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Sample records for abnormal isomeric decays

  1. β-γ and isomeric decay spectroscopy of 168Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. X.; Watanabe, H.; Kondev, F. G.; Lane, G. J.; Regan, P. H.; Söderström, P.-A.; Walker, P. M.; Kanaoka, H.; Korkulu, Z.; Lee, P. S.; Liu, J. J.; Nishimura, S.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Ahn, D. S.; Alharbi, T.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Bruce, A. M.; Carroll, R. J.; Chae, K. Y.; Dombradi, Zs.; Doornenbal, P.; Estrade, A.; Fukuda, N.; Griffin, C.; Ideguchi, E.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kanaya, S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Lalkovski, S.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, E. J.; Lorusso, G.; Lotay, G.; Moon, C.-B.; Nishizuka, I.; Nita, C. R.; Odahara, A.; Patel, Z.; Phong, V. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Roberts, O. J.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shand, C. M.; Shimizu, Y.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Terashima, S.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dóbon, J. J.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This contribution will report on the experimental work on the level structure of 168Dy. The experimental data have been taken as part of the EURICA decay spectroscopy campaign at RIBF, RIKEN in November 2014. In the experiment, a 238U primary beam is accelerated up to 345 MeV/u with an average intensity of 12 pnA. The nuclei of interest are produced by in-flight fission of 238U impinging on Be target with a thickness of 5 mm. The excited states of 168Dy have been populated through the decay from a newly identified isomeric state and via the β decay from 168Tb. In this contribution, scientific motivations, experimental procedure and some preliminary results for this study are presented.

  2. Properties of γ -decaying isomers and isomeric ratios in the 100Sn region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Krücken, R.; Lubos, D.; Gernhäuser, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Nishimura, S.; Ahn, D. S.; Baba, H.; Blank, B.; Blazhev, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Browne, F.; Čeliković, I.; de France, G.; Doornenbal, P.; Faestermann, T.; Fang, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Giovinazzo, J.; Goel, N.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Ilieva, S.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jungclaus, A.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y.-K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Lorusso, G.; Moschner, K.; Murai, D.; Nishizuka, I.; Patel, Z.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rice, S.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Steiger, K.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Half-lives and energies of γ rays emitted in the decay of isomeric states of nuclei in the vicinity of the doubly magic 100Sn were measured in a decay spectroscopy experiment at Rikagaku Kenkyusho (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan Nishina Center. The measured half-lives, some with improved precision, are consistent with literature values. Three new results include a 55-keV E 2 γ ray from a new (4+) isomer with T1 /2=0.23 (6 ) μ s in 92Rh, a 44-keV E 2 γ ray from the (15+) isomer in 96Ag, and T1 /2(6+) =13 (2 ) ns in 98Cd. Shell-model calculations of electromagnetic transition strengths in the (p1 /2,g9 /2) model space agree with the experimental results. In addition, experimental isomeric ratios were compared to the theoretical predictions derived with an abrasion-ablation model and the sharp cutoff model. The results agreed within a factor of 2 for most isomers. From the nonobservation of time-delayed γ rays in 100Sn, new constraints on the T1 /2, γ -ray energy, and internal conversion coefficients are proposed for the hypothetical isomer in 100Sn.

  3. Low-lying isomeric states in Ga80 from the β- decay of Zn80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licǎ, R.; Mǎrginean, N.; GhiÅ£ǎ, D. G.; Mach, H.; Fraile, L. M.; Simpson, G. S.; Aprahamian, A.; Bernards, C.; Briz, J. A.; Bucher, B.; Chiara, C. J.; Dlouhý, Z.; Gheorghe, I.; Hoff, P.; Jolie, J.; Köster, U.; Kurcewicz, W.; Mǎrginean, R.; Olaizola, B.; Paziy, V.; Régis, J. M.; Rudigier, M.; Sava, T.; Stǎnoiu, M.; Stroe, L.; Walters, W. B.

    2014-07-01

    A new level scheme of Ga80 has been determined. This nucleus was populated following the β- decay of Zn80 at ISOLDE, CERN. The proposed level scheme is significantly different compared to the previously reported one and contains 26 levels up to 3.4 MeV in excitation energy. The present study establishes that the previously identified 1.9-s β--decaying 6- isomer is the ground state of Ga80 and the 1.3-s β--decaying 3- isomer lies at an excitation energy of 22.4 keV. A new isomeric level was identified at 707.8 keV and its half-life was measured to be 18.3(5) ns, allowing the 685.4-keV transition de-exciting this state to be assigned an M2 multipolarity. The newly measured spectroscopic observables are compared with shell-model calculations using the jj44bpn and JUN45 interactions.

  4. Thermal decay of rhodopsin: role of hydrogen bonds in thermal isomerization of 11-cis retinal in the binding site and hydrolysis of protonated Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Monica Yun; Nguyen, Jennifer B; Bhagat, Aditi; Mooney, Victoria; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2009-07-01

    Although thermal stability of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin is directly related to its extremely low dark noise level and has recently generated considerable interest, the chemistry behind the thermal decay process of rhodopsin has remained unclear. Using UV-vis spectroscopy and HPLC analysis, we have demonstrated that the thermal decay of rhodopsin involves both hydrolysis of the protonated Schiff base and thermal isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal. Examining the unfolding of rhodopsin by circular dichroism spectroscopy and measuring the rate of thermal isomerization of 11-cis retinal in solution, we conclude that the observed thermal isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal happens when 11-cis retinal is in the binding pocket of rhodopsin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that solvent deuterium isotope effects are involved in the thermal decay process by decreasing the rates of thermal isomerization and hydrolysis, suggesting that the rate-determining step of these processes involves breaking hydrogen bonds. These results provide insight into understanding the critical role of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network on stabilizing the inactive state of rhodopsin and contribute to our current understanding of the low dark noise level of rhodopsin, which enables this specialized protein to function as an extremely sensitive biological light detector. Because similar hydrogen-bonding networks have also been suggested by structural analysis of two other GPCRs, beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors, our results could reveal a general role of hydrogen bonds in facilitating GPCR function.

  5. Observation of a γ-decaying millisecond isomeric state in 128Cd80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Fukuda, N.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gey, G.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jung, H. S.; Kameda, D.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, Y.-K.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Kurz, N.; Kwon, Y. K.; Li, Z.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Steiger, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Vajta, Zs.; Watanabe, H.; Wu, J.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bönig, S.; Chae, K. Y.; Coraggio, L.; Daugas, J.-M.; Drouet, F.; Gadea, A.; Gargano, A.; Ilieva, S.; Itaco, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Kröll, T.; Lane, G. J.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Moschner, K.; Mücher, D.; Naqvi, F.; Niikura, M.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Orlandi, R.; Patel, Z.; Podolyák, Zs.; Wendt, A.

    2017-09-01

    A new high-spin isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 128Cd was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. A half-life of T1/2 = 6.3 (8) ms was measured for the new state which was tentatively assigned a spin/parity of (15-). The experimental results are compared to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions and to the neighbouring nucleus 129Cd. In the present experiment no evidence was found for the decay of a 18+E6 spin-trap isomer, based on the complete alignment of the two-neutron and two-proton holes in the 0h11/2 and the 0g9/2 orbit, respectively, which is predicted to exist by the shell model.

  6. Observation of a γ -decaying millisecond isomeric state in 128 Cd 80

    SciTech Connect

    Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.

    2017-09-01

    A new high-spin isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 128Cd was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. A half-life of T1/2 = 6.3(8) ms was measured for the new state which was tentatively assigned a spin/parity of (15-). The experimental results are compared to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions and to the neighbouring nucleus 129Cd. In the present experiment no evidence was found for the decay of a 18 + E6 spin-trap isomer, based on the complete alignment of the two-neutron and two-proton holes in themore » 0h 11/2 and the 0g 9/2 orbit, respectively, which is predicted to exist by the shell model.« less

  7. K selection in the decay of the (ν 5/2 [532 ] ⊗3/2 [411 ] ) 4- isomeric state in 102Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, F.; Bruce, A. M.; Sumikama, T.; Nishizuka, I.; Nishimura, S.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Söderström, P.-A.; Watanabe, H.; Daido, R.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Baba, H.; Chiga, N.; Carroll, R.; Didierjean, F.; Fang, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Gey, G.; Ideguchi, E.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Kameda, D.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kubo, T.; Lalkovski, S.; Li, Z.; Lozeva, R.; Nishibata, N.; Odahara, A.; Podolyák, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Roberts, O. J.; Sakurai, H.; Schaffner, H.; Simpson, G. S.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Tanaka, M.; Taprogge, J.; Werner, V.; Wieland, O.

    2017-08-01

    The (ν 5/2 [532 ] ⊗3/2 [411 ] ) 4- state in 102Zr, populated in the β decay of 102Y, has been measured to be isomeric with a mean lifetime of 9.5(7) ns. It decays via four transitions, two of which are Δ K =2 (to the 3+ and 4+ members of the 2γ+ band) and one is Δ K =4 (to the 4+ member of the ground state 0+ band). The fourth (low-energy) transition is inferred to decay to an as-yet unassigned state. Hindrances of 106 were derived for the Δ K =2 transitions compared to Weisskopf estimates and the Δ K =4 transition hindered by a factor of 109. These values are consistent with the decay pattern of the analogous isomeric state in the neighboring N =62 nucleus 100Sr and with the broader systematics of such transitions. A comparison of the hindrances for the Δ K =4 transitions suggests that 102Zr is hardened against the γ degree of freedom compared to 100Sr.

  8. Clinical implications of atrial isomerism.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, I S; How, S W; Wang, J K; Wu, M H; Chu, S H; Lue, H C; Hung, C R

    1988-01-01

    Right atrial isomerism or left atrial isomerism is frequently diagnosed as situs ambiguous without further discrimination of the specific morbid anatomy. Thirty six cases of right atrial isomerism and seven cases of left atrial isomerism were collected from the records and pathological museum at the National Taiwan University Hospital. There was a necropsy report for 18 cases. In all patients one or more of the following conditions was met: (a) isomeric bronchial anatomy, (b) echocardiographic and angiocardiographic evidence of isomerism, and (c) surgical or necropsy evidence of abnormal atrial anatomy. An anomalous pulmonary venous connection was present in 55% of patients with right atrial isomerism; in left atrial isomerism one case (14%) had a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Forty per cent of cases of anomalous pulmonary venous connection with right atrial isomerism had obstruction. Six (86%) of seven cases with left atrial isomerism had an ambiguous biventricular atrioventricular connection. In contrast, univentricular atrioventricular connection (26 of 36, 72%) was significantly more common in right atrial isomerism. A common atrioventricular valve was the most frequent mode of connection in both forms. Two discrete atrioventricular valves were significantly more common in left atrial isomerism. Atrioventricular valve regurgitation was detected in 14 cases. Double outlet right ventricle was the most common type of ventriculoarterial connection. The most commonly cited causes of death after either palliative or definitive operation were undetected anomalous pulmonary venous connection, pulmonary venous stricture, and uncorrected atrioventricular valve or aortic regurgitation complicated by abnormal coagulation. Although the prognosis is poor, successful operation depends on knowledge of the precise anatomical arrangement associated with atrial isomerism. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3408620

  9. Heterogenous fluorescence decay of (4→6)-and (4→8)-linked dimers of (+)-catechin and (-) epicatechin as a result of rotational isomerism.

    Treesearch

    Wolfgang R. Bergmann; Mary D. Barkley; Richard W. Hemingway; Wayne Mattice

    1987-01-01

    The time-resolved fluorescence of (+)-catechin and ( -)-epicatechin decays as a single exponential. In contrast dimers formed from (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin have more complex decays unless rotation about the interflavan bond is constrained by the introduction of a new ring. The fluorescence decay in unconstrained dimers is adequately described by the sum of two...

  10. Analysis of isomeric ratios for medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H., E-mail: hov-gohar@ysu.am; Bakhshiyan, T. M.

    Values of the isomeric ratios for product nuclei originating from simple charge-exchange reactions were analyzed. The cross sections for the formation of product nuclei in ground and isomeric states were calculated with the aid of the TALYS 1.4 and EMPIRE 3.2 codes. The calculated values of the isomeric ratios were compared with their experimental counterparts taken from the EXFOR database. For the {sup 86,87}Y, {sup 94,95,96,99}Tc, and {sup 44}Sc nuclei, the experimental values of the isomeric ratios exceed the respective calculated values. The nuclei in question feature weak deformations and have high-spin yrast lines and rotational bands. The possible reasonmore » behind the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental isomeric ratios is that the decay of yrast states leads with a high probability to the formation of isomeric states of detected product nuclei.« less

  11. Isomerization of sugars

    DOEpatents

    Moliner-Marin, Manuel; Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E; Nikolla, Eranda

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed are processes for isomerizing saccharides. Also disclosed are processes for converting saccharides to furan derivatives. Also disclosed are processes for converting starch to furan derivatives.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of left isomerism with normal heart: a case report

    PubMed Central

    De Paola, Nico; Ermito, Santina; Nahom, Antonella; Dinatale, Angela; Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Brizzi, Cristiana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Left isomerism, also called polysplenia, is a laterality disturbance associated with with paired leftsidedness viscera and multiple small spleens. Left isomerism, heart congenital abnormalities and gastrointestinal malformation are strongly associated. Methods: We present a case of prenatal diagnosis of left isomerism in a fetus with a structurally normal heart. Conclusion: Left isomerism syndrone may coesist with a structurally normal heart. If prenatal left isomerism is suspected, even in presence of a normal heart, is mandatory to esclude sign of gastrointestinal abnormalities, as late poly hy dramnios, and cardiac rhytm disturbance during the pregnancy and neonatal age. PMID:22439041

  13. Isomeric oxydiphthalic anhydride polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Margaret K.; Pratt, J. Richard; Stclair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Much of the polyimide research at Langley Research Center has focused on isomeric modification of the diamine component; polyimides having considerably improved processability and adhesion have resulted. The present structure-property study was designed to investigate how isomeric attachment of the three oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) polyimides affects their properties. Each dianhydride, 3,4,3',4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (4,4'-OPDA,I), 2,3,2',3'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (3,3'-ODPA,II), and 2,3,3',4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (3,4'-OPDA,III), was reacted with p-phenylenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 3,3'-diaminodiphenylsulfone, 3,3'-diaminobenzophenone, and 4,4'-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzophenone in DMAc. The inherent viscosities of the resulting poly(amic acids) were determined. Thermally imidized films were studied for their creasability and solubility, as well as by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A comparison of these properties will be made.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of atrial isomerism in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shim, Jae-Yoon; Lee, Pil-Ryang; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan; Kim, Young-Hwue; Park, Jeong-Jun; Yun, Tae-Jin; Kim, Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report our experiences in the prenatal diagnosis of atrial isomerism and postnatal outcomes. Methods A total of 80 fetuses prenatally diagnosed with atrial isomerism were retrospectively analyzed between 1999 and 2011 at a single institution. Results Of 43 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed right atrial isomerism (RAI), 40 cases were analyzed. The diagnostic accuracy was 93%. The main intracardiac anomalies in RAI were atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), abnormal pulmonary venous connection, bilateral superior vena cava (BSVC), and pulmonary atresia. Among 28 live births, three infants were lost to follow up, and the overall survival rate was 60%. Of 37 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed left atrial isomerism (LAI), 35 were evaluated. The diagnostic accuracy was 97%. The main intracardiac anomalies in LAI were ventricular septal defect, BSVC, AVSD, double outlet right ventricle, and bradyarrhythmia. Among seven patients with bradyarrhythmia, only one showed a complete atrioventricular block. All fetuses had an interrupted inferior vena cava with azygous continuation. The overall survival rate was 90%. Conclusion Our study confirms the previous findings of fetal atrial isomerism. We also demonstrates a much lower prevalence of AVSD and complete heart block in LAI and a better survival rate in RAI. Although the postnatal outcomes for RAI were worse than those for LAI, successful postnatal surgery with active management improved the survival rate. PMID:24883290

  15. Left isomerism syndrome with total anomalous systemic connection.

    PubMed

    Vo, Anh Tuan; Cao, Khang Dang; Le, Khoi Minh; Nguyen, Dinh Hoang

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of left isomerism with total anomalous systemic venous connection where the inferior vena cava was absent and all other systemic veins connected abnormally to the left atrium. The right atrium was hypoplastic with an intact atrial septum. Blood flow to the lungs was through a large ventricular septal defect. The diagnosis was made with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Complete repair was performed successfully, and the 7-year-old patient had an uneventful recovery.

  16. Atrial isomerism: a surgical experience.

    PubMed

    Sinzobahamvya, N; Arenz, C; Brecher, A M; Urban, A E

    1999-06-01

    Most publications on atrial isomerism are autopsy or case reports. The authors review 41 consecutive children operated on from 1980 through to 1996 with emphasis on associated cardiac anomalies, surgical procedures and outcome. Left atrial isomerism was present in 23 patients. Interruption of the inferior vena cava (56%), atrio-ventricular septal defect (47%), common atrium (38%) and cor triatriatum sinistrum (30%) were the most common diagnoses. Biventricular repair was achieved in 17 children and total cavo-pulmonary connection in two. Three underwent staged palliation: modified Blalock-Taussig shunt for two and bidirectional Glenn anastomosis for one. The remainder received a cardiac pacemaker. One patient died early after repair. Two underwent reoperation to correct a regurgitant left atrio-ventricular valve: one of these, in another hospital, had peroperative death. Three died later. Actuarial survival rate after repair and total cavo-pulmonary connection that was stabilized after 2 years was 84%. In the 18 children with right atrial isomerism, pulmonary atresia or stenosis predominated (89%) with discordant ventriculo-arterial connection (72%), atrio-ventricular septal defect (72%), 'single' ventricle (55%) and extracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (50%). Biventricular repair was achieved in two patients and complete Fontan circulation in eight. The other eight underwent various staged palliative procedures and correction of extracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Five patients died postoperatively: two in our unit after modified Blalock-Taussig shunt and total cavo-pulmonary connection, three in other hospitals after repair (n = 1) and Fontan (n = 2). Five died later. One was lost for review. Survival after repair and Fontan stabilized after 6 months at 49%. In conclusion, the cardiovascular malformations associated with left atrial isomerism can often be successfully corrected. Those accompanying right atrial isomerism

  17. Morphological considerations pertaining to recognition of atrial isomerism. Consequences for sequential chamber localisation.

    PubMed Central

    Macartney, F J; Zuberbuhler, J R; Anderson, R H

    1980-01-01

    The atrial morphology and venous connections were assessed "blind" in 51 necropsy specimens from patients with visceral heterotaxy. This was compared with bronchial morphology as established by dissection. Six specimens were found to have both atria and bronchi in situs solitus or inversus, and were rejected. In the remainder, atrial isomerism was diagnosed, though this required minor revision of the atrial assessment in two patients. Thirty-four patients had isomeric right atria and bronchi, while 11 had isomeric left atria and bronchi. In seven cases, splenic status was unknown, but in seven of the remaining 38 (18.4%) atrial isomerism was not associated with either asplenia or polysplenia. Nevertheless, right isomerism was strongly associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (as is asplenia) and left isomerism was likewise associated with interruption of the inferior vena cava (as is polysplenia). Bilateral superior venae cavae and hepatic veins, and absence of the coronary sinus, were frequent in both forms of isomerism (as they are in asplenia and polysplenia). These findings suggest that atrial situs can be defined as solitus inversus, right isomerism, and left isomerism. This determination of atrial situs is quite independent of any other abnormalities of visceral situs. The high incidence of anomalies of both venous return and common atrium resulted in presumed complete mixing of blood at atrial level in all but one patient (97.8%), making the haemodynamic connection between atria and ventricles almost always ambiguous. To describe this anatomical connection as ambiguous when there are two ventricles present is therefore no more than recognition of anatomical and haemodynamic reality. Images PMID:7459148

  18. No Evidence of Isomerism for the First Excited State of {sup 93}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Miernik, K., E-mail: kmiernik@fuw.edu.pl; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.

    2014-06-15

    The 253.3–keV excited state located in {sup 93}Rb was studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility in Oak Ridge. This state, described as isomeric in databases, was populated in the decay of {sup 93}Kr produced by proton–induced fission of {sup 238}U and isolated using the isotope separation on–line technique. We report that the 253.3–keV level does not reveal isomerism and the upper limit of the half-life from our measurement is 4 ns. Our findings are supported by previously reported results that were not taken into account in the latest nuclear databases.

  19. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Lewitowicz, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented.

  20. Rational synthesis of normal, abnormal and anionic NHC–gallium alkyl complexes: structural, stability and isomerization insights† †Dedicated to the memory of Paul von R. Schleyer. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CIF files giving crystallographic results, experimental details and copies of the NMR spectra. CCDC 1405459–1405464. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02086g

    PubMed Central

    Uzelac, Marina; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Armstrong, David R.; Kennedy, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing the rational design of main-group N-heterocyclic carbene complexes, this study reports the synthesis, X-ray crystallographic and NMR spectroscopic characterisation of a novel series of Ga complexes containing neutral or anionic NHC ligands using the unsaturated carbene IPr (IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Starting from normal adduct GaR3·IPr (1) (R = CH2SiMe3), the addition of polar LiR led to the formation of NHC-stabilised gallate species IPr·LiGaR4 (2), resulting from co-complexation of the single-metal species. Contrastingly, reversing the order of addition of these organometallic reagents, by treating unsaturated free IPr, first with LiR followed by GaR3, furnished novel heteroleptic gallate (THF)2Li[:C{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHCGa(CH2SiMe3)3}] (3), which contains an anionic NHC ligand acting as an unsymmetrical bridge between the two metals, coordinating through its abnormal C4 position to Ga and through its normal C2 position to Li. Electrophilic interception studies of 3 using methyl triflate (MeOTf), methanol and imidazolium salt (IMes·HCl) led to the isolation and structural elucidation of the two novel neutral abnormal NHC (aNHC) complexes [CH3C{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHCGa(CH2SiMe3)3}] (4) and aIPr·GaR3 (5) (aIPr = HC{[N(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2CHC}). These studies disclose the preference of the anionic IPr ligand present in 3 to react with electrophiles via its C2 position, leaving its Ga–C4 bond intact. Abnormal complex 5 can also be accessed by a thermally induced rearrangement of its normal isomer 1. Combining NMR spectroscopic and kinetic studies with DFT calculations, new light has been shed on this intriguing transformation, which suggests that it occurs via a dissociative mechanism, highlighting the importance of the donor ability of the solvent used in these thermal isomerizations as well as the steric bulk of the substituents on the NHC and the Ga reagent. These findings intimate that relief of the steric hindrance

  1. Is an Appreciation of Isomerism the Key to Unlocking the Mysteries of the Cardiac Findings in Heterotaxy?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert H; Spicer, Diane E; Loomba, Rohit

    2018-02-06

    Pediatric cardiologists treating patients with severe congenital cardiac defects define "visceral heterotaxy" on the basis of isomerism of the atrial appendages. The isomeric features represent an obvious manifestation of disruption of left-right asymmetry during embryonic development. Thus, there are two subsets of individuals within the overall syndrome, with features of either right or left isomerism. Within the heart, it is only the atrial appendages that are truly isomeric. The remainder of the cardiac components shows variable morphology, as does the arrangement of the remaining body organs. Order is provided in this potentially chaotic arrangement simply by describing the specific features of each of the systems. These features as defined by clinicians, however, seem less well recognized by those investigating the developmental origins of the disruption of symmetry. Developmental biologists place much greater emphasis on ventricular looping. Although the direction of the loop can certainly be interpreted as representing an example of asymmetry, it is not comparable to the isomeric features that underscore the clinical syndromes. This is because, thus far, there is no evidence of ventricular isomerism, with the ventricles distinguished one from the other on the basis of their disparate anatomical features. In similar fashion, some consider transposition to represent abnormal lateralization, but again, clinical diagnosis depends on recognition of the lateralized features. In this review, therefore, we discuss the key questions that currently underscore the mismatch in the approaches to "lateralization" as taken by clinicians and developmental biologists.

  2. A new fundamental type of conformational isomerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Peter J.; Blake, Iain M.; Cai, Zheng-Li; Luck, Ian J.; Krausz, Elmars; Kobayashi, Rika; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2018-06-01

    Isomerism is a fundamental chemical concept, reflecting the fact that the arrangement of atoms in a molecular entity has a profound influence on its chemical and physical properties. Here we describe a previously unclassified fundamental form of conformational isomerism through four resolved stereoisomers of a transoid (BF)O(BF)-quinoxalinoporphyrin. These comprise two pairs of enantiomers that manifest structural relationships not describable within existing IUPAC nomenclature and terminology. They undergo thermal diastereomeric interconversion over a barrier of 104 ± 2 kJ mol-1, which we term `akamptisomerization'. Feasible interconversion processes between conceivable synthesis products and reaction intermediates were mapped out by density functional theory calculations, identifying bond-angle inversion (BAI) at a singly bonded atom as the reaction mechanism. We also introduce the necessary BAI stereodescriptors parvo and amplo. Based on an extended polytope formalism of molecular structure and stereoisomerization, BAI-driven akamptisomerization is shown to be the final fundamental type of conformational isomerization.

  3. Manifestation of the structure of heavy nuclei in their alpha decays

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru; Antonenko, N. V.; Bezbakh, A. N.

    2016-11-15

    Low-lying one- and two-quasiparticle states of heavy nuclei are predicted. Alpha-decay chains, including those that proceed through isomeric states, are examined on the basis of the predicted properties of superheavy nuclei.

  4. Study of isomeric states in 198,200,202,206Pb and 206Hg populated in fragmentation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalović, N.; Rudolph, D.; Podolyák, Zs; Sarmiento, L. G.; Simpson, E. C.; Alexander, T.; Cortés, M. L.; Gerl, J.; Golubev, P.; Ameil, F.; Arici, T.; Bauer, Ch; Bazzacco, D.; Bentley, M. A.; Boutachkov, P.; Bowry, M.; Fahlander, C.; Gadea, A.; Gellanki, J.; Givechev, A.; Goel, N.; Górska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Gregor, E.; Guastalla, G.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Jungclaus, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Kumar, R.; Kurz, N.; Lettmann, M.; Lizarazo, C.; Louchart, C.; Merchán, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Moeller, Th; Moschner, K.; Patel, Z.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Ralet, D.; Reese, M.; Regan, P. H.; Reiter, P.; Schaffner, H.; Singh, P.; Stahl, C.; Stegmann, R.; Stezowski, O.; Taprogge, J.; Thöle, P.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Wilson, E.; Wood, R.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Burrows, I.; Clément, E.; Désesquelles, P.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Eberth, J.; González, V.; Hess, H.; Jolie, J.; Judson, D. S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Rainovski, G.; Salsac, M. D.; Sanchis, E.; Simpson, J.; Valiente Dóbon, J. J.; AGATA Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Isomeric states in isotopes in the vicinity of doubly-magic 208Pb were populated following reactions of a relativistic 208Pb primary beam impinging on a 9Be fragmentation target. Secondary beams of 198,200,202,206Pb and 206Hg were isotopically separated and implanted in a passive stopper positioned in the focal plane of the GSI Fragment Separator. Delayed γ rays were detected with the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA). Decay schemes were re-evaluated and interpreted with shell-model calculations. The momentum-dependent population of isomeric states in the two-nucleon hole nuclei 206Pb/206Hg was found to differ from the population of multi neutron-hole isomeric states in 198,200,202Pb.

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, Amy E.; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate ( ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form ( ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Densitymore » functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Altogether, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.« less

  6. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    DOE PAGES

    Settle, Amy E.; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting; ...

    2018-04-16

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate ( ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form ( ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Densitymore » functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Altogether, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.« less

  7. Formation, isomerization, and derivatization of keggin tungstoaluminates.

    Treesearch

    Jennifer J. Cowan; Alan J. Bailey; Robert A. Heintz; Bao T. Do; Kenneth I. Hardcastle; Craig L. Hill; Ira A. Weinstock

    2001-01-01

    Trends in the stability of ¥á and ©¬-Keggin heteropolytungstates of the second-row main-group heteroatoms Al(III), Si(IV), and P(V) are elaborated by data that establish the roles of kinetic and thermodynamic control in the formation and isomerization of Keggin tungstoaluminates. Slow, room-temperature co-...

