons of the rosral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) responsible for upward gaze and inhibit those for downward gaze. This role was suggested by the clinical observation that a pontine tegmental lesion causes upward gaze palsy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834949

  4. TorsinA hypofunction causes abnormal twisting movements and sensorimotor circuit neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chun-Chi; Tanabe, Lauren M.; Jou, Stephanie; Chi, Frank; Dauer, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of a preclinical model of primary dystonia that exhibits dystonic-like twisting movements has stymied identification of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disease. The classical familial form of primary dystonia is caused by the DYT1 (ΔE) mutation in TOR1A, which encodes torsinA, AAA+ ATPase resident in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticular/nuclear envelope. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Tor1a in the CNS (nestin-Cre Tor1aflox/–) or isolated CNS expression of DYT1 mutant torsinA (nestin-Cre Tor1aflox/ΔE) causes striking abnormal twisting movements. These animals developed perinuclear accumulation of ubiquitin and the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 in discrete sensorimotor regions, followed by neurodegeneration that was substantially milder in nestin-Cre Tor1aflox/ΔE compared with nestin-Cre Tor1aflox/– animals. Similar to the neurodevelopmental onset of DYT1 dystonia in humans, the behavioral and histopathological abnormalities emerged and became fixed during CNS maturation in the murine models. Our results establish a genetic model of primary dystonia that is overtly symptomatic, and link torsinA hypofunction to neurodegeneration and abnormal twisting movements. These findings provide a cellular and molecular framework for how impaired torsinA function selectively disrupts neural circuits and raise the possibility that discrete foci of neurodegeneration may contribute to the pathogenesis of DYT1 dystonia. PMID:24937429

  5. Neuronal substrate and effective connectivity of abnormal movement sequencing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zemankova, Petra; Lungu, Ovidiu; Huttlova, Jitka; Kerkovsky, Milos; Zubor, Jozef; Lipova, Petra; Bares, Martin; Kasparek, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Movement sequencing difficulties are part of the neurological soft signs (NSS), they have high clinical value because they are not always present in schizophrenia. We investigated the neuronal correlates of movement sequencing in 24 healthy controls and 24 schizophrenia patients, with (SZP SQ+) or without (SZP SQ-) sequencing difficulties. We characterized simultaneous and lagged functional connectivity between brain regions involved in movement sequencing using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) and the Granger causality modeling (GCM), respectively. Left premotor cortex (PMC) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were specifically activated during sequential movements in all participants. Right PMC and precuneus, ipsilateral to the hand executing the task, activated during sequential movements only in healthy controls and SZP SQ-. SZP SQ+ showed hyperactivation in contralateral PMC, as compared to the other groups. PPI analysis revealed a deficit in inhibitory connections within this fronto-parietal network in SZP SQ+ during sequential task. GCM showed a significant lagged effective connectivity from right PMC to left SPL during task and rest periods in all groups and from right PMC to right precuneus in SZP SQ+ group only. Both SZP groups had a significant lagged connectivity from right to left PMC, during sequential task. Our results indicate that aberrant fronto-parietal network connectivity with cortical inhibition deficit and abnormal reliance on previous network activity are related to movement sequencing in SZP. The overactivation of motor cortex seems to be a good compensating strategy, the hyperactivation of parietal cortex is linked to motor deficit symptoms. PMID:26780603

  6. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Hasan, Muhammad; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Allan, David; Fraser, Matthew; Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Conway, Bernie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP) during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain (CNP) and complete/incomplete injury patients) and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy. PMID:25221505

  7. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson’s disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson’s disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

  8. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    MedlinePlus

    ... leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements ... The slow twisting movements of muscles (athetosis) or jerky muscle ... including: Cerebral palsy Drug side effects Encephalitis ...

  9. Paroxysmal movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Waln, Olga; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias represent a group of episodic abnormal involuntary movements manifested by recurrent attacks of dystonia, chorea, athetosis, or a combination of these disorders. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia are distinguished clinically by precipitating factors, duration and frequency of attacks, and response to medication. Primary paroxysmal dyskinesias are usually autosomal dominant genetic conditions. Secondary paroxysmal dyskinesias can be the symptoms of different neurologic and medical disorders. This review summarizes the updates on etiology, pathophysiology, genetics, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatment of paroxysmal dyskinesias and other episodic movement disorders. PMID:25432727

  10. DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERKINETIC MOVEMENTS IN CHILDHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Terence D.; Chen, Daofen; Fehlings, Darcy L.; Hallett, Mark; Lang, Anthony E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Singer, Harvey; Alter, Katharine; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Butler, Erin; Chen, Robert; Collins, Abigail; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Forssberg, Hans; Fowler, Eileen; Gilbert, Donald L.; Gorman, Sharon L.; Gormley, Mark E.; Jinnah, H. A.; Kornblau, Barbara; Krosschell, Kristin; Lehman, Rebecca K.; MacKinnon, Colum; Malanga, C. J.; Mesterman, Ronit; Michaels, Margaret Barry; Pearson, Toni S.; Rose, Jessica; Russman, Barry; Sternad, Dagmar; Swoboda, Kathy; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Hyperkinetic movements are unwanted or excess movements that are frequently seen in children with neurologic disorders. They are an important clinical finding with significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. However, the lack of agreement on standard terminology and definitions interferes with clinical treatment and research. We describe definitions of dystonia, chorea, athetosis, myoclonus, tremor, tics, and stereotypies that arose from a consensus meeting in June 2008 of specialists from different clinical and basic science fields. Dystonia is a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both. Chorea is an ongoing random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Athetosis is a slow, continuous, involuntary writhing movement that prevents maintenance of a stable posture. Myoclonus is a sequence of repeated, often non-rhythmic, brief shock-like jerks due to sudden involuntary contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. Tremor is a rhythmic back-and-forth or oscillating involuntary movement about a joint axis. Tics are repeated, individually recognizable, intermittent movements or movement fragments that are almost always briefly suppressible and are usually associated with awareness of an urge to perform the movement. Stereotypies are repetitive, simple movements that can be voluntarily suppressed. We provide recommended techniques for clinical examination and suggestions for differentiating between the different types of hyperkinetic movements, noting that there may be overlap between conditions. These definitions and the diagnostic recommendations are intended to be reliable and useful for clinical practice, communication between clinicians and researchers, and for the design of quantitative tests that will guide and assess the outcome of future clinical trials. PMID:20589866

  11. Delineation of the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Schneider, Ruth B.; Augustine, Erika F.; Ng, Joanne; Mankad, Kshitij; Meyer, Esther; McTague, Amy; Ngoh, Adeline; Hemingway, Cheryl; Robinson, Robert; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Kinali, Maria; Salpietro, Vincenzo; O'Driscoll, Margaret C.; Basheer, S. Nigel; Webster, Richard I.; Mohammad, Shekeeb S.; Pula, Shpresa; McGowan, Marian; Trump, Natalie; Jenkins, Lucy; Elmslie, Frances; Scott, Richard H.; Hurst, Jane A.; Perez-Duenas, Belen; Paciorkowski, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this research was to characterize the movement disorders associated with FOXG1 mutations. Methods: We identified patients with FOXG1 mutations who were referred to either a tertiary movement disorder clinic or tertiary epilepsy service and retrospectively reviewed medical records, clinical investigations, neuroimaging, and available video footage. We administered a telephone-based questionnaire regarding the functional impact of the movement disorders and perceived efficacy of treatment to the caregivers of one cohort of participants. Results: We identified 28 patients with FOXG1 mutations, of whom 6 had previously unreported mutations. A wide variety of movement disorders were identified, with dystonia, choreoathetosis, and orolingual/facial dyskinesias most commonly present. Ninety-three percent of patients had a mixed movement disorder phenotype. In contrast to the phenotype classically described with FOXG1 mutations, 4 patients with missense mutations had a milder phenotype, with independent ambulation, spoken language, and normocephaly. Hyperkinetic involuntary movements were a major clinical feature in these patients. Of the symptomatic treatments targeted to control abnormal involuntary movements, most did not emerge as clearly beneficial, although 4 patients had a caregiver-reported response to levodopa. Conclusions: Abnormal involuntary movements are a major feature of FOXG1 mutations. Our study delineates the spectrum of movement disorders and confirms an expanding clinical phenotype. Symptomatic treatment may be considered for severe or disabling cases, although further research regarding potential treatment strategies is necessary. PMID:27029630

  12. Management of involuntary childlessness.

    PubMed Central

    Himmel, W; Ittner, E; Kochen, M M; Michelmann, H W; Hinney, B; Reuter, M; Kallerhoff, M; Ringert, R H

    1997-01-01

    Any definition of involuntary childlessness has to consider the difference between sterility and subfertility. As the latter affects about 20-30% of all couples at least once in their lives, general practitioners (GPs) may be the first to be confronted with this problem. This review presents the most relevant diagnostic and therapeutic options in cases of female or male infertility, and discusses the new assisted reproductive technologies (such as insemination, in vitro fertilization, gamete transfer and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection) so that GPs may adequately inform their patients about these procedures and their risks and outcomes. Although controversial, involuntary childlessness and its clinical treatment seem to have a strong psychological impact on a couple's social, emotional and sexual life. Being available for discussion with childless couples and offering ongoing support may be the most important role for the GP in this context. PMID:9101672

  13. Optimizing Detection Rate and Characterization of Subtle Paroxysmal Neonatal Abnormal Facial Movements with Multi-Camera Video-Electroencephalogram Recordings.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesco; Pavlidis, Elena; Cattani, Luca; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-06-01

    Objectives We retrospectively analyze the diagnostic accuracy for paroxysmal abnormal facial movements, comparing one camera versus multi-camera approach. Background Polygraphic video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) recording is the current gold standard for brain monitoring in high-risk newborns, especially when neonatal seizures are suspected. One camera synchronized with the EEG is commonly used. Methods Since mid-June 2012, we have started using multiple cameras, one of which point toward newborns' faces. We evaluated vEEGs recorded in newborns in the study period between mid-June 2012 and the end of September 2014 and compared, for each recording, the diagnostic accuracies obtained with one-camera and multi-camera approaches. Results We recorded 147 vEEGs from 87 newborns and found 73 episodes of paroxysmal facial abnormal movements in 18 vEEGs of 11 newborns with the multi-camera approach. By using the single-camera approach, only 28.8% of these events were identified (21/73). Ten positive vEEGs with multicamera with 52 paroxysmal facial abnormal movements (52/73, 71.2%) would have been considered as negative with the single-camera approach. Conclusions The use of one additional facial camera can significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of vEEGs in the detection of paroxysmal abnormal facial movements in the newborns. PMID:27111027

  14. Subtle rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Polo, Lourdes Galicia; Valencia, Reyes Haro; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Laffita-Mesa, José M; Mederos, Luis E Almaguer; Zaldívar, Yanetza González; Parra, Cira Torres; Acosta, Arnoy Peña; Mariño, Tania Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorders are commonly associated to patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2); however, these abnormalities have not been studied in presymptomatic gene carriers. To determine whether the REM sleep pathology is detectable before clinical manifestation of SCA2 and evaluate it as a preclinical biomarker, we studied 36 presymptomatic SCA2 individuals and 36 controls by video-polysomnography (VPSG) and sleep questionnaires. Presymptomatic subjects showed significant decrease of REM sleep percentage, REMs density, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Aging effect on REM sleep percentage was significant in both groups. There was no correlation between cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat length and REM sleep. Our findings identified the REM sleep pathology as a prominent herald sign of SCA2, conferring a special importance to VPSG as a sensitive neurophysiological tool to detect early changes associated with SCA2, which contributes to the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic trials focused on the preclinical disease stage. PMID:20960485

  15. Intramedullary spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting with abnormal abdominal wall movement. Case report.

    PubMed

    Aslanabadi, Saeid; Azhough, Ramin; Motlagh, Parviz Samad; Hadidchi, Shahram; Tabrizi, Ali Dastranj; Zonouzy, Keivan Kashy

    2004-10-15

    The authors present a case of intramedullary ganglioglioma in a 6-year-old girl. Since the age of 4 months the patient had experienced a spontaneous wavy undulating movement of her anterior abdominal wall resembling a severe peristalsis. The movement was continuous even during sleep, and this symptom was named "belly dance." Magnetic resonance images revealed an intramedullary tumor with ill-defined borders, and the lesion was partially resected. The patient made a good recovery, although 4 years postsurgery her scoliosis had progressed. PMID:15633994

  16. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  17. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  18. Legal briefing: coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Bughman, Heather Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving coerced treatment and involuntary confinement for contagious disease. Recent high profile court cases involving measles, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and especially Ebola, have thrust this topic back into the bioethics and public spotlights. This has reignited debates over how best to balance individual liberty and public health. For example, the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues has officially requested public comments, held open hearings, and published a 90-page report on "ethical considerations and implications" raised by "U.S. public policies that restrict association or movement (such as quarantine)." Broadly related articles have been published in previous issues of The Journal of Clinical Ethics. We categorize recent legal developments on coerced treatment and involuntary confinement into the following six categories: 1. Most Public Health Confinement Is Voluntary 2. Legal Requirements for Involuntary Confinement 3. New State Laws Authorizing Involuntary Confinement 4. Quarantine Must Be as Least Restrictive as Necessary 5. Isolation Is Justified Only as a Last Resort 6. Coerced Treatment after Persistent Noncompliance. PMID:25794297

  19. Arthroscopic Visualization of Abnormal Movement of Discoid Lateral Meniscus With Snapping Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Harato, Kengo; Niki, Yasuo; Nagashima, Masaki; Masumoto, Ko; Otani, Toshiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon is a rare pathologic condition. The purpose of this article is to present an arthroscopic technique for the treatment of discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon. The patient is placed in the supine position for confirmation of snapping. As the patient's knee bends, it can be confirmed by arthroscopy that the posterior horn of the discoid lateral meniscus moves posteriorly and the central portion of the discoid lateral meniscus moves anteriorly at the same time with snapping at deep flexion angles. The anterior segment of the discoid lateral meniscus is found to be redundant and is often folded. On the contrary, as the patient's knee extends, the central portion is returned to the original position accompanied by snapping at nearly full extension. After excision of the central portion, the movement of the meniscus is evaluated again and the disappearance of the snapping phenomenon can be confirmed. Although it includes limitations, this application is easy and would certainly help surgeons to treat snapping knee with discoid lateral meniscus. PMID:26258036

  20. Arthroscopic Visualization of Abnormal Movement of Discoid Lateral Meniscus With Snapping Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Harato, Kengo; Niki, Yasuo; Nagashima, Masaki; Masumoto, Ko; Otani, Toshiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

    2015-06-01

    Discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon is a rare pathologic condition. The purpose of this article is to present an arthroscopic technique for the treatment of discoid lateral meniscus with snapping phenomenon. The patient is placed in the supine position for confirmation of snapping. As the patient's knee bends, it can be confirmed by arthroscopy that the posterior horn of the discoid lateral meniscus moves posteriorly and the central portion of the discoid lateral meniscus moves anteriorly at the same time with snapping at deep flexion angles. The anterior segment of the discoid lateral meniscus is found to be redundant and is often folded. On the contrary, as the patient's knee extends, the central portion is returned to the original position accompanied by snapping at nearly full extension. After excision of the central portion, the movement of the meniscus is evaluated again and the disappearance of the snapping phenomenon can be confirmed. Although it includes limitations, this application is easy and would certainly help surgeons to treat snapping knee with discoid lateral meniscus. PMID:26258036

  1. Elevated PEM (Phasic Electromyographic Metric) Rates Identify Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder Patients on Nights Without Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Rye, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity of the phasic electromyographic metric (PEM) to differentiate patients with a history suggestive of rapid eye movement behavior disorder (REMBD) on laboratory nights without overt dream-enactment behavior. Methods: PEM was quantified as the % of 2.5-sec intervals with phasic muscle activity of 100-msec duration with an amplitude of at least 4 times background activity in 11 patients and 31 elderly controls. Data were derived from both REM and NREM sleep from 5 muscle groups (mentalis, left/right anterior tibialis, left/right brachioradialis). Results: Relative to controls, REMBD patients had significantly higher levels of PEM activity in all recordings. The largest differences occurred during REM sleep for the mentalis and brachioradialis channels. Similar results were obtained by limiting quantification of PEM to the final REM period of the night and could be accomplished by individuals with no previous familiarity with polysomnography. Discussion: PEM may be a useful metric to characterize the REM related phasic muscle activity on patients with a history of REMBD, even when no overt dream-enactment behaviors are detected on a laboratory night. Citation: Bliwise DL; Rye DB. Elevated PEM (phasic electromyographic metric) rates identify rapid eye movement behavior disorder patients on nights without behavioral abnormalities. SLEEP 2008;31(6):853–857. PMID:18548830

  2. Involuntary masturbation and hemiballismus after bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Bejot, Yannick; Caillier, Marie; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Didi, Roy; Ben Salem, Douraied; Moreau, Thibault; Giroud, Maurice

    2008-02-01

    Ischemia of the areas supplied by the anterior cerebral artery is relatively uncommon. In addition, combined hemiballismus and masturbation have rarely been reported in patients with cerebrovascular disease. We describe herein a 62-year-old right-handed man simultaneously exhibiting right side hemiballismus and involuntary masturbation with the left hand after bilateral infarction of the anterior cerebral artery territory. Right side hemiballismus was related to the disruption of afferent fibers from the left frontal lobe to the left subthalamic nucleus. Involuntary masturbation using the left hand was exclusively linked to a callosal type of alien hand syndrome secondary to infarction of the right side of the anterior corpus callosum. After 2 weeks, these abnormal behaviours were completely extinguished. This report stresses the wide diversity of clinical manifestations observed after infarction of the anterior cerebral artery territory. PMID:17961914

  3. [A case of multiple sclerosis manifesting piano playing movement].

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Mizoi, R; Watanabe, I; Tomi, H; Sunohara, N

    1993-04-01

    We report a case of 33-year-old man with multiple sclerosis, showing piano playing movement in both hands. His course of multiple sclerosis was remittent/progressive during 2 years and the clinical manifestation suggested the spinal cord involvement. On July 15, 1991, he was admitted with numbness of the right limbs, and then developed piano playing movement in both hands, more marked in the right side. Neurological examination revealed mild weakness in the right upper extremity, and rough touch, pain, and temperature sensation were slightly decreased. However, there was no deep sensory abnormalities, such as vibration, fine touch, and position senses. Vibration sense was lost below ilium. CSF examination showed elevation of IgG index (1.6), three oligoclonal bands and myelin basic protein content of 2.4 ng/ml. There was no HTLV-I antibody in CSF. SSEP, elicited by median nerve stimulation at the right wrist, showed no N13 and low amplitude of N20. T2-weighted images of cervical MRI revealed area of high signal intensity at the C3-C4 level. The piano playing movement gradually improved and disappeared by the initiation of steroid hormone therapy. It was considered that involuntary movement in this patient was due to the spinal cord lesion caused by multiple sclerosis. These findings suggested that the involuntary movement like pseudoathetosis could present without deep sensory abnormalities. PMID:8370208

  4. 5 CFR 842.206 - Involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary retirement... separates from the service involuntarily after completing 25 years of service, or after becoming age 50...

  5. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  6. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems. PMID:24702453

  7. 42 CFR 460.164 - Involuntary disenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.164 Involuntary disenrollment. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 460.164 - Involuntary disenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.164 Involuntary disenrollment. (a)...

  9. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  10. Benign and periodic movement disorders in 2 children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Giulia; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome show hypotonia and ligamentous laxity that are associated with motor development delay. Neurologic disorders are common in children with Down syndrome; however, in literature the presence of periodic movement disorders has not yet been described. We report 2 different types of periodic movement disorders in 2 infants with Down syndrome. In the first case, we described an 8-month-old girl with involuntary head nodding and absence of any other neurologic or ophthalmologic abnormalities. In the second case, we described a 6-month-old boy with abnormal but painless head rotation and inclination, alternating from side to side. Episodes of head tilting were often associated with a state of general uneasiness. Neurologic examination between attacks was normal. The aim of this paper is to provide practical information on recognition and management of movement disorders in Down syndrome. PMID:24309245

  11. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  12. Involuntary motion tracking for medical dynamic infrared thermography using a template-based algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    In medical applications, Dynamic Infrared (IR) Thermography is used to detect the temporal variation of the skin temperature. Dynamic Infrared Imaging first introduces a thermal challenge such as cooling on the human skin, and then a sequence of hundreds of consecutive frames is acquired after the removal of the thermal challenge. As a result, by analyzing the temporal variation of the skin temperature over the image sequence, the thermal signature of skin abnormality can be examined. However, during the acquisition of dynamic IR imaging, the involuntary movements of patients are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of diagnosis. In this study, based on the template-based algorithm, a tracking approach is proposed to compensate the motion artifact. The affine warping model is adopted to estimate the motion parameter of the image template, and then the Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the warping function. In addition, the weighting mask is also incorporated in the computation to ensure the robustness of the algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the approach, two sets of IR image sequences of a subject’s hand are analyzed: the steady-state image sequence, in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment, and the thermal recovery image sequence, which is acquired after cooling is applied on the skin for 60 seconds. By selecting the target region in the first frame as the template, satisfactory tracking results were obtained in both experimental trials, and the robustness of the approach can be effectively ensured in the recovery trial. PMID:24392205

  13. Measuring abnormal movements in free-swimming fish with accelerometers: implications for quantifying tag and parasite load.

    PubMed

    Broell, Franziska; Burnell, Celene; Taggart, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Animal-borne data loggers allow movement, associated behaviours and energy expenditure in fish to be quantified without direct observations. As with any tagging, tags that are attached externally may adversely affect fish behaviour, swimming efficiency and survival. We report on free-swimming wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) held in a large mesocosm that exhibited distinctly aberrant rotational swimming (scouring) when externally tagged with accelerometer data loggers. To quantify the phenomenon, the cod were tagged with two sizes of loggers (18 and 6 g; <2% body mass) that measured tri-axial acceleration at 50 Hz. An automated algorithm, based on body angular rotation, was designed to extract the scouring movements from the acceleration signal (98% accuracy). The algorithm also identified the frequency pattern and associated energy expenditure of scouring in relation to tag load (% body weight). The average per cent time spent scouring (5%) was independent of tag load. The vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), used as a proxy for energy expenditure, increased with tag load (r(2)=0.51), and suggests that fish with large tags spent more energy when scouring than fish with small tags. The information allowed us to determine potential detrimental effects of an external tag on fish behaviour and how these effects may be mitigated by tag size. The algorithm can potentially identify similar rotational movements associated with spawning, courtship, feeding and parasite-load shedding in the wild. The results infer a more careful interpretation of data derived from external tags and the careful consideration of tag type, drag, buoyancy and placement, as well as animal buoyancy and species. PMID:26747901

  14. 32 CFR 584.9 - Involuntary allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the support and maintenance of a child. (3) Such notice must give the soldier's full name and SSN... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD... involuntary allotments from pay and allowances of soldiers on active duty as child, or child and...

  15. Factors Mediating the Adjustment to Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored stressors that accompany experience of involuntary childlessness and examined mediators of adjustment to infertility in married individuals. Data showed deleterious effect that coping with infertility can have on couple's sexual relationship. Findings suggest important relationship between self-esteem, marital commitment, and positive…

  16. Abnormal Ocular Movement With Executive Dysfunction and Personality Change in Subject With Thalamic Infarction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ee Jin; Kim, Myeong Ok; Kim, Chang Hwan; Joa, Kyung Lim

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, located between the cerebrum and midbrain, is a nuclear complex connected to the cerebral cortex that influences motor skills, cognition, and mood. The thalamus is composed of 50-60 nuclei and can be divided into four areas according to vascular supply. In addition, it can be divided into five areas according to function. Many studies have reported on a thalamic infarction causing motor or sensory changes, but few have reported on behavioral and executive aspects of the ophthalmoplegia of the thalamus. This study reports a rare case of a paramedian thalamus infarction affecting the dorsomedial area of the thalamus, manifesting as oculomotor nerve palsy, an abnormal behavioral change, and executive dysfunction. This special case is presented with a review of the anatomical basis and function of the thalamus. PMID:26798620

  17. The effect of involuntary motor activity on myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study with chronic stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiang; Li, Guanglin; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Objective. This study investigates the effect of the involuntary motor activity of paretic-spastic muscles on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals. Approach. Two data collection sessions were designed for 8 stroke subjects to voluntarily perform 11 functional movements using their affected forearm and hand at relatively slow and fast speeds. For each stroke subject, the degree of involuntary motor activity present in the voluntary surface EMG recordings was qualitatively described from such slow and fast experimental protocols. Myoelectric pattern recognition analysis was performed using different combinations of voluntary surface EMG data recorded from the slow and fast sessions. Main results. Across all tested stroke subjects, our results revealed that when involuntary surface EMG is absent or present in both the training and testing datasets, high accuracies (>96%, >98%, respectively, averaged over all the subjects) can be achieved in the classification of different movements using surface EMG signals from paretic muscles. When involuntary surface EMG was solely involved in either the training or testing datasets, the classification accuracies were dramatically reduced (<89%, <85%, respectively). However, if both the training and testing datasets contained EMG signals with the presence and absence of involuntary EMG interference, high accuracies were still achieved (>97%). Significance. The findings of this study can be used to guide the appropriate design and implementation of myoelectric pattern recognition based systems or devices toward promoting robot-aided therapy for stroke rehabilitation.

  18. Inactivation of ca10a and ca10b Genes Leads to Abnormal Embryonic Development and Alters Movement Pattern in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Aspatwar, Ashok; Barker, Harlan R.; Saralahti, Anni K.; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Ortutay, Csaba; Pan, Peiwen; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Parikka, Mataleena; Rämet, Mika; Parkkila, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) X and XI are highly conserved across species and are predominantly expressed in neural tissues. The biological role of these proteins is still an enigma. Ray-finned fish have lost the CA11 gene, but instead possess two co-orthologs of CA10. We analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes during embryonic development and in different adult tissues, and studied 61 CARP X/XI-like sequences to evaluate their phylogenetic relationship. Sequence analysis of zebrafish ca10a and ca10b reveals strongly predicted signal peptides, N-glycosylation sites, and a potential disulfide, all of which are conserved, suggesting that all of CARP X and XI are secretory proteins and potentially dimeric. RT-qPCR showed that zebrafish ca10a and ca10b genes are expressed in the brain and several other tissues throughout the development of zebrafish. Antisense morpholino mediated knockdown of ca10a and ca10b showed developmental delay with a high rate of mortality in larvae. Zebrafish morphants showed curved body, pericardial edema, and abnormalities in the head and eye, and there was increased apoptotic cell death in the brain region. Swim pattern showed abnormal movement in morphant zebrafish larvae compared to the wild type larvae. The developmental phenotypes of the ca10a and ca10b morphants were confirmed by inactivating these genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conclusion, we introduce a novel zebrafish model to investigate the mechanisms of CARP Xa and CARP Xb functions. Our data indicate that CARP Xa and CARP Xb have important roles in zebrafish development and suppression of ca10a and ca10b expression in zebrafish larvae leads to a movement disorder. PMID:26218428

  19. Tonic central and sensory stimuli facilitate involuntary air-stepping in humans.

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Ivanenko, Y P; Solopova, I A; Gurfinkel, V S

    2009-06-01

    Air-stepping can be used as a model for investigating rhythmogenesis and its interaction with sensory input. Here we show that it is possible to entrain involuntary rhythmic movement patterns in healthy humans by using different kinds of stimulation techniques. The subjects lay on their sides with one or both legs suspended, allowing low-friction horizontal rotation of the limb joints. To evoke involuntary stepping of the suspended leg, either we used continuous muscle vibration, electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal or sural nerves, the Jendrassik maneuver, or we exploited the postcontraction state of neuronal networks (Kohnstamm phenomenon). The common feature across all stimulations was that they were tonic. Air-stepping could be elicited by most techniques in about 50% of subjects and involved prominent movements at the hip and the knee joint (approximately 40-70 degrees). Typically, however, the ankle joint was not involved. Minimal loading forces (4-25 N) applied constantly to the sole (using a long elastic cord) induced noticeable (approximately 5-20 degrees) ankle-joint-angle movements. The aftereffect of a voluntary long-lasting (30-s) contraction in the leg muscles featured alternating rhythmic leg movements that lasted for about 20-40 s, corresponding roughly to a typical duration of the postcontraction activity in static conditions. The Jendrassik maneuver per se did not evoke air-stepping. Nevertheless, it significantly prolonged rhythmic leg movements initiated manually by an experimenter or by a short (5-s) period of muscle vibration. Air-stepping of one leg could be evoked in both forward and backward directions with frequent spontaneous transitions, whereas involuntary alternating two-legged movements were more stable (no transitions). The hypothetical role of tonic influences, contact forces, and bilateral coordination in rhythmogenesis is discussed. The results overall demonstrated that nonspecific tonic drive may cause air

  20. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering. PMID:22746214

  1. Suicidality and Hostility following Involuntary Hospital Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Domenico; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients showing risk to themselves or others can be involuntarily hospitalised. No data is available on whether following hospitalisation there is a reduction in psychopathological indicators of risk such as suicidality and hostility. This study aimed to assess changes in suicidality and hostility levels following involuntary admission and their patient-level predictors. Methods A pooled analysis of studies on involuntary treatment, including 11 countries and 2790 patients was carried out. Suicidality and hostility were measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results 2790 patients were included; 2129 followed-up after one month and 1864 after three months. 387 (13.9%) patients showed at least moderate suicidality when involuntarily admitted, 107 (5.0%) after one month and 97 (5.2%) after three months. Moderate or higher hostility was found in 1287 (46.1%) patients after admission, 307 (14.5%) after one month, and 172 (9.2%) after three months. Twenty-three (1.2%) patients showed suicidality, and 53 (2.8%) patients hostility at all time-points. Predictors of suicidality three months after admission were: suicidality at baseline, not having a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and being unemployed. Predictors of hostility were: hostility at baseline, not having a psychotic disorder, living alone, and having been hospitalized previously. Conclusions After involuntary hospital admission, the number of patients with significant levels of suicidality and hostility decreases substantially over time, and very few patients show consistently moderate or higher levels of these symptoms. In patients with psychotic disorders these symptoms are more likely to improve. Social factors such as unemployment and isolation could hamper suicidality and hostility reduction and may be targeted in interventions to reduce risk in involuntarily admitted patients. PMID:27171229

  2. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. PMID:25896809

  3. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  4. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  5. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  6. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  7. 5 CFR 831.503 - Retirement based on involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... separation. 831.503 Section 831.503 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... involuntary separation. (a) General. An employee who would otherwise be eligible for retirement based on involuntary separation from the service is not entitled to an annuity under section 8336(d)(1) of title...

  8. 43 CFR 426.14 - Involuntary acquisition of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Involuntary acquisition of land. 426.14 Section 426.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.14 Involuntary acquisition of land. (a) Definitions for purposes of this...

  9. 43 CFR 426.14 - Involuntary acquisition of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Involuntary acquisition of land. 426.14 Section 426.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.14 Involuntary acquisition of...

  10. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  11. When Leaders Are Challenged: Dealing with Involuntary Members in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Christine J.; Jacobs, E.

    2011-01-01

    Leading groups can be challenging and difficult. Leading groups in which members are involuntary and negative increases the level of difficulty and creates new dynamics in the group leading process. This article proposes specific skills and strategies for dealing with three specific issues related to involuntary members in groups: groups where all…

  12. 12 CFR 709.5 - Payout priorities in involuntary liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payout priorities in involuntary liquidation. 709.5 Section 709.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS AND ADJUDICATION OF CREDITOR CLAIMS INVOLVING FEDERALLY INSURED CREDIT UNIONS...

  13. Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors elicits abnormal oral movements by acting on pathways other than the sensorimotor one in the rat basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, A; Kadiri, N; Navailles, S; Boujema, M Ben; Gonon, F; Moine, C Le; Gross, C; De Deurwaerdère, P

    2010-08-11

    Serotonin2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors act in the basal ganglia, a group of sub-cortical structures involved in motor behavior, where they are thought to modulate oral activity and participate in iatrogenic motor side-effects in Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. Whether abnormal movements initiated by 5-HT(2C) receptors are directly consequent to dysfunctions of the motor circuit is uncertain. In the present study, we combined behavioral, immunohistochemical and extracellular single-cell recordings approaches in rats to investigate the effect of the 5-HT(2C) agonist Ro-60-0175 respectively on orofacial dyskinesia, the expression of the marker of neuronal activity c-Fos in basal ganglia and the electrophysiological activity of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neuron connected to the orofacial motor cortex (OfMC) or the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results show that Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) caused bouts of orofacial movements that were suppressed by the 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB-243213 (1 mg/kg). Ro-60-0175 (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg) dose-dependently enhanced Fos expression in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. At the highest dose, it enhanced Fos expression in the subthalamic nucleus, the SNr and the entopeduncular nucleus but not in the external globus pallidus. However, the effect of Ro-60-0175 was mainly associated with associative/limbic regions of basal ganglia whereas subregions of basal ganglia corresponding to sensorimotor territories were devoid of Fos labeling. Ro-60-0175 (1-3 mg/kg) did not affect the electrophysiological activity of SNr neurons connected to the OfMC nor their excitatory-inhibitory-excitatory responses to the OfMC electrical stimulation. Conversely, Ro-60-0175 (1 mg/kg) enhanced the late excitatory response of SNr neurons evoked by the mPFC electrical stimulation. These results suggest that oral dyskinesia induced by 5-HT(2C) agonists are not restricted to aberrant signalling in the orofacial motor circuit and demonstrate discrete

  14. Voluntary control of arm movement in athetotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Peter D.

    1974-01-01

    Visual tracking tests have been employed to provide a quantitative description of voluntary control of arm movement in a group of patients suffering from athetoid cerebral palsy. Voluntary control was impaired in all patients in a characteristic manner. Maximum velocity and acceleration of arm movement were reduced to about 30-50% of their values in normal subjects and the time lag of the response to a visual stimulus was two or three times greater than in normals. Tracking transmission characteristics indicated a degree of underdamping which was not presnet in normal or spastic patients. This underdamping could be responsible for a low frequency (0·3-0·6 Hz) transient oscillation in elbow-angle movements associated with sudden voluntary movement. The maximum frequency at which patients could produce a coherent tracking response was only 50% of that in normal subjects and the relationship between the electromyogram and muscle contraction indicated that the mechanical load on the biceps muscle was abnormal, possibly due to increased stiffness of joint movement caused by involuntary activity in agonist and antagonist muscles acting across the joint. Images PMID:4362243

  15. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission. PMID:22258443

  16. Involuntary coping mechanisms: a psychodynamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat. PMID:22034454

  17. On Becoming an Involuntary Member in the Antepartum Unit.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brittany L

    2016-08-01

    In this essay, I articulate the ways in which my scholarship and personal life collided when I became an involuntary member in the antepartum unit of a major university hospital. I draw on research examples taken from my dissertation work in prison and my time in the hospital to illustrate the interconnectedness of these involuntary experiences. After I share these stories, I offer a brief interlude to reflect on the meaningfulness of approaching membership from a continuum-based perspective and the relative implications for health communication scholars, before ending with an articulation how this experience brought me to a more crystallized view of involuntary membership. PMID:26789353

  18. Abnormal dopaminergic modulation of striato-cortical networks underlies levodopa-induced dyskinesias in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Brian N.; Christensen, Mark S.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Rowe, James B.; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2015-01-01

    aberrant reinforcement signal producing an abnormal motor drive that ultimately triggers involuntary movements. PMID:25882651

  19. Abnormal dopaminergic modulation of striato-cortical networks underlies levodopa-induced dyskinesias in humans.

    PubMed

    Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N; Christensen, Mark S; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Rowe, James B; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-06-01

    aberrant reinforcement signal producing an abnormal motor drive that ultimately triggers involuntary movements. PMID:25882651

  20. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  1. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  2. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  3. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  4. Motor control of jaw movements: An fMRI study of parafunctional clench and grind behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas M; Romito, Laura M; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2011-04-01

    Jaw-clenching and tooth-grinding associated with bruxism can contribute to abnormal tooth wear and pain in the masticatory system. Clench and tooth-grinding jaw-movement tasks were evaluated in a block-design fMRI study comparing a dental-control (DC) group with a tooth-grinding (TG) group. Group classification was made prior to imaging based upon self-reported parafunctional clench and grind behavior and clinical evidence of abnormal tooth wear. Group differences in brain activation patterns were found for each task compared to the resting baseline. The DC group showed a more widely distributed pattern; more extensive activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper that extended into the pre-SMA; and, for clench, activity in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The DC group activated more than the TG subjects the left IPL for clench, and pre-SMA for grind. Neither task elicited more activity in the TG than DC subjects. Our group findings suggest that jaw-movement tasks executed by the TG group elicited (1) more efficient brain activation pattern consistent with other studies that found less extensive activity with executing "over-learned" tasks; (2) "underactive" SMA activity that underlies reduced motor planning; (3) decreased inferior parietal activity that is associated with lesser motor-attentional demands. Thus orofacial parafunctional habits may influence brain circuits recruited for jaw movements, providing a possible basis for understanding involuntary jaw movements in bruxism and oral movement disorders in general. PMID:21295015

  5. 47 CFR 27.1252 - Involuntary Relocation Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Involuntary Relocation Procedures. 27.1252 Section 27.1252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1252 - Involuntary Relocation Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Involuntary Relocation Procedures. 27.1252 Section 27.1252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1252 - Involuntary Relocation Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Involuntary Relocation Procedures. 27.1252 Section 27.1252 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband...

  8. Differential effects of age on involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Schlagman, Simone; Kliegel, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2009-06-01

    Research on aging and autobiographical memory has focused almost exclusively on voluntary autobiographical memory. However, in everyday life, autobiographical memories often come to mind spontaneously without deliberate attempt to retrieve anything. In the present study, diary and word-cue methods were used to compare the involuntary and voluntary memories of 44 young and 38 older adults. The results showed that older adults reported fewer involuntary and voluntary memories than did younger adults. Additionally, the life span distribution of involuntary and voluntary memories did not differ in young adults (a clear recency effect) or in older adults (a recency effect and a reminiscence bump). Despite these similarities between involuntary and voluntary memories, there were also important differences in terms of the effects of age on some memory characteristics. Thus, older adults' voluntary memories were less specific and were recalled more slowly than those of young adults, but there were no reliable age differences in the specificity of involuntary memories. Moreover, older adults rated their involuntary memories as more positive than did young adults, but this positivity effect was not found for voluntary memories. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on autobiographical memory and cognitive aging are discussed. PMID:19485657

  9. The wrong end of the telescope: neuromuscular mimics of movement disorders (and vice versa).

    PubMed

    Bloem, B R; Voermans, N C; Aerts, M B; Bhatia, K P; van Engelen, B G M; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2016-08-01

    The rapid advances in modern neurology have led to increased specialisation in clinical practice. Being an expert in a neurology subspecialty offers advantages for diagnosing and managing specific disorders. However, specialisation also risks tunnel vision: interpreting symptoms and signs within one's own framework of reference, while ignoring differential diagnostic options from other subspecialties. This is particularly relevant when the patient's presentation potentially belongs to different neurological subspecialties. We illustrate this challenge by highlighting a series of clinical features that partially overlap between two common subspecialties: movement disorders and neuromuscular disorders. An overlap in clinical presentation is not rare, and includes, for example, involuntary eyelid closure (which could be active eye closure due to blepharospasm, or ptosis due to weakness). Other overlapping features include abnormal postures, involuntary movements and gait changes. We describe two of these overlapping features in more detail and emphasise the possible consequences of 'looking through the wrong end of the telescope' in such patients, as this may lead to a wrong differential diagnosis, unnecessary investigations and a delayed treatment start. PMID:26965497

  10. How Were Eye Movements Recorded Before Yarbus?

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Yarbus introduced a new dimension of precision in recording how the eyes moved, either when attempts were made to keep them stationary or when scanning pictures. Movements of the eyes had been remarked upon for millennia, but recording how they move is a more recent preoccupation. Emphasis was initially placed on abnormalities of oculomotor function (like strabismus) before normal features were considered. The interest was in where the eyes moved to rather than determining how they got there. The most venerable technique for examining ocular stability involved comparing the relative motion between an afterimage and a real image. In the late 18th century, Wells compared afterimages generated before body rotation with real images observed following it when dizzy; he described both lateral and torsional nystagmus, thereby demonstrating the directional discontinuities in eye velocities. At around the same time Erasmus Darwin used afterimages as a means of demonstrating ocular instability when attempting to fixate steadily. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Thus, the characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare (working in Javal's laboratory) in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening (with tubes placed over the eyelids) to the sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. Eye movements over pictures were examined by Stratton and later by Buswell, who drew attention to the effects of instructions on the pattern of eye movements. In midcentury, attention shifted back to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The suction cap methods developed by Yarbus were applied

  11. Aftermath of 3/11: earthquakes and involuntary attentional orienting to sudden ambient sounds.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Motohiro; Ueda, Mari; Takeda, Yuji; Sugimoto, Fumie; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 and the following long-term earthquake swarm, many people living in the earthquake-affected areas have developed mental stress, even though clinically-diagnosable symptoms may not be apparent. Concurrently, many unusual reports have emerged in which persons complain of abnormally increased sensitivity to sudden ambient sounds during their daily lives (e.g., the sound of the washing machine on spin cycle). By recording event-related potentials to various sudden ambient sounds from young adults living in the affected areas, we found that the level of earthquake-induced mental stress, as indexed by the hyperarousal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, was positively related to the magnitude of P3a to sudden ambient sounds. These results reveal a strong relationship between mental stress and enhanced involuntary attentional orienting in a large majority of trauma-exposed people without diagnosable symptoms. PMID:24007812

  12. 5 CFR 550.706 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for involuntary separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involuntary separation. 550.706 Section 550.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... requirement for involuntary separation. (a) An employee who resigns because he or she expects to be... receipt of the notice constitutes an involuntary separation for severance pay purposes. (b) Except...

  13. Involuntary autobiographical memories in dysphoric mood: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Schlagman, Simone

    2011-05-01

    The frequency and characteristics of involuntary autobiographical memories were compared in 25 stable dysphoric and 28 non-dysphoric participants, using a new laboratory-based task (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008). Participants detected infrequent target stimuli (vertical lines) in a simple vigilance task and recorded any involuntary autobiographical memories that came to mind, mostly in response to irrelevant words presented on the screen. Dysphoric participants reported involuntary memories as frequently and as quickly as non-dysphoric participants and their memories were not repetitive intrusive memories of negative or traumatic events. Additional content analysis showed that dysphoric participants did not recall more memories of objectively negative events (e.g., accidents, illnesses, deaths) than non-dysphoric participants. However, significant group differences emerged in terms of a mood congruency effect whereby dysphoric participants rated their memories as more negative than non-dysphoric participants. Moreover, the proportion of negatively rated involuntary memories was related to lower mood ratings at the end of the session in the dysphoric but not in the non-dysphoric group. Finally, groups did not differ on several memory characteristics such as vividness, specificity (high in both groups) and rates of rehearsal (low in both groups). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings for research on depression and autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:21678152

  14. 28 CFR 549.43 - Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medication. 549.43 Section 549.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.43 Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication. Title 18 U.S.C. 4241-4247 and federal...

  15. 47 CFR 101.75 - Involuntary relocation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Involuntary relocation procedures. 101.75 Section 101.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses License Transfers, Modifications, Conditions and Forfeitures § 101.75...

  16. 47 CFR 101.91 - Involuntary relocation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Involuntary relocation procedures. 101.91 Section 101.91 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band §...

  17. Cognitive Control of Involuntary Distraction by Deviant Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Hebrero, Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that a task-irrelevant sound (deviant sound) departing from an otherwise repetitive sequence of sounds (standard sounds) elicits an involuntary capture of attention and orienting response toward the deviant stimulus, resulting in the lengthening of response times in an ongoing task. Some have argued that this type of…

  18. 47 CFR 101.91 - Involuntary relocation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Involuntary relocation procedures. 101.91 Section 101.91 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band §...

  19. 47 CFR 101.91 - Involuntary relocation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Involuntary relocation procedures. 101.91 Section 101.91 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses Policies Governing Fixed Service Relocation from the 18.58-19.30 Ghz Band §...

  20. 47 CFR 101.75 - Involuntary relocation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Involuntary relocation procedures. 101.75 Section 101.75 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses License Transfers, Modifications, Conditions and Forfeitures § 101.75...

  1. Social Work Students' Attitudes about Working with Involuntary Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Natalie D.; Kang, Byungdeok

    2011-01-01

    Social workers employed in areas such as public child welfare, substance abuse, and corrections often provide services to involuntary clients. These individuals do not seek social work services on their own volition and may be actively opposed to the services they are receiving. This study explores social work students' attitudes about working…

  2. 47 CFR 27.1252 - Involuntary Relocation Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... measured by the percent of time the bit error rate (BER) exceeds a desired value, and for analog or digital... Relocation Procedures for the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1252 Involuntary Relocation Procedures. (a) If no..., subject to a cap of two percent of the “hard” costs involved. Hard costs are defined as the actual...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1252 - Involuntary Relocation Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... measured by the percent of time the bit error rate (BER) exceeds a desired value, and for analog or digital... Relocation Procedures for the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1252 Involuntary Relocation Procedures. (a) If no..., subject to a cap of two percent of the “hard” costs involved. Hard costs are defined as the actual...

  4. 12 CFR 925.27 - Involuntary termination of membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Involuntary termination of membership. 925.27 Section 925.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING... institution shall have no right to obtain any of the benefits of membership after that date, but shall...

  5. 12 CFR 709.5 - Payout priorities in involuntary liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payout priorities in involuntary liquidation. 709.5 Section 709.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... Administration; (5) General creditors, and secured creditors (to the extent that their respective claims...

  6. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  7. Inducing involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using a laboratory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cole, Scott N; Staugaard, Søren R; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-04-01

    Although involuntary past and future mental time travel (MTT) has been examined outside the laboratory in diary studies, MTT has primarily been studied in the context of laboratory studies using voluntary construction tasks. In this study, we adapted and extended a paradigm previously used to elicit involuntary and voluntary memories (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili in Memory & Cognition, 36, 920-932, 2008). Our aim was - for the first time - to examine involuntary and voluntary future MTT under controlled laboratory conditions. The involuntary task involved a monotonous task that included potential cues for involuntary MTT. Temporal direction was manipulated between participants whereas retrieval mode was manipulated within participants. We replicated robust past-future differences, such as the future positivity bias. Additionally, we replicated key voluntary-involuntary differences: Involuntary future representations had similar characteristics as involuntary memories in that they were elicited faster, were more specific, and garnered more emotional impact than their voluntary counterparts. We also found that the future and past involuntary MTT led to both positive and negative mood impact, and that the valence of the impact was associated with the emotional valence of the event. This study advances scientific understanding of involuntary future representations in healthy populations and validates a laboratory paradigm that can be flexibly and systematically utilized to explore different characteristics of voluntary and involuntary MTT, which has not been possible within naturalistic paradigms. PMID:26489747

  8. Thoughts on selected movement disorder terminology and a plea for clarity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth H

    2013-01-01

    Description of the phenomenology of movement disorders requires precise and accurate terminology. Many of the terms that have been widely used in the literature are imprecise and open to interpretation. An examination of these terms and the assumptions implicit in their usage is important to improve communication and hence the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of movement disorders. I recommend that the term dyskinesia should be used primarily in the settings of Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia, in which its clinical implications are relatively clear; it should not be used in other situations where a precise description could more usefully facilitate diagnosis and treatment. In general dyskinesia should be used in the singular form. Extrapyramidal is based upon obsolete anatomical concepts, is uninformative, and should be discarded. The term abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) is similarly vague and uninformative, although is unlikely to be eliminated from the psychiatric literature. Movement disorder neurologists as teachers, clinicians, article reviewers, and journal editors have the responsibility to educate our colleagues regarding appropriate usage and the importance of employing correct descriptors. PMID:24396709

  9. Thoughts on Selected Movement Disorder Terminology and a Plea for Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ruth H.