  8. Is isomerism a risk factor for intestinal volvulus?

    PubMed

    Landisch, Rachel M; Loomba, Rohit S; Salazar, Jose H; Buelow, Matthew W; Frommelt, Michele; Anderson, Robert H; Wagner, Amy J

    2018-03-06

    Isomerism, or heterotaxy syndrome, affects many organ systems anatomically and functionally. Intestinal malrotation is common in patients with isomerism. Despite a low reported risk of volvulus, some physicians perform routine screening and prophylactic Ladd procedures on asymptomatic patients with isomerism who are found to have intestinal malrotation. The primary aim of this study was to determine if isomerism is an independent risk factor for volvulus. Kid's Inpatient Database data from 1997 to 2012 was utilized for this study. Characteristics of admissions with and without isomerism were compared with a particular focus on intestinal malrotation, volvulus, and Ladd procedure. A logistic regression was conducted to determine independent risk factors for volvulus with respect to isomerism. 15,962,403 inpatient admissions were included in the analysis, of which 7970 (0.05%) patients had isomerism, and 6 patients (0.1%) developed volvulus. Isomerism was associated with a 52-fold increase in the odds of intestinal malrotation by univariate analysis. Of 251 with isomerism and intestinal malrotation, only 2.4% experienced volvulus. Logistic regression demonstrated that isomerism was not an independent risk factor for volvulus. Isomerism is associated with an increased risk of intestinal malrotation but is not an independent risk factor for volvulus. Prognosis study. Level III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: evidence for isomerization through a conical intersection.

    PubMed

    McClure, Beth Anne; Mockus, Nicholas V; Butcher, Dennis P; Lutterman, Daniel A; Turro, Claudia; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2009-09-07

    The complexes [Ru(bpy)(2)(OS)](PF(6)) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](PF(6)), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, OS is 2-methylthiobenzoate, and OSO is 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate, have been studied. The electrochemical and photochemical reactivity of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) is consistent with an isomerization of the bound sulfoxide from S-bonded (S-) to O-bonded (O-) following irradiation or electrochemical oxidation. Charge transfer excitation of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) in MeOH results in the appearance of two new metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) maxima at 355 and 496 nm, while the peak at 396 nm diminishes in intensity. The isomerization is reversible at room temperature in alcohol or propylene carbonate solution. In the absence of light, solutions of O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) revert to S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Kinetic analysis reveals a biexponential decay with rate constants of 5.66(3) x 10(-4) s(-1) and 3.1(1) x 10(-5) s(-1). Cyclic voltammograms of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) are consistent with electron-transfer-triggered isomerization of the sulfoxide. Analysis of these voltammograms reveal E(S)(o)' = 0.86 V and E(O)(o)' = 0.49 V versus Ag/Ag(+) for the S- and O-bonded Ru(3+/2+) couples, respectively, in propylene carbonate. We found k(S-->O) = 0.090(15) s(-1) in propylene carbonate and k(S-->O) = 0.11(3) s(-1) in acetonitrile on Ru(III), which is considerably slower than has been reported for other sulfoxide isomerizations on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes following oxidation. The photoisomerization quantum yield (Phi(S-->O) = 0.45, methanol) is quite large, indicating a rapid excited state isomerization rate constant. The kinetic trace at 500 nm is monoexponential with tau = 150 ps, which is assigned to the excited S-->O isomerization rate. There is no spectroscopic or kinetic evidence for an O-bonded (3)MLCT excited state in the spectral evolution of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) to O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Thus, isomerization occurs nonadiabatically from an S-bonded (or eta(2

  10. Formation, isomerization, and derivatization of Keggin tungstoaluminates.

    PubMed

    Cowan, J J; Bailey, A J; Heintz, R A; Do, B T; Hardcastle, K I; Hill, C L; Weinstock, I A

    2001-12-17

    Trends in the stability of alpha- and beta-Keggin heteropolytungstates of the second-row main-group heteroatoms Al(III), Si(IV), and P(V) are elaborated by data that establish the roles of kinetic and thermodynamic control in the formation and isomerization of Keggin tungstoaluminates. Slow, room-temperature co-condensation of Al(III) and W(VI) (2:11 molar ratio) in water gives a pH 7 solution containing beta(1) and beta(2) isomers of [Al(AlOH(2))W(11)O(39)](6)(-) (beta(1)- and beta(2)-1). Partial equilibration of this kinetic product mixture by gentle heating (2 h at 100 degrees C) or, alternatively, co-condensation of Al(III) and W(VI) for 2.5 h at 100 degrees C both give mixtures of beta(2)-, beta(3)-, and alpha-1. Full equilibration, by prolonged heating (25 days at 100 degrees C), gives an isomerically pure solution of alpha-1, thus demonstrating that isomerization occurs in the direction beta(1) --> beta(2) --> beta(3) --> alpha. Furthermore, kinetically controlled conversions of 1 to H(5)[AlW(12)O(40)] (2)-achieved by heating pH 0-0.2 solutions of 1 for 5 days at 100 degrees C-occur with retention of isomeric integrity, such that alpha-1 is converted to alpha-2 (92%; 8% beta), while mixtures of beta(2)- and beta(3)-1 are converted to beta-2 (87%; 13% alpha). These data, when combined with previously reported observations (equilibria between alpha- and beta-2, kinetically controlled hydrolyses of alpha-2 to alpha-[AlW(11)O(39)](9)(-) (alpha-3) and of beta-2 to beta(2)-3, and equilibria between beta(3)- and alpha-3), provide a comprehensive picture regarding the roles of kinetic and thermodynamic control. Finally, a general method for preparation of the isomerically pure derivatives alpha-K(9)(-)(n)()[AlM(n)()(+)W(11)O(39)] (4), M(n)()(+) = Al(III), [V(IV)O](2+), [V(V)O](3+), Mn(II), Mn(III), Mn(IV), Co(II), and Co(III), is provided. The presence of Mn(IV) is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, pK(a) values of the aquo ligands on 4 are determined by pH titration

  11. E/Z Isomers and Isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaaen-Jensen, Synnøve; Lutnœes, Bjart Frode

    The natural occurrence of several carotenoid cis isomers and their biological significance were not anticipated in 1962, when the classical monograph on cis-trans isomeric carotenoids [1] was published. More recent research has demonstrated that various cis isomers occur naturally in bacteria plants, algae and invertebrate animals, and are present in human blood and tissues. The participation of cis isomers in the biosynthethic route to coloured carotenoids is well established (Volume 3, Chapter 2). Important biological functions of (15Z)-carotenoids in photosynthesis have been revealed [2]. In relation to health aspects of carotenoids, the bioavailability of cis isomers may be higher than that of the all-trans isomer [3], and accumulated evidence suggests that cis/trans isomerization may occur in biological tissues, particularly of lycopene (31) in human serum [4] (Volume 5, Chapter 7).

  12. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate.

    PubMed

    Settle, Amy E; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting; Rorrer, Nicholas A; Hu, Haiming; Richards, Ryan M; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F; Vardon, Derek R

    2018-06-11

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform bio-based chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations owing to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely because of solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95 % were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98 %) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for bio-based chemicals. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Isomerization of C.sub.4 alkenes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for isomerizing isobutene or n-butene to produce a mixture of isobutene and normal butene, and polymerizing at least a portion thereof to produce isobutene/n-butene codimer, which comprieses feeding at least 80 weight % of either the isobutene or n-butene to a catalytic distillation reactor containing a fixed bed acidic cation exchange resin catalyst packing which provides both the catalyst sites and distillation sites for the reaction products, isomerizing a portion of the isobutene or n-butene to produce a mixture of isobutene and n-butene and reacting at least a portion of the isobutene and n-butene to form codimer of isobutene and n-butene, whereby an overhead fraction containing any unreacted isobutene and n-butene and a bottoms fraction containing codimer is produced. The result of the reaction is substantially the same regardless whether the feed is isobutene or n-butene. Other aspects of the invention, include combinations of procedures to produce high purity isobutene and n-butene. Either isobutene or n-butene product (depending on the desired product) can be recycled as feed, thus substantially carrying out the isomerization to extinction and total conversion to the desired product.

  14. Isomerization of C[sub 4] alkenes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-11-13

    A method is described for isomerizing isobutene or n-butene to produce a mixture of isobutene and normal butene, and polymerizing at least a portion thereof to produce isobutene/n-butene co-dimer, which comprises feeding at least 80 weight % of either the isobutene or n-butene to a catalytic distillation reactor containing a fixed bed acidic cation exchange resin catalyst packing which provides both the catalyst sites and distillation sites for the reaction products, isomerizing a portion of the isobutene or n-butene to produce a mixture of isobutene and n-butene and reacting at least a portion of the isobutene and n-butene to form co-dimer of isobutene and n-butene, whereby an overhead fraction containing any unreacted isobutene and n-butene and a bottoms fraction containing co-dimer is produced. The result of the reaction is substantially the same regardless whether the feed is isobutene or n-butene. Other aspects of the invention, include combinations of procedures to produce high purity isobutene and n-butene. Either isobutene or n-butene product (depending on the desired product) can be recycled as feed, thus substantially carrying out the isomerization to extinction and total conversion to the desired product. 1 fig.

  15. Thermal E/ Z Isomerization in First Generation Molecular Motors.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Yuri; Sugita, Naoya; Ikeda, Mari; Nagatsugi, Fumi; Harada, Nobuyuki; Habata, Yoichi

    2018-04-20

    Determination of a thermal E/ Z isomerization barrier of first generation molecular motors is reported. Stable ( E)-1a directly converts to stable ( Z)-1c without photochemical E/ Z isomerization. The activation Gibbs energy of the isomerization was determined to be 123 kJ mol -1 by circular dichroism spectral changes. Density functional theory calculations show that ( Z)-1c is ∼11.4 kJ mol -1 more stable than ( E)-1a.

  16. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S.

    2015-09-22

    A method for suppressing isomerization of an olefin metathesis product produced in a metathesis reaction includes adding an isomerization suppression agent to a mixture that includes the olefin metathesis product and residual metathesis catalyst from the metathesis reaction under conditions that are sufficient to passivate at least a portion of the residual metathesis catalyst. The isomerization suppression agent is phosphorous acid, a phosphorous acid ester, phosphinic acid, a phosphinic acid ester or combinations thereof. Methods of refining natural oils are described.

  17. Amine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Diethylmaleate to Diethylfumarate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This reaction is used in an introductory organic chemistry course to illustrate principles of gas-liquid chromatography, geometrical isomerism, homogeneous catalysis, and activation energy determinations. (BB)

  18. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Carvone to Carvacrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Mattingly, Shawn P.

    2005-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol, first reported by Ritter and Ginsburg, is especially well suited with a permanent-magnet FT instrument. The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol produced a 61% yield after a three hour reflux with 30% aqueous sulfuric acid.

  20. [Tetralogy of Fallot associated with left atrial isomerism].

    PubMed

    Ferrín, L M; Atik, E; Aiello, V; Marcial, M B; Ebaid, M

    1996-10-01

    The association of tetralogy of Fallot with atrial isomerism has been rarely reported. Eight cases (five with left isomerism and three with right isomerism) are known. This paper reports two other cases of tetralogy of Fallot with left atrial isomerism. The syndrome's defects were disguised and without clinical expression because of the presence of the right ventricular outlet obstruction of tetralogy of Fallot. These diagnostic elements, not recognized in one of the patients previous to surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot, were present: junctional rhythm, bronchial isomerism, partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection, agenesy of inferior vena cava and abdominal heterotaxy; their identification previous to surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot, is necessary for an adequate surgical management.

  1. Experimental study of isomeric intruder 1 2 + states in At 197 , 203

    DOE PAGES

    Auranen, K.; Uusitalo, J.; Juutinen, S.; ...

    2017-04-10

    A newly observed isomeric intruder ½ + state [T ½=3.5(6)ms] is identified in 203At using a gas-filled recoil separator and fusion-evaporation reactions. The isomer is depopulated through a cascade of E3 and mixed M1/E2 transitions to the 9/2 – ground state, and it is suggested to originate from the π(s ½) –1 configuration. In addition, the structures above the ½ + state in 203At and 197At are studied using in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy, recoil-decay tagging, and recoil-isomer decay tagging methods. As a result, the ½ + state is fed from 3/2 + and 5/2 + states, and the origin of thesemore » states are discussed.« less

  2. First spatial separation of a heavy ion isomeric beam with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Ayet San Andres, S.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Hornung, C.; Miskun, I.; Pietri, S.; Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Greiner, F.; Heiße, F.; Knöbel, R.; Lippert, W.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Ranjan, M.; Takechi, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2015-05-01

    211Po ions in the ground and isomeric states were produced via 238U projectile fragmentation at 1000 MeV/u. The 211Po ions were spatially separated in flight from the primary beam and other reaction products by the fragment separator FRS. The ions were energy-bunched, slowed-down and thermalized in a gas-filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC). They were then extracted from the CSC and injected into a high-resolution multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). The excitation energy of the isomer and, for the first time, the isomeric-to-ground state ratio were determined from the measured mass spectrum. In the subsequent experimental step, the isomers were spatially separated from the ions in the ground state by an ion deflector and finally collected with a silicon detector for decay spectroscopy. This pioneering experimental result opens up unique perspectives for isomer-resolved studies. With this versatile experimental method new isomers with half-lives longer than a few milliseconds can be discovered and their decay properties can be measured with highest sensitivity and selectivity. These experiments can be extended to studies with isomeric beams in nuclear reactions.

  3. Prompt and delayed spectroscopy of At 203 : Observation of a shears band and a 29 / 2 + isomeric state

    SciTech Connect

    Auranen, K.; Uusitalo, J.; Juutinen, S.

    Using fusion-evaporation reactions, a gas-filled recoil separator, recoil-gating technique and recoil-isomer decay tagging technique we have extended the level scheme of At-203 (N = 118) significantly. We have observed an isomeric [tau = 14.1(3) mu s] state with a spin and parity of 29/2(+). The isomeric state is suggested to originate from the pi(h(9/2)) circle times |Po-202; 11(-)> coupling, and it is depopulated through 286 keV E2 and 366 keV E3 transitions. In addition, we have observed a cascade of magnetic-dipole transitions which is suggested to be generated by the shears mechanism.

  4. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  5. Trunk decays

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1989-01-01

    Trunk decays are major causes of low quality wood-wood with little or no economic value. As a forest practitioner you should be able to recognize trees at high risk for decay and remove them if timber production is your primary objective. Remember, however, that decayed trees often develop into den trees or nesting sites and provide essential habitat for wildlife....

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  7. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method for suppressing isomerization of an olefin metathesis product produced in a metathesis reaction includes adding an isomerization suppression agent that includes nitric acid to a mixture that includes the olefin metathesis product and residual metathesis catalyst from the metathesis reaction under conditions that are sufficient to passivate at least a portion of the residual metathesis catalyst. Methods of refining a natural oil are described.

  8. Thermal Isomerization of Hydroxyazobenzenes as a Platform for Vapor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Photoisomerization of azobenzene derivatives is a versatile tool for devising light-responsive materials for a broad range of applications in photonics, robotics, microfabrication, and biomaterials science. Some applications rely on fast isomerization kinetics, while for others, bistable azobenzenes are preferred. However, solid-state materials where the isomerization kinetics depends on the environmental conditions have been largely overlooked. Herein, an approach to utilize the environmental sensitivity of isomerization kinetics is developed. It is demonstrated that thin polymer films containing hydroxyazobenzenes offer a conceptually novel platform for sensing hydrogen-bonding vapors in the environment. The concept is based on accelerating the thermal cis–trans isomerization rate through hydrogen-bond-catalyzed changes in the thermal isomerization pathway, which allows for devising a relative humidity sensor with high sensitivity and quick response to relative humidity changes. The approach is also applicable for detecting other hydrogen-bonding vapors such as methanol and ethanol. Employing isomerization kinetics of azobenzenes for vapor sensing opens new intriguing possibilities for using azobenzene molecules in the future. PMID:29607244

  9. Rotational isomerism of molecules in condensed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Iwasaki, Matae; Ogata, Yukio

    1991-08-01

    A statistical mechanical model is developed for the description of the conformational distribution of organic molecules in the liquid and solid phases. In the model, they are assumed to have one internal freedom of rotation. The molecules are fixed to lattice sites and have two types of ordering, conformational and distributional. The latter is supposed to represent an ordering typical of solid state. The model is compared with the experimental results of the rotational-isomeric ratio of 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane, in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. It explains successfully the experimental results, especially the behavior near the melting point. From the point of view of melting, the present model is an extension of the Lennard-Jones and Devonshire model, because, when the distinctions between the two conformers are neglected, the parameter representing the distributional ordering of the molecules results in the same equation as that derived from the Lennard-Jones and Devonshire model.

  10. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  11. Protein side chain rotational isomerization: A minimum perturbation mapping study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydock, Christopher

    1993-05-01

    A theory of the rotational isomerization of the indole side chain of tryptophan-47 of variant-3 scorpion neurotoxin is presented. The isomerization potential energy, entropic part of the isomerization free energy, isomer probabilities, transition state theory reaction rates, and indole order parameters are calculated from a minimum perturbation mapping over tryptophan-47 χ1×χ2 torsion space. A new method for calculating the fluorescence anisotropy from molecular dynamics simulations is proposed. The method is based on an expansion that separates transition dipole orientation from chromophore dynamics. The minimum perturbation potential energy map is inverted and applied as a bias potential for a 100 ns umbrella sampling simulation. The entropic part of the isomerization free energy as calculated by minimum perturbation mapping and umbrella sampling are in fairly close agreement. Throughout, the approximation is made that two glutamine and three tyrosine side chains neighboring tryptophan-47 are truncated at the Cβ atom. Comparison with the previous combination thermodynamic perturbation and umbrella sampling study suggests that this truncated neighbor side chain approximation leads to at least a qualitatively correct theory of tryptophan-47 rotational isomerization in the wild type variant-3 scorpion neurotoxin. Analysis of van der Waals interactions in a transition state region indicates that for the simulation of barrier crossing trajectories a linear combination of three specially defined dihedral angles will be superior to a simple side chain dihedral reaction coordinate.

  12. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.

    1985-04-01

    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  13. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole ... or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  14. New decay modes of the high-spin isomer of 124Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radich, A. J.; Garrett, P. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Leach, K. G.; McGee, E.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Orce, J. N.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wang, Z. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2017-09-01

    A new β+/EC branch of 0.11± 0.02% from the (7)+ isomer of 124Cs was identified in a measurement of the decay of 124Cs using the 8π spectrometer at TRIUMF. Combinations of γ-γ, γ-e-, and e--e- coincidence data were used to further investigate the isomeric decay. Six new transitions were observed and their branching ratios were measured.

  15. Model studies on the photosensitized isomerization of bixin.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mariana A; Rios, Alessandro de O; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Nazareno, Mónica A; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2004-01-28

    The photosensitized isomerization reaction of the natural cis carotenoid bixin (methyl hydrogen 9'-cis-6, 6'-diapocarotene-6, 6'-dioate) with rose bengal or methylene blue as the sensitizer in acetonitrile/methanol (1:1) solution was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, such as laser-flash photolysis and singlet oxygen phosphorescence detection. In both N(2)- and air-saturated solutions, the main product formed was all-trans-bixin. The observed isomerization rate constants, k(obs), decreased in the presence of air or with increase in the bixin concentration, suggesting the participation of the excited triplet state of bixin, (3)Bix, as precursor of the cis--> trans process. On the other hand, bixin solutions in the absence of sensitizer and/or light did not degrade, indicating that the ground state of bixin is stable to thermal isomerization at room temperature. Time-resolved spectroscopic experiments confirmed the formation of the excited triplet state of bixin and its deactivation by ground state bixin and molecular oxygen quenching processes. The primary isomerization products only degraded in the presence of air and under prolonged illumination conditions, probably due to the formation of oxidation products by reaction with singlet molecular oxygen. An energy-transfer mechanism was used to explain the observed results for the bixin transformations, and the consequences for food color are discussed.

  16. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra; Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt

    2014-02-14

    vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The reverse transformations could be induced by irradiations at 7010 and 7030 cm{sup −1}, transforming 1cct and 2pct back to 1ccc and 2pcc, also selectively. Besides the NIR-induced transformations, the photogenerated 1cct and 2pct forms also decay in N{sub 2} matrices back to 1ccc and 2pcc spontaneously, with characteristic decay times of hours (1H) and tens of minutes (2H). The decay mechanism is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling. In crystals, TAA exists exclusively as 1H-tautomer. By contrast, the tautomeric composition of the matrix-isolated monomers was found to consist of both 1H- and 2H-tautomers, in comparable amounts. A mechanistic discussion of the tautomerization process occurring during sublimation, accounting also for the observed minor decomposition of TAA leading to CO{sub 2} and 5-methyl-tetrazole, is proposed.« less

  17. Cyclohexane isomerization. Unimolecular dynamics of the twist-boat intermediate.

    PubMed

    Kakhiani, Khatuna; Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Hu, Wenfang; Birney, David; Hase, William L

    2009-04-23

    Direct dynamics simulations were performed at the HF/6-31G level of theory to investigate the intramolecular and unimolecuar dynamics of the twist-boat (TB) intermediate on the cyclohexane potential energy surface (PES). Additional calculations were performed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory to further characterize the PES's stationary points. The trajectories were initiated at the C(1) and C(2) half-chair transition states (TSs) connecting a chair conformer with a TB intermediate, via an intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). Energy was added in accord with a microcanonical ensemble at the average energy for experiments at 263 K. Important nontransition state theory (TST), non-IRC, and non-RRKM dynamics were observed in the simulations. Trajectories initially directed toward the chair conformer had a high probability of recrossing the TS, with approximately 30% forming a TB intermediate instead of accessing the potential energy well for the conformer. The TB intermediate initially formed was not necessarily the one connected to the TS via the IRC. Of the trajectories initiated at the C(2) half-chair TS and initially directed toward the chair conformer, 35% formed a TB intermediate instead of the chair conformer. Also, of the trajectories forming a TB intermediate, only 16% formed the TB intermediate connected with the C(2) TS via the IRC. Up to eight consecutive TB --> TB isomerizations were followed, and non-RRKM behavior was observed in their dynamics. A TB can isomerize to two different TBs, one by a clockwise rotation of C-C-C-C dihedral angles and the other by a counterclockwise rotation. In contrast to RRKM theory, which predicts equivalent probabilities for these rotations, the trajectory dynamics show they are not equivalent and depend on whether the C(1) or C(2) half-chair TS is initially excited. Non-RRKM dynamics is also observed in the isomerization of the TB intermediates to the chair conformers. RRKM theory assumes equivalent probabilities for

  18. Left cardiac isomerism in the Sonic hedgehog null mouse.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, Victoria; Webb, Sandra; Chaudhry, Bill; Peat, Jonathan D; Phillips, Helen M; Brown, Nigel; Anderson, Robert H; Henderson, Deborah J

    2009-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen necessary for the production of sidedness in the developing embryo. In this study, we describe the morphology of the atrial chambers and atrioventricular junctions of the Shh null mouse heart. We demonstrate that the essential phenotypic feature is isomerism of the left atrial appendages, in combination with an atrioventricular septal defect and a common atrioventricular junction. These malformations are known to be frequent in humans with left isomerism. To confirm the presence of left isomerism, we show that Pitx2c, a recognized determinant of morphological leftness, is expressed in the Shh null mutants on both the right and left sides of the inflow region, and on both sides of the solitary arterial trunk exiting from the heart. It has been established that derivatives of the second heart field expressing Isl1 are asymmetrically distributed in the developing normal heart. We now show that this population is reduced in the hearts from the Shh null mutants, likely contributing to the defects. To distinguish the consequences of reduced contributions from the second heart field from those of left-right patterning disturbance, we disrupted the movement of second heart field cells into the heart by expressing dominant-negative Rho kinase in the population of cells expressing Isl1. This resulted in absence of the vestibular spine, and presence of atrioventricular septal defects closely resembling those seen in the hearts from the Shh null mutants. The primary atrial septum, however, was well formed, and there was no evidence of isomerism of the atrial appendages, suggesting that these features do not relate to disruption of the contributions made by the second heart field. We demonstrate, therefore, that the Shh null mouse is a model of isomerism of the left atrial appendages, and show that the recognized associated malformations found at the venous pole of the heart in the setting of left isomerism are likely to arise from

  19. β-decay spectroscopy for the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaborations

    2014-05-09

    Series of decay spectroscopy experiments, utilizing of high-purity Ge detectors and double-sided silicon-strip detectors, have been conducted to harvest the decay properties of very exotic nuclei relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis at the RIBF. The decay properties such as β-decay half-lives, low-lying states, β-delayed neutron emissions, isomeric states, and possibly Q{sub β} of the very neutron-rich nuclei are to be measured to give significant constraints in the uncertainties of nuclear properties for the r-process nucleosynthesis. Recent results of βγ spectroscopy study using in-flight fission of {sup 238}U-beam will be presented together with our future perspectives.

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  2. Left atrial isomerism in the adolescence: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Chiu, I S; Chen, J J; Hung, C R; Lien, W P

    1991-01-01

    Atrial isomerism is very rare in adolescence. Two cases of left atrial isomerism are reported here in 2 females, aged 21 and 19 years. They had presented with cyanosis and dyspnea since childhood. High kilovoltage filter films showed a bilateral morphologically left bronchus. Cardiac catheterization in Case 1 revealed normal pulmonary artery pressure, severe subvalvular pulmonic stenosis, a double outlet right ventricle, a significant oxygen step-up at the atrial level and moderate systemic oxygen desaturation; while Case 2 disclosed pulmonary hypertension and mild systemic oxygen desaturation. Both cases had the following anatomical features: ipsilateral connection of pulmonary veins to the bilateral morphological left atrium; interrupted inferior vena cave with azygos or hemiazygos continuation; total anomalous hepatic venous return to the right-sided atrium; complete atrioventricular canal. The diagnoses were confirmed in both cases at surgical correction.

  3. g-factor measurements of isomeric states in 174W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchini, M.; Nannini, A.; Benzoni, G.; Melon, B.; John, P. R.; Ur, C. A.; Avigo, R.; Bazzacco, D.; Blasi, N.; Bocchi, G.; Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Georgiev, G.; Giaz, A.; Gottardo, A.; Leoni, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Million, B.; Modamio, V.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D. R.; Ottanelli, M.; Pellegri, L.; Perego, A.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Wieland, O.

    2016-05-01

    The experimental setup GAMIPE used for gyro magnetic factor measurements at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and a recent experimental work regarding K-isomers in 174W are described. Aim of the experiment is to study the detailed structure of the isomeric states wave functions, by the measurement of the magnetic dipole moments. This piece of information can provide interesting hints for theoretical models. Preliminary results concerning the population of the isomers of interest and half-lives are presented.

  4. Deconstructing field-induced ketene isomerization through Lagrangian descriptors.

    PubMed

    Craven, Galen T; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2016-02-07

    The time-dependent geometrical separatrices governing state transitions in field-induced ketene isomerization are constructed using the method of Lagrangian descriptors. We obtain the stable and unstable manifolds of time-varying transition states as dynamic phase space objects governing configurational changes when the ketene molecule is subjected to an oscillating electric field. The dynamics of the isomerization reaction are modeled through classical trajectory studies on the Gezelter-Miller potential energy surface and an approximate dipole moment model which is coupled to a time-dependent electric field. We obtain a representation of the reaction geometry, over varying field strengths and oscillation frequencies, by partitioning an initial phase space into basins labeled according to which product state is reached at a given time. The borders between these basins are in agreement with those obtained using Lagrangian descriptors, even in regimes exhibiting chaotic dynamics. Major outcomes of this work are: validation and extension of a transition state theory framework built from Lagrangian descriptors, elaboration of the applicability for this theory to periodically- and aperiodically-driven molecular systems, and prediction of regimes in which isomerization of ketene and its derivatives may be controlled using an external field.

  5. A VUV detection system for the direct photonic identification of the first excited isomeric state of 229Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiferle, Benedict; von der Wense, Lars; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Thirolf, Peter G.

    2016-03-01

    With an expected energy of 7.6(5) eV, 229Th possesses the lowest excited nuclear state in the landscape of all presently known nuclei. The energy corresponds to a wavelength of about 160 nm and would conceptually allow for an optical laser excitation of a nuclear transition. We report on a VUV optical detection system that was designed for the direct detection of the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. 229(m)Th ions originating from a 233U α-recoil source are collected on a micro electrode that is placed in the focus of an annular parabolic mirror. The latter is used to parallelize the UV fluorescence that may emerge from the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. The parallelized light is then focused by a second annular parabolic mirror onto a CsI-coated position-sensitive MCP detector behind the mirror exit. To achieve a high signal-to-background ratio, a small spot size on the MCP detector needs to be achieved. Besides extensive ray-tracing simulations of the optical setup, we present a procedure for its alignment, as well as test measurements using a D2 lamp, where a focal-spot size of ≈100 μm has been achieved. Assuming a purely photonic decay, a signal-to-background ratio of ≈7000:1 could be achieved.

  6. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of Au 38 (SC 2 H 4 Ph) 24 Nanoclusters and Effects of Structural Isomerism

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Meng; Tian, Shubo; Zeng, Chenjie; ...

    2016-12-22

    Structural isomerism in nanoparticles has recently emerged as a new topic and stimulated research interest because the atomic structures of ultrasmall nanoparticles may have great impact on their fundamental properties and applications. We report the correlation between ultrafast relaxation dynamics and atomic structures of two isomers of thiolate-protected Au 38(SC 2H 4Ph) 24. The bi-icosahedral Au 38 (denoted as Au 38Q) with a Au 23 inner core in its atomic structure shows rapid decay (1.5 ps) followed by nanosecond relaxation to the ground state, whereas its structural isomer (Au 38T) exhibits similar relaxation processes, but the rapid decay is acceleratedmore » by ~50% (1.0 ps). The picosecond relaxations in both cases can be assigned to core–shell charge transfer or electronic rearrangement within the metal core. The acceleration of the fast decay in Au38T is ascribed to its unique core structure, which is made up of a mono-icosahedral Au 13 capped by a Au 12 tri-tetrahedron by sharing two atoms. Interestingly, coherent phonon emissions (25 cm –1 for Au 38Q, 27 and 60 cm –1 for Au 38T) are observed in both isomers with pumping in the NIR region. These results illustrate for the first time the importance of atomic structures in the photophysics of same sized gold nanoclusters.« less

  7. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of Au 38 (SC 2 H 4 Ph) 24 Nanoclusters and Effects of Structural Isomerism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Meng; Tian, Shubo; Zeng, Chenjie

    Structural isomerism in nanoparticles has recently emerged as a new topic and stimulated research interest because the atomic structures of ultrasmall nanoparticles may have great impact on their fundamental properties and applications. We report the correlation between ultrafast relaxation dynamics and atomic structures of two isomers of thiolate-protected Au 38(SC 2H 4Ph) 24. The bi-icosahedral Au 38 (denoted as Au 38Q) with a Au 23 inner core in its atomic structure shows rapid decay (1.5 ps) followed by nanosecond relaxation to the ground state, whereas its structural isomer (Au 38T) exhibits similar relaxation processes, but the rapid decay is acceleratedmore » by ~50% (1.0 ps). The picosecond relaxations in both cases can be assigned to core–shell charge transfer or electronic rearrangement within the metal core. The acceleration of the fast decay in Au38T is ascribed to its unique core structure, which is made up of a mono-icosahedral Au 13 capped by a Au 12 tri-tetrahedron by sharing two atoms. Interestingly, coherent phonon emissions (25 cm –1 for Au 38Q, 27 and 60 cm –1 for Au 38T) are observed in both isomers with pumping in the NIR region. These results illustrate for the first time the importance of atomic structures in the photophysics of same sized gold nanoclusters.« less

  8. Multifaceted Quadruplet of Low-Lying Spin-Zero States in 66Ni: Emergence of Shape Isomerism in Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Mǎrginean, N.; Sferrazza, M.; Tsunoda, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Bocchi, G.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Bracco, A.; Aydin, S.; Boromiza, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Cieplicka-Oryǹczak, N.; Costache, C.; Cǎlinescu, S.; Florea, N.; GhiÅ£ǎ, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Ionescu, A.; Iskra, Ł. W.; Krzysiek, M.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R. E.; Mitu, A.; NegreÅ£, A.; NiÅ£ǎ, C. R.; Olǎcel, A.; Oprea, A.; Pascu, S.; Petkov, P.; Petrone, C.; Porzio, G.; Şerban, A.; Sotty, C.; Stan, L.; Ştiru, I.; Stroe, L.; Şuvǎilǎ, R.; Toma, S.; Turturicǎ, A.; Ujeniuc, S.; Ur, C. A.

    2017-04-01

    A search for shape isomers in the 66Ni nucleus was performed, following old suggestions of various mean-field models and recent ones, based on state-of-the-art Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM), all considering 66Ni as the lightest nuclear system with shape isomerism. By employing the two-neutron transfer reaction induced by an 18O beam on a 64Ni target, at the sub-Coulomb barrier energy of 39 MeV, all three lowest-excited 0+ states in 66Ni were populated and their γ decay was observed by γ -coincidence technique. The 0+ states lifetimes were assessed with the plunger method, yielding for the 02+, 03+, and 04+ decay to the 21+ state the B (E 2 ) values of 4.3, 0.1, and 0.2 Weisskopf units (W.u.), respectively. MCSM calculations correctly predict the existence of all three excited 0+ states, pointing to the oblate, spherical, and prolate nature of the consecutive excitations. In addition, they account for the hindrance of the E 2 decay from the prolate 04+ to the spherical 21+ state, although overestimating its value. This result makes 66Ni a unique nuclear system, apart from U,238236 , in which a retarded γ transition from a 0+ deformed state to a spherical configuration is observed, resembling a shape-isomerlike behavior.

  9. Activation energy of light induced isomerization of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Teresa Sofia; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B

    2011-09-01

    Isomerization of trans-stilbenes is known to be induced by light. The two isomers have distinct absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra. Resveratrol, 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, is a member of the stilbene family. The interest of the scientific community in resveratrol has increased over the last years due to its biomedical properties. Whereas there is a growing confidence that trans-resveratrol is non-toxic, very little is known about the pharmacology of cis-resveratrol. Of this very reason there is considerable interest in knowing the energetics of the trans-cis conversion. Cis-resveratrol is characterized by a large fluorescence quantum yield when compared to trans-resveratrol. In the present paper we report a detailed analysis of the spectral changes induced in trans-resveratrol upon 260 nm excitation for different time periods. Spectral changes have been monitored with UV-visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 4 at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 °C. Continuous 260 nm excitation induces a blue shift in the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of resveratrol and a 14 nm blue shift in its fluorescence emission. The photoisomerization yield is reported as a function of 260 nm excitation time. 330 min continuous excitation led to ~60% isomerization yield. The kinetics of trans-cis isomerization has been monitored following the increase in fluorescence quantum yield upon continuous 260 nm excitation of trans-resveratrol. The study was carried out at the above mentioned temperatures in order to obtain the Arrhenius activation energy of photoisomerization. Activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 3.7 ± 0.3 kcal.mol(-1) and 10.6 ± 1.6 s(-1), respectively. The activation energy is comparable with previously reported values for the photoisomerization of other stilbenes.

  10. Geometrical Optimization Approach to Isomerization: Models and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Engel, Volker; Sola, Ignacio R

    2017-11-02

    We study laser-driven isomerization reactions through an excited electronic state using the recently developed Geometrical Optimization procedure. Our goal is to analyze whether an initial wave packet in the ground state, with optimized amplitudes and phases, can be used to enhance the yield of the reaction at faster rates, driven by a single picosecond pulse or a pair of femtosecond pulses resonant with the electronic transition. We show that the symmetry of the system imposes limitations in the optimization procedure, such that the method rediscovers the pump-dump mechanism.

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  12. Iridium-Catalyzed Dynamic Kinetic Isomerization: Expedient Synthesis of Carbohydrates from Achmatowicz Rearrangement Products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Ka; Bennett, Scott R; Guo, Sheng-rong; Tang, Weiping

    2015-07-20

    A highly stereoselective dynamic kinetic isomerization of Achmatowicz rearrangement products was discovered. This new internal redox isomerization provided ready access to key intermediates for the enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of a series of naturally occurring sugars. The nature of the de novo synthesis also enables the preparation of both enantiomers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Coulomb excitation of the K π= 8⁻ isomeric band in 178Hf

    DOE PAGES

    Napiorkovsk, P. J.; Srebrny, J.; Czosnyka, T.; ...

    2001-12-01

    The Coulomb excitation experiment on the 178Hf was performed using 650 MeV beam of 136Xe. The first observation of discrete transitions in the K π = 8 - isomeric band. Coulomb excited from K π = 0+ ground state, is reported. The possible mechanisms of El coupling of the ground state band and the isomeric band is discussed.

  14. Isomerization of 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes into naphthols catalyzed by [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2).

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Melissa; Menard, Michelle L; Tam, William

    2009-10-02

    Ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization of 7-oxanorbornadienes into naphthols was investigated. Among the various ruthenium catalysts tested, [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2) gave the highest yields in the isomerization, and various substituted naphthols were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical 7-oxanorbornadienes were employed in the study, and moderate to excellent regioselectivities were observed.

  15. Comparison of the interaction between lactoferrin and isomeric drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ming; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Yan; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2017-02-01

    The binding properties of pentacyclic triterpenoid isomeric drugs, i.e. ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), to bovine lactoferrin (BLF) have been studied by molecule modeling, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Molecular docking, performed to reveal the possible binding mode or mechanism, suggested that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding play important roles to stabilize the complex. The results of spectroscopic measurements showed that the two isomeric drugs both strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BLF through a static quenching procedure although some differences between UA and OA binding strength and non-radiation energy transfer occurred within the molecules. The number of binding sites was 3.44 and 3.10 for UA and OA, respectively, and the efficiency of Förster energy transfer provided a distance of 0.77 and 1.21 nm for UA and OA, respectively. The conformation transformation of BLF affected by the drugs conformed to the ;all-or-none; pattern. In addition, the changes of the ratios of α-helices, β-sheets and β-turns of BLF during the process of the interaction were obtained. The results of the experiments in combination with the calculations showed that there are two modes of pentacyclic triterpenoid binding to BLF instead of one binding mode only governed by the principle of the lowest bonding energy.

  16. Isomerization of one molecule observed through tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxing; Lee, Joonhee; Apkarian, Vartkess A.; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Joonhee Lee, Vartkess A. Apkarian Team

    While exploring photoisomerization of azobenzyl thiols (ABT) adsorbed on Au(111), through joint scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) studies, the reversible photoisomerization of one molecule is captured in TERS trajectories. The apparently heterogeneously photo-catalyzed reaction is assigned to cis-trans isomerization of an outlier, which is chemisorbed on the silver tip of the STM. In order to clarify the role of the silver tip of the STM, we perform systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that compared with the case on the flat Ag(111) surface, the energy difference between trans and cis states of ABT decrease as we add one silver atom or a tetrahedron silver cluster on Ag(111) surface which mimic the geometry of a silver tip. In particular, the trans stretches away from the surface on the tetrahedral silver cluster, and the energy difference between trans and cis decreases to 0.27 eV, from ~1 eV for ABT on the flat Ag(111) surface. This significantly increases the possibility of cis-trans isomerization, as observed in our experiments. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  17. Epidermal effects of tretinoin and isotretinoin: influence of isomerism.

    PubMed

    Tadini, K A; Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2006-05-01

    The efficacy of tretinoin is well established in the treatment of acne and photoaged skin, however as a typical side effect of tretinoin treatment most patients develop a low-grade irritant dermatitis. Since isotretinoin topical treatment usually shows much lower incidence and intensity of adverse effects than tretinoin topical treatment, histological studies are needed to scientifically evaluate the effects of isotretinoin application on epidermis and also to assess if it can be used in anti-aging products as an alternative to tretinoin. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of topical use of tretinoin or isotretinoin on hairless mice epidermis, using appropriate histopathological and histometric techniques, in order to evaluate the influence of isomerism on skin effects. For this, gel cream formulations containing or not 0.05% tretinoin or 0.05% isotretinoin were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. Histopathological evaluation, viable epidermal and horny layer thicknesses as well as the number of epidermal cell layers were determined. Our results showed that tretinoin and isotretinoin were effective in the enhancement of viable epidermis thickness and number of epidermal cell layers, suggesting that they could be used for stimulation of cellular renewal. However isomerism influenced skin effects since isotretinoin had more pronounced effects than tretinoin in viable epidermis. In addition only isotretinoin treatment enhanced horny layer thickness when compared to the gel cream treatment.

  18. Confirmed Assignments of Isomeric Dimethylbenzyl Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2012-06-01

    Polymethylbenzyl radicals, multi-methyl-substituted benzyl radicals, have been believed to be an ideal model for understanding the torsional effect of methyl group and substitution effect on electronic transition. These radicals are mainly generated from polymethylbenzenes by electric discharge for spectroscopic observation. However, the existence of several methyl groups on the benzene ring may produce several isomeric polymethylbenzyl radicals by removing one of the C-H bonds of each methyl group at different substitution position, which makes the assignment of spectrum ambiguous. In this work, the controversial vibronic assignments of isomeric dimethylbenzyl radicals were clearly resolved by using different precursors. By using corresponding dimethylbenzyl chlorides as precursors, we identified the origins of the vibronic bands of the dimethylbenzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of precursors 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzenes. From the analysis of the spectra observed from the dimethylbenzyl chlorides in a corona excited supersonic expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, we revised previous assignments of the 2,6- and 2,3-dimethylbenzyl radicals as well as the 3,4-, 2,4-, and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl radicals. In addition, spectroscopic data of electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state of each isomer were accurately determined by comparing them with those obtained by an ab initio calculation and with the known vibrational data of precursors.

  19. mer and fac isomerism in tris chelate diimine metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Dabb, Serin L; Fletcher, Nicholas C

    2015-03-14

    In this perspective, we highlight the issue of meridional (mer) and facial (fac) orientation of asymmetrical diimines in tris-chelate transition metal complexes. Diimine ligands have long been the workhorse of coordination chemistry, and whilst there are now good strategies to isolate materials where the inherent metal centered chirality is under almost complete control, and systematic methodologies to isolate heteroleptic complexes, the conceptually simple geometrical isomerism has not been widely investigated. In systems where the two donor atoms are significantly different in terms of the σ-donor and π-accepting ability, the fac isomer is likely to be the thermodynamic product. For the diimine complexes with two trigonal planar nitrogen atoms there is much more subtlety to the system, and external factors such as the solvent, lattice packing and the various steric considerations play a delicate role in determining the observed and isolable product. In this article we discuss the possibilities to control the isomeric ratio in labile systems, consider the opportunities to separate inert complexes and discuss the observed differences in their spectroscopic properties. Finally we report on the ligand orientation in supramolecular systems where facial coordination leads to simple regular structures such as helicates and tetrahedra, but the ability of the ligand system to adopt a mer orientation enables self-assembled structures of considerable beauty and complexity.

  20. Quantum theory of rotational isomerism and Hill equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.

    2012-06-15

    The process of rotational isomerism of linear triatomic molecules is described by the potential with two different-depth minima and one barrier between them. The corresponding quantum-mechanical equation is represented in the form that is a special case of the Hill equation. It is shown that the Hill-Schroedinger equation has a Klein's quadratic group symmetry which, in its turn, contains three invariant subgroups. The presence of these subgroups makes it possible to create a picture of energy spectrum which depends on a parameter and has many merging and branch points. The parameter-dependent energy spectrum of the Hill-Schroedinger equation, like Mathieu-characteristics, containsmore » branch points from the left and from the right of the demarcation line. However, compared to the Mathieu-characteristics, in the Hill-Schroedinger equation spectrum the 'right' points are moved away even further for some distance that is the bigger, the bigger is the less deep well. The asymptotic wave functions of the Hill-Schroedinger equation for the energy values near the potential minimum contain two isolated sharp peaks indicating a possibility of the presence of two stable isomers. At high energy values near the potential maximum, the height of two peaks decreases, and between them there appear chaotic oscillations. This form of the wave functions corresponds to the process of isomerization.« less

  1. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  2. Configurations and decay hindrances of high-K states in 180Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandel, S. K.; Chowdhury, P.; Kondev, F. G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Deacon, A.; Freeman, S. J.; Hammond, N. J.; Jones, G. D.; Moore, E. F.; Smith, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states, several of which are isomeric, were observed in 180Hf with the Gammasphere array. Lifetimes in the ns-μ s range were determined using centroid-shift and decay measurements within a μ s coincidence time window. The configurations of high-K states involve two and four quasiparticles, with states up to Kπ=(18-) established. High-K excitations are found to be progressively more favored with increasing excitation energy. The K quantum number is quite robust up to the highest spins observed, as evidenced by the large values of the reduced hindrance for isomeric decays. Rotational bands built on three high-K states are identified, and the measured branching ratios in these sequences enable the assignment of underlying configurations. Multi-quasiparticle calculations using the Lipkin-Nogami approach for pairing, with blocking included, reproduce the observed high-K energies quite well.

  3. Abnormal connection of the inferior vena cava to the left atrium with double outlet right ventricle and heterotaxia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Günal, N; Bilgiç, A; Lenk, M K; Yurdakul, Y; Sarigül, A; Ispir, S

    1996-03-01

    A 4-year-old boy with abnormal connection of the inferior vena cava to the left atrium and double outlet right ventricle and right atrial isomerism is presented. The anomalies were detected by echocardiography and angiography, and later verified through surgical intervention.

  4. Ultrafast isomerization initiated by X-ray core ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea E.; Tenney, Ian; Osipov, Timur; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Alvaro; Berrah, Nora; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Carron, Sebastian; Coffee, Ryan; Devin, Julien; Erk, Benjamin; Ferguson, Ken R.; Field, Robert W.; Foucar, Lutz; Frasinski, Leszek J.; Glownia, James M.; Gühr, Markus; Kamalov, Andrei; Krzywinski, Jacek; Li, Heng; Marangos, Jonathan P.; Martinez, Todd J.; McFarland, Brian K.; Miyabe, Shungo; Murphy, Brendan; Natan, Adi; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Siano, Marco; Simpson, Emma R.; Spector, Limor; Swiggers, Michele; Walke, Daniel; Wang, Song; Weber, Thorsten; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Petrovic, Vladimir S.

    2015-09-01

    Rapid proton migration is a key process in hydrocarbon photochemistry. Charge migration and subsequent proton motion can mitigate radiation damage when heavier atoms absorb X-rays. If rapid enough, this can improve the fidelity of diffract-before-destroy measurements of biomolecular structure at X-ray-free electron lasers. Here we study X-ray-initiated isomerization of acetylene, a model for proton dynamics in hydrocarbons. Our time-resolved measurements capture the transient motion of protons following X-ray ionization of carbon K-shell electrons. We Coulomb-explode the molecule with a second precisely delayed X-ray pulse and then record all the fragment momenta. These snapshots at different delays are combined into a `molecular movie' of the evolving molecule, which shows substantial proton redistribution within the first 12 fs. We conclude that significant proton motion occurs on a timescale comparable to the Auger relaxation that refills the K-shell vacancy.

  5. g factors of coexisting isomeric states in {sup 188}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Marginean, N.

    2010-02-15

    The g factors of the 12{sup +}, 11{sup -}, and 8{sup -} isomeric states in {sup 188}Pb were measured using the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as g(12{sup +})=-0.179(6), g(11{sup -})=+1.03(3), and g(8{sup -})=-0.037(7). The g factor of the 12{sup +} state follows the observed slight down-sloping evolution of the g factors of the i{sub 13/2}{sup 2} neutron spherical states with decreasing N. The g factors of the 11{sup -} and 8{sup -} isomers proposed as oblate and prolate deformed states, respectively, were interpreted within the rotational model, using calculated and empirical g factor values for the involved single-particle orbitals.

  6. Confirmed assignments of isomeric dimethylbenzyl radicals generated by corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2011-12-07

    The controversial vibronic assignments of isomeric dimethylbenzyl radicals were clearly resolved by using different precursors. By employing corresponding dimethylbenzyl chlorides as precursors, we identified the origins of the vibronic bands of the dimethylbenzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. From the analysis of the spectra observed from the dimethylbenzyl chlorides in a corona excited supersonic expansion, we revised previous assignments of the 3,4-, 2,4-, and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl radicals. Spectroscopic data of electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state of each isomer were accurately determined by comparing them with those obtained by an ab initio calculation and with the known vibrational data of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Mass spectrometric profiling of flavonoid glycoconjugates possessing isomeric aglycones.

    PubMed

    Abrankó, László; Szilvássy, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    In fields such as food and nutrition science or plant physiology, interest in untargeted profiling of flavonoids continues to expand. The group of flavonoids encompasses several thousands of chemically distinguishable compounds, among which are a number of isobaric compounds with the same elemental composition. Thus, the mass spectrometric identification of these compounds is challenging, especially when reference standards are not available to support their identification. Many different types of isomers of flavonoid glycoconjugates are known, i.e. compounds that differ in their glycosylation position, glycan sequence or type of interglycosidic linkage. This work focuses on the mass spectrometric identification of flavonoid glycoconjugate isomers possessing the same glycan mass and differing only in their aglycone core. A non-targeted HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiling method using a triple quadrupole MS is presented herein, which utilizes in-source fragmentation and a pseudo-MS(3) approach for the selective analysis of flavonoid glycoconjugates with isomeric/isobaric aglycones. A selective MRM-based identification of the in-source formed isobaric aglycone fragments was established. Additionally, utilizing the precursor scanning capability of the employed triple quadrupole instrument, the developed method enabled the determination of the molecular weight of the studied intact flavonoid glycoconjugate. The versatility of the method was proven with various types of flavonoid aglycones, i.e. anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, along with their representative glycoconjugates. The developed method was also successfully applied to a commercially available sour cherry sample, in which 16 different glycoconjugates of pelargonidin, genistein, cyanidin, kaempferol and quercetin could be tentatively identified, including a number of compounds containing isomeric/isobaric aglycones. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  9. trans- cis Isomerism and acylimine formation in DsRed chromophore models: Intrinsic rotation barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Seth; Smith, Sean C.

    2006-07-01

    The chromophore of the red fluorescent protein DsRed contains an acylimine substituent to a GFP-like chromophore structure. The acylimine is formed from the trans peptide linkage between residues F65 and Q66 in immature DsRed, but has a cis configuration in the mature protein. The relationship between acylimine formation and trans- cis isomerization is unresolved. We have calculated bond rotation profiles for models of mature and immature DsRed chromophores using B3LYP DFT. The isomerization barrier is substantially reduced in acylimine-substituted models, providing prima facie evidence that acylimine formation precedes trans- cis isomerization in DsRed chromophores.

  10. Isomerization of glucose into fructose by environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Siquan; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Kehao; Xia, Haian

    2017-06-29

    Herein, the environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite for glucose isomerization to fructose in aqueous media was reported for the first time. The effects of various reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage, etc. on the isomerization reaction over Fe/β zeolite were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, yield of fructose higher than 20% were obtained. Moreover, the Fe/β zeolite catalysts were stable and remained constant catalytic activity after five consecutive runs. The possible active Fe species for isomerization of glucose in Fe/β zeolite is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scope and mechanism in palladium-catalyzed isomerizations of highly substituted allylic, homoallylic, and alkenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Larionov, Evgeny; Lin, Luqing; Guénée, Laure; Mazet, Clément

    2014-12-03

    Herein we report the palladium-catalyzed isomerization of highly substituted allylic alcohols and alkenyl alcohols by means of a single catalytic system. The operationally simple reaction protocol is applicable to a broad range of substrates and displays a wide functional group tolerance, and the products are usually isolated in high chemical yield. Experimental and computational mechanistic investigations provide complementary and converging evidence for a chain-walking process consisting of repeated migratory insertion/β-H elimination sequences. Interestingly, the catalyst does not dissociate from the substrate in the isomerization of allylic alcohols, whereas it disengages during the isomerization of alkenyl alcohols when additional substituents are present on the alkyl chain.

  12. Surface physicochemical properties and decay of the low-lying isomer in the 229Th nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Kurel'chuk, U. N.; Vasil'ev, O. S.; Troyan, V. I.; Lebedinskii, Yu Yu; Tkalya, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of the 229Th nucleus proximity to the CsI surface on the decay probability of its anomalously low lying isomeric level is studied. Results of experimental and theoretical studies show that the CsI surface does not produce chemical bonding with Th and does not noticeably change its valence shells. Hence, it is an optimal substrate for measuring the probability of the 229Th isomer state decay via internal electron conversion. The half-life of the 229Thm isomer in the thorium atom is calculated for neutral chemical environment.

  13. Competing decay modes of a high-spin isomer in the proton-unbound nucleus ¹⁵⁸Ta*

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R. J.; Page, R. D.; Joss, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    An isomeric state at high spin and excitation energy was recently observed in the proton-unbound nucleus 158Ta. This state was observed to decay by both α and γ decay modes. The large spin change required to decay via γ-ray emission incurs a lifetime long enough for α decay to compete. The α decay has an energy of 8644(11) keV, which is among the highest observed in the region, a partial half-life of 440(70) μs and changes the spin by 11ℏ. In this study, additional evidence supporting the assignment of this α decay to the high-spin isomer in 158Ta will bemore » presented.« less

  14. Metalloenzyme-like catalyzed isomerizations of sugars by Lewis acid zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Deval, Ricardo; Assary, Rajeev S.; Nikolla, Eranda; Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Hwang, Son-Jong; Palsdottir, Arna; Silverman, Dorothy; Lobo, Raul F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Davis, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Isomerization of sugars is used in a variety of industrially relevant processes and in glycolysis. Here, we show that hydrophobic zeolite beta with framework tin or titanium Lewis acid centers isomerizes sugars, e.g., glucose, via reaction pathways that are analogous to those of metalloenzymes. Specifically, experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that glucose partitions into the zeolite in the pyranose form, ring opens to the acyclic form in the presence of the Lewis acid center, isomerizes into the acyclic form of fructose, and finally ring closes to yield the furanose product. The zeolite catalysts provide processing advantages over metalloenzymes such as an ability to work at higher temperatures and in acidic conditions that allow for the isomerization reaction to be coupled with other important conversions. PMID:22665778

  15. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  17. Trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes probing membrane microviscosity in biological membranes and in live cells.

    PubMed

    Chmyrov, Volodymyr; Spielmann, Thiemo; Hevekerl, Heike; Widengren, Jerker

    2015-06-02

    Membrane environment and fluidity can modulate the dynamics and interactions of membrane proteins and can thereby strongly influence the function of cells and organisms in general. In this work, we demonstrate that trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes is a useful parameter to monitor packaging and fluidity of biomembranes. Fluorescence fluctuations, generated by trans-cis isomerization of the thiocarbocyanine dye Merocyanine 540 (MC540), were first analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in different alcohol solutions. Similar isomerization kinetics of MC540 in lipid vesicles could then also be monitored, and the influence of lipid polarity, membrane curvature, and cholesterol content was investigated. While no influence of membrane curvature and lipid polarity could be observed, a clear decrease in the isomerization rates could be observed with increasing cholesterol contents in the vesicle membranes. Finally, procedures to spatially map photoinduced and thermal isomerization rates on live cells by transient state (TRAST) imaging were established. On the basis of these procedures, MC540 isomerization was studied on live MCF7 cells, and TRAST images of the cells at different temperatures were found to reliably detect differences in the isomerization parameters. Our studies indicate that trans-cis isomerization is a useful parameter for probing membrane dynamics and that the TRAST imaging technique can provide spatial maps of photoinduced isomerization as well as both photoinduced and thermal back-isomerization, resolving differences in local membrane microviscosity in live cells.

  18. Thermal decomposition and isomerization of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin in the solid phase.

    PubMed

    González Audino, Paola; Licastro, Susana A; Zerba, Eduardo

    2002-02-01

    The stability to heart of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin in the solid phase was studied and the decomposition products identified. Samples heated at 210 degrees C in an oven in the dark showed that, in the absence of potassium chlorate (the salt present in smoke-generating formulations of these pyrethroids), cis-permethrin was not isomerized, although in the presence of that salt, decomposition was greater and thermal isomerization occurred. Other salts of the type KXO3 or NaXO3, with X being halogen or nitrogen, also led to a considerable thermal isomerization. Heating the insecticides in solution in the presence of potassium chlorate did not produce isomerization in any of the solvents assayed. Salt-catalysed thermal cis-trans isomerization was also found for other pyrethroids derived from permethrinic or deltamethrinic acid but not for those derived from chrysanthemic acid. The main thermal degradation processes of cis-permethrin and beta-cypermethrin decomposition when potassium chlorate was present were cyclopropane isomerization, ester cleavage and subsequent oxidation of the resulting products. Permethrinic acid, 3-phenoxybenzyle chloride, alcohol, aldehyde and acid were identified in both cases, as well as 3-phenoxybenzyl cyanide from beta-cypermethrin. A similar decomposition pattern occurred after combustion of pyrethroid fumigant formulations.