    2013-01-01

    Description of the phenomenology of movement disorders requires precise and accurate terminology. Many of the terms that have been widely used in the literature are imprecise and open to interpretation. An examination of these terms and the assumptions implicit in their usage is important to improve communication and hence the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of movement disorders. I recommend that the term dyskinesia should be used primarily in the settings of Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia, in which its clinical implications are relatively clear; it should not be used in other situations where a precise description could more usefully facilitate diagnosis and treatment. In general dyskinesia should be used in the singular form. Extrapyramidal is based upon obsolete anatomical concepts, is uninformative, and should be discarded. The term abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) is similarly vague and uninformative, although is unlikely to be eliminated from the psychiatric literature. Movement disorder neurologists as teachers, clinicians, article reviewers, and journal editors have the responsibility to educate our colleagues regarding appropriate usage and the importance of employing correct descriptors. PMID:24396709

  10. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Experiences of involuntary admission in an approved mental health centre.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, D; Dowling, M; Trimble, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what it means to have an involuntary hospital admission. A sample of six people who were detained at an approved Irish mental health centre consented to recount their experiences were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three superordinate themes were identified: 'The early days', 'Experiences of treatment' and 'Moving on?'. 'The early days' represented participants' initial feelings and opinions of the experience of coming into the approved centre. 'Experiences of treatment' refers to participants' experiences of medication and relationships with staff. Finally, the theme 'Moving on?' represented participants' views on how they adjusted to involuntary admission. 'Learning the way' was central to the participants' notion of moving on. The findings suggest that the meaning of detention is a varied one that evokes an array of emotional responses for participants and highlights the need for a renewed way of thinking and doing concerning those subject to involuntary. PMID:23106908

  12. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  13. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  14. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  17. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  18. The Low Proportion and Associated Factors of Involuntary Admission in the Psychiatric Emergency Service in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jen-Pang; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chou, Pesus

    2015-01-01

    Background The involuntary admission regulated under the Mental Health Act has become an increasingly important issue in the developed countries in recent years. Most studies about the distribution and associated factors of involuntary admission were carried out in the western countries; however, the results may vary in different areas with different legal and socio-cultural backgrounds. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion and associated factors of involuntary admission in a psychiatric emergency service in Taiwan. Methods The study cohort included patients admitted from a psychiatric emergency service over a two-year period. Demographic, psychiatric emergency service utilization, and clinical variables were compared between those who were voluntarily and involuntarily admitted to explore the associated factors of involuntary admission. Results Among 2,777 admitted patients, 110 (4.0%) were involuntarily admitted. Police referrals and presenting problems as violence assessed by psychiatric nurses were found to be associated with involuntary admission. These patients were more likely to be involuntarily admitted during the night shift and stayed longer in the psychiatric emergency service. Conclusions The proportion of involuntary admissions in Taiwan was in the lower range when compared to Western countries. Dangerous conditions evaluated by the psychiatric nurses and police rather than diagnosis made by the psychiatrists were related factors of involuntary admission. As it spent more time to admit involuntary patients, it was suggested that multidisciplinary professionals should be included in and educated for during the process of involuntary admission. PMID:26046529

  19. Mildly abnormal general movement quality in infants is associated with higher Mead acid and lower arachidonic acid and shows a U-shaped relation with the DHA/AA ratio.

    PubMed

    van Goor, S A; Schaafsma, A; Erwich, J J H M; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2010-01-01

    We showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation was associated with more mildly abnormal (MA) general movements (GMs) in the infants. Since this finding was unexpected and inter-individual DHA intakes are highly variable, we explored the relationship between GM quality and erythrocyte DHA, arachidonic acid (AA), DHA/AA and Mead acid in 57 infants of this trial. MA GMs were inversely related to AA, associated with Mead acid, and associated with DHA/AA in a U-shaped manner. These relationships may indicate dependence of newborn AA status on synthesis from linoleic acid. This becomes restricted during the intrauterine period by abundant de novo synthesis of oleic and Mead acids from glucose, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity during the third trimester. The descending part of the U-shaped relation between MA GMs and DHA/AA probably indicates DHA shortage next to AA shortage. The ascending part may reflect a different developmental trajectory that is not necessarily unfavorable. PMID:20022733

  20. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions. PMID:27480605

  1. Healthcare professionals under pressure in involuntary admission processes.

    PubMed

    van den Hooff, Susanne; Leget, Carlo; Goossensen, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe how quality of care may be improved during an involuntary admission process of patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. It presents an empirically grounded analysis with different perspectives on 'doing good' during this process. Family carers', healthcare professionals' and legal professionals' ways of understanding and ordering this problematic situation appear very different. This could prevent patients from getting the proper care they need, with risk of more suffering and quality of life below the minimum acceptable. All this possibly lead to immoral dehumanizing situations. Firstly, the background of our empirical study is sketched. Secondly, the different perspectives on 'doing good' are summarized and compared. Thirdly, the tensions arising from the different conceptualizations of autonomy and different types of responsibilities of the actors are clarified. A common 'doing good' during involuntary admission necessitates removal of any tensions within the relational network by weighing and balancing the different perspectives on autonomy and the resulting responsibilities. With this in mind, we propose a renewed time/action table for involuntary admission, which tends to address all patients' needs at the right time. The solution presented might help healthcare professionals, who are squeezed in between patients, family carers, legal professionals and overall rules, to create practices in which patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome can maintain their dignity and receive the care they need. Earlier interventions, timely and adequate diagnosis, and diminishment of tensions between the different actors by fine-tuning their paradigmatic frameworks are suggested to be part of a solution. PMID:26058413

  2. The efficacy of involuntary outpatient treatment in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Geller, J; Grudzinskas, A J; McDermeit, M; Fisher, W H; Lawlor, T

    1998-01-01

    One means to address some of the unintended consequences of the shift of treatment for individuals with serious mental illness from hospitals to communities has been involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT). Using Massachusetts data, 19 patients with court orders for IOT were matched to all and to best fits on demographic and clinical variables, and then to individuals with the closest fit on utilization before the IOT date. Outcomes indicated the IOT group had significantly fewer admissions and hospital days after the court order. The full impact of IOT requires more study, particularly directed toward IOT's effects on insight and quality of life. PMID:9727222

  3. The Relationship of Saccadic Eye Movements to Reading Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alan O.

    Saccadic (small, rapid, and apparently involuntary) eye movements of 14 children (7- to 12-years-old) with reading difficulties and of 14 normal readers were compared before and after the problem readers underwent a 7-month individual tutoring program. At pretesting the problem readers showed a rate of eye movements that was markedly lower than…

  4. Destabilizing effects of visual environment motions simulating eye movements or head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Keith D.; Shuman, D.; Krantz, J. H.; Woods, C. B.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    In the present paper, we explore effects on the human of exposure to a visual virtual environment which has been enslaved to simulate the human user's head movements or eye movements. Specifically, we have studied the capacity of our experimental subjects to maintain stable spatial orientation in the context of moving their entire visible surroundings by using the parameters of the subjects' natural movements. Our index of the subjects' spatial orientation was the extent of involuntary sways of the body while attempting to stand still, as measured by translations and rotations of the head. We also observed, informally, their symptoms of motion sickness.

  5. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service. 323.14 Section 323.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.14 Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service....

  6. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service. 323.14 Section 323.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.14 Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service....

  7. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service. 323.14 Section 323.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.14 Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service....

  8. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service. 323.14 Section 323.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.14 Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service....

  9. 14 CFR 323.14 - Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service. 323.14 Section 323.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... REDUCTIONS OF SERVICE § 323.14 Temporary suspension authority for involuntary interruption of service....

  10. 47 CFR 64.1512 - Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1512 Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services. Nothing in...

  11. 37 CFR 2.132 - Involuntary dismissal for failure to take testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Involuntary dismissal for failure to take testimony. 2.132 Section 2.132 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT... Partes Proceedings § 2.132 Involuntary dismissal for failure to take testimony. (a) If the time...

  12. Involuntary Subordination and Its Relation to Personality, Mood, and Submissive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturman, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    According to social rank theory, involuntary subordination may be adaptive in species that compete for resources as a mechanism to switch off fighting behaviors when loss is imminent (thus saving an organism from injury). In humans, major depression is thought to occur when involuntary subordination becomes prolonged. The present study sought to…

  13. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in...

  14. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in...

  15. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in...

  16. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in...

  17. 32 CFR 634.38 - Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in... Supervision § 634.38 Involuntary extraction of bodily fluids in traffic cases. (a) General. The procedures... cause exists to believe that such individual is intoxicated. Extractions of body fluids in...

  18. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  19. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  20. Nonemergency Involuntary Antipsychotic Medication in Prison: Effects on Prison Inpatient Days and Disciplinary Charges.

    PubMed

    Salem, Anasuya; Kushnier, Alexander; Dorio, Nicole; Reeves, Rusty

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that treating mentally ill inmates involuntarily with antipsychotic medication would reduce the number of prison inpatient days and the number of inmates who receive disciplinary charges. The subjects were 133 mentally ill inmates who were placed on the New Jersey Department of Corrections (NJ DOC) nonemergency involuntary medication protocol and received antipsychotic medication for at least one year. No difference was noted in an inmate's mean number of prison inpatient days in the year before versus the year during involuntary medication. Fewer inmates received serious disciplinary charges during the year of involuntary medication relative to the year before, when they were not medicated. In addition, there were decreases in mean instances and mean total number of charges during involuntary medication versus before. Neither an increased number of inpatient days nor depot medication accounted for the inmates who incurred no charges while receiving involuntary medication. PMID:26071504

  1. Abnormal dorsal premotor-motor inhibition in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Beck, Sandra; Bliem, Barbara; Hallett, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that a deficient premotor-motor inhibitory network contributes to the unwanted involuntary movements in dystonia. The authors studied nine controls and nine patients with writer's cramp (WC). Dorsal premotor-motor cortical inhibition (dPMI) was tested by applying conditioning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex and then a test pulse to the ipsilateral motor cortex at an interval of 6 ms. The authors used an H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis paired with TMS over the premotor cortex to assess for spinal cord excitability change. Finally, the authors interrupted a choice reaction time task with TMS over dorsal premotor cortex to assess performance in a nondystonic task. The results showed that WC patients exhibited dPMI at rest (88.5%, the ratio of conditioned to unconditioned test pulse), in contrast to controls, who did not show dPMI (109.6%) (P = 0.0198). This difference between patients and controls persisted during contraction (100% vs. 112%) and pen-holding (95.6% vs. 111%). The H-reflex in the arm was not modulated by the premotor cortex stimulation. The WC patients made more errors, and the error rate improved with TMS over the premotor cortex. These results suggest that abnormal premotor-motor interactions may play a role in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia. The dPMI was not modulated by task in either group, but was constantly greater in the patients. The significance of the increased inhibition is likely to be compensatory. It appears to be a robust finding and, in combination with other features, could be further explored as a biomarker. PMID:24710852

  2. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  3. Electric Eels Concentrate Their Electric Field to Induce Involuntary Fatigue in Struggling Prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-11-16

    Nature is replete with predator venoms that immobilize prey by targeting ion channels. Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) take a different tactic to accomplish the same end. Striking eels emit electricity in volleys of 1 ms, high-voltage pulses. Each pulse is capable of activating prey motor neuron efferents, and hence muscles. In a typical attack, eel discharges cause brief, immobilizing tetanus, allowing eels to swallow small prey almost immediately. Here I show that when eels struggle with large prey or fish held precariously, they commonly curl to bring their own tail to the opposite side of prey, sandwiching it between the two poles of their powerful electric organ. They then deliver volleys of high-voltage pulses. Shortly thereafter, eels juggle prey into a favorable position for swallowing. Recordings from electrodes placed within prey items show that this curling behavior at least doubles the field strength within shocked prey, most likely ensuring reliable activation of the majority of prey motor neurons. Simulated pulse trains, or pulses from an eel-triggered stimulator, applied to a prey muscle preparations result in profound muscle fatigue and loss of contractile force. Consistent with this result, video recordings show that formerly struggling prey are temporarily immobile after this form of attack, allowing the manipulation of prey that might otherwise escape. These results reveal a unique use of electric organs to a unique end; eels superimpose electric fields from two poles, ensuring maximal remote activation of prey efferents that blocks subsequent prey movement by inducing involuntary muscle fatigue. PMID:26521183

  4. Relationships between versional and vergent quick phases of the involuntary version-vergence nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingxia; Hertle, Richard W; Yang, Dongsheng

    2008-01-01

    We used ground-plane motion stimuli displayed on a computer monitor positioned below eye level to induce involuntary version-vergence nystagmus (VVN). The VVN was recorded with a search coil system. It was shown that the VVN had both vertical versional and horizontal vergence components. The VVN induced by backward motion (toward subjects) had upward versional and divergence quick phases, whereas those induced by forward motion (away from subjects) had downward and biphasic divergence-convergence quick phases. The versional and vergence components of the VVN quick phases were analyzed. A temporal dissociation of about 20 ms between version velocity peak and convergence velocity peak was revealed, which supported a modified saccade-related vergence burst neuron (SVBN) model. We suggest that the temporal dissociation may be partly because of a lower-level OKN control mechanism. Vergence peak time was dependent on version peak time. Linear relationships between vergence peak velocity and versional saccadic peak velocity were demonstrated, which was in line with the new multiplicative model. Our data support the hypothesis that the vergence system and the saccadic system can act separately but interact with each other whenever their movements occur simultaneously. PMID:18831647

  5. A Conceptual Model Facilitating the Transition of Involuntary Migrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Kerstin Linnéa

    2011-01-01

    Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities. PMID:22191055

  6. Deaths in Canada from lung cancer due to involuntary smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, D T; Collishaw, N E; Kirkbride, J; Mao, Y

    1987-01-01

    Recently published evidence indicates that involuntary smoking causes an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Information was compiled on the proportion of people who had never smoked among victims of lung cancer, the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers married to smokers and the prevalence of such exposure. On the basis of these data we estimate that 50 to 60 of the deaths from lung cancer in Canada in 1985 among people who had never smoked were caused by spousal smoking; about 90% occurred in women. The total number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke from spouses and other sources (mainly the workplace) was derived by applying estimated age- and sex-specific rates of death from lung cancer attributable to such exposure to the population of Canadians who have never smoked; about 330 deaths from lung cancer annually are attributable to such exposure. PMID:3567810

  7. Reassessing the high proportion of involuntary psychiatric hospital admissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bola, John R; Park, Eon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Yeon

    2011-10-01

    The 2007 WHO-AIMS report on the mental health system of South Korea documented progress towards a national mental health plan, protection of human rights, and growth of community based services. Yet concern was expressed that the high proportion of involuntary to total psychiatric hospitalizations (92%) may indicate an excessively coercive system. Involuntary hospitalization in Korea rose from 117 to 132 (per 100,000) between 2000 and 2006. In 2000, the median rate in the European Union (EU) was 74 per 100,000 (Range: 6-218). While Korea's involuntary hospitalization rate is within the EU range, its proportion of involuntary hospitalizations is three times that of the highest EU country (30%, Sweden). Underdevelopment of voluntary psychiatric services and culturally mandated family referrals resulting in involuntary hospitalization are apparent reasons for the high proportion of involuntary hospitalizations. Population-based rates per 100,000 more accurately describe involuntary hospitalization than the proportion (ratio) measure used in the WHO-AIMS reports. PMID:21416122

  8. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  9. 78 FR 4164 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Proceedings in State Courts authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0111. This information collection expires.... Data OMB Control Number: 1076-0111. Title: Payment for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian...

  10. The Frequency of Voluntary and Involuntary Autobiographical Memories across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Ratings of the memory of an important event from the last week on the frequency of voluntary and involuntary retrieval, belief in its accuracy, visual imagery, auditory imagery, setting, emotional intensity, valence, narrative coherence, and centrality to the life story were obtained from 988 adults whose age ranged from 15 to over 90. Another 992 adults provided the same ratings for a memory from their confirmation day when they were about age 14. The frequencies of involuntary and voluntary retrieval were similar. Both frequencies were predicted by emotional intensity and centrality to the life story. The results from this study, which is the first to measure the frequency of voluntary and involuntary retrieval for the same events, are counter to both cognitive and clinical theories, which consistently claim that involuntary memories are infrequent compared to voluntary memories. Age and gender differences are noted. PMID:19487759

  11. Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003...

  15. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003...

  17. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Victoria J; Liikkanen, Lassi A; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  18. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery?

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  19. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  20. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  1. The simultaneous perception of auditory-tactile stimuli in voluntary movement.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory-tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy. PMID:26441799

  2. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy. PMID:26441799

  3. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    PubMed

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex. PMID:25859767

  4. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  5. Does Involuntary Mental Time Travel Make Sense in Prospective Teachers' Feelings and Behaviors during Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay; Yesilbursa, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of involuntary mental time travel into the past and into the future on prospective teachers' feelings and behaviors during the period of a class hour. A total of 110 prospective teachers participated voluntarily in the study. The results of the present study showed that (a) the involuntary mental time travel…

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  8. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1112 - Denial of continuation of coverage due to involuntary separation for gross misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. 890.1112 Section 890.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS... involuntary separation for gross misconduct. (a) Notice of denial. (1) When an employing office...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  13. More Than Ataxia: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders in Childhood Autosomal Recessive Ataxia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Toni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The autosomal recessive ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by complex neurological features in addition to progressive ataxia. Hyperkinetic movement disorders occur in a significant proportion of patients, and may sometimes be the presenting motor symptom. Presentations with involuntary movements rather than ataxia are diagnostically challenging, and are likely under-recognized. Methods A PubMed literature search was performed in October 2015 utilizing pairwise combinations of disease-related terms (autosomal recessive ataxia, ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and symptom-related terms (movement disorder, dystonia, chorea, choreoathetosis, myoclonus). Results Involuntary movements occur in the majority of patients with ataxia–telangiectasia and AOA1, and less frequently in patients with AOA2, Friedreich ataxia, and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. Clinical presentations with an isolated hyperkinetic movement disorder in the absence of ataxia include dystonia or dystonia with myoclonus with predominant upper limb and cervical involvement (ataxia–telangiectasia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and generalized chorea (ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1, ataxia-telangiectasia). Discussion An awareness of atypical presentations facilitates early and accurate diagnosis in these challenging cases. Recognition of involuntary movements is important not only for diagnosis, but also because of the potential for effective targeted symptomatic treatment. PMID:27536460

  14. Is non-recognition of choreic movements in Huntington disease always pathological?

    PubMed

    Justo, Damian; Charles, Perrine; Daunizeau, Jean; Delmaire, Christine; Gargiulo, Marcela; Hahn-Barma, Valérie; Naccache, Lionel; Durr, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Clinical experience and prior studies suggest that Huntington disease (HD) patients have low insight into their motor disturbances and poor real-time awareness (concurrent awareness) of chorea. This has been attributed to sensory deficits but, until now, concurrent awareness of choreic movements has not been compared to the degree of insight that presymptomatic carriers of the HD gene and healthy control subjects have into non-pathological involuntary movements. To further investigate loss of insight into motor dysfunction in HD patients, we administered a video-recorded interview and 4 experimental tasks to 68 subjects from the TRACK-HD cohort, including 28 high-functioning patients in early stages of HD, 28 premanifest mutation carriers and 12 controls. All underwent full neurological and neuropsychological evaluations and 3T MRI examinations. Subjects were asked to assess the presence, body location, frequency, practical consequences and probable causes of motor impairments, as well as the presence and body location of involuntary movements during 4 experimental tasks. The accuracy of their judgments, assessed by comparison with objective criteria, was used as a measure of their insight into motor disturbances and of their concurrent awareness of involuntary movements. Insight was poor in early HD patients: motor symptoms were nearly always underestimated. In contrast, concurrent awareness of involuntary movements, although also poor, was essentially indistinguishable across the 3 groups of subjects: non-pathological involuntary movements were as difficult to perceive by controls and premanifest carriers as was chorea for early HD patients. GLM analysis suggested that both concurrent awareness and perception of practical consequences of movement disorder had a positive effect on intellectual insight, and that mental flexibility is involved in concurrent awareness. Our results suggest that low insight into motor dysfunction in early HD, although marginally

  15. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  17. The Management of Osteoarthritis in Movement Disorders: A Case Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Giles H.; Howard, Robin S.; Lavelle, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Background A 37-year-old female with a hyperkinetic movement disorder due to chorea–acanthocytosis developed severe painful degenerative arthritis of her left knee as a consequence of repetitive involuntary flexion and extension dystonic and ballistic movements. Case Report Despite profound limitation in her mobility a total knee replacement was successfully undertaken. Discussion The case emphasizes that patients with progressive neurodegenerative disorders may derive relief or resolution of pain by joint replacement even if mobility does not improve following surgery. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential. PMID:23858393

  18. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-1 - Involuntary conversions; nonrecognition of gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of real property held either for productive use in trade or business or for investment and occurring... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-1 Involuntary conversions; nonrecognition of gain. (a) In general. Section 1033 applies to cases where...

  19. Neural Networks Involved in Voluntary and Involuntary Vocal Pitch Regulation in Experienced Singers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Jean Mary; Wood, Sean; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In an fMRI experiment, we tested experienced singers with singing tasks to investigate neural correlates of voluntary and involuntary vocal pitch regulation. We shifted the pitch of auditory feedback (plus or minus 25 or 200 cents), and singers either: (1) ignored the shift and maintained their vocal pitch or (2) changed their vocal pitch to…

  20. 47 CFR 64.1512 - Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Involuntary blocking of pay-per-call services. 64.1512 Section 64.1512 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1512...

  1. Involuntary Mental Time Travel and Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Situational Intrinsic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2010-01-01

    Recent cognitive psychological research has argued that involuntary mental time travel is an important individual difference variable that has the potential to affect an individual's motivation. However, this issue has not been empirically investigated in educational settings such as teacher education. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the…

  2. Beyond the Mechanics of Infertility: Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Infertility and Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph

    1986-01-01

    Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…

  3. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions. 1.168(i)-6 Section 1.168(i)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(i)-6 Like-kind exchanges...

  4. Why Am I Remembering This Now? Predicting the Occurrence of Involuntary (Spontaneous) Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Staugaard, Soren Rislov; Sorensen, Louise Maria Torp

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of events that come to mind spontaneously, that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. They are common in daily life and observed in a range of clinical disorders in the form of negative, intrusive recollections or flashbacks. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we report a…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1321-1 - Involuntary liquidation of lifo inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Involuntary Liquidation and Replacement of Lifo Inventories... the taxpayer of his income tax return for the year of the liquidation. However, if the liquidation... shall be increased to the extent of such difference. Any deficiency in the income or excess profits...

  6. Coping with Terrorism: Age and Gender Differences in Effortful and Involuntary Responses to September 11th

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Raviv, Tali; Ahlkvist, Jarl A.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Kline, Galena H.; Rea, Jacqueline; Burwell, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological…

  7. 75 FR 7514 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Register on October 30, 2009 (74 FR 56208) requesting public comments on the proposed information... currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0111, which expires February 28, 2010. DATES: Written...: 1076-0111. Title: Payment for Appointed Counsel in Involuntary Indian Child Custody Proceedings...

  8. Involuntary Departure of Public School Principals in the State of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Elva Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the reasons for ineffective public school leadership. The study examined the factors associated with the involuntary departure of public school principals in the state of Texas and aimed to reveal the ineffective behaviors that erode the public school principal's leadership. The study also indirectly pointed out to…

  9. Involuntary Unemployment Reconsidered: Second-Best Contracting with Heterogeneous Firms and Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalebuff, Barry; Zeckhauser, Richard

    The implicit contract theory, a new explanation for the phenomena of involuntary unemployment, does not capture the salient characteristics of real work employment. By building on implicit contract theory, this paper takes into account circumstances ignored in the traditional model: (1) institutional characteristics of the labor market enhance…

  10. The paradoxical increase in involuntary admissions after the revision of the Civil Commitment Law in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, D

    1995-01-01

    The revision in 1990 of the Mental Health Commitment Law in Belgium, which was initially intended to decrease the use of civil commitment, has resulted in a paradoxical increase in involuntary hospital admissions. To understand the reasons for this increase, the relative importance of the various factors involved, notably the criteria of mental illness, dangerousness and clinical treatability, is examined. PMID:7666748

  11. The New Gateway, an Old Paradox: Immigrants and Involuntary Americans in North Carolina History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Fitchett, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis of North Carolina history textbooks to explore how the definition of immigration has changed over the last century. They also examined how immigrant groups and involuntary Americans have been portrayed throughout the state's history. Findings suggest that as a burgeoning gateway state for immigrants, North…

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INDEBTEDNESS PROCEDURES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 113, App. C Appendix C...

  13. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  14. Innovations Applied to the Classroom for Involuntary Groups: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chovanec, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for social work students to be prepared to work with a wide range of involuntary groups including the more traditional court-ordered programs in domestic abuse and chemical dependency, as well as groups in mental health and schools that provide outreach to high-risk client populations. This paper introduces three…

  15. Evaluation of CHANGE, an Involuntary Cognitive Program for High-Risk Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Nancy L.; Lambert, Eric G.; Barton-Bellessa, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Prison violence is a major concern in most correctional institutions. One intervention frequently used to reduce violent behavior is cognitive therapy. An involuntary cognitive program at a Midwestern state prison was evaluated for its impact on official misconduct. A total of 213 inmates were randomly assigned to the treatment (CHANGE) group (n =…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked infantile nystagmus

    MedlinePlus

    ... infantile nystagmus is a condition characterized by abnormal eye movements. Nystagmus is a term that refers to involuntary ... the first six months of life. The abnormal eye movements may worsen when an affected person is feeling ...

  17. Abnormal Dorsal Premotor-Motor Inhibition in Writer’s Cramp

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah Pirio; Beck, Sandra; Bliem, Barbara; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that a deficient premotor-motor inhibitory network contributes to the unwanted involuntary movements in dystonia. Methods We studied nine controls and nine patients with writer’s cramp (WC). Dorsal premotor-motor cortical inhibition (dPMI) was tested by applying conditioning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the dorsal premotor cortex and then a test pulse to the ipsilateral motor cortex at an interval of 6ms. We used an H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis paired with TMS over the premotor cortex to assess for spinal cord excitability change. Finally, we interrupted a choice reaction time task with TMS over dorsal premotor cortex to assess performance in a non-dystonic task. Results Our results showed that WC patients exhibited dPMI at rest (88.5%, the ratio of conditioned to unconditioned test pulse) in contrast to our controls who did not show dPMI (109.6%) (p=0.0198). This difference between patients and controls persisted during contraction (100% vs. 112%) and pen-holding (95.6% vs. 111%). The H-reflex in the arm was not modulated by the premotor cortex stimulation. WC patients made more errors and the error rate improved with TMS over the premotor cortex. Conclusions These results suggest that abnormal premotor-motor interactions may play a role in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia. dPMI was not modulated by task in either group, but was constantly greater in the patients. The significance of the increased inhibition is likely to be compensatory. It appears to be a robust finding and, in combination with other features, could be further explored as a biomarker. PMID:24710852

  18. Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: Using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory

    PubMed Central

    Deeprose, Catherine; Zhang, Shuqi; DeJong, Hannah; Dalgleish, Tim; Holmes, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Involuntary autobiographical memories that spring unbidden into conscious awareness form part of everyday experience. In psychopathology, involuntary memories can be associated with significant distress. However, the cognitive mechanisms associated with the development of involuntary memories require further investigation and understanding. Since involuntary autobiographical memories are image-based, we tested predictions that visuospatial (but not other) established cognitive tasks could disrupt their consolidation when completed post-encoding. Methods In Experiment 1, participants watched a stressful film then immediately completed a visuospatial task (complex pattern tapping), a control-task (verbal task) or no-task. Involuntary memories of the film were recorded for 1-week. In Experiment 2, the cognitive tasks were administered 30-min post-film. Results Compared to both control and no-task conditions, completing a visuospatial task post-film reduced the frequency of later involuntary memories (Expts 1 and 2) but did not affect voluntary memory performance on a recognition task (Expt 2). Limitations Voluntary memory was assessed using a verbal recognition task and a broader range of memory tasks could be used. The relative difficulty of the cognitive tasks used was not directly established. Conclusions An established visuospatial task after encoding of a stressful experience selectively interferes with sensory-perceptual information processing and may therefore prevent the development of involuntary autobiographical memories. PMID:22104657

  19. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling. PMID

  20. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  2. Fiducial marker-based correction for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm CT scanning of knees. Part I. Numerical model-based optimization

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Maier, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Human subjects in standing positions are apt to show much more involuntary motion than in supine positions. The authors aimed to simulate a complicated realistic lower body movement using the four-dimensional (4D) digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom. The authors also investigated fiducial marker-based motion compensation methods in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. The level of involuntary movement-induced artifacts and image quality improvement were investigated after applying each method. Methods: An optical tracking system with eight cameras and seven retroreflective markers enabled us to track involuntary motion of the lower body of nine healthy subjects holding a squat position at 60° of flexion. The XCAT-based knee model was developed using the 4D XCAT phantom and the optical tracking data acquired at 120 Hz. The authors divided the lower body in the XCAT into six parts and applied unique affine transforms to each so that the motion (6 degrees of freedom) could be synchronized with the optical markers’ location at each time frame. The control points of the XCAT were tessellated into triangles and 248 projection images were created based on intersections of each ray and monochromatic absorption. The tracking data sets with the largest motion (Subject 2) and the smallest motion (Subject 5) among the nine data sets were used to animate the XCAT knee model. The authors defined eight skin control points well distributed around the knees as pseudo-fiducial markers which functioned as a reference in motion correction. Motion compensation was done in the following ways: (1) simple projection shifting in 2D, (2) deformable projection warping in 2D, and (3) rigid body warping in 3D. Graphics hardware accelerated filtered backprojection was implemented and combined with the three correction methods in order to speed up the simulation process. Correction fidelity was evaluated as a function of number of markers used (4–12) and

  3. Cortical Activation During Levitation and Tentacular Movements of Corticobasal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Caulo, Massimo; Onofrj, Valeria; Thomas, Astrid; Tartaro, Armando; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2015-11-01

    Levitation and tentacular movements (LTM) are considered specific, yet rare (30%), features of Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS), and are erroneously classified as alien hand. Our study focuses on these typical involuntary movements and aims to highlight possible neural correlates.LTM were recognizable during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 4 of 19 CBS patients. FMRI activity was evaluated with an activation recognition program for movements, during LTM, consisting of levitaton and finger writhing, and compared with the absence of movement (rest) and voluntary movements (VM), similar to LTM, of affected and unaffected arm-hand. FMRI acquisition blocks were balanced in order to match LTM blocks with rest and VM conditions. In 1 of the 4 patients, fMRI was acquired only during LTM and with a different equipment.Despite variable intensity and range of involuntary movements, evidenced by videos, fMRI showed, during LTM, a significant (P<0.05-0.001) activation only of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). Voluntary movements of the affected and unaffected arm elicited the known network including frontal, supplementary, sensory-motor cortex, and cerebellum. Willed movements of the LTM-affected arm induced higher and wider activation of contralateral M1 compared with the unaffected arm.The isolated activation of M1 suggests that LTM is a cortical disinhibition symptom, not involving a network. Higher activation of M1 during VM confirms that M1 excitability changes occur in CBS. Our study calls, finally, attention to the necessity to separate LTM from other alien hand phenomena. PMID:26559277

  4. Cortical Activation During Levitation and Tentacular Movements of Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Pizzi, Stefano Delli; Caulo, Massimo; Onofrj, Valeria; Thomas, Astrid; Tartaro, Armando; Franciotti, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Levitation and tentacular movements (LTM) are considered specific, yet rare (30%), features of Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS), and are erroneously classified as alien hand. Our study focuses on these typical involuntary movements and aims to highlight possible neural correlates. LTM were recognizable during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 4 of 19 CBS patients. FMRI activity was evaluated with an activation recognition program for movements, during LTM, consisting of levitaton and finger writhing, and compared with the absence of movement (rest) and voluntary movements (VM), similar to LTM, of affected and unaffected arm-hand. FMRI acquisition blocks were balanced in order to match LTM blocks with rest and VM conditions. In 1 of the 4 patients, fMRI was acquired only during LTM and with a different equipment. Despite variable intensity and range of involuntary movements, evidenced by videos, fMRI showed, during LTM, a significant (P<0.05–0.001) activation only of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). Voluntary movements of the affected and unaffected arm elicited the known network including frontal, supplementary, sensory-motor cortex, and cerebellum. Willed movements of the LTM-affected arm induced higher and wider activation of contralateral M1 compared with the unaffected arm. The isolated activation of M1 suggests that LTM is a cortical disinhibition symptom, not involving a network. Higher activation of M1 during VM confirms that M1 excitability changes occur in CBS. Our study calls, finally, attention to the necessity to separate LTM from other alien hand phenomena. PMID:26559277

  5. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, and restricted eye movement associated with thyroid eye disease. 2) Nystagmus: Some patients with nystagmus (jerky eye movements) will acquire a head turn or tilt if ...

  6. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. PMID:22265372

  7. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes. PMID:26617263

  8. Classics in psychiatry and the law: Francis Wharton on involuntary confessions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Philadelphia attorney Francis Wharton was a key intellectual figure in linking the sciences of medicine and law. In 1860, he published a monograph on involuntary confessions, which represented the closing chapter of Wharton and Stillé's Treatise on Medical Jurisprudence. He had already published A Monograph on Mental Unsoundness in 1855, the first book of the Treatise in its first edition. Wharton was convinced that many criminals had an inner compulsion to confess or to be caught, explained as divine jurisprudence. His remarks on confessions include a typology spanning psychodynamics to police tactics, using contemporaneous, historical, and literary examples. This remarkable document provides insight into the dynamics of unintended and involuntary confessions and is compatible, in part, with current scholarship. The author contrasts Wharton's schema with those of his English predecessor Jeremy Bentham, the psychoanalyst Theodore Reik, and others, and concludes that it represents an important transition toward a psychological approach to the criminology of confessions. PMID:22396344

  9. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movement (MM), or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke. PMID:26649211

  10. The role of resilience in involuntary chief nursing officer job loss.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Ellen K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role resilience plays for chief nursing officers who have experienced involuntary loss of their positions. Various definitions of resilience based on 3 stages of resilience inquiry that have evolved over time and the "Broaden-and-Build Theory" of positive emotions are presented. Based on this foundation, recommendations are presented to help these chief nursing officers develop or enhance their resilience to move forward to a successful future. PMID:25714951

  11. Mirror Movements After Stroke Suggest Facilitation From Nonprimary Motor Cortex: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Sciumé, Luciana; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Blasi, Valeria; Castellano, Antonella; Falini, Andrea; Perucca, Laura; Cerri, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    When stroke occurs in adulthood, mirror movements (MMs; involuntary movements occurring in 1 hand when performing unilateral movements with the contralateral hand) in the paretic hand rarely occur. We present a case of an apparently healthy 54-year-old man presenting with MMs in his left (nondominant) hand. Further evaluation revealed diminished strength and dexterity in left hand, increased spinal excitability, decreased corticospinal excitability, occurrence of ipsilateral motor responses, enlarged cortical motor representation, and imaging findings consistent with a previously undiagnosed right-subcortical stroke. MMs and ipsilateral motor responses may reflect the increased spinal motor neurons' excitability sustained by the spared nonprimary ipsilesional motor areas. PMID:26514789

  12. REM sleep abnormalities in severe athetoid cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Inoue, Y; Iwakawa, Y; Sasaki, H

    1990-01-01

    Various abnormalities of sleep have been reported in extrapyramidal diseases in adults. We have investigated the disturbances of REM sleep (SREM) in severe athetoid cerebral palsy (ACP) originating perinatally. Ten ACP patients, 5 males and 5 females ranging from 15 to 30 years old, were studied by means of all-night polygraphic examination. Three cases showed a marked decrease in rapid eye movements in SREM. Moreover, the tone of submental muscle in SREM was also disturbed in three. Regarding body movements during sleep, gross movements and twitch movements of the submental muscle were analyzed. In most of the patients, an abnormal distribution of body movements according to sleep stages was observed, the rate being significantly reduced in SREM. REMs, atonia and body movements are considered to be related to the brainstem function in animals. The results of the present study suggest that perinatal extrapyramidal diseases could also coincide with brainstem dysfunctions. PMID:2288380

  13. Psychogenic Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... also look for marked improvement in symptoms following psychotherapy, use of a placebo (a medicine with no ... multi-therapy approach to treating psychogenic movement includes psychotherapy, placebo, or suggestion; antidepressants for symptoms related to ...

  14. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  17. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  18. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  19. A rare paroxysmal movement disorder: mixed type of paroxysmal dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aysu; Atakli, Dilek; Guresci, Bahar; Arpaci, Baki

    2014-11-30

    Paroxysmal dyskinesias are rare, heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by recurrent attacks of involuntary movements. The four classic categories of paroxysmal dyskinesias are kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic, exercise-induced and hypnogenic. There are some patients that do not fit in these four groups of paroxysmal dyskinesia and are termed as "mixed type". We describe a 13-year-old girl who had features of both paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia and paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia that was misdiagnosed as refractory epilepsy. She improved substantially with a combination of carbamazepine and clonazepame. It is important to recognize the clinical presentation of paroxysmal dyskinesias and distinguish these movement disorders from other disorders, such as psychogenic disorders and epilepsia, for deciding the treatment and prognosis of the patients. This case highlights the importance of the recognition of a rare paroxysmal movement disorders. PMID:25720246

  20. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  1. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-08-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation. PMID:26514399

  2. Effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on cognitive functions, and VEGF and BDNF levels in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Uysal, N; Kiray, M; Sisman, A R; Camsari, U M; Gencoglu, C; Baykara, B; Cetinkaya, C; Aksu, I

    2015-01-01

    Regular treadmill running during adolescence improves learning and memory in rats. During adolescence, the baseline level of stress is thought to be greater than during other periods of life. We investigated the effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and spatial learning, memory and anxiety in adolescent male and female rats. The voluntary exercise group was given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks. The involuntary exercise group was forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min at 8 m/min 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Improved learning was demonstrated in both exercise groups compared to controls. Neuron density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex were increased. Hippocampal VEGF and BDNF levels were increased in both exercise groups compared to controls. In females, anxiety and corticosterone levels were decreased; BDNF and VEGF levels were higher in the voluntary exercise group than in the involuntary exercise group. The adolescent hippocampus is affected favorably by regular exercise. Although no difference was found in anxiety levels as a result of involuntary exercise in males, females showed increased anxiety levels, and decreased VEGF and BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex after involuntary exercise. PMID:25203492

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  6. [Evaluating the implementation of involuntary hospitalization procedures: a profile of people, audits and recommendations].

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Line

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, legislative reforms have been undertaken in many Western countries to reduce involuntary hospitalization. Studies examining fluctuation rates before and after the legislative reform show a general trend toward an increase rather than a decrease in involuntary hospitalization rates (de Stefano & Ducci, 2008). In Quebec, many reports have shown that consent for psychiatric evaluation and hospitalisation for people who present an imminent danger to themselves or to others is difficult to obtain due to clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. To facilitate this process, a new protocol was developed and implemented following the training of 335 health workers and 85 medical doctors in 6 hospitals. Our study evaluated this protocol and established a profile of people who had been hospitalized against their will. Using a retrospective analysis, we examined the files of 179 patients who underwent a psychiatric evaluation process during an involuntary hospitalization. This file analysis allowed us to develop a better profile of these people and determine whether the required forms were present and how adequately they were filled out by the professionals. We also conducted a study with the professionals responsible for applying the new protocol to get a better idea of its characteristics (relative advantage, compatibility, simplicity, reversibility and observability) as well as the principles of consent and the obstacles to its implementation.Our study showed that that half of the patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia or another psychosis. Fifty-four point two percent (54.2%) of the patients were males, 79% were single or separated and only 18,4% were working. At the time of their crisis situation, 30,7% were brought to the hospital by police officers and 19% were already hospitalized. The remaining patients were brought in by ambulance, family members or they came in by themselves. Professional opinion of the new protocol was positive however they

  7. Multi-finger interaction during involuntary and voluntary single finger force changes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J.R.; Zatsiorsky, V.M.; Latash, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Two types of finger interaction are characterized by positive co-variation (enslaving) or negative co-variation (error compensation) of finger forces. Enslaving reflects mechanical and neural connections among fingers, while error compensation results from synergic control of fingers to stabilize their net output. Involuntary and voluntary force changes by a finger were used to explore these patterns. We hypothesized that synergic mechanisms will dominate during involuntary force changes, while enslaving will dominate during voluntary finger force changes. Subjects pressed with all four fingers to match a target force that was 10% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). One of the fingers was unexpectedly raised 5.0 mm at a speed of 30.0 mm/s. During finger raising the subject was instructed “not to intervene voluntarily”. After the finger was passively lifted and a new steady-state achieved, subjects pressed down with the lifted finger, producing a pulse of force voluntarily. The data were analyzed in terms of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical commands to fingers reflecting their intended involvement). The target finger showed an increase in force during both phases. In the involuntary phase, the target finger force changes ranged between 10.71 ± 1.89% MVC (I-finger) and 16.60 ± 2.26% MVC (L-finger). Generally, non-target fingers displayed a force decrease with a maximum amplitude of −1.49 ± 0.43% MVC (L-finger). Thus, during the involuntary phase, error compensation was observed – non-lifted fingers showed a decrease in force (as well as in mode magnitude). During the voluntary phase, enslaving was observed – non-target fingers showed an increase in force and only minor changes in mode magnitude. The average change in force of non-target fingers ranged from 21.83 ± 4.47% MVC for R-finger (M-finger task) to 0.71 ± 1.10 % MVC for L-finger (I-finger task). The average change in mode of non-target fingers was between −7.34 ± 19

  8. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  10. Acid-base balance in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) during involuntary submergence.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Jones, D R

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of all the major independent variables [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2); strong-ion difference ([SID]), and total protein content, which approximate total weak acid concentration in plasma] are essential for understanding changes in acid-base balance in plasma. During involuntary submergence of 1, 2, or 4 min, PaCO2 in ducks increased and arterial pH (pHa) decreased. During 1-min dives there were no significant changes in any strong ions. In both 2- and 4-min dives, there was a significant increase in [lactate-], but because of an increase in equal magnitude of [Na+], [SID] did not change. During recovery from all dives the plasma remained acidotic for several minutes, although PaCO2 fell below predive levels in less than 1 min. [Lactate-] increased in the recovery period. There were no changes in total protein content during submergence or recovery. Breathing 100% O2 before 2-min dives caused a reduction in [lactate-] production and release during and after the dive, although due to a marked increased in PaCO2, pHa fell as low as in 4-min dives after breathing air. After 1 min of recovery, pHa returned to normal along with the restoration of the predive level of PaCO2. We conclude that the acidosis during involuntary submergence is due solely to an increase in PaCO2, whereas in recovery it is caused by decreased [SID]. PMID:3101522

  11. Which values are important for patients during involuntary treatment? A qualitative study with psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Emanuele; Giacco, Domenico; Katasakou, Christina; Priebe, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Involuntary hospital treatment is practised throughout the world. Providing appropriate treatment in this context is particularly challenging for mental health professionals, who frequently face ethical issues as they have to administer treatments in the absence of patient consent. We have explored the views of 59 psychiatric patients who had been involuntarily admitted to hospital treatment across England. Moral deliberation theory, developed in the field of clinical bioethics, was used to assess ethical issues. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and analysed through thematic content analysis. We have detected a number of circumstances in the hospital that were perceived as potentially conflictual by patients. We have established which patient values should be considered by staff when deliberating on ethically controversial issues in these circumstances. Patients regarded as important having freedom of choice and the feeling of being safe during their stay in the hospital. Patients also valued non-paternalistic and respectful behaviour from staff. Consideration of patient values in moral deliberation is important to manage ethical conflicts. Even in the ethically challenging context of involuntary treatment, there are possibilities to increase patient freedoms, enhance their sense of safety and convey respect. PMID:24129367

  12. Involuntary memory chains: what do they tell us about autobiographical memory organisation?

    PubMed

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M; Bernas, Ronan S

    2013-04-01

    Involuntary memory chains are spontaneous recollections of the past that occur as a sequence of associated memories. This memory phenomenon has provided some insights into the nature of associations in autobiographical memory. For example, it has shown that conceptually associated memories (memories sharing similar content, such as the same people or themes) are more prevalent than general-event associated memories (memories from the same extended event period, such as a trip). This finding has suggested that conceptual associations are a central organisational principle in the autobiographical memory system. This study used involuntary memories chains to gain additional insights into the associative structure of autobiographical memory. Among the main results, we found that general-event associations have higher rates of forgetting than conceptual associations, and in long memory chains (i.e., those with more than two memories) conceptually associated memories were more likely to activate memories in their associative class, whereas general-event associated memories were less likely to activate memories in their associative class. We interpret the results as further evidence that conceptual associations are a major organising principle in the autobiographical memory system, and attempt to explain why general-event associations have shorter lifespans than conceptual associations. PMID:23016577

  13. The speed of our mental soundtracks: Tracking the tempo of involuntary musical imagery in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Farrugia, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Sankarpandi, Sathish K; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    The study of spontaneous and everyday cognitions is an area of rapidly growing interest. One of the most ubiquitous forms of spontaneous cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the involuntarily retrieved and repetitive mental replay of music. The present study introduced a novel method for capturing temporal features of INMI within a naturalistic setting. This method allowed for the investigation of two questions of interest to INMI researchers in a more objective way than previously possible, concerning (1) the precision of memory representations within INMI and (2) the interactions between INMI and concurrent affective state. Over the course of 4 days, INMI tempo was measured by asking participants to tap to the beat of their INMI with a wrist-worn accelerometer. Participants documented additional details regarding their INMI in a diary. Overall, the tempo of music within INMI was recalled from long-term memory in a highly veridical form, although with a regression to the mean for recalled tempo that parallels previous findings on voluntary musical imagery. A significant positive relationship was found between INMI tempo and subjective arousal, suggesting that INMI interacts with concurrent mood in a similar manner to perceived music. The results suggest several parallels between INMI and voluntary imagery, music perceptual processes, and other types of involuntary memories. PMID:26122757

  14. Involuntary attentional orienting in the absence of awareness speeds up early sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Antonio; Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in the field of human neuroscience has revolved around the question whether attended stimuli are processed more rapidly compared to unattended stimuli. We conducted two event-related potential (ERP) experiments employing a temporal order judgment procedure in order to assess whether involuntary attention accelerates sensory processing, as indicated by latency modulations of early visual ERP components. A non-reportable exogenous cue could precede the first target with equal probability at the same (compatible) or opposite (incompatible) location. The use of non-reportable cues promoted automatic, bottom-up attentional capture, and ensured the elimination of any confounds related to the use of stimulus features that are common to both cue and target. Behavioral results confirmed involuntary exogenous orienting towards the unaware cue. ERP results showed that the N1pc, an electrophysiological measure of attentional orienting, was smaller and peaked earlier in compatible as opposed to incompatible trials, indicating cue-dependent changes in magnitude and speed of first target processing in extrastriate visual areas. Complementary Bayesian analysis confirmed the presence of this effect regardless of whether participants were actively looking for the cue (Experiment 1) or were not informed of it (Experiment 2), indicating purely automatic, stimulus-driven orienting mechanisms. PMID:26673944

  15. Therapeutic relationships and involuntary treatment orders: service users' interactions with health-care professionals on the ward.