  19. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Isomeric Disaccharide Precursor, Product and Cluster Ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Siems, William F.; Gang, David R.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE Carbohydrates are highly variable in structure owing to differences in their anomeric configurations, monomer stereochemistry, inter-residue linkage positions and general branching features. The separation of carbohydrate isomers poses a great challenge for current analytical techniques. METHODS The isomeric heterogeneity of disaccharide ions and monosaccharideglycolaldehyde product ions evaluated using electrospray traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (Synapt G2 high definition mass spectrometer) in both positive and negative ion modes investigation. RESULTS The separation of isomeric disaccharide ions was observed but not fully achieved based on their mobility profiles. The mobilities of isomeric product ions, the monosaccharide-glycolaldehydes, derived from different disaccharide isomers were measured. Multiple mobility peaks were observed for both monosaccharide-glycolaldehyde cations and anions, indicating that there was more than one structural configuration in the gas phase as verified by NMR in solution. More importantly, the mobility patterns for isomeric monosaccharide-glycolaldehyde product ions were different, which enabled partial characterization of their respective disaccharide ions. Abundant disaccharide cluster ions were also observed. The Results showed that a majority of isomeric cluster ions had different drift times and, moreover, more than one mobility peak was detected for a number of specific cluster ions. CONCLUSIONS It is demonstrated that ion mobility mass spectrometry is an advantageous method to assess the isomeric heterogeneity of carbohydrate compounds. It is capable of differentiating different types of carbohydrate ions having identical m/z values as well as multiple structural configurations of single compounds. PMID:24591031

  20. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Dynamic coupling between coordinates in a model for biomolecular isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ao; Nag, Ambarish; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2006-04-01

    To understand a complex reaction, it is necessary to project the dynamics of the system onto a low-dimensional subspace of physically meaningful coordinates. We recently introduced an automatic method for identifying coordinates that relate closely to stable-state commitment probabilities and successfully applied it to a model for biomolecular isomerization, the C7eq→αR transition of the alanine dipeptide [A. Ma and A. R. Dinner, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6769 (2005)]. Here, we explore approximate means for estimating diffusion tensors for systems subject to restraints in one and two dimensions and then use the results together with an extension of Kramers theory for unimolecular reaction rates [A. Berezhkovskii and A. Szabo, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 014503 (2005)] to show explicitly that both the potential of mean force and the diffusion tensor are essential for describing the dynamics of the alanine dipeptide quantitatively. In particular, the signficance of off-diagonal elements of the diffusion tensor suggests that the coordinates of interest are coupled by the hydrodynamic-like response of the bath of remaining degrees of freedom.

  3. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B.; Holliday, Michael J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Zhang, Fengli; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions. Different families of enzymes, known as “peptidyl-prolyl isomerases” (PPIases), catalyze this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the N-terminal amide bond of the amino acid proline. However, complete descriptions of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function have remained elusive. We show here that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic handle mechanism. In this mechanism, the electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carbonyl group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. We identified this mechanism using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to simultaneously determine the cis-bound and trans-bound conformations of cyclophilin A and its substrate as the enzymatic reaction takes place. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic handle mechanism that we describe here is common to other PPIases and, more generally, in characterizing other enzymatic processes. PMID:24982184

  4. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksander B.; Holliday, Michael

    2014-07-15

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions1-3. Different families of enzymes, known as peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), catalyse this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the Nterminal amide bond of the amino acid proline2,3. A complete description of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function, however, has remained elusive. Here, we show that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases4, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic lever mechanism. In this mechanism, themore » electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carboxylic group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. This mechanism resulted from the analysis of an ensemble of conformations populated by cyclophilin A during the enzymatic reaction using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic lever mechanism that we describe is common to other PPIases, and more generally to characterise other enzymatic processes.« less

  5. Measurement of fission yields and isomeric yield ratios at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomp, Stephan; Mattera, Andrea; Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Al-Adili, Ali; Lantz, Mattias; Solders, Andreas; Jansson, Kaj; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Eronen, Tommi; Gorelov, Dimitri; Jokinen, Ari; Kankainen, Anu; Moore, Iain D.; Penttilä, Heikki; Rinta-Antila, Sami

    2018-03-01

    Data on fission yields and isomeric yield ratios (IYR) are tools to study the fission process, in particular the generation of angular momentum. We use the IGISOL facility with the Penning trap JYFLTRAP in Jyväskylä, Finland, for such measurements on 232Th and natU targets. Previously published fission yield data from IGISOL concern the 232Th(p,f) and 238U(p,f) reactions at 25 and 50 MeV. Recently, a neutron source, using the Be(p,n) reaction, has been developed, installed and tested. We summarize the results for (p,f) focusing on the first measurement of IYR by direct ion counting. We also present first results for IYR and relative yields for Sn and Sb isotopes in the 128-133 mass range from natU(n,f) based on γ-spectrometry. We find a staggering behaviour in the cumulative yields for Sn and a shift in the independent fission yields for Sb as compared to current evaluations. Plans for the future experimental program on fission yields and IYR measurements are discussed.

  6. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism.

    PubMed

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Holliday, Michael J; Isern, Nancy G; Zhang, Fengli; Eisenmesser, Elan Z; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2014-07-15

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions. Different families of enzymes, known as "peptidyl-prolyl isomerases" (PPIases), catalyze this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the N-terminal amide bond of the amino acid proline. However, complete descriptions of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function have remained elusive. We show here that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic handle mechanism. In this mechanism, the electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carbonyl group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. We identified this mechanism using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to simultaneously determine the cis-bound and trans-bound conformations of cyclophilin A and its substrate as the enzymatic reaction takes place. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic handle mechanism that we describe here is common to other PPIases and, more generally, in characterizing other enzymatic processes.

  7. Randomized Subspace Learning for Proline Cis-Trans Isomerization Prediction.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, Omar Y; Yoo, Paul D; Taha, Kamal; Muhaidat, Sami; Shami, Abdallah; Zaki, Nazar

    2015-01-01

    Proline residues are common source of kinetic complications during folding. The X-Pro peptide bond is the only peptide bond for which the stability of the cis and trans conformations is comparable. The cis-trans isomerization (CTI) of X-Pro peptide bonds is a widely recognized rate-limiting factor, which can not only induces additional slow phases in protein folding but also modifies the millisecond and sub-millisecond dynamics of the protein. An accurate computational prediction of proline CTI is of great importance for the understanding of protein folding, splicing, cell signaling, and transmembrane active transport in both the human body and animals. In our earlier work, we successfully developed a biophysically motivated proline CTI predictor utilizing a novel tree-based consensus model with a powerful metalearning technique and achieved 86.58 percent Q2 accuracy and 0.74 Mcc, which is a better result than the results (70-73 percent Q2 accuracies) reported in the literature on the well-referenced benchmark dataset. In this paper, we describe experiments with novel randomized subspace learning and bootstrap seeding techniques as an extension to our earlier work, the consensus models as well as entropy-based learning methods, to obtain better accuracy through a precise and robust learning scheme for proline CTI prediction.

  8. Molecular and excited state properties of isomeric scarlet disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jihye; Szymczyk, Malgorzata; Mehraban, Nahid; Ding, Yi; Parrillo-Chapman, Lisa; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Freeman, Harold S.

    2018-06-01

    This work was part of an investigation aimed at characterizing the molecular and excited state properties of currently available disperse dyes developed to provide stability to extensive sunlight exposures when adsorbed on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. Having completed the characterization of yellow, magenta, and cyan disperse dyes for PET-based fabrics used outdoors, our attention turned to the colors designed to enhance the color gamut of a standard 4-member (cyan/yellow/magenta/black) color set. The present study pertained specifically to the characterization of commercially available scarlet dyes. In this regard, HPLC analysis showed that a scarlet product used for PET coloration was mainly a 70/30 mixture of dyes, and the use of HRMS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that these two dyes were azo compounds derived from isomeric pyridine-based couplers which differed in the location of the primary amino (sbnd NH2) and anilino (sbnd NHPh) groups attached to the pyridine ring. One dye structure has the sbnd NHPh group para to the azo group (Sc2), while the other has that group in the ortho position (Sc3). The presence of either ortho substituent provides photostabilization through intramolecular H-bonding with the azo moiety. Further, results from molecular modeling studies showed that the lower excited state oxidation potential of Sc3 relative to that of Sc2 allows Sc3 to function as an energy quencher for the excited state of Sc2 - through thermodynamically favorable electron transfer.

  9. A Novel Technique that Enables Efficient Conduct of Simultaneous Isomerization and Fermentation (SIF) of Xylose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kripa; Chelikani, Silpa; Relue, Patricia; Varanasi, Sasidhar

    Of the sugars recovered from lignocellulose, D-glucose can be readily converted into ethanol by baker's or brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). However, xylose that is obtained by the hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic portion is not fermentable by the same species of yeasts. Xylose fermentation by native yeasts can be achieved via isomerization of xylose to its ketose isomer, xylulose. Isomerization with exogenous xylose isomerase (XI) occurs optimally at a pH of 7-8, whereas subsequent fermentation of xylulose to ethanol occurs at a pH of 4-5. We present a novel scheme for efficient isomerization of xylose to xylulose at conditions suitable for the fermentation by using an immobilized enzyme system capable of sustaining two different pH microenvironments in a single vessel. The proof-of-concept of the two-enzyme pellet is presented, showing conversion of xylose to xylulose even when the immobilized enzyme pellets are suspended in a bulk solution whose pH is sub-optimal for XI activity. The co-immobilized enzyme pellets may prove extremely valuable in effectively conducting "simultaneous isomerization and fermentation" (SIF) of xylose. To help further shift the equilibrium in favor of xylulose formation, sodium tetraborate (borax) was added to the isomerization solution. Binding of tetrahydroxyborate ions to xylulose effectively reduces the concentration of xylulose and leads to increased xylose isomerization. The formation of tetrahydroxyborate ions and the enhancement in xylulose production resulting from the complexation was studied at two different bulk pH values. The addition of 0.05 M borax to the isomerization solution containing our co-immobilized enzyme pellets resulted in xylose to xylulose conversion as high as 86% under pH conditions that are suboptimal for XI activity. These initial findings, which can be optimized for industrial conditions, have significant potential for increasing the yield of ethanol from xylose in an SIF approach.

  10. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (150 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  11. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    SciTech Connect

    Moliner, Manuel; Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (1:50 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannosemore » after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].« less

  12. Thermal Dissociation and Roaming Isomerization of Nitromethane: Experiment and Theory.

    PubMed

    Annesley, Christopher J; Randazzo, John B; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Harding, Lawrence B; Jasper, Ahren W; Georgievskii, Yuri; Ruscic, Branko; Tranter, Robert S

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of nitromethane provides a classic example of the competition between roaming mediated isomerization and simple bond fission. A recent theoretical analysis suggests that as the pressure is increased from 2 to 200 Torr the product distribution undergoes a sharp transition from roaming dominated to bond-fission dominated. Laser schlieren densitometry is used to explore the variation in the effect of roaming on the density gradients for CH3NO2 decomposition in a shock tube for pressures of 30, 60, and 120 Torr at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1860 K. A complementary theoretical analysis provides a novel exploration of the effects of roaming on the thermal decomposition kinetics. The analysis focuses on the roaming dynamics in a reduced dimensional space consisting of the rigid-body motions of the CH3 and NO2 radicals. A high-level reduced-dimensionality potential energy surface is developed from fits to large-scale multireference ab initio calculations. Rigid body trajectory simulations coupled with master equation kinetics calculations provide high-level a priori predictions for the thermal branching between roaming and dissociation. A statistical model provides a qualitative/semiquantitative interpretation of the results. Modeling efforts explore the relation between the predicted roaming branching and the observed gradients. Overall, the experiments are found to be fairly consistent with the theoretically proposed branching ratio, but they are also consistent with a no-roaming scenario and the underlying reasons are discussed. The theoretical predictions are also compared with prior theoretical predictions, with a related statistical model, and with the extant experimental data for the decomposition of CH3NO2, and for the reaction of CH3 with NO2.

  13. Nonradiative decay dynamics of methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate and its hydrated complex revealed by picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Daiki; Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ehara, Masahiro; Ebata, Takayuki

    2012-07-07

    The lifetimes of methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (OMpCA) and its mono-hydrated complex (OMpCA-H(2)O) in the S(1) state have been measured by picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy in a supersonic beam. For OMpCA, the lifetime of the S(1)-S(0) origin is 8-9 ps. On the other hand, the lifetime of the OMpCA-H(2)O complex at the origin is 930 ps, which is ∼100 times longer than that of OMpCA. Furthermore, in the complex the S(1) lifetime shows rapid decrease at an energy of ∼200 cm(-1) above the origin and finally becomes as short as 9 ps at ∼500 cm(-1). Theoretical calculations with a symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method suggest that the observed lifetime behavior of the two species is described by nonradiative decay dynamics involving trans → cis isomerization. That is both OMpCA and OMpCA-H(2)O in the S(1) state decay due to the trans → cis isomerization, and the large difference of the lifetimes between them is due to the difference of the isomerization potential energy curve. In OMpCA, the trans → cis isomerization occurs smoothly without a barrier on the S(1) surface, while in the OMpCA-H(2)O complex, there exists a barrier along the isomerization coordinate. The calculated barrier height of OMpCA-H(2)O is in good agreement with that observed experimentally.

  14. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Half-life measurements of isomeric states populated in projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowry, M.; Podolyák, Zs.; Kurcewicz, J.; Pietri, S.; Bunce, M.; Regan, P. H.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Allegro, P.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Boutachkov, P.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Gregor, N.; Janik, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Litvinov, Y. A.; Merchan, E.; Mukha, I.; Naqvi, F.; Pfeiffer, B.; Pfützner, M.; Plaß, W.; Pomorski, M.; Riese, B.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schaffner, H.; Kurz, N.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Bruce, A. M.; Farrelly, G. F.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Spiller, P.; Stadlmann, J.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Takeda, H.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Woods, P. J.

    2012-10-01

    The half-lives of excited isomeric states observed in 195Au, 201Tl and 215Rn are reported for the first time. Delayed γ-rays were correlated with nuclei produced in the projectile fragmentation of relativistic 238U ions, unambiguously identified in terms of their atomic number (Z) and mass-to-charge ratio (A/Q) after traversing an in-flight separator. The observation of a long-lived isomeric state in 195Au with t1/2 = 16-4+8 μs is presented. Two shorter-lived isomeric states were detected in 201Tl and 215Rn with t1/2 = 95-21+39 and 57-12+21 ns respectively. In total 24 isomeric states were identified in different nuclei from Pt to Rn (A ˜ 200) during the current study, the majority of which were previously reported. The wealth of spectroscopic data provides the opportunity to determine the isomeric ratios over a wide range of Z, A and angular momentum (I ħ) of the reaction products. In particular, high-spin states with I ≳ 18 ħ provide a robust test of theoretical models of fragmentation.

  16. Identification of geometrical isomers and comparison of different isomeric samples of astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dan; Wu, Yue-Chan; Zhu, Wen-Li; Yin, Hong; Yi, Long-Tao

    2012-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis system for isomeric astaxanthin was developed. The separation system consisted of a C(30) column and an elution system of methanol/MTBE/water/dichloromethane (77:13:8:2, v/v/v/v). Using the combination of HPLC diode array detector and HPLC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 11 geometrical isomers and 4 epoxides of astaxanthin were successfully identified. Referred to crystal, only isomerization with different degrees was found for solvent dissolving and iodine catalysis, while melting of astaxanthin caused isomerization, slight oxidation, and more noticeable polymerization confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Chemical changes in isomeric samples all caused a decrease in UV content. The vibrational spectra (infrared and Raman) showed that epoxide was the only new functional group generated for melting. Changes of several key bands and formations of new bands were found in iodine catalysis and melting samples because of isomerization. Practical Application:  Eleven geometrical isomers and 4 epoxides, which were normally generated for solvent dissolving, iodine catalysis, and melting of astaxanthin, have been identified by C(30) -HPLC-MS technology. Furthermore, different samples were measured by gel permeation chromatography, UV, infrared, and Raman, based on the analysis of messages, the effect of each processing was well understood. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  18. Isomerization of n-hexane and n-pentane mixture on Pt-alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Radhi, M.A.; Al-Mutawalli, F.S.; Al-Sammarie, E.A.

    A mixture of n-hexane and n-penane (1:1) by volume was isomerized on commercial Pt-alumina catalyst in a continuously fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of temperature, LHSV, hydrogen/hyrocarbon molar ratio and chlorine concentration were studied. It was found that the yield of isohexanes and isopentane increases with increasing the chloride added up to 0.1 and 0.2 mole % CCl/sub 4/ respectively. The rate of isomerization became slower at higher concentrations. Isomerization activity of the catalyst increases with increasing temperature ranging between 350-400/sup 0/C. The yield of isomers decrease with increasing temperature above 400/sup 0/C. The relative conversion of n-hexanemore » in the mixture was found to be more than the conversion of pure n-hexane at the same conditions.« less

  19. Femtosecond Structural Dynamics Drives the Trans/Cis Isomerization in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Kanupriya; Hutchison, Christopher D. M.; Groenhof, Gerrit; Aquila, Andy; Robinson, Josef S.; Tenboer, Jason; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; DePonte, Daniel P.; Liang, Mengning; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Morozov, Dmitry; Oberthuer, Dominik; Gati, Cornelius; Subramanian, Ganesh; James, Daniel; Zhao, Yun; Koralek, Jake; Brayshaw, Jennifer; Kupitz, Christopher; Conrad, Chelsie; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse D.; Metz, Markus; Xavier, Paulraj Lourdu; Grant, Thomas D.; Koglin, Jason E.; Ketawala, Gihan; Fromme, Raimund; Šrajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Spence, John C. H.; Ourmazd, Abbas; Schwander, Peter; Weierstall, Uwe; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Petra; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.; Moffat, Keith; van Thor, Jasper J.; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-01-01

    A variety of organisms have evolved mechanisms to detect and respond to light, in which the response is mediated by protein structural changes following photon absorption. The initial step is often the photo-isomerization of a conjugated chromophore. Isomerization occurs on ultrafast timescales, and is substantially influenced by the chromophore environment. Here we identify structural changes associated with the earliest steps in the trans to cis isomerization of the chromophore in photoactive yellow protein. Femtosecond, hard X-ray pulses emitted by the Linac Coherent Light Source were used to conduct time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography on PYP microcrystals over the time range from 100 femtoseconds to 3 picoseconds to determine the structural dynamics of the photoisomerization reaction. PMID:27151871

  20. Structural and spectral comparisons between isomeric benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Ge; Wang, Yue-Hua; Tao, Tao; Qian, Hui-Fen; Huang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A pair of isomeric heterocyclic compounds, namely 3-amino-5-nitro-[2,1]-benzisothiazole and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole, are used as the diazonium components to couple with two N-substituted 4-aminobenzene derivatives. As a result, two pairs of isomeric aromatic heterocyclic azo dyes have been produced and they are structurally and spectrally characterized and compared including single-crystal structures, electronic spectra, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration, thermal stability and theoretically calculations. It is concluded that both benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based dyes show planar molecular structures and offset π-π stacking interactions, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration. Furthermore, benzisothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes exhibit higher thermal stability, larger solvatochromic effects and maximum absorption wavelengths than corresponding benzothiazole based ones, which can be explained successfully by the differences of their calculated isomerization energy, dipole moment and molecular band gaps.

  1. Radiative decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubega, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements on rare radiative B decays are performed with the LHCb experiment at LHC. The LHCb results regarding the ratio of branching fractions for two radiative decays, B 0 → K *0 γ and B s → ϕ γ, the direct CP asymmetry in B 0 → K *0 γ decay channel and the observation of the photon polarization in the B ± → K ±π∓π± γ decay, are included. The first two measurements were performed in 1 fb-1 of pp collisions data and the third one in 3 fb-1 of data, respectively.

  2. Lycopene inhibits the isomerization of β-carotene during quenching of singlet oxygen and free radicals.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Thomas; Heinz, Philipp; Glomb, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of singlet oxygen and radical species on the isomerization of carotenoids. On the one hand, lycopene and β-carotene standards were incubated with 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene-1,4-endoperoxide that produced singlet oxygen in situ. (13Z)- and (15Z)-β-carotene were preferentially generated at low concentrations of singlet oxygen, while high concentrations resulted in formation of (9Z)-β-carotene. The addition of different concentrations of lycopene led to the same isomerization progress of β-carotene, but resulted in a decreased formation of (9Z)-β-carotene and retarded degradation of (all-E)-β-carotene. On the other hand, isomerization of β-carotene and lycopene was induced by ABTS-radicals, too. As expected from the literature, chemical quenching was observed especially for lycopene, while physical quenching was preferred for β-carotene. Mixtures of β-carotene and lycopene resulted in a different isomerization progress compared to the separate β-carotene model. As long as lycopene was present, almost no isomerization of β-carotene was triggered; after that, strong formation of (13Z)-, (9Z)-, and (15Z)-β-carotene was initiated. In summary, lycopene protected β-carotene against isomerization during reactions with singlet oxygen and radicals. These findings can explain the pattern of carotenoid isomers analyzed in fruits and vegetables, where lycopene containing samples showed higher (all-E)/(9Z)-β-carotene ratios, and also in in vivo samples such as human blood plasma.

  3. Non-adiabatic dynamics investigation of the radiationless decay mechanism of trans-urocanic acid in the S{sub 2} state

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Li; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Zhou, Pan-Wang, E-mail: pwzhou@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: gjzhao@dicp.ac.cn

    2016-07-28

    The trans-urocanic acid, a UV chromophore in the epidermis of human skin, was found to exhibit a wavelength dependent isomerization property. The isomerization quantum yield to cis-urocanic is greatest when being excited to the S{sub 1} state, whereas exciting the molecule to the S{sub 2} state causes almost no isomerization. The comparative photochemical behavior of the trans-urocanic on the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states continues to be the subject of intense research effort. This study is concerned with the unique photo-behavior of this interesting molecule on the S{sub 2} state. Combining the on-the-fly surface hopping dynamics simulations and staticmore » electronic structure calculations, three decay channels were observed following excitation to the S{sub 2} state. An overwhelming majority of the molecules decay to the S{sub 1} state through a planar or pucker characterized minimum energy conical intersection (MECI), and then decay to the ground state along a relaxation coordinate driven by a pucker deformation of the ring. A very small fraction of molecules decay to the S{sub 1} state by a MECI characterized by a twisting motion around the CC double bond, which continues to drive the molecule to deactivate to the ground state. The latter channel is related with the photoisomerization process, whereas the former one will only generate the original trans-form products. The present work provides a novel S{sub 2} state decay mechanism of this molecule, which offers useful information to explain the wavelength dependent isomerization behavior.« less

  4. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n,γ) at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Romain, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n,γ) to the Jπ = 5/2-, 761.7 keV, T1/2 = 32.8 ns and the Jπ = 15/2+, 1356.9 keV, T1/2 = 11.1 ns levels of 177Lu, have been measured for the first time with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These measured isomeric ratios are compared with TALYS calculations.

  5. Isomerization of Cyclooctadiene to Cyclooctyne with a Zinc/Zirconium Heterobimetallic Complex.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael J; White, Andrew J P; Crimmin, Mark R

    2016-06-06

    Reaction of a zinc/zirconium heterobimetallic complex with 1,5-cyclooctadiene (1,5-COD) results in slow isomerization to 1,3-cyclooctadiene (1,3-COD), along with the formation of a new complex that includes a cyclooctyne ligand bridging two metal centers. While analogous magnesium/zirconium and aluminum/zirconium heterobimetallic complexes are competent for the catalytic isomerization of 1,5-COD to 1,3-COD, only in the case of the zinc species is the cyclooctyne adduct observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Direct measurement of the energy thresholds to conformational isomerization in tryptamine: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Jasper R; Dian, Brian C; Moriggi, Loïck; DeFusco, Albert; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Kenneth D; Zwier, Timothy S

    2005-06-01

    The methods of stimulated emission pumping-hole filling spectroscopy (SEP-HFS) and stimulated emission pumping population transfer spectroscopy (SEP-PTS) were applied to the conformation-specific study of conformational isomerization in tryptamine [TRA, 3-(2-aminoethyl)indole]. These experimental methods employ stimulated emission pumping to selectively excite a fraction of the population of a single conformation of TRA to well-defined ground-state vibrational levels. This produces single conformations with well-defined internal energy, tunable over a range of energies from near the zero-point level to well above the lowest barriers to conformational isomerization. When the SEP step overcomes a barrier to isomerization, a fraction of the excited population isomerizes to form that product. By carrying out SEP excitation early in a supersonic expansion, these product molecules are subsequently cooled to their zero-point vibrational levels, where they can be detected downstream with a third tunable laser that probes the ground-state population of a particular product conformer via a unique ultraviolet transition using laser-induced fluorescence. The population transfer spectra (recorded by tuning the SEP dump laser while holding the pump and probe lasers fixed) exhibit sharp onsets that directly determine the energy thresholds for conformational isomerization in a given reactant-product conformer pair. In the absence of tunneling effects, the first observed transition in a given X-Y PTS constitutes an upper bound to the energy barrier to conformational isomerization, while the last transition not observed constitutes a lower bound. The bounds for isomerizing conformer A of tryptamine to B(688-748 cm(-1)), C(1)(860-1000 cm(-1)), C(2)(1219-1316 cm(-1)), D(1219-1282 cm(-1)), E(1219-1316 cm(-1)), and F(688-748 cm(-1)) are determined. In addition, thresholds for isomerizing from B to A(<1562 cm(-1)), B to F(562-688 cm(-1)), and out of C(2) to B(<747 cm(-1)) are also

  7. Consequences of acid strength for isomerization and elimination catalysis on solid acids.

    PubMed

    Macht, Josef; Carr, Robert T; Iglesia, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    We address here the manner in which acid catalysis senses the strength of solid acids. Acid strengths for Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) clusters and zeolites, chosen because of their accurately known structures, are described rigorously by their deprotonation energies (DPE). Mechanistic interpretations of the measured dynamics of alkane isomerization and alkanol dehydration are used to obtain rate and equilibrium constants and energies for intermediates and transition states and to relate them to acid strength. n-Hexane isomerization rates were limited by isomerization of alkoxide intermediates on bifunctional metal-acid mixtures designed to maintain alkane-alkene equilibrium. Isomerization rate constants were normalized by the number of accessible protons, measured by titration with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during catalysis. Equilibrium constants for alkoxides formed by protonation of n-hexene increased slightly with deprotonation energies (DPE), while isomerization rate constants decreased and activation barriers increased with increasing DPE, as also shown for alkanol dehydration reactions. These trends are consistent with thermochemical analyses of the transition states involved in isomerization and elimination steps. For all reactions, barriers increased by less than the concomitant increase in DPE upon changes in composition, because electrostatic stabilization of ion-pairs at the relevant transition states becomes more effective for weaker acids, as a result of their higher charge density at the anionic conjugate base. Alkoxide isomerization barriers were more sensitive to DPE than for elimination from H-bonded alkanols, the step that limits 2-butanol and 1-butanol dehydration rates; the latter two reactions showed similar DPE sensitivities, despite significant differences in their rates and activation barriers, indicating that slower reactions are not necessarily more sensitive to acid strength, but instead reflect the involvement of more unstable organic

  8. Isomerization of Cyclooctadiene to Cyclooctyne with a Zinc/Zirconium Heterobimetallic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael J.; White, Andrew J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reaction of a zinc/zirconium heterobimetallic complex with 1,5‐cyclooctadiene (1,5‐COD) results in slow isomerization to 1,3‐cyclooctadiene (1,3‐COD), along with the formation of a new complex that includes a cyclooctyne ligand bridging two metal centers. While analogous magnesium/zirconium and aluminum/zirconium heterobimetallic complexes are competent for the catalytic isomerization of 1,5‐COD to 1,3‐COD, only in the case of the zinc species is the cyclooctyne adduct observed. PMID:27071992

  9. High-pressure liquid chromatographic determination of chlorphenesin carbamate and the beta-isomeric carbamate.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W F

    1976-12-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the determination of chlorphenesin carbamate and its beta-isomeric carbamate. A single 4-mm i.d. X 30-cm column, prepacked with 10 micrometer fully porous silica gel particles, is used with 3% methanol in 50% water-saturated butyl chloride as the mobile phase. The procedure separates chlorphenesin carbamate from several possible impurities in addition to the beta-isomeric carbamate. The assay was applied to bulk drug and compressed tablets. The relative standard deviations for the assays of chlorphenesin carbamate and the beta-isomer are approximately 1 and 2%, respectively.

  10. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  12. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  13. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Ligand induced structural isomerism in phosphine coordinated gold clusters revealed by ion mobility mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ligare, Marshall R.; Baker, Erin S.; Laskin, Julia

    Structural isomerism in ligated gold clusters is revealed using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry. Phosphine ligated Au8 clusters are shown to adopt more “extended” type structures with increasing exchange of methyldiphenylphosphine (MePPh2) for triphenylphosphine (PPh3). These ligand-dependant structure-property relationships are critical to applications of clusters in catalysis.

  16. Palladium Hydride Promoted Stereoselective Isomerization of Unactivated Di(exo)methylenes to Endocyclic Dienes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The exomethylenes of 2,6-disubstituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones 2 are readily isomerized over a palladium catalyst under an atmosphere of hydrogen to predominantly form the isomer 3 with C2 symmetry with very little formation of the analogous product with Cs symmetry. A hydrogen source is essential to effect the rearrangement. PMID:24720691

  17. The Isomerization of (-)-Menthone to (+)-Isomenthone Catalyzed by an Ion-Exchange Resin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Aurora L.; Baca, Nicholas A.; Hampton, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    A traditional organic chemistry laboratory experiment involves the acid-catalyzed isomerization of (-)-menthone to (+)-isomenthone. This experiment generates large quantities of organic and aqueous waste, and only allows the final ratio of isomers to be determined. A "green" modification has been developed that replaces the mineral acid…

  18. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  19. Changes in Atmospheric Butanes and Pentanes and Their Isomeric Ratios in the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossabi, Sam; Helmig, Detlev

    2018-04-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons have been used as tracers in research on emissions and atmospheric oxidation chemistry. This research investigates source region mixing ratio trends of the nonmethane hydrocarbons i-butane, n-butane, i-pentane, and n-pentane, and the (i/n) isomeric ratios of these compounds between 2001 and 2015. Data collected at Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations, mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in ozone nonattainment areas, and data collected at Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network sites within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration network, and analyzed at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado-Boulder, were examined. Among all considered species, linear regression analyses on concentration time series had negative slopes at 81% of sites, indicating predominantly declining butane and pentane atmospheric concentrations. Mostly negative slopes (78% of sites) were found for the (i/n) butane and pentane isomeric ratios, including all six and seven statistically significant (i/n) butane and pentane trends, respectively. Over the 15 year investigation period and averaged over all sites, total relative changes were 30 and 45% for the (i/n) ratios of butanes and pentanes, respectively, with a relative increase in the prominence of the n-isomers. Most likely causes include changing isomeric ratios in gasoline sector emissions, and increasing influence of oil and natural gas industry emissions. Changes in concentrations and isomeric ratios depend on proximity of contributing emission sources to measurement sites.

  20. Mechanistic insights into Pin1 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization from umbrella sampling simulations.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Giovanni Paolo; Masetti, Matteo; Cavalli, Andrea; Recanatini, Maurizio

    2014-11-01

    The peptidyl-proyl isomerase Pin1 plays a key role in the regulation of phospho(p)-Ser/Thr-Pro proteins, acting as a molecular timer of the cell cycle. After recognition of these motifs, Pin1 catalyzes the rapid cis-trans isomerization of proline amide bonds of substrates, contributing to maintain the equilibrium between the two conformations. Although a great interest has arisen on this enzyme, its catalytic mechanism has long been debated. Here, the cis-trans isomerization of a model peptide system was investigated by means of umbrella sampling simulations in the Pin1-bound and unbound states. We obtained free energy barriers consistent with experimental data, and identified several enzymatic features directly linked to the acceleration of the prolyl bond isomerization. In particular, an enhanced autocatalysis, the stabilization of perturbed ground state conformations, and the substrate binding in a procatalytic conformation were found as main contributions to explain the lowering of the isomerization free energy barrier. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The isomerization of allylrhodium intermediates in the rhodium-catalyzed nucleophilic allylation of cyclic imines.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Hamish B; Lam, Hon Wai

    2014-10-20

    Allylrhodium species generated from potassium allyltrifluoroborates can undergo isomerization by 1,4-rhodium(I) migration to give more complex isomers, which then react with cyclic imines to provide products with up to three new stereochemical elements. High enantioselectivities are obtained using chiral diene-rhodium complexes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Linkage isomerism in trimeric and polymeric 2,3-cis-procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Lai Yeap Foo; Lawrence J. Porter

    1982-01-01

    Procyanindins polymers consist of chains of 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3-ol units linked by C(4)-C(6) or C(4)-C(8) bonds.1 Whereas the procyanidin-B group of dimers are known to exist as pairs of isomers with common flavan-3-ol units, but different interflavanoid linkages,2,3 the extent of such isomerism in...

  3. Polymeric proanthocyanidins: Interflavanoid linkage isomerism in (epicatechin-4)-(epicatechin-4)-catechin procyanidins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; L. Yeap Foo; L. J. Porter

    1981-01-01

    Procyanidin trimers have been isolated from a variety of plants,1-3 but their structures remain unresolved. We have now isolated three configurational isomers of (epicatechin-4)-(epicatechin-4)-catechin from Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) phloem which exhibit isomerism of the interflavanoid linkages.

  4. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0–1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia. PMID:20053864

  5. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  7. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  8. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Combinedatomic–nuclear decay

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyublik, A. Ya., E-mail: dzyublik@ukr.net

    We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2{sup +} level of {sub 63}{sup 153}Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by {sup 153}Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10{sup −13}, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.

  10. Increasing cyanosis early after cavopulmonary connection caused by abnormal systemic venous channels.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, M A; Shinebourne, E A; Redington, A N; Rigby, M L; Ho, S Y; Shore, D F

    1995-02-01

    To show that abnormal systemic venous channels in patients who undergo cavopulmonary anastomoses can become manifest and haemodynamically important only after surgery despite detailed preoperative investigation. Descriptive study of patients fulfilling the above criteria selected from hospital records over the past three years. A tertiary referral centre. Of the three cases identified, two were isomeric, one with left atrial isomerism and hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava who underwent bilateral bidirectional Glenn anastomoses and one with right isomerism who underwent total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Case 3 had absent left atrioventricular connection with a hypoplastic left lung and underwent a classic right Glenn procedure. All three cases presented with progressive cyanosis in the early postoperative period. Postoperative angiography in case 1 showed a remnant of a left inferior vena cava draining to the atrium to have become grossly dilated causing cyanosis, which resolved after redirection of this vessel and of the hepatic veins into the right pulmonary artery with an intra-atrial baffle. Cyanosis in case 2 was caused by intra-hepatic shunting to a hepatic vein draining to the left of the intra-atrial baffle. The diagnosis was made at necropsy, being overlooked on postoperative angiography. Repeat angiography in case 3 showed progressive dilatation of a small left superior vena cava to coronary sinus. Test occlusion with a view to embolisation revealed hitherto an undemonstrated hemiazygos continuation of inferior caval to brachiocephalic vein. The patient underwent surgical ligation of these two venous channels. Despite appropriate investigation some "abnormal" venous pathways manifest themselves, dilate, and become haemodynamically important only after surgical cavopulmonary anastomoses. In the presence of early postoperative cyanosis "new" systemic venous collateral channels should be considered as a possible cause, which may require

  11. Decay of 34Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Donlad; Benjamin Luna Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    One of concepts of modern physics that is not understood is the strong nuclear force. One manifestation of this is our lack of understanding of so-called `islands of inversion', which are groups of nuclides which have deformed ground states. It is known that 34Mg is included in this island, and that its decay (34Al) has a mixed ground state configuration. By studying their decays we hoped to discover definitive information about the branching ratios and the half lives of 34Mg and 34Al. In order to accomplish these goals, we studied the gamma radiation from the decays of 34Mg and 34Al. A Magnesium beam was implanted into a strip of mylar tape and transported to the center of an array of scintillators and germanium detectors, which has allowed us to determine the half-lives for the decays, and the branching ratios for the beta decay. My work on this project began with writing scripts to draw histograms with the data, and using those histograms to gather information that would allow me to gate our data on any number of variables and pieces of information. By cutting out bad portions of our data collection runs and gating on the coincidence of beta decays and other gamma rays, I was able to cut out a significant amount background radiation from our data.

  12. A High Accuracy Measurement of the Nuclear Decay of 235mU and Search for the Nuclear Decay of 229mTh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, Francisco

    Among all nuclear decays, there exist two isomeric states with very low-energy that belong to . {229}Th (7.8 ± 0.5 eV) and . {235}U (76.8 ± 0.5 eV) . Of particular interest is . {229}Th, because the decay energy is in the ultraviolet, and therefore in the range of modern tunable lasers. The isomer can potentially be used as the basis for a nuclear clock that is expected to be two orders of magnitude more precise than atomic clocks. However, the . {229m}Th nuclear decay energy is not sufficiently well known to design the necessary laser system for a nuclear clock. This work describes the development of a new technique using superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors to directly measure the nuclear decay of low-energy isomers with a high level of accuracy. The strength of the technique is demonstrated by measuring the decay energy of the . {235}U isomer at 76.737 ± 0.018 eV. Over an order of magnitude more accurate than the current literature value. The technique is then applied to detect the transition in . {229m}Th directly and measure its energy with comparable accuracy. These experiments are unsuccessful and are discussed in light of the recent measurement of the . {229m}Th half-life of 7 ± \\SI{1}{\\micro\\second}.

  13. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  14. Molecular isomerization induced by ultrashort infrared pulses. II. Pump-dump isomerization using pairs of time-delayed half-cycle pulses.

    PubMed

    Uiberacker, Christoph; Jakubetz, Werner

    2004-06-22

    We investigate population transfer across the barrier in a double-well potential, induced by a pair of time-delayed single-lobe half-cycle pulses. We apply this setup both to a one-dimensional (1D) quartic model potential and to a three-dimensional potential representing HCN-->HNC isomerization. Overall the results for the two systems are similar, although in the 3D system some additional features appear not seen in the 1D case. The generic mechanism of population transfer is the preparation by the pump pulse of a wave packet involving delocalized states above the barrier, followed by the essentially 1D motion of the delocalized part of wave packet across the barrier, and the eventual de-excitation by the dump pulse to localized states in the other well. The correct timing is given by the well-to-well passage time of the wave packet and its recurrence properties, and by the signs of the field lobes which determine the direction and acceleration or deceleration of the wave packet motion. In the 3D system an additional pump-pump-dump mechanism linked to wave packet motion in the reagent well can mediate isomerization. Since the transfer time and the pulse durations are of the same order of magnitude, there is also a marked dependence of the dynamics and the transfer yield on the pulse duration. Our analysis also sheds light on the pronounced carrier envelope phase dependence previously observed for isomerization and molecular dissociation with one-cycle and sub-one-cycle pulses. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  16. Communication: An accurate calculation of the S 1 C 2H 2 cis-trans isomerization barrier height

    DOE PAGES

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2016-03-16

    In this study, a high level ab initio calculation of the cis-trans isomerization barrier height in the first excited singlet electronic state of acetylene is found to agree very well with a recent experimental determination.

  17. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  18. Flavor violating Higgs decays

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kopp, Joachim; Zupan, Jure

    2013-03-01

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τemore » branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.« less

  19. Weak decays and double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1983-08-01

    Work to measure the ..sigma../sup +/ 0 degree differential cross section in the reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. ..sigma../sup +/..pi../sup -/ at several incident K/sup -/ momenta between 600 and 800 MeV/c as well as the asymmetries in the decays of polarized ..sigma../sup +/'s into protons and neutral pions and of polarized ..sigma../sup -/'s into neutrons and negative pions in collaboration with experimenters from Yale, Brookhaven, and the University of Pittsburgh (Brookhaven experiment 702) has been completed. Data from this experiment is currently being analyzed at Yale. Work is currently underway to develop and construct an experiment to search for neutrinolessmore » double beta decay in thin foils of Mo/sup 100/ in collaboration with experimenters from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Development work on the solid state silicon detectors should be complete in the next six months and construction should e well underway within the next year.« less

  20. Qualification of a Quantitative Method for Monitoring Aspartate Isomerization of a Monoclonal Antibody by Focused Peptide Mapping.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingyan; Mo, Wenjun David; Shannon, Anthony; Wei, Ziping; Washabaugh, Michael; Cash, Patricia

    Aspartate (Asp) isomerization is a common post-translational modification of recombinant therapeutic proteins that can occur during manufacturing, storage, or administration. Asp isomerization in the complementarity-determining regions of a monoclonal antibody may affect the target binding and thus a sufficiently robust quality control method for routine monitoring is desirable. In this work, we utilized a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based approach to identify the Asp isomerization in the complementarity-determining regions of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody. To quantitate the site-specific Asp isomerization of the monoclonal antibody, a UV detection-based quantitation assay utilizing the same LC platform was developed. The assay was qualified and implemented for routine monitoring of this product-specific modification. Compared with existing methods, this analytical paradigm is applicable to identify Asp isomerization (or other modifications) and subsequently develop a rapid, sufficiently robust quality control method for routine site-specific monitoring and quantitation to ensure product quality. This approach first identifies and locates a product-related impurity (a critical quality attribute) caused by isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, or other post-translational modifications, and then utilizes synthetic peptides and MS to assist the development of a LC-UV-based chromatographic method that separates and quantifies the product-related impurities by UV peaks. The established LC-UV method has acceptable peak specificity, precision, linearity, and accuracy; it can be validated and used in a good manufacturing practice environment for lot release and stability testing. Aspartate isomerization is a common post-translational modification of recombinant proteins during manufacture process and storage. Isomerization in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a monoclonal antibody A (mAb-A) has been detected and has been shown to

  1. Characterization of the Oxidation State of 229 Th Recoils Implanted in MgF2 for the Search of the Low-lying 229 Th Isomeric State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Beau; Meyer, Edmund; Schacht, Mike; Collins, Lee; Wilkerson, Marianne; Zhao, Xinxin

    2016-05-01

    The low-lying (7.8 eV) isomeric state in 229 Th has the potential to become a nuclear frequency standard. 229 Th recoils from 233 U decays have been collected in MgF2 for use in the direct search of the transition. Of interest is the oxidation state of the implanted 229 Th atoms as this can have an influence on the decay mechanisms and photon emission rate. Too determine the oxidation state of the implanted 229 Th recoils we have employed laser induced florescence (LIF), and plan-wave pseudopotential DFT calculations to search for emission from thorium ions in oxidation states less than + 4. Our search focused on detecting emission from Th3+ ions. The DFT calculations predicted the Th3+ state to be the most likely to be present in the crystal after Th4+. We also calculated the band structure for the Th3+ doped MgF2 crystal. For LIF spectra a number of excitation wavelengths were employed, emission spectra in the visible to near-IR were recorded along with time-resolved emission spectra. We have found no evidence for Th3+ in the MgF2 plates. We also analyzed the detection limit of our apprentice and found that the minimum number of Th3+ atoms that we could detect is quite small compared to the number of implanted 229 Th recoils. The number of implanted 229 Th recoils was derived from a γ-ray spectrum by monitoring emission from the daughters of 228 Th. These were present in the MgF2 plates due to a 232 U impurity, which decays to 228 Th, in the source. LA-UR-16-20442.

  2. Efficient assembly of polysubstituted pyrroles via a (3 + 2) cycloaddition/skeletal rearrangement/redox isomerization cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chunyu; He, Xinze; Yao, Xiaotong; Zu, Liansuo

    2014-07-03

    An unprecedented cascade strategy, used in conjunction with a redox isomerization, for the synthesis of 3-allyl pyrroles is reported. In a single step, readily accessible simple starting materials are transformed into highly substituted pyrroles with high efficiency. The products obtained contain allyl substituents, which can be readily elaborated to other useful functional groups. The reaction proceeds through an unusual (3 + 2) cycloaddition/skeletal rearrangement/redox isomerization pathway.

  3. [Isomeric derivatives of lupinine and epilupinine--organophosphorus inhibitors of cholinesterases].

    PubMed

    Basova, N E; Kormilitsyn, B N; Perchenok, A Iu; Rosengart, E V; Saakov, V S; Suvorov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The isomeric-structure analysis data of anticholinesterase action of organophosphorous inhibitors with similar structure help in the search of specific effectors and detection of differences in reactivity of various animals' enzymes. This study compared the data of efficacy in respect of 4 mammal and 5 arthropoda cholinesterase preparations for 26 quinolizidine inhibitors, which molecules contain both the isomeric unbranched and branched alkoxyl radicals in the phosphoryl group, and the epimeric lupinine and epilupinine derivatives in the leaving group. The changes in the alkoxyl radical structure of inhibitor molecules act on their efficacy only with respect to the mammal enzymes ("group" inhibitor specificity). The differences between lupinine and epilupinine derivatives were revealed. Highly specific inhibitors of different enzymes were detected among the tested compounds.

  4. Retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin captured by a femtosecond x-ray laser.

    PubMed

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; Weinert, Tobias; James, Daniel; Carbajo, Sergio; Ozerov, Dmitry; Furrer, Antonia; Gashi, Dardan; Borin, Veniamin; Skopintsev, Petr; Jaeger, Kathrin; Nass, Karol; Båth, Petra; Bosman, Robert; Koglin, Jason; Seaberg, Matthew; Lane, Thomas; Kekilli, Demet; Brünle, Steffen; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Wu, Wenting; Milne, Christopher; White, Thomas; Barty, Anton; Weierstall, Uwe; Panneels, Valerie; Nango, Eriko; Iwata, So; Hunter, Mark; Schapiro, Igor; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Standfuss, Jörg

    2018-06-14

    Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an x-ray laser. A series of structural snapshots with near-atomic spatial and temporal resolution in the femtosecond regime show how the excited all- trans retinal samples conformational states within the protein binding pocket prior to passing through a twisted geometry and emerging in the 13 -cis conformation. Our findings suggest ultrafast collective motions of aspartic acid residues and functional water molecules in the proximity of the retinal Schiff base as a key ingredient for this stereo-selective and efficient photochemical reaction. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Isomerization of One Molecule Observed through Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Nicholas; Rios, Laura; Apkarian, Vartkess A; Lee, Joonhee

    2015-10-14

    While exploring photoisomerization of azobenzyl thiols (ABT) adsorbed on Au(111), through joint scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) studies, the reversible photoisomerization of one molecule is captured in TERS trajectories. The unique signature of single molecule isomerization is observed in the form of anticorrelated flip-flops between two distinct spectra with two discrete, on- and off-levels. The apparently heterogeneously photocatalyzed reaction is assigned to cis-trans isomerization of an outlier, which is chemisorbed on the silver tip of the STM. Otherwise, the ensemble of ABT molecules that lie flat on Au(111) remain strongly coupled to the surface, excluding the possibility of photoisomerization or detection through TERS.

  6. Control of retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin in the high-intensity regime

    PubMed Central

    Florean, Andrei C.; Cardoza, David; White, James L.; Lanyi, J. K.; Sension, Roseanne J.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2009-01-01

    A learning algorithm was used to manipulate optical pulse shapes and optimize retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin, for excitation levels up to 1.8 × 1016 photons per square centimeter. Below 1/3 the maximum excitation level, the yield was not sensitive to pulse shape. Above this level the learning algorithm found that a Fourier-transform-limited (TL) pulse maximized the 13-cis population. For this optimal pulse the yield increases linearly with intensity well beyond the saturation of the first excited state. To understand these results we performed systematic searches varying the chirp and energy of the pump pulses while monitoring the isomerization yield. The results are interpreted including the influence of 1-photon and multiphoton transitions. The population dynamics in each intermediate conformation and the final branching ratio between the all-trans and 13-cis isomers are modified by changes in the pulse energy and duration. PMID:19564608

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of cis-trans isomerization for a proline-containing tripeptide in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shun Zhou; Wang, Cun Xin; Xu, Ying Wu; Shi, Yun Yu

    1996-11-01

    The cis-trans isomerization of X-Pro (X is Pro or any other residue) often plays a rate-limiting role in protein folding. In order to study the dynamic properties of X-Pro in water, we have analyzed the trajectory data obtained from constrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a tripeptide Phe-Pro-Ala in solution. Via calculation of autocorrelation functions and their corresponding spectral densities, we have found that the structural fluctuations of the solute are affected by the motions of various degrees of freedom, and the solvent dynamic behavior is bimodal rather than exponential or Gaussian. In addition, according to the energy and torque analysis, we suggest that both the anti/endo and the syn/endo could be the possible transition state for the cis-trans isomerization of the tripeptide.

  8. Application of Δ- and λ-isomerism of octahedral metal complexes for inducing chiral nematic phases.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisako; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-11-20

    The Delta- and Lambda-isomerism of octahedral metal complexes is employed as a source of chirality for inducing chiral nematic phases. By applying a wide range of chiral metal complexes as a dopant, it has been found that tris(beta-diketonato)metal(III) complexes exhibit an extremely high value of helical twisting power. The mechanism of induction of the chiral nematic phase is postulated on the basis of a surface chirality model. The strategy for designing an efficient dopant is described, together with the results using a number of examples of Co(III), Cr(III) and Ru(III) complexes with C(2) symmetry. The development of photo-responsive dopants to achieve the photo-induced structural change of liquid crystal by use of photo-isomerization of chiral metal complexes is also described.

  9. Application of Δ- and Λ-Isomerism of Octahedral Metal Complexes for Inducing Chiral Nematic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hisako; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    The Δ- and Λ-isomerism of octahedral metal complexes is employed as a source of chirality for inducing chiral nematic phases. By applying a wide range of chiral metal complexes as a dopant, it has been found that tris(β-diketonato)metal(III) complexes exhibit an extremely high value of helical twisting power. The mechanism of induction of the chiral nematic phase is postulated on the basis of a surface chirality model. The strategy for designing an efficient dopant is described, together with the results using a number of examples of Co(III), Cr(III) and Ru(III) complexes with C2 symmetry. The development of photo-responsive dopants to achieve the photo-induced structural change of liquid crystal by use of photo-isomerization of chiral metal complexes is also described. PMID:20057959

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  12. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  13. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B 0 → D *- a 0 + decays and the non-resonant B 0 → D *- ηπ + decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → Bmore » $$\\bar{B}$$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B 0 → D *- a{sub 0} + decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10 -6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the measurement of this angle. However, the low expected branching fraction for the B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay channels could

  14. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Junpei

    Double beta decay is a key process to reveal a fundamental property of neutrinos. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, that is they are equivalent to their antiparticles, neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, (A,Z) → (A,Z + 2) + 2e‑, would occur. The process is beyond the standard model and would lead to a scenario which can explain the extremely small masses of neutrinos and provide a solution to the current matter dominance of the world. In this talk experimental efforts searching for 0νββ decays are presented. Then, major 0νββ experiments together with searches using 136Xe nuclei are described, followed by the current status of the KamLAND-Zen experiment.

  15. Amino Acid Isomerization in the Production of l-Phenylalanine from d-Phenylalanine by Bacteria1

    PubMed Central

    Chibata, Ichiro; Tosa, Tetsuya; Sano, Ryujiro

    1965-01-01

    To establish an advantageous method for the production of l-amino acids, microbial isomerization of d- and dl-amino acids to l-amino acids was studied. Screening experiments on a number of microorganisms showed that cell suspensions of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. miyamizu were capable of isomerizing d- and dl-phenylalanines to l-phenylalanine. Various conditions suitable for isomerization by these organisms were investigated. Cells grown in a medium containing d-phenylalanine showed highest isomerization activity, and almost completely converted d- or dl-phenylalanine into l-phenylalanine within 24 to 48 hr of incubation. Enzymatic studies on this isomerizing system suggested that the isomerization of d- or dl-phenylalanine is not catalyzed by a single enzyme, “amino acid isomerase,” but the conversion proceeds by a two step system as follows: d-pheylalanine is oxidized to phenylpyruvic acid by d-amino acid oxidase, and the acid is converted to l-phenylalanine by transamination or reductive amination. PMID:14339270

  16. Roaming Reactions and Roaming-Mediated Isomerization in the Decomposition of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    not   permit   effective   competition   between   isomerization  and  SBF  as  had  been  seen   for  nitromethane   in...vinylidene   is   formed   with   only   modest  rotational  excitation,  precluding   Coriolis -­‐induced  mixing  among  the

  17. Isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from different nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Shin, S. G.; Cho, M.-H.; Goswami, A.; Song, T. Y.

    2014-07-01

    The independent isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY produced from the 93Nb( γ, α2n) and natZr( γ, p xn) reactions with the end-point bremsstrahlung energy of 45-70 MeV have been determined by an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY were also determined from the natZr(p, αxn) and the 89Y(p,p2n) reactions with E P = 15-45 MeV as well as those from the 89Y( α, α2n) reaction with E α = 32-43 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from the present work in the 93Nb( γ, α2n), natZr( γ, p xn), natZr(p, αxn), 89Y(p,p2n), and 89Y( α, α2n) reactions were compared with those of the literature data in the 85Rb( α, 2n), the 86,87,88Sr(d, xn), 89Y(n,3n), and the 89Y( γ, 2n) reactions to examine the role of target, projectiles, and ejectiles through compound nucleus excitation energy and input angular momentum. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY in the above eleven reactions were also calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.4 and compared with the experimental data. The different behaviors between photon- and neutron-induced reactions and charged-particle-induced reactions are discussed from the viewpoint of compound and non-compound (pre-equilibrium) process.

  18. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n,γ) at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Jandel, M.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    The isomeric ratio for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n,γ) on the Jπ= 5/2-, 761.7 keV, T1/2=32.8 ns level of 177mLu, has been determined in the neutron energy range 8.5 eV-100 keV for the first time using the DANCE array at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Hepatic venous connection to a persistent inferior caval vein in left isomerism.

    PubMed

    Guenthard, J; Carvalho, J S; Anderson, R H; Rigby, M L

    1990-09-01

    In 22 cases of left atrial isomerism studied at the Brompton Hospital, four cases were found to have an unusual arrangement of the abdominal vessels. There was persistence of an inferior caval vein, partially anomalous hepatic venous connection and additional continuation of part of the venous return from the lower body through the azygos venous system. This venous pattern had surgical implications in our index case, since redirection of the inferior caval venous return was necessary.

  20. Designed catalysts from Pt nanoparticles supported on macroporous oxides for selective isomerization of n-hexane.

    PubMed

    An, Kwangjin; Alayoglu, Selim; Musselwhite, Nathan; Na, Kyungsu; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-05-14

    Selective isomerization toward branched hydrocarbons is an important catalytic process in oil refining to obtain high-octane gasoline with minimal content of aromatic compounds. Colloidal Pt nanoparticles with controlled sizes of 1.7, 2.7, and 5.5 nm were deposited onto ordered macroporous oxides of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Nb2O5, Ta2O5, and ZrO2 to investigate Pt size- and support-dependent catalytic selectivity in n-hexane isomerization. Among the macroporous oxides, Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 exhibited the highest product selectivity, yielding predominantly branched C6 isomers, including 2- or 3-methylpentane, as desired products of n-hexane isomerization (140 Torr n-hexane and 620 Torr H2 at 360 °C). In situ characterizations including X-ray diffraction and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the crystal structures of the oxides in Pt/oxide catalysts were not changed during the reaction and oxidation states of Nb2O5 were maintained under both H2 and O2 conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectra of pyridine adsorbed on the oxides showed that Lewis sites were the dominant acidic site of the oxides. Macroporous Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were identified to play key roles in the selective isomerization by charge transfer at Pt-oxide interfaces. The selectivity was revealed to be Pt size-dependent, with improved isomer production as Pt sizes increased from 1.7 to 5.5 nm. When 5.5 nm Pt nanoparticles were supported on Nb2O5 or Ta2O5, the selectivity toward branched C6 isomers was further increased, reaching ca. 97% with a minimum content of benzene, due to the combined effects of the Pt size and the strong metal-support interaction.