    PubMed

    Wyder, Marianne; Bland, Robert; Blythe, Andrew; Matarasso, Beth; Crompton, David

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that an involuntary hospital admission and treatment can undermine the therapeutic relationship. While good relationships with staff are important factors influencing long-term recovery, there is little information on how people experience their relationships with staff while under an involuntary treatment order (ITO). Twenty-five involuntary inpatients were interviewed about their experiences of an ITO. The interviews were analysed by a general inductive approach. Participants described the following themes: (i) the ITO admission was a daunting and frightening experience; (ii) staff behaviours and attitudes shaped their experiences in hospital; (iii) importance of staff listening to their concerns; (iv) importance of having a space to make sense of their experiences; (v) importance of staff ability to look beyond their illness and diagnosis; and (vi) importance of staff working in partnership. These findings highlight that when using recovery principles, such as an empathic engagement with the patients' lived experience, forging partnerships with patients in treatment decision-making to enhance agency, an involuntary treatment order does not have to limit the ability to establish positive relationships. PMID:25628260

  16. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Notice of Involuntary Child Custody Proceedings..., together with a statement that complies with 25 CFR 2.7 and that informs the applicant that the decision... subsection in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set out in part 2...

  17. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Notice of Involuntary Child Custody Proceedings..., together with a statement that complies with 25 CFR 2.7 and that informs the applicant that the decision... subsection in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set out in part 2...

  18. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Notice of Involuntary Child Custody Proceedings..., together with a statement that complies with 25 CFR 2.7 and that informs the applicant that the decision... subsection in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set out in part 2...

  19. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Notice of Involuntary Child Custody Proceedings..., together with a statement that complies with 25 CFR 2.7 and that informs the applicant that the decision... subsection in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set out in part 2...

  20. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Notice of Involuntary Child Custody Proceedings..., together with a statement that complies with 25 CFR 2.7 and that informs the applicant that the decision... subsection in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set out in part 2...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1033(b)-1 - Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion. 1.1033(b)-1 Section 1.1033(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges §...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation... irrigation project or division in order to conform to acreage limitations of the Federal reclamation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-2 - Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or into dissimilar property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-2 - Involuntary conversion into similiar property, into money or into dissimilar property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similiar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1033(a)-2 - Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or into dissimilar property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1033(b)-1 - Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion. 1.1033(b)-1 Section 1.1033(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(b)-1 Basis of...

  9. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  10. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  11. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7045 - Eligibility based on involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involuntary separation, voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational..., voluntary separation, or participation in the Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program. An.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3018B) (d) Alternate eligibility requirements for participants in the Post-Vietnam...

  13. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    PubMed

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. PMID:25800098

  14. Involuntary and Persistent Environmental Noise Influences Health and Hearing in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Fooladi, Marjaneh M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to assess the effects of involuntary and persistent noise exposure on health and hearing among Lebanese adults in Beirut, Lebanon, where people are exposed to noise from construction sites, power generators, honking cars, and motorcycles. Methods. Using a descriptive and exploratory design with mixed methods, participants were surveyed, interviewed, and tested for hearing while street noise levels were measured near their residents and work places. Results. Self-reports of 83 Lebanese adult, who lived and worked in Beirut, helped identify common patterns in experiences such as irritability, anger, headaches, and sleep disturbances due to noise annoyance. Of those tested, 30% suffered from high-frequency hearing impairment. Our results showed that environmental sound dB had increased by 12% and sound intensity by 400% above the maximum standard level when compared to the WHO report of 1999. Conclusion. Environmental noise contributes to premature hearing loss and potentiates systemic diseases among Lebanese. PMID:22013454

  15. Job burnout is associated with dysfunctions in brain mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary attention.

    PubMed

    Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Ahonen, Lauri; Alain, Claude; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with job burnout symptoms often report having cognitive difficulties, but related electrophysiological studies are scarce. We assessed the impact of burnout on performing a visual task with varying memory loads, and on involuntary attention switch to distractor sounds using scalp recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). Task performance was comparable between burnout and control groups. The distractor sounds elicited a P3a response, which was reduced in the burnout group. This suggests burnout-related deficits in processing novel and potentially important events during task performance. In the burnout group, we also observed a decrease in working-memory related P3b responses over posterior scalp and increase over frontal areas. These results suggest that burnout is associated with deficits in cognitive control needed to monitor and update information in working memory. Successful task performance in burnout might require additional recruitment of anterior regions to compensate the decrement in posterior activity. PMID:26926255

  16. Contingent capture of involuntary visual attention interferes with detection of auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kamke, Marc R; Harris, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The involuntary capture of attention by salient visual stimuli can be influenced by the behavioral goals of an observer. For example, when searching for a target item, irrelevant items that possess the target-defining characteristic capture attention more strongly than items not possessing that feature. Such contingent capture involves a shift of spatial attention toward the item with the target-defining characteristic. It is not clear, however, if the associated decrements in performance for detecting the target item are entirely due to involuntary orienting of spatial attention. To investigate whether contingent capture also involves a non-spatial interference, adult observers were presented with streams of visual and auditory stimuli and were tasked with simultaneously monitoring for targets in each modality. Visual and auditory targets could be preceded by a lateralized visual distractor that either did, or did not, possess the target-defining feature (a specific color). In agreement with the contingent capture hypothesis, target-colored distractors interfered with visual detection performance (response time and accuracy) more than distractors that did not possess the target color. Importantly, the same pattern of results was obtained for the auditory task: visual target-colored distractors interfered with sound detection. The decrement in auditory performance following a target-colored distractor suggests that contingent capture involves a source of processing interference in addition to that caused by a spatial shift of attention. Specifically, we argue that distractors possessing the target-defining characteristic enter a capacity-limited, serial stage of neural processing, which delays detection of subsequently presented stimuli regardless of the sensory modality. PMID:24920945

  17. Jobless now, sick later? Investigating the long-term consequences of involuntary job loss on health.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Mathis

    2013-03-01

    In the light of the current economic crises which in many countries lead to business closures and mass lay-offs, the consequences of job loss are important on various dimensions. They have to be investigated not only in consideration of a few years, but with a long-term perspective as well, because early life course events may prove important for later life outcomes. This paper uses data from SHARELIFE to shed light on the long-term consequences of involuntary job loss on health. The paper distinguishes between two different reasons for involuntary job loss: plant closures, which in the literature are considered to be exogenous to the individual, and lay-offs, where the causal direction of health and unemployment is ambiguous. These groups are separately compared to those who never experienced a job loss. The paper uses eleven different measures of health to assess long-term health consequences of job loss, which has to have occurred at least 25 years before the current interview. As panel data cannot be employed, a large body of variables, including childhood health and socio-economic conditions, is used to control for the initial conditions. The findings suggest that individuals with an exogenous job loss suffer in the long run: men are significantly more likely to be depressed and they have more trouble knowing the current date. Women report poorer general health and more chronic conditions and are also affected in their physical health: they are more likely to be obese or overweight, and to have any limitations in their (instrumental) activities of daily living. In the comparison group of laid-off individuals, controlling for the initial conditions reduces the effects of job loss on health - proving that controlling for childhood conditions is important. PMID:24797463

  18. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  20. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  1. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  2. Psychopathology and Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kranick, Sarah; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Martinez, Valeria; Ameli, Rezvan; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorder is defined as abnormal movements unrelated to a medical cause and presumed related to underlying psychological factors. Although psychological factors are of both clinical and pathophysiological relevance, very few studies to date have systematically assessed their role in psychogenic movement disorder. We sought to assess the role of previous life stress using validated quantitative measures in patients with psychogenic movement disorder compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as well as a convenience sample of patients with focal hand dystonia. Sixty-four patients with psychogenic movement disorder (72% female; mean age, 45.2 years [standard deviation, 15.2 years]), 38 healthy volunteers (74% female; mean age, 49 years [standard deviation, 13.7 years]), and 39 patients with focal hand dystonia (37% female; mean age, 48.7 years [standard deviation, 11.7 years]) were evaluated using a standardized psychological interview as well as validated quantitative scales to assess trauma and previous stressors, depression, anxiety, and personality traits. Patients with psychogenic movement disorder reported higher rates of childhood trauma, specifically greater emotional abuse and physical neglect, greater fear associated with traumatic events, and a greater number of traumatic episodes compared with healthy volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia controlled for depressive symptoms and sex (Bonferroni corrected P < .005). There were no differences in categorical psychiatric diagnoses or scores on childhood physical or sexual abuse subscales, personality traits, or the dissociative experience scale. Our findings highlight a biopsychosocial approach toward the pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorder, although the association with psychological issues is much less prominent than expected compared with the nonepileptic seizure population. A careful psychological assessment is indicated to optimize therapeutic

  3. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  4. Voluntary eye movements direct attention on the mental number space.

    PubMed

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lisi, Matteo; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that orienting visual attention in space can influence the processing of numerical magnitude, with leftward orienting speeding up the processing of small numbers relative to larger ones and the converse for rightward orienting. The manipulation of eye movements is a convenient way to direct visuospatial attention, but several aspects of the complex relationship between eye movements, attention orienting and number processing remain unexplored. In a previous study, we observed that inducing involuntary, reflexive eye movements by means of optokinetic stimulation affected number processing only when numerical magnitude was task relevant (i.e., during magnitude comparison, but not during parity judgment; Ranzini et al., in J Cogn Psychol 27, 459-470, (2015). Here, we investigated whether processing of task-irrelevant numerical magnitude can be modulated by voluntary eye movements, and whether the type of eye movements (smooth pursuit vs. saccades) would influence this interaction. Participants tracked with their gaze a dot while listening to a digit. The numerical task was to indicate whether the digit was odd or even through non-spatial, verbal responses. The dot could move leftward or rightward either continuously, allowing tracking by smooth pursuit eye movements, or in discrete steps across a series of adjacent locations, triggering a sequence of saccades. Both smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements similarly affected number processing and modulated response times for large numbers as a function of direction of motion. These findings suggest that voluntary eye movements redirect attention in mental number space and highlight that eye movements should play a key factor in the investigation of number-space interactions. PMID:26838166

  5. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  9. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  10. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecki, Kathrin; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of recent developments in diagnosis, pathophysiology, neuroimaging and management of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) and highlights the current controversy on classification of somatoform disorders in the new DSM-5. Recent findings There has been increasing interest in recent years to study the underlying pathophysiology of FMDs, which has resulted in a broadened disease model, taking neurobiologic and psychosocial factors equally into account. In this context, the term “psychogenic” has been replaced by “functional” movement disorders by many authors in the field to express the changing focus towards a multifactorial disease model. The need for establishing a positive diagnosis of FMD as opposed to providing a diagnosis of exclusion is increasingly recognized and reflected by the introduction of “laboratory-supported” diagnostic criteria of FMD. Important advances have been made through behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies although the fundamental etiology of FMD remains poorly understood. Of particular interest have been several reports on abnormal sensorimotor features and cortical inhibition in both organic and functional dystonia, highlighting possible shared traits of both conditions. In terms of treatment, recent studies have reported benefit from both psychiatric and physical therapy based interventions. Summary Increasing efforts have been made towards better understanding and treatment of FMD, and the disease model has been broadened to include neurobiologic and psychosocial factors. Laboratory-based diagnostic criteria have been established for many FMDs to support the clinical diagnosis. To determine the most effective management strategies for FMD, a closer collaboration between neurologists and psychiatrists and intensified research efforts with prospective treatment trials are needed. PMID:22610460

  11. Brain anatomical substrates of mirror movements in Kallmann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manara, R; Salvalaggio, A; Citton, V; Palumbo, V; D'Errico, A; Elefante, A; Briani, C; Cantone, E; Ottaviano, G; Pellecchia, M T; Greggio, N A; Weis, L; D'Agosto, G; Rossato, M; De Carlo, E; Napoli, E; Coppola, G; Di Salle, F; Brunetti, A; Bonanni, G; Sinisi, A A; Favaro, A

    2015-01-01

    Among male patients affected by Kallmann syndrome, a genetically determined disease due to defective neural migration leading to hypogonadropic hypogonadism and hypo/anosmia, about 40% present the peculiar phenomenon of mirror movements, i.e. involuntary movements mirroring contralateral voluntary hand movements. Several pathogenic hypotheses have been proposed, but the ultimate neurological mechanisms are still elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain anatomical substrates of mirror movements in Kallmann syndrome by means of a panel of quantitative MRI analyses. Forty-nine male Kallmann syndrome patients underwent brain MRI. The study protocol included 3D-T1-weighted gradient echo, fluid attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion tensor imaging. Voxel-based morphometry, sulcation, curvature and cortical thickness analyses and tract based spatial statistics were performed using SPM8, Freesurfer and FSL. All patients underwent a complete physical and neurological examination including the evaluation of mirror movements (according to the Woods and Teuber criteria). Kallmann syndrome patients presenting with mirror movements (16/49, 32%) displayed the following brain changes: 1) increased gray matter density in the depth of the left precentral sulcus behind the middle frontal gyrus; 2) decreased cortical thickness in the precentral gyrus bilaterally, in the depth of right precentral sulcus and in the posterior portion of the right superior frontal gyrus; and 3) decreased fractional anisotropy in the left hemisphere involving the temporal lobe and peritrigonal white matter. No differences were shown by cortical curvature and sulcation analyses. The composite array of brain changes observed in Kallmann syndrome patients with mirror movements likely represents the anatomical-structural underpinnings leading to the peculiar derangement of the complex circuitry committed to unilateral hand voluntary movements. PMID:25300200

  12. Involuntary euthanasia of severely ill newborns: is the Groningen Protocol really dangerous?

    PubMed

    Voultsos, P; Chatzinikolaou, F

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medicine can reduce active euthanasia of newborns with severe anomalies or unusual prematurity, but they cannot eliminate it. In the Netherlands, voluntary active euthanasia among adults and adolescents has been allowed since 2002, when the so-called Groningen Protocol (GP) was formulated as an extension of the law on extremely premature and severely ill newborns. It is maintained that, at bioethical level, it serves the principle of beneficence. Other European countries do not accept the GP, including Belgium. Admissibility of active euthanasia is a necessary, though inadequate, condition for acceptance of the GP. Greece generally prohibits euthanasia, although the legal doctrine considers some of the forms of euthanasia permissible, but not active or involuntary euthanasia. The wide acceptance of passive newborns euthanasia, especially when the gestational age of the newborns is 22-25 weeks ("grey zone"), admissibility of practices within the limits between active and passive euthanasia (e.g., withholding/withdrawing), of "indirect active euthanasia" and abortion of the late fetus, the tendency to accept after-birth-abortion (infanticide) in the bioethical theory, the lower threshold for application of withdrawing in neonatal intensive care units compared with pediatric intensive care units, all the above advocate wider acceptance of the GP. However, the GP paves the way for a wide application of involuntary (or pseudo-voluntary) euthanasia (slippery slope) and contains some ambiguous concepts and requirements (e.g., "unbearable suffering"). It is suggested that the approach to the sensitive and controversial ethical dilemmas concerning the severely ill newborns is done not through the GP, but rather, through a combination of virtue bioethics (especially in the countries of the so-called "Mediterranean bioethical zone") and of the principles of principlism which is enriched, however, with the "principle of mutuality" (enhancement of all values and

  13. Attention to language: Novel MEG paradigm for registering involuntary language processing in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; Smith, Marie L.; Horner, Aidan J.; Henson, Richard; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that, under explicit instructions to listen to spoken stimuli or in speech-oriented behavioural tasks, the brain’s responses to senseless pseudowords are larger than those to meaningful words; the reverse is true in non-attended conditions. These differential responses could be used as a tool to trace linguistic processes in the brain and their interaction with attention. However, as previous studies relied on explicit instructions to attend or ignore the stimuli, a technique for automatic attention modulation (i.e., not dependent on explicit instruction) would be more advantageous, especially when cooperation with instructions may not be guaranteed (e.g., neurological patients, children etc). Here we present a novel paradigm in which the stimulus context automatically draws attention to speech. In a non-attend passive auditory oddball sequence, rare words and pseudowords were presented among frequent non-speech tones of variable frequency and length. The low percentage of spoken stimuli guarantees an involuntary attention switch to them. The speech stimuli, in turn, could be disambiguated as words or pseudowords only in their end, at the last phoneme, after the attention switch would have already occurred. Our results confirmed that this paradigm can indeed be used to induce automatic shifts of attention to spoken input. At ∼250 ms after the stimulus onset, a P3a-like neuromagnetic deflection was registered to spoken (but not tone) stimuli indicating an involuntary attention shift. Later, after the word-pseudoword divergence point, we found a larger oddball response to pseudowords than words, best explained by neural processes of lexical search facilitated through increased attention. Furthermore, we demonstrate a breakdown of this orderly pattern of neurocognitive processes as a result of sleep deprivation. The new paradigm may thus be an efficient way to assess language comprehension processes and their dynamic interaction with

  14. [Involuntary admission to psychiatric care of people with mild intellectual disability: missed chances in the Dutch Care and Coercion Act].

    PubMed

    Frederiks, Brenda J M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the Dutch Care and Coercion Act (Wet Zorg en Dwang) is to improve the legal position of people with an intellectual disability in cases of involuntary admission to psychiatric care. The present law, the Dutch Psychiatric Act (Wet BOPZ), only offers legal protection to clients who are admitted involuntarily to specific institutions. The Care and Coercion Act will lead to significant changes in the care of people with an intellectual disability and a much larger group of clients with an intellectual disability will fall under the range of this Act. Limitations to freedom - referred to as 'involuntary admission' within the new law - must meet the same criteria for each client. The legislator, however, seems to have paid little attention to those clients with a mild intellectual disability. PMID:25387981

  15. Involuntary outpatient treatment as "desintitutionalized coercion": the net-widening concerns.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jeffrey L; Fisher, William H; Grudzinskas, Albert J; Clayfield, Jonathan C; Lawlor, Ted

    2006-01-01

    In American jurisprudence, two justifications have traditionally been put forth to support the government's social control of persons with mental illness: police power and parens patriae. As public mental hospitals became less available as loci in which to exercise these functions, governments sought alternative means to achieve the same ends. One prominent but quite controversial means is involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT). While the concerns about IOT have been myriad, one often alluded to but never documented is that of "net-widening." That is, once IOT became available, it would be applied to an ever greater number of individuals, progressively expanding the margins of the designated population to whom it is applied, despite the formal standard for its application remaining constant. We tested the net-widening belief in a naturalistic experiment in Massachusetts. We found that net-widening did not occur, despite an environment strongly conducive to that expansion. At this time, whatever the arguments against IOT might be, net-widening should not be one of them. PMID:17097143

  16. Involuntary attentional capture is determined by task set: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika

    2008-01-01

    To find out whether attentional capture by irrelevant but salient visual objects is an exogenous bottom-up phenomenon, or can be modulated by current task set, two experiments were conducted where the N2pc component was measured as an electrophysiological marker of attentional selection in response to spatially uninformative colour singleton cues that preceded target arrays. When observers had to report the orientation of a uniquely coloured target bar among distractor bars (colour task), behavioural spatial cueing effects were accompanied by an early cue-induced N2pc, indicative of rapid attentional capture by colour singleton cues. In contrast, when they reported the orientation of target bars presented without distractors (onset task), no behavioural cueing effects were found, and no early N2pc was triggered to physically identical cue arrays. Experiment 2 ruled out an alternative interpretation of these N2pc differences in terms of distractor inhibition. These results do not support previous claims that attentional capture is initially unaffected by top-down intention, and demonstrate the central role of task set in involuntary attentional orienting. PMID:18303979

  17. Factors Affecting the Agreement Between Emergency Psychiatrists and General Practitioners Regarding Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Duhamel, Alain; Behal, Hélène; Zouitina-Lietaert, Nadia; Duthilleul, Julie; Marquette, Louise; Ducrocq, François; Vaiva, Guillaume; Rolland, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Important discrepancies exist between physicians in deciding when to perform involuntary hospitalization measures (IHMs). The factors underlying these differences are poorly known.We conducted a two-year single-center retrospective study in France on patients who were referred to the emergency department (ED) with an IHM certificate written by a private-practice General Practitioner (GP). For each consultation, the official IHM motive was categorized into four groups: Suicide; Psychosis, Mania, or Melancholia (PMM); Agitation; and Other. The alcohol status of the patient was also noted. The factors underlying the ED psychiatrists' confirmation of the use of IHMs were determined using a logistic regression model. One hundred eighty-nine cases were found (165 patients; 44.2 ± 16 years, 41.3% women). The ED psychiatrists confirmed the use of IHMs in 123 instances (65.1% agreement rate). Multivariate analyses found that IHM disagreement was significantly associated with patient alcohol status and the reason for referral. Specifically, there was an increased risk of IHM disagreement when the patient had an alcohol-positive status (OR = 15.80; 95% CI [6.45-38.67]; p < 0.0001) and when the motive for IHM was "agitation" compared with "suicide" (OR = 11.44; 95% CI[3.38-38.78]; p < 0.0001). These findings reflect significant disparities between GPs and ED psychiatrists regarding the decision to proceed to an IHM. PMID:27324574

  18. Morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal grafts associated with enriched environment and involuntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Máté D; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-12-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) and exercise have been implicated in influencing behaviour and altering neuronal processes associated with cellular morphology in both 'normal' and injured states of the CNS. Using a rodent model of Huntington's disease, we investigated whether prolonged EE or involuntary exercise can induce morphological and cellular changes within embryonic striatal transplants. Adult rats were trained on the Staircase test--requiring fine motor control to reach and collect reward pellets--prior to being lesioned unilaterally in the dorsal neostriatum with quinolinic acid. The lesioned animals received E15 whole ganglionic eminence cell suspension grafts followed by housing in EE or standard cages. Half of the animals in standard cages received daily forced exercise on a treadmill. The grafted animals showed significant functional recovery on both the Staircase test and in drug-induced rotation. Neither the housing conditions nor the training had an impact on the behaviour, with the exception of the treadmill reducing the ipsilateral drug-induced rotation observed amongst the lesioned animals. However, the animals housed in the EE had significantly increased striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and graft neurons in these animals exhibited both greater spine densities and larger cell volumes. Animals on forced exercise regime had reduced BDNF levels and grafted cells with sparser spines. The study suggests that the context of the animal can affect the plasticity of transplanted cells. Appropriately exploiting the underlying, and yet unknown, mechanisms could lead the way to improved anatomical and potentially functional integration of the graft. PMID:17156383

  19. Commercial sex and condom use among involuntary bachelors: an exploratory survey in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of the Chinese male marriage squeeze, commercial sex is becoming an important way for bachelors to meet their sexual needs. Using data from a survey conducted in a rural district of Anhui province, China, this study analyzes commercial sex experiences and condom use among involuntary bachelors and compares usage in this population to that observed in married men in the same age groups. Our findings indicate that, for both first and most recent sexual intercourse, the prevalence of commercial sex among unmarried men is significantly higher than that reported among married men; indeed, marital status was the only variable that was consistently related to rates of commercial sex for both first and most recent sexual intercourse. The vast majority of sexual intercourse was still unprotected, and the rate of condom use was not only lower among unmarried men than among married men, but was also significantly related to knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as age, education, and income. Because of their lower condom use, unmarried men face much higher risks of contracting and spreading sexually transmitted diseases than married men do. This situation poses a severe threat to public health. PMID:24128671