  1. A novel base-induced isomerization gives access to unprecedented (E)-exo-glycals.

    PubMed

    Eppe, Guillaume; Dumitrescu, Lidia; Pierrot, Olivier; Li, Tianlei; Pan, Weidong; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2013-08-26

    Bump the base: This study reports the discovery of the base-induced Z-to-E isomerization of exo-glycals bearing an electron-withdrawing group (EWG). The scope of this novel transformation regarding the carbohydrate unit is also discussed. After elucidating the mechanism, preparation of novel (E)-exo- glycals was performed (TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sequential picosecond isomerizations in a photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complex triggered by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    King, Albert W; Jin, Yuhuan; Engle, James T; Ziegler, Christopher J; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2013-02-18

    The complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpSO)](PF(6))(2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipydine and bpSO is 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane, exhibits three distinct isomers which are accessible upon metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) irradiation. This complex and its parent, [Ru(bpy)(2)(bpte)](PF(6))(2), where bpte is 1,2-bis(phenylthio)ethane, have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, NMR, X-ray crystallography, and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A novel method of 2-color Pump-Repump-Probe spectroscopy has been employed to investigate all three isomers of the bis-sulfoxide complex. This method allows for observation of the isomerization dynamics of sequential isomerizations of each sulfoxide from MLCT irradiation of the S,S-bonded complex to ultimately form the O,O-bonded metastable complex. One-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) (COSY, NOESY, and TOCSY) (1)H NMR data show the thioether and ground state S,S-bonded sulfoxide complexes to be rigorously C(2) symmetric and are consistent with the crystal structures. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the S,S to S,O isomerization occurs with an observed time constant of 56.8 (±7.4) ps. The S,O to O,O isomerization time constant was found to be 59 (±4) ps by pump-repump-probe spectroscopy. The composite S,S- to O,O-isomer quantum yield is 0.42.

  3. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  4. Configurations and decay hindrances of high- K states in Hf 180

    DOE PAGES

    Tandel, S. K.; Chowdhury, P.; Kondev, F. G.; ...

    2016-12-02

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states, several of which are isomeric, were observed in Hf-180 with the Gammasphere array. We determined the lifetimes in the ns-μs range using centroid-shift and decay measurements within a mu s coincidence time window. The configurations of high-K states involve two and four quasiparticles, with states up to K π = (18 -) established. High-K excitations are found to be progressively more favored with increasing excitation energy. The K quantum number is quite robust up to the highest spins observed, as evidenced by the large values of the reduced hindrance for isomeric decays. Furthermore, rotational bands built onmore » three high-K states are identified, and the measured branching ratios in these sequences enable the assignment of underlying configurations. Multi-quasiparticle calculations using the Lipkin-Nogami approach for pairing, with blocking included, reproduce the observed high-K energies quite well.« less

  5. Configurations and decay hindrances of high- K states in Hf 180

    SciTech Connect

    Tandel, S. K.; Chowdhury, P.; Kondev, F. G.

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states, several of which are isomeric, were observed in Hf-180 with the Gammasphere array. We determined the lifetimes in the ns-μs range using centroid-shift and decay measurements within a mu s coincidence time window. The configurations of high-K states involve two and four quasiparticles, with states up to K π = (18 -) established. High-K excitations are found to be progressively more favored with increasing excitation energy. The K quantum number is quite robust up to the highest spins observed, as evidenced by the large values of the reduced hindrance for isomeric decays. Furthermore, rotational bands built onmore » three high-K states are identified, and the measured branching ratios in these sequences enable the assignment of underlying configurations. Multi-quasiparticle calculations using the Lipkin-Nogami approach for pairing, with blocking included, reproduce the observed high-K energies quite well.« less

  6. Thermal isomerization of azobenzenes: on the performance of Eyring transition state theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietze, Clemens; Titov, Evgenii; Lindner, Steven; Saalfrank, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The thermal Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G* including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model—Z\\to E isomerization in azobenzene—a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the Z\\to E (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.

  7. Concurrent Mass Measurement and Laser Spectroscopy for Unambiguous Isomeric State Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, Daniel; Babcock, Carla; Henderson, Jack; Pearson, Matt

    2017-09-01

    Recent work by the TITAN group at TRIUMF on isomeric state mass measurements of odd-A, neutron-rich cadmium nuclei has shown a disconnect between experiment and theory in 127 g , mCd. The spin and parity assignments of the ground and isomeric states are assigned as 3/2+ and 11/2-, respectively, primarily via systematic arguments. Conversely, state of the art shell model and ab initio calculations show a reversal of the states, predicting a ground state of 11/2- and a 3/2+ isomer. Penning Trap Mass Spectrometry (PTMS) can measure the energy separation between the ground state and the isomer without ambiguity but cannot, on its own, comment on the spin and parity. Collinear Laser Spectroscopy (CLS) experiments have been performed on 127Cd and have elegantly demonstrated the existence of both 3/2+ and 11/2- states. What CLS cannot do, on its own, is assign an ordering to those states. If, however, a PTMS and CLS experiment could be performed concurrently using identical beams from the same facility then there exists sufficient information shared between both experiments that a definitive assignment can be made. We present a concept for a new slate of measurements using existing experimental facilities simultaneously, with shared resources, to definitively assign spin and parity for ground and isomeric states in short-lived nuclei.

  8. Geometrical isomerization of carotenoids mediated by cation radical/dication formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.

    1996-03-28

    Electrochemical oxidation of all-trans-canthaxanthin and {beta}-carotene in dichloromethane leads to significant trans-to-cis isomerization, with cis isomers accounting for about 40% of the products formed. The electrochemically generated isomers were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as 9-cis, 13-cis, 15-cis, and 9,13-di-cis isomers of the carotenoids by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy (Q ratio). The results of simultaneous bulk electrolysis and optical absorption spectroscopy indicate the following isomerization mechanism: the all-trans cation radicals and/or dications formed by electrochemical oxidation of all-trans-carotenoids can easily undergo geometrical isomerization to form cis cation radicals and/or dications. The latter are converted bymore » the comproportionation equilibrium to cation radicals which are then transformed to neutral cis-carotenoids by exchanging one electron with neutral carotenoids. AM1 molecular orbital calculations, which show that the energy barriers of configurational transformation from trans to cis are much lower in the cation radical and dication species than in the neutral molecule, strongly support the first step of this mechanism. 36 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  9. Isomerization, Perturbations, Calculations and the S_{1} State of C_{2}H_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Berk, J. R. P.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary analysis of the energy region of the cis-trans isomerization transition state on the S_{1} surface of C_{2}H_{2} has revealed novel patterns and surprising perturbations, including unusually large (and high-order) anharmonicities, as well as K-staggerings of several vibrational levels. These effects complicate the analysis considerably, and require new models and calculations to account for and predict features of the observed spectra. The ˜{A}-˜{X} spectrum of acetylene has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for almost a century, and this cycle of unexpected phenomena eliciting innovative responses is found throughout its history. Especially in the last ten years, progress in understanding the S_{1} state rovibrational level structure and cis-trans isomerization has been accelerated by combining the information available from both ab initio computation and spectroscopic observations. The resulting dialogue has then frequently suggested fruitful avenues for further experiments and calculations. Current challenges and recent results in understanding the cis-trans isomerization transition state region will be discussed in this context.

  10. Octupole deformations in high-K isomeric states of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, N.; Walker, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of quadrupole-octupole deformations on the energy and magnetic properties of high-K isomeric states in even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei. The neutron two-quasiparticle (2qp) isomeric energies and magnetic dipole moments are calculated within a deformed shell model with the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS) pairing interaction over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. We found that in most cases the magnetic moments exhibit a pronounced sensitivity to the octupole deformation, while the 2qp energies indicate regions of nuclei in which the presence of high-K isomeric states may be associated with the presence of octupole softness or even with octupole deformation. In the present work we also examine the influence of the BCS pairing strength on the energy of the blocked isomer configuration. We show that the formation of 2qp energy minima in the space of quadrupole-octupole and eventually higher multipolarity deformations is a subtle effect depending on nuclear pairing correlations.

  11. Effect of humidity on solid-state isomerization of various kinds of lactose during grinding.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, M; Ohtani, H; Otsuka, K; Kaneniwa, N

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity on isomerization during grinding of alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrate and beta-anhydrate of lactose was investigated. Samples were ground in an agate centrifugal ball mill at 270 rev min-1 at room temperature (21 degrees C) and at 5 and 60% relative humidity. Crystallinity of the ground lactose was measured by Hermans' method from the powder X-ray diffraction profiles. The alpha- and beta-lactose content of the ground lactose was measured by using angular rotation spectrophotometry. The crystalline lactose samples were transformed into noncrystalline solids by mechanical stress during grinding. After grinding, the adsorbed water content of all ground lactose samples increased, and the isomerized amount increased with increase of the water content during grinding at 5 and 60% relative humidity. The results suggest that the isomerization rate of alpha-monohydrate during grinding may depend on the crystallinity, but those of alpha- and beta-anhydrate depend on the content of adsorbed water.

  12. Photo-isomerization and oxidation of bilirubin in mammals is dependent on albumin binding.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Iryna; Jašprová, Jana; Vítek, Libor; Urbanová, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The bilirubin (BR) photo-conversion in the human body is a protein-dependent process; an effective photo-isomerization of the potentially neurotoxic Z,Z-BR as well as its oxidation to biliverdin in the antioxidant redox cycle is possible only when BR is bound on serum albumin. We present a novel analytical concept in the study of linear tetrapyrroles metabolic processes based on an in-depth mapping of binding sites in the structure of human serum albumin (HSA). A combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling methods was used for recognition of the binding site for BR, its derivatives (mesobilirubin and bilirubin ditaurate), and the products of the photo-isomerization and oxidation (lumirubin, biliverdin, and xanthobilirubic acid) on HSA. The CD spectra and fluorescent quenching of the Trp-HSA were used to calculate the binding constants. The results of the CD displacement experiments performed with hemin were interpreted together with the findings of molecular docking performed on the pigment-HSA complexes. We estimated that Z,Z-BR and its metabolic products bind on two independent binding sites. Our findings support the existence of a reversible antioxidant redox cycle for BR and explain an additional pathway of the photo-isomerization process (increase of HSA binding capacity; the excess free [unbound] BR can be converted and also bound to HSA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Special features of isomeric ratios in nuclear reactions induced by various projectile particles

    SciTech Connect

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H., E-mail: hov-gohar@ysu.am; Bakhshiyan, T. M.

    2016-05-15

    Calculations for (p, n) and (α, p3n) reactions were performed with the aid of the TALYS-1.4 code. Reactions in which the mass numbers of target and product nuclei were identical were examined in the range of A = 44–124. Excitation functions were obtained for product nuclei in ground and isomeric states, and isomeric ratios were calculated. The calculated data reflect well the dependence of the isomeric ratios on the projectile type. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data reveals, that, for some nuclei in a high-spin state, the calculated data fall greatly short of their experimental counterparts. These discrepanciesmore » may be due to the presence of high-spin yrast states and rotational bands in these nuclei. Calculations involving various level-density models included in the TALYS-1.4 code with allowance for the enhancement of collective effects do not remove the discrepancies in the majority of cases.« less

  14. Preclinical Evaluation of the Synthetic Adjuvant SQS-21 and its Constituent Isomeric Saponins

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathi, Govind; Damani, Payal; Deng, Kai; Adams, Michelle M.; Hang, Jianfeng; George, Constantine; Livingston, Philip O.; Gin, David Y.

    2010-01-01

    The saponin fraction QS-21 from Quillaja saponaria has been demonstrated to be a potent immunological adjuvant when mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines, as well as with other classes of subunit antigen vaccines. QS-21 adjuvant is composed of two isomers that include the apiose and xylose forms in a ratio of 65:35, respectively. The chemical syntheses of these two isomers in pure form have recently been disclosed. Herein we describe detailed in vivo immunological evaluations of these synthetic QS-21 isomeric constituents, employing the GD3-KLH melanoma antigen. With this vaccine construct, high antibody titers against GD3 ganglioside and KLH were elicited when GD3-KLH was co-administered with adjuvant, either as the individual separate synthetic QS-21 isomers (SQS-21-Api or SQS-21-Xyl), or as its reconstituted 65:35 isomeric mixture (SQS-21). These antibody titer levels were comparable to that elicited by vaccinations employing naturally derived QS-21 (PQS-21). Moreover, toxicities of the synthetic saponin adjuvants were also found to be comparable to that of naturally derived PQS-21. These findings demonstrate unequivocally that the adjuvant activity of QS-21 resides in these two principal isomeric forms, and not in trace contaminants within the natural extracts. This lays the foundation for future exploration of structure-function correlations to enable the discovery of novel saponins with increased potency, enhanced stability, and attenuated toxicity. PMID:20450868

  15. An efficient process for obtaining prebiotic oligosaccharides derived from lactulose using isomerized and purified whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Carlos; Olano, Agustín; Prodanov, Marin; Montilla, Antonia; Corzo, Nieves

    2017-12-01

    One of the most promising uses of whey permeate (WP) is the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Herein, commercial WP was submitted to chemical isomerization catalysed by sodium borate at an alkaline pH and subsequent purification using anion-exchange resins to remove boron. Subsequently, purified mixtures were used to synthesize prebiotic oligosaccharides using β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. Isomerization of concentrated WP (200 g L -1 lactose) gave rise to levels of lactulose up to 155.5 g L -1 after 30 min of reaction (molar ratio of boron/lactose, 1/1; pH 12; 70 °C). Boron was removed from the isomerized WP (IWP) using the combination of a strong acid (IR-120, H + ) and a weak base (IRA-743) anion-exchange resins, reducing its level to <1 ppm, without loss of lactulose. During the transglycosylation reaction of purified IWP (lactose/lactulose ratio, 1/2.4) maximum content of prebiotic compounds was achieved, i.e. 690 g kg -1 WP after 3 h of reaction. This study shows that combined chemical-enzymatic reactions together with the purification of IWP results in an efficient synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Thermal isomerization of azobenzenes: on the performance of Eyring transition state theory.

    PubMed

    Rietze, Clemens; Titov, Evgenii; Lindner, Steven; Saalfrank, Peter

    2017-08-09

    The thermal [Formula: see text] (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes is a prototypical reaction occurring in molecular switches. It has been studied for decades, yet its kinetics is not fully understood. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations are performed to model the kinetics of an experimental benchmark system, where a modified azobenzene (AzoBiPyB) is embedded in a metal-organic framework (MOF). The molecule can be switched thermally from cis to trans, under solvent-free conditions. We critically test the validity of Eyring transition state theory for this reaction. As previously found for other azobenzenes (albeit in solution), good agreement between theory and experiment emerges for activation energies and activation free energies, already at a comparatively simple level of theory, B3LYP/6-31G * including dispersion corrections. However, theoretical Arrhenius prefactors and activation entropies are in qualitiative disagreement with experiment. Several factors are discussed that may have an influence on activation entropies, among them dynamical and geometric constraints (imposed by the MOF). For a simpler model-[Formula: see text] isomerization in azobenzene-a systematic test of quantum chemical methods from both density functional theory and wavefunction theory is carried out in the context of Eyring theory. Also, the effect of anharmonicities on activation entropies is discussed for this model system. Our work highlights capabilities and shortcomings of Eyring transition state theory and quantum chemical methods, when applied for the [Formula: see text] (back-)isomerization of azobenzenes under solvent-free conditions.

  17. Human infrared vision is triggered by two-photon chromophore isomerization

    PubMed Central

    Palczewska, Grazyna; Vinberg, Frans; Stremplewski, Patrycjusz; Bircher, Martin P.; Salom, David; Komar, Katarzyna; Zhang, Jianye; Cascella, Michele; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Vision relies on photoactivation of visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptor cells of the retina. The human eye structure and the absorption spectra of pigments limit our visual perception of light. Our visual perception is most responsive to stimulating light in the 400- to 720-nm (visible) range. First, we demonstrate by psychophysical experiments that humans can perceive infrared laser emission as visible light. Moreover, we show that mammalian photoreceptors can be directly activated by near infrared light with a sensitivity that paradoxically increases at wavelengths above 900 nm, and display quadratic dependence on laser power, indicating a nonlinear optical process. Biochemical experiments with rhodopsin, cone visual pigments, and a chromophore model compound 11-cis-retinyl-propylamine Schiff base demonstrate the direct isomerization of visual chromophore by a two-photon chromophore isomerization. Indeed, quantum mechanics modeling indicates the feasibility of this mechanism. Together, these findings clearly show that human visual perception of near infrared light occurs by two-photon isomerization of visual pigments. PMID:25453064

  18. Spectroscopic Identification of Isomeric Trimethylbenzyl Radicals Generated in Corona Discharge of Tetramethylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk; Lee, Gi Woo

    2011-06-01

    The visible vibronic emission spectra were recorded from the corona discharge of precursor tetramethylbenzene with a large amount of inert carrier gas helium using a pinhole-type glass nozzle coupled with corona excited supersonic expansion (CESE) well developed in this laboratory. The spectra showed a series of vibronic bands in the D_1 → D_0 electronic transition of jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals formed from the precursor in a corona excitation. The analysis confirmed that two isomeric radicals, 2,3,4- and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzyl radicals and three isomeric radicals, 3,4,5-, 2,3,5- and 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl radicals were produced, respectively, from 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzenes as a result of removal of a hydrogen atom from the methyl group at different substitution position. For each isomeric trimethylbenzyl radical generated in the corona discharge of precursor, the electronic transition and a few vibrational mode frequencies were determined in the ground electronic state by comparing with those from both ab initio calculations and the known vibrational data of the precursor. The substitution effect that states the shift of electronic transition depends on the nature, the number, and the position of substituents on the ring has been qualitatively proved for the case of benzyl-type radicals.

  19. Proline isomerization in the C-terminal region of HSP27.

    PubMed

    Alderson, T Reid; Benesch, Justin L P; Baldwin, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    In mammals, small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) typically assemble into interconverting, polydisperse oligomers. The dynamic exchange of sHSP oligomers is regulated, at least in part, by molecular interactions between the α-crystallin domain and the C-terminal region (CTR). Here we report solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy investigations of the conformation and dynamics of the disordered and flexible CTR of human HSP27, a systemically expressed sHSP. We observed multiple NMR signals for residues in the vicinity of proline 194, and we determined that, while all observed forms are highly disordered, the extra resonances arise from cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerization about the G193-P194 peptide bond. The cis-P194 state is populated to near 15% at physiological temperatures, and, although both cis- and trans-P194 forms of the CTR are flexible and dynamic, both states show a residual but differing tendency to adopt β-strand conformations. In NMR spectra of an isolated CTR peptide, we observed similar evidence for isomerization involving proline 182, found within the IPI/V motif. Collectively, these data indicate a potential role for cis-trans proline isomerization in regulating the oligomerization of sHSPs.

  20. A dynamics prediction of nitromethane → methyl nitrite isomerization in external electric field.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fu-de; Cao, Duan-lin; Shi, Wen-jing

    2016-04-01

    As a follow-up to our investigation into the effect of external electric field on the chemical bond strength, the effects of external electric field on the CH3NO2 → CH3ONO isomerization dynamics were investigated using the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) and CCSD/6-311++G(2d,p) methods. The rate constants in the absence and presence of various field strengths were calculated. The results show that, when the field strength is larger than +0.0060 a.u. along the C-NO2 bond axis, the barriers of the isomerization are lower than the C-NO2 bond dissociation energies, leading to the preferences of the isomerization over the C-NO2 bond dissociation. In this case, the sensitivities are higher than that in no field. However, in the other fields, the C-NO2 bond scission is favored and the sensitivities are almost equal to that in no field. Several good linear correlations are found between the field strengths and the changes of the bond lengths or corresponding electron densities.

  1. Systematic study of α preformation probability of nuclear isomeric and ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Xi-Jun; Zheng, Bo; Xiang, Dong; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on the two-potential approach combining with the isospin dependent nuclear potential, we systematically compare the α preformation probabilities of odd-A nuclei between nuclear isomeric states and ground states. The results indicate that during the process of α particle preforming, the low lying nuclear isomeric states are similar to ground states. Meanwhile, in the framework of single nucleon energy level structure, we find that for nuclei with nucleon number below the magic numbers, the α preformation probabilities of high-spin states seem to be larger than low ones. For nuclei with nucleon number above the magic numbers, the α preformation probabilities of isomeric states are larger than those of ground states. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205083), Construct Program of Key Discipline in Hunan Province, Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hunan Province, China (15A159), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2015JJ3103, 2015JJ2123), Innovation Group of Nuclear and Particle Physics in USC, Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation for Postgraduate (CX2015B398)

  2. New low-spin states of 122Xe observed via high-statistics β-decay of 122Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigmeddorj, B.; Garrett, P. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bruhn, T.; Cross, D. S.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hadinia, B.; Moukaddam, M.; Park, J.; Pore, J. L.; Radich, A. J.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rand, E. T.; Rizwan, U.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Wang, Z. M.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2018-05-01

    Excited states of 122Xe were studied via the β+/EC decay of 122Cs with the 8π γ-ray spectrometer at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors were used for measurements of γ-ray intensities, γγ coincidences, and γ-γ angular correlations. Two sets of data were collected to optimize the decays of the ground (21.2 s) and isomeric (3.7 min) states of 122Cs. The data collected have enabled the observation of about 505 new transitions and about 250 new levels, including 51 new low-spin states. Spin assignments have been made for 58 low-spin states based on the deduced β-decay feeding and γ-γ angular correlation analyses.

  3. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  4. Discoloration & decay in oak

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1971-01-01

    Diseases that result in discoloration and decay of wood are major problems affecting all species of oak. Wounds often start the processes that can lead to these diseases. The type and severity of the wound, the vigor of the tree, the environment, and the aggressiveness of microorganisms that infect are some of the most important factors that determine the nature of the...

  5. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  6. Fontan completion in patients with atrial isomerism and separate hepatic venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Tomohiro; Fujimoto, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Keiichi; Osaki, Masaki; Tosaka, Yuko; Ide, Yujiro; Tachi, Maiko; Sakamoto, Kisaburo

    2010-06-01

    Fontan completion in patients with atrial isomerism, in which the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the hepatic vein (HV) drain separately, is technically challenging. Herein, we review our surgical approach to these patients. The medical records of 50 consecutive patients with atrial isomerism who underwent Fontan completion between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Separate HV drainage was present in 17 patients. Patients with interrupted IVC were excluded. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age, 26 months (range 15-149); median weight, 9.6 kg (range 8.1-47.2); right atrial isomerism, 16 patients; and left atrial isomerism, one. The IVC and the separate HV at the level of diaphragm were contralateral in 16 patients, and ipsilateral in one. The surgical procedures for directing blood flow from the IVC and the separate HV to the pulmonary arteries were as follows: en bloc resection of the IVC and the HV and anastomosing these veins to an extracardiac conduit in 10 patients; connecting the IVC to the HV in a side-to-side fashion before anastomosing them to an extracardiac conduit in one; and lateral tunnel in another. When the IVC and the HV were widely separated by the vertebrae, we chose an intra-extracardiac conduit (intra-atrial septation) in four patients and an extracardiac conduit for the IVC and the right HV and lateral tunnel for the separate left HV in one. There was no mortality. Five re-operations were performed (pacemaker in two patients; one each of fenestration, release of outflow obstruction and ligation of collateral arteries). Sixteen patients underwent follow-up catheterisation, which revealed central venous pressure of 12.0 + or - 2.0 mmHg and arterial oxygen saturation of 92% + or - 6%. The mid-term results of the Fontan completion in patients with atrial isomerism and separate HV drainage were excellent. The distance between the IVC and the separate HV and the position of the vertebrae should be considered when choosing a

  7. Infrared-induced conformational isomerization and vibrational relaxation dynamics in melatonin and 5-methoxy-N-acetyl tryptophan methyl amide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dian, Brian C.; Florio, Gina M.; Clarkson, Jasper R.; Longarte, Asier; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2004-05-01

    The conformational isomerization dynamics of melatonin and 5-methoxy N-acetyltryptophan methyl amide (5-methoxy NATMA) have been studied using the methods of IR-UV hole-filling spectroscopy and IR-induced population transfer spectroscopy. Using these techniques, single conformers of melatonin were excited via a well-defined NH stretch fundamental with an IR pump laser. This excess energy was used to drive conformational isomerization. By carrying out the infrared excitation early in a supersonic expansion, the excited molecules were re-cooled into their zero-point levels, partially re-filling the hole created in the ground state population of the excited conformer, and creating gains in population of the other conformers. These changes in population were detected using laser-induced fluorescence downstream in the expansion via an UV probe laser. The isomerization quantum yields for melatonin show some conformation specificity but no hint of vibrational mode specificity. In 5-methoxy NATMA, no isomerization was observed out of the single conformational well populated in the expansion in the absence of the infrared excitation. In order to study the dependence of the isomerization on the cooling rate, the experimental arrangement was modified so that faster cooling conditions could be studied. In this arrangement, the pump and probe lasers were overlapped in space in the high density region of the expansion, and the time dependence of the zero-point level populations of the conformers was probed following selective excitation of a single conformation. The analysis needed to extract isomerization quantum yields from the timing scans was developed and applied to the melatonin timing scans. Comparison between the frequency and time domain isomerization quantum yields under identical experimental conditions produced similar results. Under fast cooling conditions, the product quantum yields were shifted from their values under standard conditions. The results for melatonin

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  9. Shell model description of heavy nuclei and abnormal collective motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong

    2018-05-01

    In this contribution I present systematic calculations on the spectroscopy and electromagnetic transition properties of intermediate-mass and heavy nuclei around 100Sn and 208Pb. We employed the large-scale configuration interaction shell model approach with realistic interactions. Those nuclei are the longest isotopic chains that can be studied by the nuclear shell model. I will show that the yrast spectra of Te isotopes show a vibrational-like equally spaced pattern but the few known E2 transitions show rotational-like behaviour. These kinds of abnormal collective behaviors cannot be reproduced by standard collective models and provide excellent background to study the competition of single-particle and various collective degrees of freedom. Moreover, the calculated B(E2) values for neutron-deficient and heavier Te isotopes show contrasting different behaviours along the yrast line, which may be related to the enhanced neutron-proton correlation when approaching N=50. The deviations between theory and experiment concerning the energies and E2 transition properties of low-lying 0+ and 2+ excited states and isomeric states in those nuclei may provide a constraint on our understanding of nuclear deformation and intruder configuration in that region.

  10. Protecting log cabins from decay

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell; J. M. Black; L. R. Gjovik; W. C. Feist

    1977-01-01

    This report answers the questions most often asked of the Forest Service on the protection of log cabins from decay, and on practices for the exterior finishing and maintenance of existing cabins. Causes of stain and decay are discussed, as are some basic techniques for building a cabin that will minimize decay. Selection and handling of logs, their preservative...

  11. Fast proton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2010-10-01

    We consider proton decay in the testable flipped SU(5)×U(1)X models with TeV-scale vector-like particles which can be realized in free fermionic string constructions and F-theory model building. We significantly improve upon the determination of light threshold effects from prior studies, and perform a fresh calculation of the second loop for the process p→eπ from the heavy gauge boson exchange. The cumulative result is comparatively fast proton decay, with a majority of the most plausible parameter space within reach of the future Hyper-Kamiokande and DUSEL experiments. Because the TeV-scale vector-like particles can be produced at the LHC, we predict a strong correlation between the most exciting particle physics experiments of the coming decade.

  12. Charmonium Decays at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jielei

    The BESIII Experiment at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) has accumulated the largest e+e‑ collisions data sets in the τ-charm region in the world. Using the data sets of 448.1 million ψ(3686) events and 1.3 billion J/ψ events, the branching fractions and the angular distributions of J/ψ and ψ(3686) decay to ΛΛ¯, Σ0Σ¯0, Σ(1385)0Σ¯(1385)0 and Ξ0Ξ¯0 are measured. The branching fractions of ψ(3686) → γχcJ are reported with improved precision. The higher-order multipole amplitudes in ψ(3686) → γχc1,2 with χc1,2 → γJ/ψ are measured, as a byproduct the ηc(2S) → γJ/ψ transition is searched. The Dalitz decays of ψ(3686) → e+e‑χ cJ and χcJ → e+e‑J/ψ are observed and the branching fractions are measured. hc radiative decays hc → γη‧(η) are observed for the first time. Improved measurement of ηc → ϕϕ and search for ηc → ωϕ are reported.