  20. From mind-pops to hallucinations? A study of involuntary semantic memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elua, Ia; Laws, Keith R; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2012-04-30

    Involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops consist of isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word or a sentence, proper name, image or a melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, without any deliberate attempt to recall them. They can be experienced as alien and uncontrollable, and may share some phenomenological similarities with hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and frequency of mind-pops in people with schizophrenia (N=37), as well as clinically depressed (N=31) and non-clinical controls (N=31). Results showed that schizophrenia patients reported experiencing mind-pops more frequently than both depressed and non-clinical controls. Schizophrenia patients also reported a wider range of different types of mind-pops than non-clinical controls. The depressed group did not differ from non-clinical controls in the frequency and range of mind-pops, indicating that mind-pops are not characteristic of clinical populations in general, but may be particularly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The possible implications of this finding to current models of auditory verbal hallucinations are discussed and the need for future research in this area is emphasized. PMID:22424894

  1. The involuntary excluder effect: those included by an excluder are seen as exclusive themselves.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Zayas, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    People are highly vigilant for and alarmed by social exclusion. Previous research has focused largely on the emotional and motivational consequences of being unambiguously excluded by others. The present research instead examines how people make sense of a more ambiguous dynamic, 1-person exclusion--situations in which one person (the excluder) excludes someone (the rejected) while including someone else (the included). Using different methodological paradigms, converging outcome measures, and complementary comparison standards, 5 studies present evidence of an involuntary excluder effect: Social perceivers are quick to see included persons as though they are excluders themselves. Included individuals are seen as belonging to an exclusive alliance with the excluder, as liking the excluder more than the rejected, and as likely to perpetuate future exclusion against the rejected. Behavioral evidence reinforced these findings: The included was approached with caution and suspicion. Notably, such perceptions of the included as an excluder were drawn by the rejected themselves and outside observers alike, did not reflect the attitudes and intentions of included persons or those who simulated 1-person exclusion from the vantage point of the included, applied specifically to the included (but not someone who simply witnessed the rejected's rejection), and arose as a consequence of intentional acts of exclusion (and thus, not just because 2 individuals shared an exclusive experience). Consistencies with and contributions to literatures on balance theory, minimal groups, group entitativity, and the ostracism detection system literatures are discussed. PMID:25133726

  2. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  3. Effective one step-iterative fiducial marker-based compensation for involuntary motion in weight-bearing C-arm cone-beam CT scanning of knees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Maier, Andreas; Berger, Martin; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    We previously introduced three different fiducial marker-based correction methods (2D projection shifting, 2D projection warping, and 3D image warping) for patients' involuntary motion in the lower body during weight-bearing Carm CT scanning. The 3D warping method performed better than 2D methods since it could more accurately take into account the lower body motion in 3D. However, as the 3D warping method applies different rotational and translational movement to the reconstructed image for each projection frame, distance-related weightings were slightly twisted and thus result in overlaying background noise over the entire image. In order to suppress background noise and artifacts (e.g. metallic marker-caused streaks), the 3D warping method has been improved by incorporating bilateral filtering and a Landwebertype iteration in one step. A series of projection images of five healthy volunteers standing at various flexion angles were acquired using a C-arm cone-beam CT system with a flat panel. A horizontal scanning trajectory of the C-arm was calibrated to generate projection matrices. Using the projection matrices, the static reference marker coordinates in 3D were estimated and used for the improved 3D warping method. The improved 3D warping method effectively reduced background noise down below the noise level of 2D methods and also eliminated metal-generated streaks. Thus, improved visibility of soft tissue structures (e.g. fat and muscle) was achieved while maintaining sharp edges at bone-tissue interfaces. Any high resolution weight-bearing cone-beam CT system can apply this method for motion compensation.

  4. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  5. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  6. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  7. The Dynamics of Voluntary Force Production in Afferented Muscle Influence Involuntary Tremor.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christopher M; Nagamori, Akira; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5-9% of each individual's maximal voluntary force level. Force fluctuations and EMG activity over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle were recorded and their frequency content was analyzed as a function of target phase. Force variability in either the 1-5 or 6-15 Hz frequency ranges tended to be largest at the peaks and valleys of the target sinusoid. In those same periods, FDS EMG activity was synchronized with force fluctuations. We then constructed a physiologically-realistic computer simulation in which a muscle-tendon complex was set inside of a feedback-driven control loop. Surprisingly, the model sufficed to produce phase-dependent modulation of tremor similar to that observed in humans. Further, the gain of afferent feedback from muscle spindles was critical for appropriately amplifying and shaping this tremor. We suggest that the experimentally-induced tremor may represent the response of a viscoelastic muscle-tendon system to dynamic drive, and therefore does not fall into known categories of tremor generation, such as tremorogenic descending drive, stretch-reflex loop oscillations, motor unit behavior, or mechanical resonance. Our findings motivate future efforts to understand tremor from a perspective that considers neuromechanical coupling within the context of closed-loop control. The strategy of combining experimental recordings with physiologically-sound simulations will enable thorough exploration

  8. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Letizia; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding. PMID:23409112

  9. Internally generated conscious contents: interactions between sustained mental imagery and involuntary subvocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyein; Godwin, Christine A.; Geisler, Mark W.; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    The conscious field includes not only representations about external stimuli (e.g., percepts), but also conscious contents associated with internal states, such as action-related intentions (e.g., urges). Although understudied, the latter may provide unique insights into the nature of consciousness. To illuminate these phenomena, in a new experimental paradigm [Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT)], participants were instructed to not subvocalize the names of visually-presented objects. Each object was presented for 10 s on a screen. Participants indicated whenever they involuntarily subvocalized the object name. Research has revealed that it is difficult to suppress such subvocalizations, which occur on over 80% of the trials. Can the effect survive if one intentionally generates a competing (internally-generated) conscious content? If so, this would suggest that intentional and unintentional contents can co-exist simultaneously in consciousness in interesting ways. To investigate this possibility, in one condition, participants were instructed to reiteratively subvocalize a speech sound (“da, da, da”) throughout the trial. This internally generated content is self-generated and intentional. Involuntary subvocalizations of object names still arose on over 80% of the trials. One could hypothesize that subvocalizations occurred because of the pauses between the intended speech sounds, but this is inconsistent with the observation that comparable results arose even when participants subvocalized a continuous, unbroken hum (“daaa….”) throughout the trial. Regarding inter-content interactions, the continuous hum and object name seem to co-exist simultaneously in consciousness. This intriguing datum requires further investigation. We discuss the implications of this new paradigm for the study of internally-generated conscious contents. PMID:25566126

  10. The Dynamics of Voluntary Force Production in Afferented Muscle Influence Involuntary Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Christopher M.; Nagamori, Akira; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5–9% of each individual's maximal voluntary force level. Force fluctuations and EMG activity over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle were recorded and their frequency content was analyzed as a function of target phase. Force variability in either the 1–5 or 6–15 Hz frequency ranges tended to be largest at the peaks and valleys of the target sinusoid. In those same periods, FDS EMG activity was synchronized with force fluctuations. We then constructed a physiologically-realistic computer simulation in which a muscle-tendon complex was set inside of a feedback-driven control loop. Surprisingly, the model sufficed to produce phase-dependent modulation of tremor similar to that observed in humans. Further, the gain of afferent feedback from muscle spindles was critical for appropriately amplifying and shaping this tremor. We suggest that the experimentally-induced tremor may represent the response of a viscoelastic muscle-tendon system to dynamic drive, and therefore does not fall into known categories of tremor generation, such as tremorogenic descending drive, stretch-reflex loop oscillations, motor unit behavior, or mechanical resonance. Our findings motivate future efforts to understand tremor from a perspective that considers neuromechanical coupling within the context of closed-loop control. The strategy of combining experimental recordings with physiologically-sound simulations will enable thorough

  11. Factors Affecting the Agreement Between Emergency Psychiatrists and General Practitioners Regarding Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Duhamel, Alain; Behal, Hélène; Zouitina-Lietaert, Nadia; Duthilleul, Julie; Marquette, Louise; Ducrocq, François; Vaiva, Guillaume; Rolland, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Important discrepancies exist between physicians in deciding when to perform involuntary hospitalization measures (IHMs). The factors underlying these differences are poorly known. We conducted a two-year single-center retrospective study in France on patients who were referred to the emergency department (ED) with an IHM certificate written by a private-practice General Practitioner (GP). For each consultation, the official IHM motive was categorized into four groups: Suicide; Psychosis, Mania, or Melancholia (PMM); Agitation; and Other. The alcohol status of the patient was also noted. The factors underlying the ED psychiatrists’ confirmation of the use of IHMs were determined using a logistic regression model. One hundred eighty-nine cases were found (165 patients; 44.2 ± 16 years, 41.3% women). The ED psychiatrists confirmed the use of IHMs in 123 instances (65.1% agreement rate). Multivariate analyses found that IHM disagreement was significantly associated with patient alcohol status and the reason for referral. Specifically, there was an increased risk of IHM disagreement when the patient had an alcohol-positive status (OR = 15.80; 95% CI [6.45–38.67]; p < 0.0001) and when the motive for IHM was “agitation” compared with “suicide” (OR = 11.44; 95% CI[3.38–38.78]; p < 0.0001). These findings reflect significant disparities between GPs and ED psychiatrists regarding the decision to proceed to an IHM. PMID:27324574

  12. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed. PMID:27294408

  13. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants’ ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed. PMID:27294408

  14. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  15. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions in Cerebellar Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar circuitry is important to controlling and modifying motor activity. It conducts the coordination and correction of errors in muscle contractions during active movements. Therefore, cerebrovascular lesions of the cerebellum or its pathways can cause diverse movement disorders, such as action tremor, Holmes’ tremor, palatal tremor, asterixis, and dystonia. The pathophysiology of abnormal movements after stroke remains poorly understood. However, due to the current advances in functional neuroimaging, it has recently been described as changes in functional brain networks. This review describes the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms in different types of movement disorders following cerebrovascular lesions in the cerebellar circuits. PMID:27240809

  16. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions in Cerebellar Circuits.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Cerebellar circuitry is important to controlling and modifying motor activity. It conducts the coordination and correction of errors in muscle contractions during active movements. Therefore, cerebrovascular lesions of the cerebellum or its pathways can cause diverse movement disorders, such as action tremor, Holmes' tremor, palatal tremor, asterixis, and dystonia. The pathophysiology of abnormal movements after stroke remains poorly understood. However, due to the current advances in functional neuroimaging, it has recently been described as changes in functional brain networks. This review describes the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms in different types of movement disorders following cerebrovascular lesions in the cerebellar circuits. PMID:27240809

  17. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  20. Approaches to involuntary admission of the mentally ill in the People’s Republic of China: Changes in legislation from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Y; Xie, B

    2015-01-01

    Because a systematic analysis of laws on involuntary admission of the mentally ill in China does not exist, this paper explored the trajectory of the legislation on involuntary admission of the mentally ill in China; the social and cultural factors underlying these changes are also discussed. By describing and analyzing the differences or similarities of current legal frameworks and procedures for involuntary admission of the mentally ill across the seven local mental health regulations and the National Mental Health Act, one can see a trajectory of gradually more stringent legislation for involuntary admission during the past 10 years of China. The compromise, reversals, and circuitous paths during the legislation process reflect the difficulty the government faces in balancing the benefits between society and individuals, and explores the transformation of the mode of mental health services. The approach in the 2012 National Mental Health Act, despite some weaknesses, is an important step to standardize the diverse practices in involuntary admission of the mentally ill in China. Further research on the influence of the National Act on mental health services is clearly needed. PMID:25770277

  1. Losing dexterity: patterns of impaired coordination of finger movements in musician’s dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Shinichi; Tominaga, Kenta; Miyazaki, Fumio; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training can bring about highly-skilled action, but may also impair motor dexterity by producing involuntary movements and muscular cramping, as seen in focal dystonia (FD) and tremor. To elucidate the underlying neuroplastic mechanisms of FD, the present study addressed the organization of finger movements during piano performance in pianists suffering from the condition. Principal component (PC) analysis identified three patterns of fundamental joint coordination constituting finger movements in both patients and controls. The first two coordination patterns described less individuated movements between the “dystonic” finger and key-striking fingers for patients compared to controls. The third coordination pattern, representing the individuation of movements between the middle and ring fingers, was evident during a sequence of strikes with these fingers in controls, which was absent in the patients. Consequently, rhythmic variability of keystrokes was more pronounced during this sequence of strikes for the patients. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis further identified greater variability of keystrokes for individuals displaying less individuated movements between the affected and striking fingers. The findings suggest that FD alters dexterous joint coordination so as to lower independent control of finger movements, and thereby degrades fine motor control. PMID:26289433

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  3. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  4. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy (chorea gravidarum) Stroke Systemic lupus erythematosus Tardive dyskinesia (a condition that can be caused by medicines ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  5. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  7. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  8. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  9. Early, Involuntary Top-Down Guidance of Attention From Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Heinke, Dietmar; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Blanco, Manuel J.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments explored the interrelations between working memory, attention, and eye movements. Observers had to identify a tilted line amongst vertical distractors. Each line was surrounded by a colored shape that could be precued by a matching item held in memory. Relative to a neutral baseline, in which no shapes matched the memory item,…

  10. Involuntary memories after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania?

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte; Malik, Aiysha; Pictet, Arnaud; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous negative mental images have been extensively researched due to the crucial role they play in conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, people can also experience spontaneous positive mental images, and these are little understood. Positive images may play a role in promoting healthy positive mood and may be lacking in conditions such as depression. However, they may also occur in problematic states of elevated mood, such as in bipolar disorder. Can we apply an understanding of spontaneous imagery gained by the study of spontaneous negative images to spontaneous positive images? In an analogue of the trauma film studies, 69 volunteers viewed an explicitly positive (rather than traumatic) film. Participants were randomly allocated post-film either to perform a visuospatial task (the computer game 'Tetris') or to a no-task control condition. Viewing the film enhanced positive mood and immediately post-film increased goal setting on a questionnaire measure. The film was successful in generating involuntary memories of specific scenes over the following week. As predicted, compared with the control condition, participants in the visuospatial task condition reported significantly fewer involuntary memories from the film in a diary over the subsequent week. Furthermore, scores on a recognition memory test at 1 week indicated an impairment in voluntary recall of the film in the visuospatial task condition. Clinical implications regarding the modulation of positive imagery after a positive emotional experience are discussed. Generally, boosting positive imagery may be a useful strategy for the recovery of depressed mood. PMID:22570062

  11. The separate roles of the reflective mind and involuntary inhibitory control in gatekeeping paranormal beliefs and the underlying intuitive confusions.

    PubMed

    Svedholm, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-08-01

    Intuitive thinking is known to predict paranormal beliefs, but the processes underlying this relationship, and the role of other thinking dispositions, have remained unclear. Study 1 showed that while an intuitive style increased and a reflective disposition counteracted paranormal beliefs, the ontological confusions suggested to underlie paranormal beliefs were predicted by individual differences in involuntary inhibitory processes. When the reasoning system was subjected to cognitive load, the ontological confusions increased, lost their relationship with paranormal beliefs, and their relationship with weaker inhibition was strongly accentuated. These findings support the argument that the confusions are mainly intuitive and that they therefore are most discernible under conditions in which inhibition is impaired, that is, when thinking is dominated by intuitive processing. Study 2 replicated the findings on intuitive and reflective thinking and paranormal beliefs. In Study 2, ontological confusions were also related to the same thinking styles as paranormal beliefs. The results support a model in which both intuitive and non-reflective thinking styles and involuntary inhibitory processes give way to embracing culturally acquired paranormal beliefs. PMID:23848383

  12. The give and take of freedom: The role of involuntary hospitalization and treatment in recovery from mental illness.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Graham; Wilkus-Stone, Asha

    2015-01-01

    The authors reviewed and synthesized scholarly literature on the topic of involuntary confinement and treatment for severely mentally ill adults. Objectively, all facets of the issue are reported, including recurrent positive outcomes, negative outcomes, and patient experiences in common. Patient experiences are organized into related subthemes of autonomy, patient satisfaction, relationships with staff, perceived coercion, traumatization, and humiliation. The literature suggests that short-term involuntary hospitalization is sometimes necessary in order to prevent the mentally ill from psychiatrically decompensating or harming themselves or others. Understandably, hospitalization is often experienced by the mentally ill as a demoralizing violation of their rights and tends to lead them to disengage further from the professional help they need in order to recover. In turn, disengagement leads to further decompensation and resulting risk for rehospitalization. In order to intervene in this cycle and instill severely mentally ill patients with hope in the recovery process, the use of coercive tactics must be decreased in favor of cooperative engagement measures to the greatest extent possible. Patients must be empowered to make choices within the limits of their illnesses through positive interactions with staff, particularly in potentially negative, autonomy-compromising situations. Cooperative measures may help to minimize the potentially traumatic and humiliating effects of being involuntarily hospitalized and medicated. In turn, trusting patient-provider relationships may develop. Thereafter, the severely mentally ill may become more likely to seek professional help on their own volition in the future. PMID:26366982

  13. Kinematic parameters of hand movement during a disparate bimanual movement task in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Rudisch, Julian; Butler, Jenny; Izadi, Hooshang; Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Aarts, Pauline; Birtles, Deirdre; Green, Dido

    2016-04-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (uCP) experience problems performing tasks requiring the coordinated use of both hands (bimanual coordination; BC). Additionally, some children with uCP display involuntary symmetrical activation of the opposing hand (mirrored movements). Measures, used to investigate therapy-related improvements focus on the functionality of the affected hand during unimanual or bimanual tasks. None however specifically address spatiotemporal integration of both hands. We explored the kinematics of hand movements during a bimanual task to identify parameters of BC. Thirty-seven children (aged 10.9±2.6years, 20 male) diagnosed with uCP participated. 3D kinematic motion analysis was performed during the task requiring opening of a box with their affected- (AH) or less-affected hand (LAH), and pressing a button inside with the opposite hand. Temporal and spatial components of data were extracted and related to measures of hand function and level of impairment. Total task duration was correlated with the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function in both conditions (either hand leading with the lid-opening). Spatial accuracy of the LAH when the box was opened with their AH was correlated with outcomes on the Children's Hand Use Experience Questionnaire. Additionally, we found a subgroup of children displaying non-symmetrical movement interference associated with greater movement overlap when their affected hand opened the box. This subgroup also demonstrated decreased use of the affected hand during bimanual tasks. Further investigation of bimanual interference, which goes beyond small scaled symmetrical mirrored movements, is needed to consider its impact on bimanual task performance following early unilateral brain injury. PMID:26803675

  14. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  15. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep

  16. Molecular imaging of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington’s disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette’s syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a

  17. Molecular imaging of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Chen, Wei; De Salles, Antonio A

    2016-03-28

    Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine. In essential tremor, there is cerebellar hypermetabolism and abnormal GABAergic function in premotor cortices, dentate nuclei and ventral thalami, without significant abnormalities in dopaminergic transmission. In Huntington's disease, there is hypometabolism in the striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. Disease progression is accompanied by reduction in striatal D1 and D2 binding that correlates with trinucleotide repeat length, disease duration and severity. In dystonia, there is hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, supplementary motor areas and cerebellum at rest. Thalamic and cerebellar hypermetabolism is seen during dystonic movements, which can be modulated by globus pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS). Additionally, GABA-A receptor activity is reduced in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortices. In Tourette's syndrome, there is hypermetabolism in premotor and sensorimotor cortices, as well as hypometabolism in the striatum, thalamus and limbic regions at rest. During tics, multiple areas related to cognitive, sensory and motor functions become hypermetabolic. Also, there is abnormal serotoninergic transmission in prefrontal cortices and bilateral thalami, as well as hyperactivity in the striatal dopaminergic system which can be modulated with thalamic DBS. In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is asymmetric progressive decline in striatal dopaminergic tracer accumulation, which follows a caudal

  18. Intentional and unintentional multi-joint movements: their nature and structure of variance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T; Zhang, L; Latash, M L

    2015-03-19

    We tested predictions of a hierarchical scheme on the control of natural movements with referent body configurations. Subjects occupied an initial hand position against a bias force generated by a HapticMaster robot. A smooth force perturbation was applied to the hand consisting of an increase in the bias force, keeping it at a new level for 5s, and decreasing it back to the bias value. When the force returned to the bias value, the arm stopped at a position different from the initial one interpreted as an involuntary movement. We then asked subjects to make voluntary movements to targets corresponding to the measured end-position of the unintentional movements. No target for hand orientation was used. The joint configuration variance was compared between intentional and unintentional movements within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Our central hypothesis was that both unintentional and intentional movements would be characterized by structure of joint configuration variance reflecting task-specific stability of salient performance variables, such as hand position and orientation. The analysis confirmed that most variance at the final steady states was compatible with unchanged values of both hand position and orientation following both intentional and unintentional movements. We interpret unintentional movements as consequences of back-coupling between the actual and referent configurations at the task level. The results suggested that both intentional and unintentional movements resulted from shifts of the body referent configuration produced intentionally or as a result of the hypothesized back-coupling. Inter-trial variance signature reflects similar task-specific stability properties of the system following both types of movements, intentional and unintentional. PMID:25596318

  19. Human-Computer Interface Controlled by Horizontal Directional Eye Movements and Voluntary Blinks Using AC EOG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yusuke; Murata, Hiroaki; Kimura, Haruhiko; Abe, Koji

    As a communication support tool for cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), researches on eye gaze human-computer interfaces have been active. However, since voluntary and involuntary eye movements cannot be distinguished in the interfaces, their performance is still not sufficient for practical use. This paper presents a high performance human-computer interface system which unites high quality recognitions of horizontal directional eye movements and voluntary blinks. The experimental results have shown that the number of incorrect inputs is decreased by 35.1% in an existing system which equips recognitions of horizontal and vertical directional eye movements in addition to voluntary blinks and character inputs are speeded up by 17.4% from the existing system.

  20. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  1. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  2. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  3. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  4. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  6. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of voluntary and involuntary, traumatic and non-traumatic autobiographical memories in people with and without PTSD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred-fifteen undergraduates screened for PTSD symptom severity rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most-negatively-stressful, 3 most-positive, and 7 most-important events, and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for one week. We compared 1) memories of stressful to control events and 2) involuntary to voluntary memories 3) in people high versus low in PTSD symptom severity, providing the first three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories. Stressful versus control memories in all participants and high PTSD symptom severity in all memories produced memories with more emotional intensity and more frequent voluntary and involuntary retrieval, but not more fragmentation. Involuntary memories had more emotional intensity and less centrality to the life story than voluntary memories. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for traumatic events had no effect, the emotional responses to events did. Correlations among measures were replicated and the Negative-Intensity factor of the Affect Intensity Measure correlated with PTSD symptom severity in 533 undergraduates. No special trauma mechanisms were needed to account for the results, which are summarized by the Autobiographical Memory Theory of PTSD. PMID:18999355

  7. Assessing the Impact of Involuntary-Minority Enrollment on Gender Differences in Academic Performance among Hispanic Second-Generation Immigrants in South Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tomas D.

    This study used data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, which consists of a two-wave panel of approximately 2,500 second generation students in Florida's Dade County public schools, to investigate the impact of non-immigrant/involuntary minority enrollment in second generation Hispanic students' academic achievement. Students…

  8. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  9. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  10. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  11. Profile of children placed in residential psychiatric program: Association with delinquency, involuntary mental health commitment, and reentry into care.

    PubMed

    Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra; Dollard, Norín

    2014-05-01

    This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mental health treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mental health assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24827018

  12. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. PMID:25978461

  13. Anorexia nervosa: the diagnosis. A postmodern ethics contribution to the bioethics debate on involuntary treatment for anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Sacha

    2014-03-01

    This paper argues that there is a relationship between understandings of anorexia nervosa (AN) and how the ethical issues associated with involuntary treatment for AN are identified, framed, and addressed. By positioning AN as a construct/discourse (hereinafter "AN: the diagnosis") several ethical issues are revealed. Firstly, "AN: the diagnosis" influences how the autonomy and competence of persons diagnosed with AN are understood by decision-makers in the treatment environment. Secondly, "AN: the diagnosis" impacts on how treatment and treatment efficacy are defined and the ethical justifiability of paternalism. Thirdly, "AN: the diagnosis" can limit the opportunity for persons with AN to construct an identity that casts them as a competent person. "AN: the diagnosis" can thus inherently affirm professional knowledge and values. Postmodern professional ethics can support professionals in managing these issues by highlighting the importance of taking responsibility for professional knowledge, values, and power and embracing moral uncertainty. PMID:24366443

  14. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    PubMed

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position. PMID:26076865

  15. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  16. Involuntary attentional capture by task-irrelevant objects that match the search template for category detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Reshanne R; van Zoest, Wieske; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-05-01

    Theories of visual search postulate that the selection of targets amongst distractors involves matching visual input to a top-down attentional template. Previous work has provided evidence that feature-based attentional templates affect visual processing globally across the visual field. In the present study, we asked whether more naturalistic, category-level attentional templates also modulate visual processing in a spatially global and obligatory way. Subjects were cued to detect people or cars in a diverse set of photographs of real-world scenes. On a subset of trials, silhouettes of people and cars appeared in search-irrelevant locations that subjects were instructed to ignore, and subjects were required to respond to the location of a subsequent dot probe. In three experiments, results showed a consistency effect on dot-probe trials: dot probes were detected faster when they appeared in the location of the cued category compared with the non-cued category, indicating attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this capture was involuntary: consistency effects persisted under conditions in which attending to silhouettes of the cued category was detrimental to performance. Experiment 3 tested whether these effects could be attributed to non-attentional effects related to the processing of the category cues. Results showed a consistency effect when subjects searched for category exemplars but not when they searched for objects semantically related to the cued category. Together, these results indicate that attentional templates for familiar object categories affect visual processing across the visual field, leading to involuntary attentional capture by template-matching stimuli. PMID:25810159

  17. Involuntary Memories after a Positive Film Are Dampened by a Visuospatial Task: Unhelpful in Depression but Helpful in Mania?

    PubMed Central

    Charlotte, Davies; Malik, Aiysha; Pictet, Arnaud; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous negative mental images have been extensively researched due to the crucial role they play in conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, people can also experience spontaneous positive mental images, and these are little understood. Positive images may play a role in promoting healthy positive mood and may be lacking in conditions such as depression. However, they may also occur in problematic states of elevated mood, such as in bipolar disorder. Can we apply an understanding of spontaneous imagery gained by the study of spontaneous negative images to spontaneous positive images? In an analogue of the trauma film studies, 69 volunteers viewed an explicitly positive (rather than traumatic) film. Participants were randomly allocated post-film either to perform a visuospatial task (the computer game ‘Tetris’) or to a no-task control condition. Viewing the film enhanced positive mood and immediately post-film increased goal setting on a questionnaire measure. The film was successful in generating involuntary memories of specific scenes over the following week. As predicted, compared with the control condition, participants in the visuospatial task condition reported significantly fewer involuntary memories from the film in a diary over the subsequent week. Furthermore, scores on a recognition memory test at 1 week indicated an impairment in voluntary recall of the film in the visuospatial task condition. Clinical implications regarding the modulation of positive imagery after a positive emotional experience are discussed. Generally, boosting positive imagery may be a useful strategy for the recovery of depressed mood. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22570062

  18. The Human Potential Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamashiro, Roy T.

    The advent of the human potential movement has generated the expectation that educators unleash the intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual talents of students. This movement is characterized by its focus on (1) the person as a total being, (2) the needs and concerns of students, (3) phenomenology, (4) personal values and goals, and (5)…

  19. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  20. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  1. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  2. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  3. Shifts of attention bias awareness of voluntary and reflexive eye movements.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Maria M; Irwin, David E

    2016-06-01

    Current theories regarding factors that influence people's awareness of their actions have underscored the role of peripheral signals (e.g., proprioceptive feedback) and central commands (e.g., the intention to make a response). The role of covert attention has been largely underexplored, even though attention and awareness have been tightly linked. The aim of the current study was to directly examine the impact of shifts of visual attention on people's awareness of their eye movements as they performed the antisaccade task. People tend to be unaware of a high percentage of erroneous eye movements on this task, thus lending it to the study of variables that might modulate people's awareness of their actions. In addition, this task provides the opportunity to compare two classes of actions, voluntary (antisaccade) and involuntary (erroneous prosaccade) eye movements, and thus to assess whether shifts of covert attention can or cannot override sources of information that may be present when people make voluntary but not reflexive responses. We found that shifts of visual attention did indeed influence participants' awareness of their own eye movements, leading them to misperceive reflexive and voluntary movements alike, suggesting that covert attention may override both peripheral and central signals to bias awareness. PMID:26873348

  4. A possible post-streptococcal movement disorder with chorea and tics.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L; Pettit, R

    1990-07-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed a movement disorder after a streptococcal infection. In the acute phase of the illness she exhibited simple and complex motor tics and chorea, but all abnormal movements ceased over the following eight months, without recurrence. This case raises questions about the relationship between tics, chorea and auto-immune reactivity. PMID:2391015

  5. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  6. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  7. Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Under-Recognized Movement Disorders in Domestic Animals? A Comparison with Human Dystonia/Paroxysmal Dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals. PMID:26664992

  8. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. PMID:26467664

  9. The Development of Coordinated Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanaro, Silvana Quattrocchi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses stages of movement in the first 3 years of life with a philosophical dimension regarding evolutionary aspects of movement as first manifestation of "will." Describes how the early childhood environment is prepared to allow for movement and the connection between movement and brain development. Discusses the contribution of movement to…

  10. The non-motor syndrome of primary dystonia: clinical and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Stamelou, Maria; Edwards, Mark J.; Hallett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Dystonia is typically considered a movement disorder characterized by motor manifestations, primarily involuntary muscle contractions causing twisting movements and abnormal postures. However, growing evidence indicates an important non-motor component to primary dystonia, including abnormalities in sensory and perceptual functions, as well as neuropsychiatric, cognitive and sleep domains. Here, we review this evidence and discuss its clinical and pathophysiological implications. PMID:21933808

  11. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  12. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  13. Stomatal development and movement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kun; Liu, Yu-Bo; Zhang, Mao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Stomata are epidermal pores on plant surface used for gas exchange with the atmosphere. Stomatal development and movement are regulated by environmental and internal signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal transducers of extracellular signals among all eukaryotes. In plant, MAPK cascades regulate diverse cellular processes occurring during the whole ontogenetic plant life and ranging from normal cell proliferation to stress-inducing plant-to-environment interactions. Recent reports reveal that MAPK signaling is involved in both stomatal development and movement. This mini-review summarizes the roles of MAPK signaling in stomatal development and movement. How MAPK specificity is maintained in stomatal development and movement is also discussed. PMID:20855958

  14. Interactions between voluntary and involuntary attention modulate the quality and temporal dynamics of visual processing.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Michael A; White, Alex L; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Successfully navigating a dynamic environment requires the efficient distribution of finite neural resources. Voluntary (endogenous) covert spatial attention selectively allocates those processing resources to goal-relevant locations in the visual scene in the absence of eye movements. However, the allocation of spatial attention is not always voluntary; abrupt onsets in the visual periphery automatically enhance processing of nearby stimuli (exogenous attention). In dynamic environments, exogenous events and internal goals likely compete to determine the distribution of attention, but how such competition is resolved is not well understood. To investigate how exogenous events interact with the concurrent allocation of voluntary attention, we used a speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure. SAT conjointly measures the rate of information accrual and asymptotic discriminability, allowing us to measure how attentional interactions unfold over time during stimulus processing. We found that both types of attention sped information accrual and improved discriminability. However, focusing endogenous attention at the target location reduced the effects of exogenous cues on the rate of information accrual and rendered negligible their effects on asymptotic discriminability. We verified the robustness of these findings in four additional experiments that targeted specific, critical response delays. In conclusion, the speed and quality of visual processing depend conjointly on internally and externally driven attentional states, but it is possible to voluntarily diminish distraction by irrelevant events in the periphery. PMID:25117089

  15. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. An Analysis of the Women's Movement as a Social Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budenstein, Mary Jane

    The paper analyzes the development of the women's movement, indicating how this particular movement empirically documents the theoretical suppositions of a sociologically defined social movement. A social movement is defined as "a group venture extended beyond a local community or a single event and involving a systematic effort to inaugurate…

  18. An explorative, cross-sectional study into abnormal muscular coupling during reach in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In many stroke patients arm function is limited, which can be related to an abnormal coupling between shoulder and elbow joints. The extent to which this can be translated to activities of daily life (ADL), in terms of muscle activation during ADL-like movements, is rather unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the occurrence of abnormal coupling on functional, ADL-like reaching movements of chronic stroke patients by comparison with healthy persons. Methods Upward multi-joint reaching movements (20 repetitions at a self-selected speed to resemble ADL) were compared in two conditions: once facilitated by arm weight compensation and once resisted to provoke a potential abnormal coupling. Changes in movement performance (joint angles) and muscle activation (amplitude of activity and co-activation) between conditions were compared between healthy persons and stroke patients using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results The present study showed slight changes in joint excursion and muscle activation of stroke patients due to shoulder elevation resistance during functional reach. Remarkably, in healthy persons similar changes were observed. Even the results of a sub-group of the more impaired stroke patients did not point to an abnormal coupling between shoulder elevation and elbow flexion during functional reach. Conclusions The present findings suggest that in mildly and moderately affected chronic stroke patients ADL-like arm movements are not substantially affected by abnormal synergistic coupling. In this case, it is implied that other major contributors to limitations in functional use of the arm should be identified and targeted individually in rehabilitation, to improve use of the arm in activities of daily living. PMID:20233402

  19. Cannabis use and involuntary admission may mediate long-term adherence in first-episode psychosis patients: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine factors associated with treatment adherence in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients followed up over 8 years, especially involuntary first admission and stopping cannabis use. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients collected data on symptoms, adherence, functioning, and substance use. Adherence to treatment was the main outcome variable and was categorized as ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Cannabis use during follow-up was stratified as continued use, stopped use, and never used. Bivariate and logistic regression models identified factors significantly associated with adherence and changes in adherence over the 8-year follow-up period. Results Of the 98 FEP patients analyzed at baseline, 57.1% had involuntary first admission, 74.4% bad adherence, and 52% cannabis use. Good adherence at baseline was associated with Global Assessment of Functioning score (p = 0.019), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (p = 0.017) and voluntary admission (p < 0.001). Adherence patterns over 8 years included: 43.4% patients always bad, 26.1% always good, 25% improved from bad to good. Among the improved adherence group, 95.7% had involuntary first admission and 38.9% stopped cannabis use. In the subgroup of patients with bad adherence at baseline, involuntary first admission and quitting cannabis use during follow up were associated with improved adherence. Conclusions The long-term association between treatment adherence and type of first admission and cannabis use in FEP patients suggest targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24289797

  20. Individual, Interpersonal, and Social-Structural Correlates of Involuntary Sex Exchange Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ≥18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997

  1. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  2. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  3. [Binocular movements during pursuit and reading: eye tracking study].

    PubMed

    Boussand, F

    2012-09-01

    Detailed analysis of fine, slow ocular movements has not been the object of recent studies. With this in mind, special hardware and a simple testing protocol were developed, along with software for recording and analysis. The study of these movements, using this hardware adapted to follow both eyes, allowed the inclusion of binocularity in the precise analysis of ocular pursuit and reading. Recording the eye movements of 166 children and adults permitted identification of the main features of oculomotor development from age five years. These movements were studied during calibrated pursuit and reading. The persistence of oculomotor abnormalities during development can help to define an array of "visual immaturity" or "visual inefficiency". The study of these anomalies during reading explains some learning difficulties. PMID:22421034

  4. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  5. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  6. Identification and classification of involuntary leg muscle contractions in electromyographic records from individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C K; Dididze, M; Martinez, A; Morris, R W

    2014-10-01

    Involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) are common after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to compare how well two raters independently identified and classified different types of spasms in the same electromyographic records (EMG) using predefined rules. Muscle spasms were identified by the presence, timing and pattern of EMG recorded from paralyzed leg muscles of four subjects with chronic cervical SCI. Spasms were classified as one of five types: unit, tonic, clonus, myoclonus, mixed. In 48h of data, both raters marked the same spasms most of the time. More variability in the total spasm count arose from differences between muscles (84%; within subjects) than differences between subjects (6.5%) or raters (2.6%). Agreement on spasm classification was high (89%). Differences in spasm count, and classification largely occurred when EMG was marked as a single spasm by one rater but split into multiple spasms by the other rater. EMG provides objective measurements of spasm number and type in contrast to the self-reported spasm counts that are often used to make clinical decisions about spasm management. Data on inter-rater agreement and discrepancies on muscle spasm analysis can both drive the design and evaluation of software to automate spasm identification and classification. PMID:25023162

  7. Age-related changes in involuntary and voluntary attention as reflected in components of the event-related potential (ERP).

    PubMed

    Kok, A

    2000-10-01

    The present paper provides an overview of age-related changes in both involuntary and voluntary attention in adult subjects as manifested in scalp-recorded ERPs. A decline in orienting with old age was inferred from a substantial reduction with age in the magnitude of deviance-related ERP components like MMN, target as well as nontarget P3s, novelty P3 and N400. A review of focused attention studies further suggested that old and young subjects do not differ substantially in the quality of attentional operations. In old subjects early selection processes, as reflected in their selection potentials, have a somewhat slower onset than in young subjects, especially in conditions in which selection is based upon complex discrimination of stimulus features. Furthermore, the global pattern emerging from visual and memory search studies is that search-related negativities in the ERPs are smaller and of longer duration in old than in young subjects over the central and anterior scalp sites. These effects could indicate that controlled search is less intense or takes more time per search operation in old than in young subjects. At more posterior scalp sites there was tendency towards an enhanced search-related negativity that could reflect a specific difficulty (or compensatory increase in mental effort) of old subjects in spatially locating targets in complex visual fields. PMID:11035221

  8. Involuntary switching into the native language induced by electrocortical stimulation of the superior temporal gyrus: a multimodal mapping study.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Canderan, Cinzia; Maieron, Marta; Budai, Riccardo; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    We describe involuntary language switching from L2 to L1 evoked by electro-stimulation in the superior temporal gyrus in a 30-year-old right-handed Serbian (L1) speaker who was also a late Italian learner (L2). The patient underwent awake brain surgery. Stimulation of other portions of the exposed cortex did not cause language switching as did not stimulation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where we evoked a speech arrest. Stimulation effects on language switching were selective, namely, interfered with counting behaviour but not with object naming. The coordinates of the positive site were combined with functional and fibre tracking (DTI) data. Results showed that the language switching site belonged to a significant fMRI cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus found activated for both L1 and L2, and for both the patient and controls, and did not overlap with the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). This area, also known as Stp, has a role in phonological processing. Language switching phenomenon we observed can be partly explained by transient dysfunction of the feed-forward control mechanism hypothesized by the DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model (Golfinopoulos, E., Tourville, J. A., & Guenther, F. H. (2010). The integration of large-scale neural network modeling and functional brain imaging in speech motor control. PMID:25058058

  9. Involuntary attentional capture by speech and non-speech deviations: a combined behavioral-event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Reiche, M; Hartwigsen, G; Widmann, A; Saur, D; Schröger, E; Bendixen, A

    2013-01-15

    This study applied an auditory distraction paradigm to investigate involuntary attention effects of unexpected deviations in speech and non-speech sounds on behavior (increase in response time and error rate) and event-related brain potentials (ΔN1/MMN and P3a). Our aim was to systematically compare identical speech sounds with physical vs. linguistic deviations and identical deviations (pitch) with speech vs. non-speech sounds in the same set of healthy volunteers. Sine tones and bi-syllabic pseudo-words were presented in a 2-alternative forced-choice paradigm with occasional phoneme deviants in pseudo-words, pitch deviants in pseudo-words, or pitch deviants in tones. Deviance-related ERP components were elicited in all conditions. Deviance-related negativities (ΔN1/MMN) differed in scalp distribution between phoneme and pitch deviants within phonemes, indicating that auditory deviance-detection partly operates in a deviance-specific manner. P3a as an indicator of attentional orienting was similar in all conditions, and was accompanied by behavioral indicators of distraction. Yet smaller behavioral effects and prolonged relative MMN-P3a latency were observed for pitch deviants within phonemes relative to the other two conditions. This suggests that the similarity and separability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information is essential for the extent of attentional capture and distraction. PMID:23123705

  10. Movement as utopia.

    PubMed

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination. PMID:20027697

  11. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  12. Combining modules for movement.

    PubMed

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V C K; d'Avella, A; Saltiel, P; Tresch, M

    2008-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing a specific pattern of muscle activation. Such an organization might help to simplify the production of movements by reducing the degrees of freedom that need to be specified. PMID:18029291

  13. Design and Validation of a Periodic Leg Movement Detector

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hyatt; Leary, Eileen; Lee, Seo-Young; Carrillo, Oscar; Stubbs, Robin; Peppard, Paul; Young, Terry; Widrow, Bernard; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs) are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Because leg movements (LM) may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour) may have an effect on an individual’s overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD), a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000–2004) and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC) patients (n = 760, 1999–2007) undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS) and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r2 = 0.94 in WSC and r2 = 0.94 in SSC). In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust and

  14. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.). PMID:19060196

  15. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  16. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  17. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  18. [Mirror movements observed in patients skilled in playing the piano--symptomatological study].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, H; Sugita, K; Kawamura, M; Fukui, T; Shiota, J

    1995-04-01

    We investigated mirror movements observed in two patients skilled in playing the piano and compared these symptoms with those reported in patients associated with frontal lobe, corpus callosum or cervical cord lesion. We found the following common features in our two patients: 1) mirror movements were observed during skilled finger movements such as playing the piano, 2) these were observed in distal parts of the bilateral upper extremities, 3) contralateral imitative associated movements were seen concomitantly, 4) frontal lobe symptoms and callosal disconnection syndrome were not seen, 5) both patients recalled having mirror movements in their infancy, and one had family history. These characteristics of mirror movements in our patients were similar to those in patients associated with cervical cord lesion, but were different from those in patients associated with frontal lobe or corpus callosum lesion. It is suggested that abnormal pathways in the pyramidal tract or cervical cord lesion elicited mirror movements in our patients. PMID:7614761

  19. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment. PMID:27112684

  20. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    The doctor will perform a physical exam. This may include a detailed examination of the nervous and muscle systems. The doctor will ask about your medical history and symptoms, including: What kind of movement occurs? What part of the body is ...

  1. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  2. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  3. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  4. Teaching the Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jamal Eric

    2012-01-01

    Every January, Charles Cobb Jr. makes the 1,100-mile trek from sunny Jacksonville, Florida, to chilly Providence, Rhode Island. For the past eight years, Cobb--a veteran of the civil rights movement who in the 1960s served as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi--becomes a visiting professor of…

  5. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  6. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  7. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  8. Pulvinar inactivation disrupts selection of movement plans

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Melanie; Turchi, Janita; Smith, Katy; Mishkin, Mortimer; Leopold, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The coordinated movement of the eyes and hands under visual guidance is an essential part of goal directed behavior. Several cortical areas known to be involved in this process exchange projections with the dorsal aspect of the thalamic pulvinar nucleus, suggesting that this structure may play a central role in visuomotor behavior. Here we used reversible inactivation to investigate the role of the dorsal pulvinar in the selection and execution of visually guided manual and saccadic eye movements in macaque monkeys. We found that unilateral pulvinar inactivation resulted in a spatial neglect syndrome accompanied by visuo-motor deficits including optic ataxia during visually guided limb movements. Monkeys were severely disrupted in their visually guided behavior regarding space contralateral to the side of the injection in several domains, including: (1) target selection in both manual and oculomotor tasks, (2) limb usage in a manual retrieval task, and (3) spontaneous visual exploration. In addition, saccades into the ipsilesional field had abnormally short latencies and tended to overshoot their mark. None of the deficits could be explained by a visual field defect or primary motor deficit. These findings highlight the importance of the dorsal aspect of the pulvinar nucleus as a critical hub for spatial attention and selection of visually guided actions. PMID:20573910

  9. Pulvinar inactivation disrupts selection of movement plans.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Melanie; Turchi, Janita; Smith, Katy; Mishkin, Mortimer; Leopold, David A

    2010-06-23

    The coordinated movement of the eyes and hands under visual guidance is an essential part of goal-directed behavior. Several cortical areas known to be involved in this process exchange projections with the dorsal aspect of the thalamic pulvinar nucleus, suggesting that this structure may play a central role in visuomotor behavior. Here, we used reversible inactivation to investigate the role of the dorsal pulvinar in the selection and execution of visually guided manual and saccadic eye movements in macaque monkeys. We found that unilateral pulvinar inactivation resulted in a spatial neglect syndrome accompanied by visuomotor deficits including optic ataxia during visually guided limb movements. Monkeys were severely disrupted in their visually guided behavior regarding space contralateral to the side of the injection in several domains, including the following: (1) target selection in both manual and oculomotor tasks, (2) limb usage in a manual retrieval task, and (3) spontaneous visual exploration. In addition, saccades into the ipsilesional field had abnormally short latencies and tended to overshoot their mark. None of the deficits could be explained by a visual field defect or primary motor deficit. These findings highlight the importance of the dorsal aspect of the pulvinar nucleus as a critical hub for spatial attention and selection of visually guided actions. PMID:20573910

  10. Head movements during conversational speech in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bert; Khana, Priya; DiMambro, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background: Motor abnormalities are frequently described in schizophrenia, and work by Altorfer and colleagues suggests that measuring head movements during conversational speech shows differences at the level of the individual. We wished to see whether their findings, conducted using computer analysis of video obtained in motion capture suites, could be replicated using compact, portable movement sensors, in a case–control study comparing the mean amplitude of head movements during general conversation. Methods: A referred sample of inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia was identified from case note information. Movement sensors, mounted in a baseball cap worn by subjects, transmitted data via Bluetooth to a laptop, which simultaneously captured audio to identify who was speaking. Subjects also completed a series of rating scales. Results: Data from the final 11 cases and 11 controls demonstrated a substantial group difference in mean amplitude of head movement velocity during speech (p < 0.0001), although this was not significant at the level of the individual. Conclusions: Movement sensors proved well suited to capturing head movements, demonstrating a large effect size in subjects with schizophrenia. PMID:23983990

  11. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  12. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X. X.; Paterson, Ross W.; Slattery, Catherine F.; Ryan, Natalie S.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal ‘visual dementia’ and most common atypical Alzheimer’s disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients’ (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer’s disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer’s disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with ‘sticky fixation’. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer’s disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large

  13. Recognizing Uncommon Presentations of Psychogenic (Functional) Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Fekete, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychogenic or functional movement disorders (PMDs) pose a challenge in clinical diagnosis. There are several clues, including sudden onset, incongruous symptoms, distractibility, suggestibility, entrainment of symptoms, and lack of response to otherwise effective pharmacological therapies, that help identify the most common psychogenic movements such as tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus. Methods In this manuscript, we review the frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are also reviewed. In addition, we discuss PMDs at the extremes of age and mass psychogenic illness. Results Psychogenic parkinsonism (PP) is observed in less than 10% of the case series about PMDs, with a female–male ratio of roughly 1:1. Lack of amplitude decrement in repetitive movements and of cogwheel rigidity help to differentiate PP from true parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging with photon emission tomography can also help in the diagnostic process. Psychogenic movements resembling tics are reported in about 5% of PMD patients. Lack of transient suppressibility of abnormal movements helps to differentiate them from organic tics. Psychogenic facial movements can present with hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm, and other movements. Some patients with essential palatal tremor have been shown to be psychogenic. Convergence ocular spasm has demonstrated a high specificity for psychogenic movements. PMDs can also present in the context of mass psychogenic illness or at the extremes of age. Discussion Clinical features and ancillary studies are helpful in the diagnosis of patients with uncommon presentations of psychogenic movement disorders. PMID:25667816

  14. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  15. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on eye tracking abnormalities in males after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cifu, David X; Hoke, Kathy W; Wetzel, Paul A; Wares, Joanna R; Gitchel, George; Carne, William

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) on eye movement abnormalities in 60 military servicemembers with at least one mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from combat were examined in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, prospective study at the Naval Medicine Operational Training Center. During the 10 wk of the study, each subject was delivered a series of 40, once a day, hyperbaric chamber compressions at a pressure of 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At each session, subjects breathed one of three preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) for 1 h, resulting in an oxygen exposure equivalent to breathing either surface air, 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA, or 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA, respectively. Using a standardized, validated, computerized eye tracking protocol, fixation, saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements were measured just prior to intervention and immediately postintervention. Between and within groups testing of pre- and postintervention means revealed no significant differences on eye movement abnormalities and no significant main effect for HBO2 at either 1.5 ATA or 2.0 ATA equivalent compared with the sham-control. This study demonstrated that neither 1.5 nor 2.0 ATA equivalent HBO2 had an effect on postconcussive eye movement abnormalities after mild TBI when compared with a sham-control. PMID:25436771

  16. Using Hypnotic Suggestion to Model Loss of Control and Awareness of Movements: An Exploratory fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, David A.; Bell, Vaughan; Koppel, Cristina; Mehta, Mitul A.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    The feeling of voluntary control and awareness of movement is fundamental to our notions of selfhood and responsibility for actions, yet can be lost in neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. delusions of control, non-epileptic seizures) and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g. attributions of spirit possession). The brain processes involved remain poorly understood. We used suggestion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate loss of control and awareness of right hand movements in 15 highly hypnotically suggestible subjects. Loss of perceived control of movements was associated with reduced connectivity between supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor regions. Reduced awareness of involuntary movements was associated with less activation in parietal cortices (BA 7, BA 40) and insula. Collectively these results suggest that the sense of voluntary control of movement may critically depend on the functional coupling of SMA with motor systems, and provide a potential neural basis for the narrowing of awareness reported in pathological and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena. PMID:24205198

  17. Saccadic Eye Movement Task Identifies Cognitive Deficits in Children with Schizophrenia, but Not in Unaffected Child Relatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; Heinlein, Shari; Zerbe, Gary O.; Radant, Allen

    2005-01-01

    Background: The delayed oculomotor response (DOR) task requires response inhibition followed by movement of gaze towards a known spatial location without a current stimulus. Abnormalities in response inhibition and in the spatial accuracy of the eye movement are found in individuals with schizophrenia and in many of their relatives, supporting the…

  18. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  19. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  20. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  1. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  2. Movement Education: The Place of Movement in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Megan M.