  13. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratio for the 76Ge(n,2n)75m,gGe process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xinxing

    2018-04-01

    We measured neutron-induced reaction cross sections for the 76Ge(n,2n)75m,gGe reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios σm/σg at three neutron energies between 13 and 15MeV by an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the K-400 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). Ge samples and Nb monitor foils were activated together to determine the reaction cross section and the incident neutron flux. The monoenergetic neutron beams were formed via the 3H( d, n)4He reaction. The pure cross section of the ground state was derived from the absolute cross section of the metastable state and the residual nuclear decay analysis. The cross sections were also calculated using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.8 with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature data.

  14. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  15. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufen, D. L.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Cybulska, E. W.; Seale, W. A.; Linares, R.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Ribas, R. V.

    2014-07-01

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: 54Fe, 10+ state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T1/2 = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2+ state of 19F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T1/2 = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10+ state was T1/2 = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2+ state, 100(36) ns.

  16. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range.

    PubMed

    Toufen, D L; Allegro, P R P; Medina, N H; Oliveira, J R B; Cybulska, E W; Seale, W A; Linares, R; Silveira, M A G; Ribas, R V

    2014-07-01

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: (54)Fe, 10(+) state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T(1/2) = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2(+) state of (19)F (E = 197.143 (4) keV, T(1/2) = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10(+) state was T(1/2) = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2(+) state, 100(36) ns.

  17. Spontaneous Isomerization of Peptide Cation Radicals Following Electron Transfer Dissociation Revealed by UV-Vis Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaoka, Naruaki; Houferak, Camille; Murphy, Megan P.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Dang, Andy; Tureček, František

    2018-01-01

    Peptide cation radicals of the z-type were produced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide dications and studied by UV-Vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Cation radicals containing the Asp (D), Asn (N), Glu (E), and Gln (Q) residues were found to spontaneously isomerize by hydrogen atom migrations upon ETD. Canonical N-terminal [z4 + H]+● fragment ion-radicals of the R-C●H-CONH- type, initially formed by N-Cα bond cleavage, were found to be minor components of the stable ion fraction. Vibronically broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory for several [●DAAR + H]+ isomers and used to assign structures to the action spectra. The potential energy surface of [●DAAR + H]+ isomers was mapped by ab initio and density functional theory calculations that revealed multiple isomerization pathways by hydrogen atom migrations. The transition-state energies for the isomerizations were found to be lower than the dissociation thresholds, accounting for the isomerization in non-dissociating ions. The facile isomerization in [●XAAR + H]+ ions (X = D, N, E, and Q) was attributed to low-energy intermediates having the radical defect in the side chain that can promote hydrogen migration along backbone Cα positions. A similar side-chain mediated mechanism is suggested for the facile intermolecular hydrogen migration between the c- and [z + H]●-ETD fragments containing Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln residues. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. A system to measure isomeric state half-lives in the 10 ns to 10 μs range

    SciTech Connect

    Toufen, D. L., E-mail: dennis@if.usp.br; Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo - IFSP, 07115-000 Guarulhos, São Paulo; Allegro, P. R. P.

    2014-07-15

    The Isomeric State Measurement System (SISMEI) was developed to search for isomeric nuclear states produced by fusion-evaporation reactions. The SISMEI consists of 10 plastic phoswich telescopes, two lead shields, one NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, two Compton suppressed HPGe γ-ray detectors, and a cone with a recoil product catcher. The new system was tested at the 8 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator of the University of São Paulo with the measurement of two known isomeric states: {sup 54}Fe, 10{sup +} state (E = 6527.1 (11) keV, T{sub 1/2} = 364(7) ns) and the 5/2{sup +} state of {sup 19}F (E = 197.143 (4)more » keV, T{sub 1/2} = 89.3 (10) ns). The results indicate that the system is capable of identifying delayed transitions, of measuring isomeric state lifetimes, and of identifying the feeding transitions of the isomeric state through the delayed γ-γ coincidence method. The measured half-life for the 10{sup +} state was T{sub 1/2} = 365(14) ns and for the 5/2{sup +} state, 100(36) ns.« less

  19. Spontaneous Isomerization of Peptide Cation Radicals Following Electron Transfer Dissociation Revealed by UV-Vis Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Naruaki; Houferak, Camille; Murphy, Megan P; Nguyen, Huong T H; Dang, Andy; Tureček, František

    2018-01-16

    Peptide cation radicals of the z-type were produced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide dications and studied by UV-Vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Cation radicals containing the Asp (D), Asn (N), Glu (E), and Gln (Q) residues were found to spontaneously isomerize by hydrogen atom migrations upon ETD. Canonical N-terminal [z 4 + H] +● fragment ion-radicals of the R-C ● H-CONH- type, initially formed by N-C α bond cleavage, were found to be minor components of the stable ion fraction. Vibronically broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory for several [ ● DAAR + H] + isomers and used to assign structures to the action spectra. The potential energy surface of [ ● DAAR + H] + isomers was mapped by ab initio and density functional theory calculations that revealed multiple isomerization pathways by hydrogen atom migrations. The transition-state energies for the isomerizations were found to be lower than the dissociation thresholds, accounting for the isomerization in non-dissociating ions. The facile isomerization in [ ● XAAR + H] + ions (X = D, N, E, and Q) was attributed to low-energy intermediates having the radical defect in the side chain that can promote hydrogen migration along backbone C α positions. A similar side-chain mediated mechanism is suggested for the facile intermolecular hydrogen migration between the c- and [z + H] ● -ETD fragments containing Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln residues. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Shannon entropy and particle decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Millán, Pedro; García-Ferrero, M. Ángeles; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Porras Riojano, Ana; Sánchez García, Esteban M.

    2018-05-01

    We deploy Shannon's information entropy to the distribution of branching fractions in a particle decay. This serves to quantify how important a given new reported decay channel is, from the point of view of the information that it adds to the already known ones. Because the entropy is additive, one can subdivide the set of channels and discuss, for example, how much information the discovery of a new decay branching would add; or subdivide the decay distribution down to the level of individual quantum states (which can be quickly counted by the phase space). We illustrate the concept with some examples of experimentally known particle decay distributions.

  1. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  2. Unveiling the mechanism of photoinduced isomerization of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, Evgeniy V., E-mail: evgeniy.gromov@pci.uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-12-14

    A detailed theoretical analysis, based on extensive ab initio second-order approximate coupled cluster calculations, has been performed for the S{sub 1} potential energy surface (PES) of four photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore derivatives that are hydrogen bonded with two water molecules and differ merely in the carbonyl substituent. The main focus is put on contrasting the isomerization properties of these four species in the S{sub 1} excited state, related to torsion around the chromophore's single and double carbon-carbon bonds. The analysis provides evidence of the different isomerization behavior of these four chromophore complexes, which relates to the difference in theirmore » carbonyl substituents. While a stable double-bond torsion pathway exists on the S{sub 1} PES of the chromophores bearing the –O–CH{sub 3} and –NH{sub 2} substituents, this is not the case for the –S–CH{sub 3} and –CH{sub 3} substituted species. The presence of the –S–CH{sub 3} group leads to a strong instability of the chromophore with respect to the single-bond twist, whereas in the case of the –CH{sub 3} substituent a crossing of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} PESs occurs, which perturbs the pathway. Based on this analysis, the key factors that support the double-bond torsion have been identified. These are (i) the hydrogen bonds at the phenolic oxygen of the chromophore, (ii) the weak electron-acceptor character of the carbonyl group, and (iii) the ethylene-like pattern of the torsion in the beginning of the process. Our results suggest that the interplay between these factors determines the chromophore's isomerization in the solvent environment and in the native PYP environment.« less

  3. Dipole-resonance assisted isomerization in the electronic ground state using few-cycle infrared pulses.

    PubMed

    Skocek, Oliver; Uiberacker, Christoph; Jakubetz, Werner

    2011-06-30

    A computational investigation of HCN → HNC isomerization in the electronic ground state by one- and few-cycle infrared pulses is presented. Starting from a vibrationally pre-excited reagent state, isomerization yields of more than 50% are obtained using single one- to five-cycle pulses. The principal mechanism includes two steps of population transfer by dipole-resonance (DR), and hence, the success of the method is closely linked to the polarity of the system and, in particular, the stepwise change of the dipole moment from reactant to transition state and on to products. The yield drops massively if the diagonal dipole matrix elements are artificially set to zero. In detail, the mechanism includes DR-induced preparation of a delocalized vibrational wavepacket, which traverses the barrier region and is finally trapped in the product well by DR-dominated de-excitation. The excitation and de-excitation steps are triggered by pulse lobes of opposite field direction. As the number of optical cycles is increased, the leading field lobes prepare a vibrational superposition state by off-resonant ladder climbing, which is then subjected to the three steps of the principal isomerization mechanism. DR excitation is more efficient from a preformed vibrational wavepacket than from a molecular eigenstate. The entire process can be loosely described as Tannor-Kosloff-Rice type transfer mechanism on a single potential surface effected by a single pulse, individual field lobes assuming the roles of pump- and dump-pulses. Pre-excitation to a transient wavepacket can be enhanced by applying a separate, comparatively weak few-cycle prepulse, in which the prepulse prepares a vibrational wavepacket. The two-pulse setup corresponds to a double Tannor-Kosloff-Rice control scheme on a single potential surface.

  4. A comprehensive mechanistic picture of the isomerizing alkoxycarbonylation of plant oils.

    PubMed

    Roesle, Philipp; Caporaso, Lucia; Schnitte, Manuel; Goldbach, Verena; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-12-03

    Theoretical studies on the overall catalytic cycle of isomerizing alkoxycarbonylation reveal the steric congestion around the diphosphine coordinated Pd-center as decisive for selectivity and productivity. The energy profile of isomerization is flat with diphosphines of variable steric bulk, but the preference for the formation of the linear Pd-alkyl species is more pronounced with sterically demanding diphosphines. CO insertion is feasible and reversible for all Pd-alkyl species studied and only little affected by the diphosphine. The overall rate-limiting step associated with the highest energetic barrier is methanolysis of the Pd-acyl species. Considering methanolysis of the linear Pd-acyl species, whose energetic barrier is lowest within all the Pd-acyl species studied, the barrier is calculated to be lower for more congesting diphosphines. Calculations indicate that energy differences of methanolysis of the linear versus branched Pd-acyls are more pronounced for more bulky diphosphines, due to involvement of different numbers of methanol molecules in the transition state. Experimental studies under pressure reactor conditions showed a faster conversion of shorter chain olefin substrates, but virtually no effect of the double bond position within the substrate. Compared to higher olefins, ethylene carbonylation under identical conditions is much faster, likely due not just to the occurrence of reactive linear acyls exclusively but also to an intrinsically favorable insertion reactivity of the olefin. The alcoholysis reaction is slowed down for higher alcohols, evidenced by pressure reactor and NMR studies. Multiple unsaturated fatty acids were observed to form a terminal Pd-allyl species upon reaction with the catalytically active Pd-hydride species. This process and further carbonylation are slow compared to isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of monounsaturated fatty acids, but selective.

  5. Racemized and Isomerized Proteins in Aging Rat Teeth and Eye Lens

    PubMed Central

    Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Mansilla, Eduardo; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The quantification of aspartic acid racemization in the proteins of nonmetabolically active tissues can be used as a measure of chronological aging in humans and other long-lived organisms. However, very few studies have been conducted in shorter-lived animals such as rodents, which are increasingly used as genetic and metabolic models of aging. An initial study had reported significant changes in the ratio of d- to l-aspartate in rat molars with age. Using a sensitive HPLC method for the determination of d- and l-aspartate from protein hydrolysates, we found no accumulation of d-aspartate in the molars of 17 rats that ranged in age from 2 to 44 months, and the amount of d-aspartate per molar did not correspond with molar eruption date as had been previously reported. However, developing an alternate approach, we found significant accumulation of isomerized aspartyl residues in eye lens proteins that are also formed by spontaneous degradation processes. In this study, we used the human protein l-isoaspartate/d-aspartate O-methyltransferase (PCMT1) as an analytical reagent in a sensitive and convenient procedure that could be used to rapidly examine multiple samples simultaneously. We found levels of isomerized aspartyl residues to be about 35 times higher in the lens extracts of 18-month-old rats versus 2-month-old rats, suggesting that isomerization may be an effective marker for biological aging in this range of ages. Importantly, we found that the accumulation appeared to plateau in rats of 18 months and older, indicating that potentially novel mechanisms for removing altered proteins may develop with age. PMID:26650547

  6. Outcomes following the Kawashima procedure for single-ventricle palliation in left atrial isomerism.

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Anne; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Rizvi, Maleeha; Hoschtitzky, Andreas; Anderson, David; Austin, Conal; Tibby, Shane M; Simpson, John

    2012-03-01

    Patients with left atrial isomerism and interrupted inferior vena cava palliated with a superior cavopulmonary connection or Kawashima procedure (KP) have a high incidence of developing pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. The necessity for hepatic vein redirection (HVR) and its timing remains a controversy. We aimed to assess the clinical outcome of patients with left atrial isomerism following a KP. The main end points were death, requirement for HVR and the impact of HVR on oxygen saturation. Retrospective review of 21 patients with a diagnosis of left atrial isomerism, interruption of the inferior vena cava and single-ventricle physiology managed with a KP at a single centre between January 1990 and March 2010. Twenty-one patients had a KP, with 12 subsequently undergoing HVR. There was relatively a constant monthly decrement in the proportion of patients who were free from death or HVR up until 60 months following the KP, with a dramatic increase in the hazard after this time. The Cox proportional hazards regression model demonstrated a reduced early risk for HVR or death in patients who underwent pulmonary artery banding versus arterial shunt as the primary procedure (hazard ratio: 0.10; P = 0.01), and an increased risk with bilateral superior vena cavas (SVCs) (hazard ratio: 3.4; P = 0.04) and age at KP (hazard ratio: 1.02 per month increase in age at KP; P = 0.02). HVR mortality was relatively high with 3 of 12 patients dying in the early postoperative period with profound cyanosis. The timing of HVR after the KP did not influence the postoperative rate of increase in oxygen saturation. These findings confirm that the majority of patients who undergo a KP will require HVR. Patients who are older at the time of the KP or having an initial arterial shunt or bilateral SVCs are at higher risk of HVR or death. The relatively high mortality at HVR was characterized by severe postoperative cyanosis.

  7. Spatiotemporal manipulation of retinoic acid activity in zebrafish hindbrain development via photo-isomerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Feng, Zhiping; Sinha, Deepak; Ducos, Bertrand; Ebenstein, Yuval; Tadmor, Arbel D; Gauron, Carole; Le Saux, Thomas; Lin, Shuo; Weiss, Shimon; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    2012-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a key player in many developmental pathways. Most methods used to study its effects in development involve continuous all-trans RA activation by incubation in a solution of all-trans RA or by implanting all-trans RA-soaked beads at desired locations in the embryo. Here we show that the UV-driven photo-isomerization of 13-cis RA to the trans-isomer (and vice versa) can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively control the concentration of all-trans RA in a developing embryo in time and space. This facilitates the global or local perturbation of developmental pathways with a pulse of all-trans RA of known concentration or its inactivation by UV illumination. In zebrafish embryos in which endogenous synthesis of all-trans RA is impaired, incubation for as little as 5 minutes in 1 nM all-trans RA (a pulse) or 5 nM 13-cis RA followed by 1-minute UV illumination is sufficient to rescue the development of the hindbrain if performed no later than bud stage. However, if subsequent to this all-trans RA pulse the embryo is illuminated (no later than bud stage) for 1 minute with UV light (to isomerize, i.e. deactivate, all-trans RA), the rescue of hindbrain development is impaired. This suggests that all-trans RA is sequestered in embryos that have been transiently exposed to it. Using 13-cis RA isomerization with UV light, we further show that local illumination at bud stage of the head region (but not the tail) is sufficient to rescue hindbrain formation in embryos whose all-trans RA synthetic pathway has been impaired.

  8. UV-induced isomerization of oral retinoids in vitro and in vivo in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Berne, B; Rollman, O; Vahlquist, A

    1990-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes isomerization and destruction of many vitamin A analogues (retinoids). Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we investigated in vitro and in vivo the effects of UV irradiation on 2 all-trans aromatic retinoids (etretinate and acitretin) and on 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretinoin). When etretinate and acitretin dissolved in ethanol were irradiated with UVB (280-320 nm; 10-336 mJ/cm2) or UVA (320-400 nm; 1-5 J/cm2), extensive and reproducible cis-isomerizations occurred at the 13-position (cis/trans ratio approximately 1.6 in all experiments) but there was no progressive photodegradation of the molecules. Irradiation of isotretinoin produced only moderate trans-isomerization but the sum of HPLC peak heights fell with increasing UV doses, being 72% of the original value after 336 mJ/cm2 of UVB. Hairless mice were given etretinate (50 mg/kg bw), acitretin (200 mg/kg) or isotretinoin (50 mg/kg) on days 1, 4 and 7 and were irradiated daily for 8 d with 13 mJ/cm2 UVB plus 1 J/cm2 UVA. Samples of serum, dorsal skin and liver were collected and retinoids analyzed by HPLC. In the etretinate and acitretin-treated, irradiated animals the serum concentrations of the 13-cis isomers were 2-6 times higher than in nonirradiated controls. Irradiated epidermis also contained significantly higher concentrations of 13-cis etretinate and 13-cis acitretin than did control epidermis. The serum and epidermal concentrations of all-trans etretinate and acitretin were unchanged or even increased after irradiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Positionally isomeric organic gelators: structure-gelation study, racemic versus enantiomeric gelators, and solvation effects.

    PubMed

    Caplar, Vesna; Frkanec, Leo; Sijaković Vujicić, Natasa; Zinić, Mladen

    2010-03-08

    Low molecular weight gelator molecules consisting of aliphatic acid, amino acid (phenylglycine), and omega-aminoaliphatic acid units have been designed. By varying the number of methylene units in the aliphatic and omega-aminoaliphatic acid chains, as defined by descriptors m and n, respectively, a series of positionally isomeric gelators having different positions of the peptidic hydrogen-bonding unit within the gelator molecule has been obtained. The gelation properties of the positional isomers have been determined in relation to a defined set of twenty solvents of different structure and polarity and analyzed in terms of gelator versatility (G(ver)) and effectiveness (G(eff)). The results of gelation tests have shown that simple synthetic optimizations of a "lead gelator molecule" by variation of m and n, end-group polarity (carboxylic acid versus sodium carboxylate), and stereochemistry (racemate versus optically pure form) allowed the identification of gelators with tremendously improved versatility (G(ver)) and effectiveness (G(eff)). Dramatic differences in G(eff) values of up to 70 times could be observed between pure racemate/enantiomer pairs of some gelators, which were manifested even in the gelation of very similar solvents such as isomeric xylenes. The combined results of spectroscopic ((1)H NMR, FTIR), electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction studies suggest similar organization of the positionally isomeric gelators at the molecular level, comprising parallel beta-sheet hydrogen-bonded primary assemblies that form inversed bilayers at a higher organizational level. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of selected enantiomer/racemate gelator pairs and their o- and p-xylene gels revealed the simultaneous presence of different polymorphs in the racemate gels. The increased gelation effectiveness of the racemate compared to that of the single enantiomer is most likely a consequence of its spontaneous resolution into enantiomeric

  10. Role of cis-trans proline isomerization in the function of pathogenic enterobacterial Periplasmic Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Hernandez, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Periplasmic Binding Proteins (PBPs) trap nutrients for their internalization into bacteria by ABC transporters. Ligand binding triggers PBP closure by bringing its two domains together like a Venus flytrap. The atomic determinants that control PBP opening and closure for nutrient capture and release are not known, although it is proposed that opening and ligand release occur while in contact with the ABC transporter for concurrent substrate translocation. In this paper we evaluated the effect of the isomerization of a conserved proline, located near the binding site, on the propensity of PBPs to open and close. ArgT/LAO from Salmonella typhimurium and HisJ from Escherichia coli were studied through molecular mechanics at two different temperatures: 300 and 323 K. Eight microseconds were simulated per protein to analyze protein opening and closure in the absence of the ABC transporter. We show that when the studied proline is in trans, closed empty LAO and HisJ can open. In contrast, with the proline in cis, opening transitions were much less frequent and characterized by smaller changes. The proline in trans also renders the open trap prone to close over a ligand. Our data suggest that the isomerization of this conserved proline modulates the PBP mechanism: the proline in trans allows the exploration of conformational space to produce trap opening and closure, while in cis it restricts PBP movement and could limit ligand release until in productive contact with the ABC transporter. This is the first time that a proline isomerization has been related to the control of a large conformational change like the PBP flytrap mechanism. PMID:29190818

  11. The effect of protonation on the thermal isomerization of stilbazolium betaines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavan, Paul; Schulten, Klaus

    1984-09-01

    MINDOC calculations have been carried out on the protonated and unprotonated forms of a stilbazolium betaine. The results show (1) a strong increase by 24 kcal/mol of the torsional barrier around the central bond upon protonation, (2) polar structures for the protonated as well as the unprotonated forms, and (3) strong alterations of the polar structure of the latter during isomerization, and predict a higher pK value for the cis isomer, particularly, in the case of less polar and less protonic solvents.

  12. Excitation Localization/Delocalization Isomerism in a Strongly Coupled Covalent Dimer of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Schrauben, Joel N.; Akdag, Akin; Wen, Jin

    Two isomers of both the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of the directly para, para'-connected covalent dimer of the singlet-fission chromophore 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran have been observed. In one isomer, excitation is delocalized over both halves of the dimer, and in the other, it is localized on one or the other half. For a covalent dimer in solution, such 'excitation isomerism' is extremely rare. The vibrationally relaxed isomers do not interconvert, and their photophysical properties, including singlet fission, differ significantly.

  13. Intraatrial baffle repair of isolated ventricular inversion with left atrial isomerism.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, D B; Reddy, V M; Silverman, N H; Hanley, F L

    1996-11-01

    Isolated ventricular inversion with left atrial isomerism, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, and interruption of the inferior vena cava with azygos continuation to a right superior vena cava was diagnosed by echocardiography in a neonate. At 48 days of age, the patient underwent successful anatomic correction with redirection of flow from the superior vena cava and hepatic veins to the left-sided tricuspid valve, and flow from the pulmonary veins to the right-sided mitral valve. In the present report, the surgical techniques of this case are described, along with a survey of the surgical literature covering anatomic repair of isolated ventricular inversion.

  14. The effect of rotational isomerism on the first hyperpolarizability of chromophores with divinyl quinoxaline conjugated bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitskaya, A. I.; Kalinin, A. A.; Fominykh, O. D.; Balakina, M. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of rotational isomerism on the values of first hyperpolarizability is studied by the example of two chromophores 7-DMA-VQV-TCP and 3-DMA-VQonV-TCP with quinoxaline and quinoxalinone moieties in the π-electron bridge. At the isomers formation the rotations about three single bonds are considered, thus providing eight possible conformers for each chromophore. The analysis of the results of DFT calculations demonstrates the presence of one lowest-energy conformer characterized by dominating probability for each chromophore. The calculations show that for both chromophores all rotational isomers are characterized by the first hyperpolarizability values rather close (within 8% and 11%) to statistically averaged ones.

  15. Isomeric N-Annulated Perylene Diimide Dimers for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zetong; Fu, Huiting; Meng, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Zhaohui

    2018-04-16

    Two isomeric N-annulated perylene diimide dimers, namely, p-BDNP and m-BDNP were designed and synthesized via geometric tuning. The distinct molecular geometry and packing arrangements of isomers with almost identical optical and electrochemical properties rendered us an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure-aggregation state-photovoltaic performance relationship. Blended with the commercially available donor PCE-10, p-BDNP and m-BDNP showed distinct differences in photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.01 % and 4.15 %, respectively. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  17. An infrared study of the nitro—nitrito linkage isomerization in solid nitro- and nitritopentamminecobalt(III) chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyns, A. M.; de Waal, D.

    1989-01-01

    The photochemical isomerization reaction of [Co(NH 3) 5NO 2]Cl 2 to [Co(NH 3) 5ONO]Cl 2 has been studied in the solid state by means of i.r. spectroscopy. The reaction is first order with k = 2.53±0.05 × 10 -4s -1 and is much faster ( t1/2=49min) than the well-known spontaneous nitrito → nitro isomerization ( t1/2 = 6 days). The i.r. bands of both the NH 3 and ONO - -groups in the range 4000-50 cm -1 indicate minor differences between the structures of freshly and photochemically prepared [Co(NH 3) 5ONO]Cl 2. The far i.r. spectra indicate the disorder existing in the intermediate products during the isomerization processes.

  18. Effects of Infrared Laser Radiation on the In Vitro Isomerization of All-Trans Retinal to 11-Cis Retinal

    PubMed Central

    Liegner, J.; Taboada, J.; Tsin, A. T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro effect of infrared laser light on the isomerization of all-trans retinal dissolved in an ether/hexane and also an ethanol solvent was studied. Pulsed laser energy at 1064 nm was used to drive the molecular reconfiguration of all-trans retinal to 11-cis retinal. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the conversion. Overall isomerization was minimal (0.2 percent to 1.0 percent), yet, a significant difference in isomerization due to pulsed infrared laser energy over non-modulated monochromatic laser light was detected (up to 168 percent difference). Potentially, pulsed laser radiation tuned to the ethylenic stretch frequency of the C11=C12 bond of retinal may induce rotational changes to the chromophore. PMID:26321787

  19. Force-dependent isomerization kinetics of a highly conserved proline switch modulates the mechanosensing region of filamin

    PubMed Central

    Rognoni, Lorenz; Möst, Tobias; Žoldák, Gabriel; Rief, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Proline switches, controlled by cis–trans isomerization, have emerged as a particularly effective regulatory mechanism in a wide range of biological processes. In this study, we use single-molecule mechanical measurements to develop a full kinetic and energetic description of a highly conserved proline switch in the force-sensing domain 20 of human filamin and how prolyl isomerization modulates the force-sensing mechanism. Proline isomerization toggles domain 20 between two conformations. A stable cis conformation with slow unfolding, favoring the autoinhibited closed conformation of filamin’s force-sensing domain pair 20–21, and a less stable, uninhibited conformation promoted by the trans form. The data provide detailed insight into the folding mechanisms that underpin the functionality of this binary switch and elucidate its remarkable efficiency in modulating force-sensing, thus combining two previously unconnected regulatory mechanisms, proline switches and mechanosensing. PMID:24706888

  20. Decay of 201-203Ra and 200-202Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaninová, Z.; Antalic, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Andel, B.; Bianco, L.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Page, R. D.; Sapple, P. J.; Thomson, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.

    2014-05-01

    Decay properties of the neutron-deficient nuclides 201-203Ra and 200-202Fr were investigated using α- and γ-decay spectroscopy. The nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions of 56Fe projectiles with enriched 147Sm and 149Sm targets at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany). The α decay from the (3/2-) state in 201Ra was identified with an energy Eα=7842(12) keV and half-life T1/2=8-4+40 ms. Ambiguous decay properties for 202Ra from previous measurements were clarified by remeasuring with significantly improved precision, resulting in values of Eα=7722(7) keV and T1/2=3.8-0.8+1.3 ms. New short-lived isomeric states were identified in 200Fr and 201Fr with half-lives of 0.6-0.2+0.5 μs and 0.7-0.2+0.5 μs, respectively. A tentative spin and parity of 13/2+ were assigned to the latter. One event attributed to β-delayed fission of 200Fr was observed.

  1. Computational Studies Of Chemical Reactions: The Hnc-Hcn And Ch[subscript3]Nc-Ch[subscript3]Cn Isomerizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.

    2006-01-01

    The application of computational methods to the isomerization of hydrogen isocyanide to hydrogen cyanide, HNC-HCN is described. The logical extension to the exercise is presented to the isomerization of the methyl-substituted compounds, methylisocyanide and methylcyanide, Ch[subscript 3]NC-CH[subscript3]CN.

  2. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  3. Theoretical analysis of the overtone-induced isomerization of methyl isocyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.; Chandler, D.W.

    1986-10-15

    A master-equation formalism is applied to the problem of overtone-induced isomerization of CH/sub 3/NC to CH/sub 3/CN. The results are compared to the experiments of Reddy and Berry, who measured the yield of isomerization as a function of pressure after excitation to the fourth and fifth overtones of the CH stretching mode. The master-equation model predicts the yield and the curvature in the yield/sup -1/ vs pressure plots observed in the experiments. For the lower overtone (50) the results are consistent with a simple strong-collider model. However, even under strong-collider conditions the yield is very sensitive to the parameters inmore » the master equation. For the upper overtone (60) the data do not fit a strong collider model and multistep deactivation dominates. We are able to determine from the data the average energy transferred in a collision by assuming a particular form for the energy-transfer function. In addition, the effect of changing the shape of the energy-transfer function is investigated.« less

  4. 1,2-Fluorine Radical Rearrangements: Isomerization Events in Perfluorinated Radicals.