    This document is directed to physical education teachers who teach movement education in elementary and secondary schools. Its purpose is to define movement, discuss its place in the education program and the educational life of the school, and provide guidance in the presentation, subsequent development, and progression of movement education for…

  3. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  5. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  6. Islamist Movements in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, one of its stated intentions was to inaugurate an era of Iraqi politics in which new kinds of democratic parties would emerge. However, one of the most dramatic effects of the U.S. invasion has been the boost it has given to the Islamist parties and movements that were banned under Saddam Hussein.…

  7. Autoimmunity against dopamine receptors in neuropsychiatric and movement disorders: a review of Sydenham chorea and beyond.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Cox, C J

    2016-01-01

    Antineuronal autoantibodies are associated with the involuntary movement disorder Sydenham chorea (SC) and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) which are characterized by the acute onset of tics and/or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In SC and PANDAS, autoantibodies signal human neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Animal models immunized with group A streptococcal antigens demonstrate autoantibodies against dopamine receptors and concomitantly altered behaviours. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from SC target and signal the dopamine D2L (long) receptor (D2R). Antibodies against D2R were elevated over normal levels in SC and acute-onset PANDAS with small choreiform movements, but were not elevated over normal levels in PANDAS-like chronic tics and OCD. The expression of human SC-derived anti-D2R autoantibody V gene in B cells and serum of transgenic mice demonstrated that the human autoantibody targets dopaminergic neurones in the basal ganglia and other types of neurones in the cortex. Here, we review current evidence supporting the hypothesis that antineuronal antibodies, specifically against dopamine receptors, follow streptococcal exposures and may target dopamine receptors and alter central dopamine pathways leading to movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26454143

  8. Abnormal Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Rest and Task Production in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  9. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  10. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  11. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  12. Recognizing People from Their Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loula, Fani; Prasad, Sapna; Harber, Kent; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Human observers demonstrate impressive visual sensitivity to human movement. What defines this sensitivity? If motor experience influences the visual analysis of action, then observers should be most sensitive to their own movements. If view-dependent visual experience determines visual sensitivity to human movement, then observers should be most…

  13. Using the Kinect to limit abnormal kinematics and compensation strategies during therapy with end effector robots.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices. PMID:24187203

  14. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    PubMed

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. PMID:23112726

  15. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. PMID:23112726

  16. Oscillatory Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia: Dystonia, Tremor, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing of the head, often combined with tremor-like oscillatory head movements. The nature and source of these oscillatory head movements is controversial, so they were quantified to delineate their characteristics and develop a hypothetical model for their genesis. A magnetic search coil system was used to measure head movements in 14 subjects with cervical dystonia. Two distinct types of oscillatory head movements were detected for most subjects, even when they were not clinically evident. One type had a relatively large amplitude and jerky irregular pattern, and the other had smaller amplitude with a more regular and sinusoidal pattern. The kinematic properties of these two types of oscillatory head movements were distinct, although both were often combined in the same subject. Both had features suggestive of a defect in a central neural integrator. The combination of different types of oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia helps to clarify some of the current debates regarding whether they should be considered as manifestations of dystonia or tremor and provides novel insights into their potential pathogenesis. PMID:25879911

  17. Studies of body movements during night sleep in infancy.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, M; Mochizuki, N; Takeishi, M; Nomura, Y; Segawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Body movements (BMs) during night sleep of 25 neurologically normal infants, 11 premature and 14 full-term, whose ages ranged from 30 conceptional weeks to 18 months post-term, were examined to evaluate the changes of their features with age. The examinations performed during sleep periods totaled 65 times, 1 to 60 times on each subject. Through visual observation and EEG recordings, the BMs were classified into 3 types: (1) Gross movements (GM), (2) localized movements (LM), both of the above two lasting more than 0.5 second, and (3) twitch movements (TM) lasting less than 0.5 second. Total GM and LM time per hour of sleep, average duration of GM and LM and number of GM, LM and TM per hour of sleep were calculated. Percentage of 20 seconds epochs without BMs (nonbody-movement-epochs) was also estimated. These BMs parameters decreased with maturation to certain low base levels. However, each parameter showed a particular time course. TM decreased initially, then LM and lastly GM reached the base level around the age of 9 to 13 months. On the other hand, nonbody movement-epochs increased progressively until 8 months of age. These three types of BMs are considered to be controlled by the CNS with different organization levels, the simplest for TM and the most complicated for GM. They are thus correlated to the maturational process of the CNS, and could be good indicators for detecting normal and abnormal CNS developments. PMID:7258548

  18. Oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia: Dystonia, tremor, or both?

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Zee, David S; Jinnah, H A

    2015-05-01

    Cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing of the head, often combined with tremor-like oscillatory head movements. The nature and source of these oscillatory head movements is controversial, so they were quantified to delineate their characteristics and develop a hypothetical model for their genesis. A magnetic search coil system was used to measure head movements in 14 subjects with cervical dystonia. Two distinct types of oscillatory head movements were detected for most subjects, even when they were not clinically evident. One type had a relatively large amplitude and jerky irregular pattern, and the other had smaller amplitude with a more regular and sinusoidal pattern. The kinematic properties of these two types of oscillatory head movements were distinct, although both were often combined in the same subject. Both had features suggestive of a defect in a central neural integrator. The combination of different types of oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia helps to clarify some of the current debates regarding whether they should be considered as manifestations of dystonia or tremor and provides novel insights into their potential pathogenesis. PMID:25879911

  19. Eccentric head positions reveal disorders of conjugate eye movement.

    PubMed Central

    Gresty, M

    1977-01-01

    The effect of head position on conjugate horizontal gaze was studied in healthy adults, in patients with multiple sclerosis without eye movement signs, and in patients with downbeat nystagmus indicative of low brain stem lesions. Displacements of gaze from primary position to 30 degrees left and right were recorded using the electro-oculogram, with the head in the primary position, and turned voluntarily to the left and right (in yaw). The quality of eye movements was noted and peak velocities of saccades were measured. The head turning test trebled the incidence of abnormal eye movements found in the multiple sclerosis patients and increased it by tenfold in the patients with downbeat nystagmus. Disorders of eye movement were also found in approximately 20--30% of healthy subjects tested. Weakness of abduction was the most common eye movement defect and appeared to be posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. A hypothesis is made which unifies the theoretical explanations of anterior and posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The most likely cause of the disorders of eye movement observed is vertebrobasilar ischaemia induced by stretching and compression of the vertebral arteries during eccentric head posture. Images PMID:591979

  20. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  1. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  2. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  3. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  4. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  5. Eye movements as probes of lexico-semantic processing in a patient with primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Seckin, Mustafa; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rademaker, Alfred W; Voss, Joel L; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily J; Hurley, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement trajectories during a verbally cued object search task were used as probes of lexico-semantic associations in an anomic patient with primary progressive aphasia. Visual search was normal on trials where the target object could be named but became lengthy and inefficient on trials where the object failed to be named. The abnormality was most profound if the noun denoting the object could not be recognized. Even trials where the name of the target object was recognized but not retrieved triggered abnormal eye movements, demonstrating that retrieval failures can have underlying associative components despite intact comprehension of the corresponding noun. PMID:25982291

  6. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  7. Orofacial Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan

    2016-08-01

    Orofacial movement disorders (OMDs) include dystonia, dyskinesia, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and bruxism. The definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and management are detailed. OMDs are often disabling and affect patients' overall quality of life with pain, difficulty chewing food, speech difficulty, drooling, and social embarrassment. Management involves medications, botulinum toxin injections, and peripheral or central surgery. Botulinum toxin injections are the most effective management, often used in conjunction with medications. Surgery is the last resort for patients who fail to respond to medications or develop resistance to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:27475514

  8. Oscillations in sensorimotor cortex in movement disorders: an electrocorticography study

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Andrea L.; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S.; Ostrem, Jill L.; Galifianakis, Nicholas B.; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lim, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Movement disorders of basal ganglia origin may arise from abnormalities in synchronized oscillatory activity in a network that includes the basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cortices. In humans, much has been learned from the study of basal ganglia local field potentials recorded from temporarily externalized deep brain stimulator electrodes. These studies have led to the theory that Parkinson's disease has characteristic alterations in the beta frequency band (13–30 Hz) in the basal ganglia–thalamocortical network. However, different disorders have rarely been compared using recordings in the same structure under the same behavioural conditions, limiting straightforward assessment of current hypotheses. To address this, we utilized subdural electrocorticography to study cortical oscillations in the three most common movement disorders: Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor. We recorded local field potentials from the arm area of primary motor and sensory cortices in 31 subjects using strip electrodes placed temporarily during routine surgery for deep brain stimulator placement. We show that: (i) primary motor cortex broadband gamma power is increased in Parkinson's disease compared with the other conditions, both at rest and during a movement task; (ii) primary motor cortex high beta (20–30 Hz) power is increased in Parkinson's disease during the ‘stop’ phase of a movement task; (iii) the alpha–beta peaks in the motor and sensory cortical power spectra occur at higher frequencies in Parkinson's disease than in the other two disorders; and (iv) patients with dystonia have impaired movement-related beta band desynchronization in primary motor and sensory cortices. The findings support the emerging hypothesis that disease states reflect abnormalities in synchronized oscillatory activity. This is the first study of sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in the three most common movement disorders. PMID:22252995

  9. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  10. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo

    2006-08-01

    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. PMID:16685680

  11. Amyloplast movement and gravityperception in Arabidopsis endoderm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, M.; Saito, T.; Morita, M. T.

    Gravitropism of higher plant is a growth response regulating the orientation of organs elongation, which includes four sequential steps, the perception of gravistimulus, transduction of the physical stimulus to chemical signal, transmission of the signal, and differential cell elongation depending on the signal. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these steps, we have isolated a number of Arabidopsis mutants with abnormal shoot gravitropic response. zig (zigzag)/sgr4(shoot gravitropism 4) shows little gravitropism in their shoots. Besides, their inflorescence stems elongate in a zigzag-fashion to bend at each node. ZIG encodes a SNARE, AtVTI11. sgr3 with reduced gravitropic response in inflorescence stems had a missense mutation in other SNARE, AtVAM3. These two SNAREs make a complex in the shoot endoderm cells that are gravity-sensing cells, suggesting that the vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to prevacuolar compartment (PVC) and/or vacuole is involved in gravitropism. Abnormal vesicular/vacuolar structures were observed in several tissues of both mutants. Moreover, SGR2 encodes phospholipase A1-like protein that resides in the vacuolar membrane. Endodermis-specific expression of these genes could complement gravitropism in each mutant. In addition, amyloplasts thought to be statoliths localized abnormally in their endoderm cells. These results strongly suggest that formation and function of vacuole in the endoderm cells are important for amyloplasts sedimentation, which is involved in the early process of shoot gravitropism. To reveal this, we constructed vertical stage microscope system to visualize the behavior of amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane in living endodermal cells. We hope to discuss the mechanism of gravity perception after showing their movements.

  12. Preventing Smoking Initiation or Relapse following 8.5 Weeks of Involuntary Smoking Abstinence in Basic Military Training: Trial Design, Interventions, and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Klesges, Robert C.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Leroy, Karen; Richey, Phyllis A.; Colvin, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24 month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world’s largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance. PMID:24637237

  13. Preventing smoking initiation or relapse following 8.5 weeks of involuntary smoking abstinence in basic military training: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Klesges, Robert C; Ebbert, Jon O; Talcott, Gerald W; Thomas, Fridtjof; Leroy, Karen; Richey, Phyllis A; Colvin, Lauren

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world's largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance. PMID:24637237

  14. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  15. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  16. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  17. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  19. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  1. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  2. Abnormal brain scan with subacute extradural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Morley, J. Barrie; Langford, Keith H.

    1970-01-01

    Four patients are described with proven subacute extradural haematomas, each with an abnormal cerebral scan of diagnostic assistance. A possible mechanism of production of the subacute extradural haematoma is discussed, and appears to be similar to the mechanism involved in the subacute subdural haematoma. The means by which the abnormal scan results in such cases is also examined, from which it appears that non-specific meningeal membrane inflammatory reaction surrounding the haematoma is significant. Images PMID:5478950

  3. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  4. Learning fast accurate movements requires intact frontostriatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Shabbott, Britne; Ravindran, Roshni; Schumacher, Joseph W.; Wasserman, Paula B.; Marder, Karen S.; Mazzoni, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The basal ganglia are known to play a crucial role in movement execution, but their importance for motor skill learning remains unclear. Obstacles to our understanding include the lack of a universally accepted definition of motor skill learning (definition confound), and difficulties in distinguishing learning deficits from execution impairments (performance confound). We studied how healthy subjects and subjects with a basal ganglia disorder learn fast accurate reaching movements. We addressed the definition and performance confounds by: (1) focusing on an operationally defined core element of motor skill learning (speed-accuracy learning), and (2) using normal variation in initial performance to separate movement execution impairment from motor learning abnormalities. We measured motor skill learning as performance improvement in a reaching task with a speed-accuracy trade-off. We compared the performance of subjects with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disorder, to that of premanifest carriers of the HD mutation and of control subjects. The initial movements of HD subjects were less skilled (slower and/or less accurate) than those of control subjects. To factor out these differences in initial execution, we modeled the relationship between learning and baseline performance in control subjects. Subjects with HD exhibited a clear learning impairment that was not explained by differences in initial performance. These results support a role for the basal ganglia in both movement execution and motor skill learning. PMID:24312037

  5. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  6. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation.

  7. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  8. Anti-abortion movement.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K

    1985-01-01

    At the same time that American women celebrate the freedoms won thus far for so many Americans, American women must realize they face some of the greatest threats to liberty in recent memory. To understand this movement against American women, it is necessary to first understand the roots of the historic movement for women's rights. Reproductive freedom for many years topped the agenda of the modern women's movement. At a time and in a land where rights were being enriched and liberty prized, choice took a prominent role, specifically, the right to abortion but also generally to repdocuctive freedom and the many underlying issues involved. This is why the various efforts to criminalize abortion effect every citizen, because they pose a serious threat to the constitutional rights of each individual. This is the intellectual view, or the "head" argument. The Constitution states that: "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people; and no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US." Each of these clauses expresses the philosophy on which the Constitution was founded -- individual liberty. While there has been some legitimate disagreement over what constitutes an inalienable right, the concept is clear: the government should not become involved in personal philosophical or religious matters, except to permit the freedom of personal philosophical or religious expression. The anti-abortion contignent makes its case by claiming that a fertilized egg is a cona fide person and should, therefore, be guaranteed the Constitution's full roster of protections. In its landmark Roe v. Wade opinion, the Supreme Court held what pro-choice activities have been claiming for years. Since there is no empirical test by which measure

  9. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with bobble-head doll movements: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Desai, K I; Nadkarni, T D; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2003-09-01

    We report a series of three patients with suprasellar arachnoid cysts who presented with a rare 'bobble-head doll' syndrome. The abnormal head movements improved after surgical evacuation of the cysts in all the three cases. Various pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the bobble-head doll syndrome are discussed. The literature on suprasellar arachnoid cysts is briefly reviewed. PMID:14652456

  10. The Maker Movement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld; Sheridan, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, Erica Halverson and Kimberly Sheridan provide the context for research on the maker movement as they consider the emerging role of making in education. The authors describe the theoretical roots of the movement and draw connections to related research on formal and informal education. They present points of tension between making…

  11. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  12. The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Tariq

    1995-01-01

    Documents the rise of the Siraiki ethnonationalist movement in economically underdeveloped Southern Pakistani Punjab. Although the Siraiki intellectuals emphasize the differences of their language from Punjabi to mobilize public opinion against the injustice of their deprivation, the Punjabi elite view the Siraiki movement as a conspiracy to…

  13. The Acquisition of [Head] Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    An analysis of one theory of the acquisition of head movement by children is presented, using longitudinal data from the Mayan language, K'iche'. This theory assumes that children would just require positive evidence of head movement in the input language to instantiate the constructions of their own grammar. The Incorporation Theory addresses the…

  14. Developing Movement as Inclusive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie; Walter, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    This article details the emergence of a training framework to support professional development in inclusive Movement teaching. This arose from a collaborative research project in spring 2008 (supported by the Training and Development Agency, UK), between two universities in England and Israel. Movement education is surprisingly underused globally,…

  15. Smooth-pursuit eye movement and saccadic intrusions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Grecu, L M; Gangemi, P F; Massi, S; Parigi, A; Arnetoli, G; Quercioli, L; Zaccara, G

    1996-12-01

    Although several reports agree that smooth-pursuit eye movement (SPEM) is abnormal in some obsessive-compulsive disordered (OCD) patients, differences between treatments and lack of accuracy in control selection make the results controversial. Although reduced gain seems the most accepted abnormality, the characteristics of saccadic disruption of smooth pursuit are as yet unspecified. SPEMs in 21 OCD patients (DSM-III-R) and 21 healthy subjects recruited from the community were studied through a multiple target velocity task . The two groups were individually matched on age, gender, and level of education. None of the subjects had a history of substance dependence apart from the smokers who refrained from smoking in the 2 hours prior to the test. A significantly lower SPEM gain and increased number and frequency of anticipatory saccades (ASs) was found in OCD patients as compared with control subjects. No relationship emerged between eye movement abnormalities and clinical variables explored. PMID:8931920

  16. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  19. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  20. Assessment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) often have musculoskeletal (MSK) abnormalities. Paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, and Spine (pGALS), is a simple MSK assessment validated in school-age children to detect abnormal joints. We aimed to identify MSK abnormalities in children with MPS performing pGALS. Methods Videos of children with a spectrum of MPS performing pGALS were analysed. A piloted proforma to record abnormalities for each pGALS manoeuvre observed in the videos (scored as normal/abnormal/not assessable) was used by three observers blinded to MPS subtype. Videos were scored independently and rescored for intra- and inter-observer consistency. Data were pooled and analysed. Results Eighteen videos of children [12 boys, 6 girls, median age 11 years (4–19)] with MPS (13 type I [5 Hurler, 8 attenuated type I]; 4 type II; 1 mannosidosis) were assessed. The most common abnormalities detected using pGALS were restrictions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, jaw (>75% cases), and fingers (2/3 cases). Mean intra-observer Κ 0.74 (range 0.65–0.88) and inter-observer Κ 0.62 (range 0.51–0.77). Hip manoeuvres were not clearly demonstrated in the videos. Conclusions In this observational study, pGALS identifies MSK abnormalities in children with MPS. Restricted joint movement (especially upper limb) was a consistent finding. Future work includes pGALS assessment of the hip and testing pGALS in further children with attenuated MPS type I. The use of pGALS and awareness of patterns of joint involvement may be a useful adjunct to facilitate earlier recognition of these rare conditions and ultimately access to specialist care. PMID:25110468

  1. The role of eye movement driven attention in functional strabismic amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Crewther, Sheila Gillard; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2015-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia "blunt vision" is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia. PMID:25838941

  2. The Role of Eye Movement Driven Attention in Functional Strabismic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Strabismic amblyopia “blunt vision” is a developmental anomaly that affects binocular vision and results in lowered visual acuity. Strabismus is a term for a misalignment of the visual axes and is usually characterized by impaired ability of the strabismic eye to take up fixation. Such impaired fixation is usually a function of the temporally and spatially impaired binocular eye movements that normally underlie binocular shifts in visual attention. In this review, we discuss how abnormal eye movement function in children with misaligned eyes influences the development of normal binocular visual attention and results in deficits in visual function such as depth perception. We also discuss how eye movement function deficits in adult amblyopia patients can also lead to other abnormalities in visual perception. Finally, we examine how the nonamblyopic eye of an amblyope is also affected in strabismic amblyopia. PMID:25838941

  3. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  4. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  5. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  6. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  7. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  8. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  9. Cone photopigment bleaching abnormalities in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elsner, A E; Burns, S A; Lobes, L A; Doft, B H

    1987-04-01

    We have used a color-matching technique to obtain estimates of the optical density of cone photopigments as a function of retinal illuminance in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We found that the half-bleach illuminance of some patients is abnormally high. That is, it takes more light to bleach an equivalent amount of photopigment in these patients. Since low illuminance color matches for these patients are normal, this implies that these patients have normal amounts of photopigment, but the photopigment is not bleaching normally. This result clearly points to abnormalities in the outer retina of these diabetic patients. The most likely causes of this abnormality are either decreases in the ability of the cones to absorb light, or an increased rate of regeneration of the cone photopigments. PMID:3557875

  10. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  11. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations. PMID:26605692

  12. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  13. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  14. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  15. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement.

  16. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders--affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate--are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  17. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  18. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    MedlinePlus

    ... devised improved treatments for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source ... which patients could benefit from surgery. People with cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis could also benefit ...

  19. Eye movements when viewing advertisements.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Emily; Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads), before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet). Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research. PMID:24672500

  20. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.