    PubMed

    Van Hoomissen, Daniel J; Vyas, Shubham

    2017-11-16

    Devising effective degradation technologies for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is an active area of research, where the molecular mechanisms involving both oxidative and reductive pathways are still elusive. One commonly neglected pathway in PFAS degradation is fluorine atom migration in perfluoroalkyl radicals, which was largely assumed to be implausible because of the high C-F bond strength. Using density functional theory calculations, it was demonstrated that 1,2-F atom migrations are thermodynamically favored when the fluorine atom migrated from a less branched carbon center to a more branched carbon center. Activation barriers for these rearrangements were within 19-29 kcal/mol, which are possible to easily overcome at elevated temperatures or in photochemically activated species in the gas or aqueous phase. It was also found that the activation barriers for the 1,2-F atom migration are lowered as much as by 10 kcal/mol when common oxidative degradation products such as HF assisted the rearrangements or if the resulting radical center was stabilized by vicinal π-bonds. Natural bond orbital analyses showed that fluorine moves as a radical in a noncharge-separated state. These findings add an important reaction to the existing knowledge of mechanisms for PFAS degradation and highlights the fact that 1,2-F atom shifts may be a small channel for isomerization of these compounds, but upon availability of mineralization products, this isomerization process could become more prominent.

  5. Separation and Identification of Isomeric Glycopeptides by High Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is challenging due to the numerous possibilities for isomerization, both within the attached glycan and the location of the modification on the peptide backbone. Here, we demonstrate that high field asymmetric wave ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), also known as differential ion mobility, is able to separate isomeric O-linked glycopeptides that have identical sequences but differing sites of glycosylation. Two glycopeptides from the glycoprotein mucin 5AC, GT(GalNAc)TPSPVPTTSTTSAP and GTTPSPVPTTST(GalNAc)TSAP (where GalNAc is O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine), were shown to coelute following reversed-phase liquid chromatography. However, FAIMS analysis of the glycopeptides revealed that the compensation voltage ranges in which the peptides were transmitted differed. Thus, it is possible at certain compensation voltages to completely separate the glycopeptides. Separation of the glycopeptides was confirmed by unique reporter ions produced by supplemental activation electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. These fragments also enable localization of the site of glycosylation. The results suggest that glycan position plays a key role in determining gas-phase glycopeptide structure and have implications for the application of FAIMS in glycoproteomics. PMID:22280549

  6. In vitro metabolism of nitric oxide-donating aspirin: the effect of positional isomerism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianjun; Kashfi, Khosrow; Rigas, Basil

    2005-03-01

    NO-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a potentially important chemopreventive agent against cancer. Since positional isomerism affects strongly its potency in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, we studied the metabolic transformations of its ortho-, meta-, and para-isomers in rat liver and colon cytosolic, microsomal, and mitochondrial fractions as well as in intact HT-29 human colon cancer cells. NO-ASA and metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and products identified by mass spectroscopy, as required. For all three isomers, the acetyl group on the ASA moiety was hydrolyzed rapidly. This was followed by hydrolysis of the ester bond linking the salicylate anion to the spacer. The ortho- and para-isomers produced salicylic acid and a putative intermediate consisting of the remainder of the molecule, which via a rapid step generated nitrate, (hydroxymethyl)phenol, and a conjugate of spacer with glutathione. The meta-isomer, in contrast, generated salicylic acid and (nitroxymethyl)phenol, the latter leading to (hydroxymethyl)phenol and the glutathione-spacer conjugate. This metabolic pathway takes place in its entirety only in the cytosolic fraction of the tissues tested and in intact human colon cancer cells, perhaps reflecting exposure to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the formation of the spacer-glutathione conjugate. Thus, the three positional isomers of NO-ASA differ in their metabolism and these differences correlate with their differential effects on cancer cell growth, underscoring the importance of positional isomerism in modulating drug effects.

  7. Ion Mobility Separation of Isomeric Carbohydrate Precursor Ions and Acquisition of their Independent Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Maolei; Bendiak, Brad; Clowers, Brian; Hill, Herbert H.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid separation of isomeric precursor ions of oligosaccharides prior to their analysis by MSn was demonstrated using an ambient pressure ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) interfaced with a quadrupole ion trap. Separations were not limited to specific types of isomers; representative isomers differing solely in the stereochemistry of sugars, in their anomeric configurations, and in their overall branching patterns and linkage positions could be resolved in the millisecond time frame. Physical separation of precursor ions permitted independent mass spectra of individual oligosaccharide isomers to be acquired to at least MS3, the number of stages of dissociation limited only practically by the abundance of specific product ions. IMS-MSn analysis was particularly valuable in the evaluation of isomeric oligosaccharides that yielded identical sets of product ions in MS/MS experiments, revealing pairs of isomers that would otherwise not be known to be present in a mixture if evaluated solely by MS dissociation methods alone. A practical example of IMS-MSn analysis of a set of isomers included within a single HPLC fraction of oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin is described. PMID:19562326

  8. Taple-top imaging of the non-adiabatically driven isomerization in the acetylene cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Samuel; Ibrahim, Heide; Wales, Benji; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T.; Wanie, Vincent; Giguere, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Sanderson, Joe; Schuurman, Michael S.; Légaré, François

    2014-05-01

    One of the primary goals of modern ultrafast science is to follow nuclear and electronic evolution of molecules as they undergo a photo-chemical reaction. Most of the interesting dynamics phenomena in molecules occur when an electronically excited state is populated. When the energy difference between electronic ground and excited states is large, Free Electron Laser (FEL) and HHG-based VUV sources were, up to date, the only light sources able to efficiently initiate those non-adiabatic dynamics. We have developed a simple table-top approach to initiate those rich dynamics via multiphoton absorption. As a proof of principle, we studied the ultrafast isomerization of the acetylene cation. We have chosen this model system for isomerization since the internal conversion mechanism which leads to proton migration is still under debate since decades. Using 266 nm multiphoton absorption as a pump and 800 nm induced Coulomb Explosion as a probe, we have shoot the first high-resolution molecular movie of the non-adiabatically driven proton migration in the acetylene cation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with high level ab initio trajectory simulations.

  9. Toward spectroscopically accurate global ab initio potential energy surface for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Huixian; School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069; Li, Anyang

    2014-12-28

    A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S{sub 0}) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ∼37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm{sup −1}. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies upmore » to 12 700 cm{sup −1} above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction.« less

  10. Silver complexation and tandem mass spectrometry for differentiation of isomeric flavonoid diglycosides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junmei; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2005-03-15

    For detection and differentiation of isomeric flavonoids, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is used to generate silver complexes of the type (Ag + flavonoid)+. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the resulting 1:1 silver/flavonoid complexes allows isomer differentiation of flavonoids. Eighteen flavonoid diglycosides constituting seven isomeric series are distinguishable from each other based on the CAD patterns of their silver complexes. Characteristic dissociation pathways allow identification of the site of glycosylation, the type of disaccharide (rutinose versus neohesperidose), and the type of aglycon (flavonol versus flavone versus flavanone). This silver complexation method is more universal than previous metal complexation methods, as intense silver complexes are observed even for flavonoids that lack the typical metal chelation sites. To demonstrate the feasibility of using silver complexation and tandem mass spectrometry to characterize flavonoids in complex mixtures, flavonoids extracted from grapefruit juice are separated by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed via a postcolumn complexation ESI-MS/MS strategy. Diagnostic fragmentation pathways of the silver complexes of the individual eluting flavonoids allow successful identification of the six flavonoids in the extract.

  11. Initiation of Phage Infection by Partial Unfolding and Prolyl Isomerization*♦

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Weininger, Ulrich; Eckert, Barbara; Jakob, Roman P.; Koch, Johanna R.; Balbach, Jochen; Schmid, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of Escherichia coli by the filamentous phage fd starts with the binding of the N2 domain of the phage gene-3-protein to an F pilus. This interaction triggers partial unfolding of the gene-3-protein, cis → trans isomerization at Pro-213, and domain disassembly, thereby exposing its binding site for the ultimate receptor TolA. The trans-proline sets a molecular timer to maintain the binding-active state long enough for the phage to interact with TolA. We elucidated the changes in structure and local stability that lead to partial unfolding and thus to the activation of the gene-3-protein for phage infection. Protein folding and TolA binding experiments were combined with real-time NMR spectroscopy, amide hydrogen exchange measurements, and phage infectivity assays. In combination, the results provide a molecular picture of how a local unfolding reaction couples with prolyl isomerization not only to generate the activated state of a protein but also to maintain it for an extended time. PMID:23486474

  12. Isomeric organic semiconductors containing fused-thiophene cores: molecular packing and charge transport.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Pei; Wu, Yong; Xu, Yanzi; Zhi, Ying; Zhu, Weiguo

    2018-05-16

    Isomeric TF1 and TF2 with highly fused thiophene cores were designed and synthesized here, in which a highly planar molecular structure was obtained for TF1 with the face-to-face sulfur atoms in the lateral region and a twisted molecular backbone was observed for TF2 with the back-to-back sulfur atoms. It is worth noting that different intermolecular interactions dominated in TF1 and TF2 caused by their isomeric thiophene cores, in which strong π-π stacking was achieved for TF1, whereas sulphur-involved nonbonding intermolecular interactions dominated in TF2, leading to the different fluorescence behaviors and also the altered liquid crystalline phases. Finally, typical P-type charge transport behaviors were achieved in both TF1- and TF2-based solution-processed OFETs. Also owing to the much ordered molecular packing in TF1, a higher charge carrier mobility of 3.7 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for TF1-based OFETs compared to TF2-based OFETs.

  13. Toward spectroscopically accurate global ab initio potential energy surface for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Huixian; Li, Anyang; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-01

    A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S0) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ˜37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm-1. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12 700 cm-1 above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction.

  14. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  15. An integrated experimental and theoretical reaction path search: analyses of the multistage reaction of an ionized diethylether dimer involving isomerization, proton transfer, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka

    2018-05-30

    An ionization-induced multistage reaction of an ionized diethylether (DEE) dimer involving isomerization, proton transfer, and dissociation is investigated by combining infrared (IR) spectroscopy, tandem mass spectrometry, and a theoretical reaction path search. The vertically-ionized DEE dimer isomerizes to a hydrogen-bonded cluster of protonated DEE and the [DEE-H] radical through barrierless intermolecular proton transfer from the CH bond of the ionized moiety. This isomerization process is confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the theoretical reaction path search. The multiple dissociation pathways following the isomerization are analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The isomerized cluster dissociates stepwise into a [protonated DEE-acetaldehyde (AA)] cluster, protonated DEE, and protonated AA. The structure of the fragment ion is also analyzed by IR spectroscopy. The reaction map of the multistage processes is revealed through a harmony of these experimental and theoretical methods.

  16. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  17. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; ...

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  18. Experimental survey of the production of α -decaying heavy elements in 238U+232Th reactions at 7.5-6.1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Gauthier, J.; Cao, X. G.; Wada, R.; Kim, E. J.; Majka, Z.; Płaneta, R.; Sosin, Z.; Wieloch, A.; Zelga, K.; Kowalski, S.; Schmidt, K.; Ma, C.; Zhang, G.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2018-06-01

    The production of α -particle decaying heavy nuclei in reactions of 7.5-6.1 MeV/nucleon 238U +232Th was explored using an in-beam detection array composed of YAP scintillators and gas ionization chamber-Si telescopes. Comparisons of α energies and half-lives for the observed products with those of the previously known isotopes and with theoretically predicted values indicate the observation of a number of previously unreported α emitters. α -particle decay energies reaching as high as 12 MeV are observed. Many of these are expected to be from decay of previously unseen relatively neutron rich products. While the contributions of isomeric states require further exploration and specific isotope identifications need to be made, the production of heavy isotopes with quite high atomic numbers is suggested by the data.

  19. Identification of novel isomeric pectic oligosaccharides using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leijdekkers, Antonius G M; Huang, Jie-Hong; Bakx, Edwin J; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-03-02

    Separation and characterization of complex mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides still remains challenging and often requires the use of multiple analytical techniques, especially when isomeric structures are present. In this work, it is demonstrated that the coupling of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMMS) enabled the simultaneous separation and characterization of complex mixtures of various isomeric pectic oligosaccharides. Labeling of oligosaccharides with 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ) improved MS-ionization efficiency of the oligosaccharides and reduced the complexity of the product ion mass spectra, without losing resolution of the HILIC separation. In addition, labeling enabled quantification of oligosaccharides on molar basis using in-line fluorescence detection. Isomeric structures were distinguished using TWIMMS. The 3-AQ-HILIC-TWIMMS method was used to characterize a series of isomeric sugar beet rhamnogalacturonan I derived oligosaccharides carrying a glucuronic acid substituent. Thereby, some novel structural features were identified for the first time: glucuronic acid was attached to O-3 or to O-2 of galacturonic acid residues and a single galacturonic acid residue within an oligomer could contain both an acetyl group and a glucuronic acid substituent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How does the isomerization rate affect the photoisomerization-induced transport properties of a doped molecular glass-former?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accary, J.-B.; Teboul, V.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of the isomerization rate f on the microscopic mechanisms at the origin of the massive mass transport found in glass-formers doped with isomerizing azobenzene molecules that result in surface relief gratings formation. To this end we simulate the isomerization of dispersed probe molecules embedded into a molecular host glass-former. The host diffusion coefficient first increases linearly with f and then saturates. The saturated value of the diffusion coefficient and of the viscosity does not depend on f but increases with temperature while the linear response for these transport coefficients depends only slightly on the temperature. We interpret this saturation as arising from the appearance of increasingly soft regions around the probes for high isomerization rates, a result in qualitative agreement with experiments. These two different physical behaviors, linear response and saturation, are reminiscent of the two different unexplained mass transport mechanisms observed for small or large light intensities (for small intensities the molecules move towards the dark regions while for large intensities they move towards the illuminated regions).

  1. Brønsted acid-catalyzed decarboxylative redox amination: formation of N-alkylindoles from azomethine ylides by isomerization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hui; Wang, Sichang; Yu, Peng; Lv, Huiqing; Xu, Runsheng; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2011-02-18

    A Brønsted acid-catalyzed decarboxylative redox amination involving aldehydes with 2-carboxyindoline for the synthesis of N-alkylindoles is described. The decarboxylative condensations of aldehydes with 2-carboxyindoline produce azomethine ylides in situ, which then transform into N-alkylindoles by isomerization. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Anion-assisted trans-cis isomerization of palladium(II) phosphine complexes containing acetanilide functionalities through hydrogen bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Hau-San; Ko, Chi-Chiu; Wong, Jenny Ka-Yan; Zhu, Nianyong; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2005-03-28

    The anion-assisted shift of trans-cis isomerization equilibrium of a palladium(II) complex containing acetanilide functionalities brought about by allosteric hydrogen bonding interactions has been established by UV/Vis, 1H NMR, 31P NMR and ESI-MS studies.

  3. Phosphorylation effects on cis/trans isomerization and the backbone conformation of serine-proline motifs: accelerated molecular dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamelberg, Donald; Shen, Tongye; McCammon, J Andrew

    2005-02-16

    The presence of serine/threonine-proline motifs in proteins provides a conformational switching mechanism of the backbone through the cis/trans isomerization of the peptidyl-prolyl (omega) bond. The reversible phosphorylation of the serine/threonine modulates this switching in regulatory proteins to alter signaling and transcription. However, the mechanism is not well understood. This is partly because cis/trans isomerization is a very slow process and, hence, difficult to study. We have used our accelerated molecular dynamics method to study the cis/trans proline isomerization, preferred backbone conformation of a serine-proline motif, and the effects of phosphorylation of the serine residue. We demonstrate that, unlike normal molecular dynamics, the accelerated molecular dynamics allows for the system to escape very easily from the trans isomer to cis isomer, and vice versa. Moreover, for both the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated peptides, the statistical thermodynamic properties are recaptured, and the results are consistent with experimental values. Isomerization of the proline omega bond is shown to be asymmetric and strongly dependent on the psi backbone angle before and after phosphorylation. The rates of escape decrease after phosphorylation. Also, the alpha-helical backbone conformation is more favored after phosphorylation. This accelerated molecular dynamics approach provides a general approach for enhancing the conformational transitions of molecular systems without having prior knowledge of the location of the minima and barriers on the potential-energy landscape.

  4. Tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids to olefins via ruthenium metal-as-ligand catalysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new facile Ru-catalyzed route to bio-olefins3 from unsaturated fatty acids via readily accessible metal-as-ligand type catalyst precursors, [Ru(CO)2RCO2]n and Ru3(CO)12, will be described. The catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds i...

  5. Formation, isomerization, and dissociation of ε- and α-carbon-centered tyrosylglycylglycine radical cations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheuk-Kuen; Mu, Xiaoyan; Hao, Qiang; Hopkinson, Alan C; Chu, Ivan K

    2014-11-28

    The fragmentation products of the ε-carbon-centered radical cations [Y(ε)˙LG](+) and [Y(ε)˙GL](+), made by 266 nm laser photolysis of protonated 3-iodotyrosine-containing peptides, are substantially different from those of their π-centered isomers [Y(π)˙LG](+) and [Y(π)˙GL](+), made by dissociative electron transfer from ternary metal-ligand-peptide complexes. For leucine-containing peptides the major pathway for the ε-carbon-centered radical cations is loss of the side chain of the leucine residue forming [YG(α)˙G](+) and [YGG(α)˙](+), whereas for the π-radicals it is the side chain of the tyrosine residue that is lost, giving [G(α)˙LG](+) and [G(α)˙GL](+). The fragmentations of the product ions [YG(α)˙G](+) and [YGG(α)˙](+) are compared with those of the isomeric [Y(ε)˙GG](+) and [Y(π)˙GG](+) ions. The collision-induced spectra of ions [Y(ε)˙GG](+) and [YGG(α)˙](+) are identical, showing that interconversion occurs prior to dissociation. For ions [Y(ε)˙GG](+), [Y(π)˙GG](+) and [YG(α)˙G](+) the dissociation products are all distinctly different, indicating that dissociation occurs more readily than isomerization. Density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) gave the relative enthalpies (in kcal mol(-1) at 0 K) of the five isomers to be [Y(ε)˙GG](+) 0, [Y(π)˙GG](+) -23.7, [YGG(α)˙](+) -28.7, [YG(α)˙G](+) -31.0 and [Y(α)˙GG](+) -38.5. Migration of an α-C-H atom from the terminal glycine residue to the ε-carbon-centered radical in the tyrosine residue, a 1-11 hydrogen atom shift, has a low barrier, 15.5 kcal mol(-1) above [Y(ε)˙GG](+). By comparison, isomerization of [Y(ε)˙GG](+) to [YG(α)˙G](+) by a 1-8 hydrogen atom migration from the α-C-H atom of the central glycine residue has a much higher barrier (50.6 kcal mol(-1)); similarly conversion of [Y(ε)˙GG](+) into [Y(π)˙GG](+) has a higher energy (24.4 kcal mol(-1)).

  6. Improving outcomes of the Fontan operation in children with atrial isomerism and heterotaxy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Azakie, A; Merklinger, S L; Williams, W G; Van Arsdell, G S; Coles, J G; Adatia, I

    2001-11-01

    The historic outcome of the Fontan procedure in children with single ventricle and heterotaxy syndrome has been poor, and in the current era it has been incompletely described. From January 1993 through April 2000, 30 patients (age range, 5.3 +/- 3.6 years) had total cavopulmonary connection for single ventricle and isomerism and heterotaxy syndrome. Right atrial isomerism and heterotaxy (n = 19) or left atrial isomerism and heterotaxy (n = 11) were associated with a morphologic right ventricle (n = 26), a common atrioventricular valve (n = 25), pulmonary atresia (n = 9) or stenosis (n = 17), anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (partial, n = 7; total, n = 11; obstructed, n = 4), and interrupted inferior vena cava (n = 13). A previous systemic to pulmonary artery shunt had been performed in 21 patients, and 3 patients had previous pulmonary artery banding. The Fontan procedure was staged in all but 3 patients at a median age of 12 months (range, 3 to 114 months). Before the Fontan procedure, atrial arrhythmia was present in 7 patients (23%). An extracardiac conduit was constructed in 22 patients (median diameter, 20 mm; range, 16 to 27 mm), and a lateral tunnel was constructed in 4 patients. Associated procedures included pulmonary artery augmentation (n = 17), repair of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (n = 7), and repair of a regurgitant atrioventricular valve (n = 2). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 134 +/- 57 minutes. Cardioplegic cardiac arrest was used in 12 patients for a mean duration of 62 +/- 28 minutes. There were four hospital deaths (13%), three that occurred in children having concomitant repair of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (previously undetected in one). Thirteen children (41%) developed early postoperative atrial arrhythmias, 11 of the 13 children required temporary pacing. There was one late death. Follow-up (3.4 +/- 2.7 years) was available on 24 of 25 survivors. All but 2 patients were in sinus rhythm. Early and midterm

  7. gA-driven shapes of electron spectra of forbidden β decays in the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of the shape of the electron spectra of 16 forbidden β- decays as a function of gA was studied using the nuclear shell model in appropriate single-particle model spaces with established, well-tested nuclear Hamiltonians. The β spectra of 94Nb(6+) →94Mo(4+) and 98Tc(6+) →98Ru(4+) were found to depend strongly on gA, which makes them excellent candidates for the determination of the effective value of gA with the spectrum-shape method (SSM). A strong gA dependence is also seen in the spectrum of 96Zr(0+) →96Nb(6+) . This decay could be used for determining the quenching of gA in sixth-forbidden decays in the future, when the measurement of the spectrum becomes experimentally feasible. The calculated shell-model electron spectra of the ground-state-to-ground-state decays of 87Rb, 99Tc, and 137Cs and the decay of 137Cs to the isomeric 11 /2- state in 137Ba were found to be in excellent agreement with the spectra previously calculated using the microscopic quasiparticle-phonon model. This is further evidence of the robust nature of the SSM observed in the previous studies.

  8. Tree Decay - An Expanded Concept

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to wounding and infection-compartmentalization-and the orderly infection of wounds by many microorganisms-successions. The heartrot concept must be abandoned because it deals only with decay-causing fungi and it...

  9. Tree decay an expanded concept

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    This publication is the final one in a series on tree decay developed in cooperation with Harold G. Marx, Research Application Staff Assistant, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to...

  10. Light Meson Decays at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangshi

    2017-04-01

    At present the world's largest sample of 1.3 billion J/ψ events was accumulated at the BESIII detector, which offers a unique place to study light meson decays. The recent results on the light meson decays are reviewed in this talk. An emphasis is put on the significant progresses on the study of η/η' decays, including Dalitz plot analysis of η/η' → πππ, observation of new decay modes (η' → π+π-π+(0)π-(0), η' → ρ±π∓, η' → γe+e- and η' → e+e-ω), study of η' → γπ+π- and search for the rare decay of η' → Kπ. In addition, a prospect on the Dalitz plot analysis of ω → π+π-π0 is presented.

  11. Regioselective cis-trans isomerization of arachidonic double bonds by thiyl radicals: the influence of phospholipid supramolecular organization.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Carla; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Sassatelli, Fabio; Landi, Laura; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos

    2004-02-04

    Trans unsaturated fatty acids in humans may be originated by two different contributions. The exogenous track is due to dietary supplementation of trans fats and the endogenous path deals with free-radical-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of fatty acids. Arachidonic acid residue (5c,8c,11c,14c-20:4), which has only two out of the four double bonds deriving from the diet, was used to differentiate the two paths and to assess the importance of a radical reaction. A detailed study on the formation of trans phospholipids catalyzed by the HOCH2CH2S* radical was carried out on L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from egg lecithin and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (SAPC) in homogeneous solution or in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVET). Thiyl radicals were generated from the corresponding thiol by either gamma-irradiation or UV photolysis, and the reaction course was followed by GC, Ag/TLC, and 13C NMR analyses. The isomerization was found to be independent of cis double bond location (random process) in i-PrOH solution. In the case of vesicles, the supramolecular organization of lipids produced a dramatic change of the isomerization outcome: (i) in egg lecithin, the reactivity of arachidonate moieties is higher than that of oleate and linoleate residues, (ii) in the linoleate residues of egg lecithin, the 9t,12c-18:2 isomer prevailed on the 9c,12t-18:2 isomer (3:1 ratio), and (iii) a regioselective isomerization of SAPC arachidonate residues occurred in the 5 and 8 positions. This effect of "positional preference" indicates that thiyl radicals entering the hydrophobic region of the membrane bilayer start to isomerize polyunsaturated fatty acid residues having the double bonds nearest to the membrane surfaces. We propose that arachidonic acid and its trans isomers can function as biomarkers in membranes for distinguishing the two trans fatty acid-forming pathways.

  12. Both the cis-trans equilibrium and isomerization dynamics of a single proline amide modulate β2-microglobulin amyloid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Torbeev, Vladimir Yu.; Hilvert, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The human protein β2-microglobulin (β2m) aggregates as amyloid fibrils in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Isomerization of Pro32 from its native cis to a nonnative trans conformation is thought to trigger β2m misfolding and subsequent amyloid assembly. To examine this hypothesis, we systematically varied the free-energy profile of proline cis-trans isomerization by replacing Pro32 with a series of 4-fluoroprolines via total chemical synthesis. We show that β2m’s stability, (un)folding, and aggregation properties are all influenced by the rate and equilibrium of Pro32 cis-trans isomerization. As anticipated, the β2m monomer was either stabilized or destabilized by respective incorporation of (2S,4S)-fluoroproline, which favors the native cis amide bond, or the stereoisomeric (2S,4R)-fluoroproline, which disfavors this conformation. However, substitution of Pro32 with 4,4-difluoroproline, which has nearly the same cis-trans preference as proline but an enhanced isomerization rate, caused pronounced destabilization of the protein and increased oligomerization at neutral pH. More remarkably, these subtle alterations in chemical composition—incorporation of one or two fluorine atoms into a single proline residue in the 99 amino acid long protein—modulated the aggregation properties of β2m, inducing the formation of polymorphically distinct amyloid fibrils. These results highlight the importance of conformational dynamics for molecular assembly of an amyloid cross-β structure and provide insights into mechanistic aspects of Pro32 cis-trans isomerism in β2m aggregation. PMID:24262149

  13. Both the cis-trans equilibrium and isomerization dynamics of a single proline amide modulate β2-microglobulin amyloid assembly.

    PubMed

    Torbeev, Vladimir Yu; Hilvert, Donald

    2013-12-10

    The human protein β2-microglobulin (β2m) aggregates as amyloid fibrils in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Isomerization of Pro32 from its native cis to a nonnative trans conformation is thought to trigger β2m misfolding and subsequent amyloid assembly. To examine this hypothesis, we systematically varied the free-energy profile of proline cis-trans isomerization by replacing Pro32 with a series of 4-fluoroprolines via total chemical synthesis. We show that β2m's stability, (un)folding, and aggregation properties are all influenced by the rate and equilibrium of Pro32 cis-trans isomerization. As anticipated, the β2m monomer was either stabilized or destabilized by respective incorporation of (2S,4S)-fluoroproline, which favors the native cis amide bond, or the stereoisomeric (2S,4R)-fluoroproline, which disfavors this conformation. However, substitution of Pro32 with 4,4-difluoroproline, which has nearly the same cis-trans preference as proline but an enhanced isomerization rate, caused pronounced destabilization of the protein and increased oligomerization at neutral pH. More remarkably, these subtle alterations in chemical composition--incorporation of one or two fluorine atoms into a single proline residue in the 99 amino acid long protein--modulated the aggregation properties of β2m, inducing the formation of polymorphically distinct amyloid fibrils. These results highlight the importance of conformational dynamics for molecular assembly of an amyloid cross-β structure and provide insights into mechanistic aspects of Pro32 cis-trans isomerism in β2m aggregation.

  14. Characterization of Isomeric Glycans by Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography-Electronic Excitation Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Wei, Juan; Costello, Catherine E.; Lin, Cheng

    2018-04-01

    The occurrence of numerous structural isomers in glycans from biological sources presents a severe challenge for structural glycomics. The subtle differences among isomeric structures demand analytical methods that can provide structural details while working efficiently with on-line glycan separation methods. Although liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful tool for mixture analysis, the commonly utilized collision-induced dissociation (CID) method often does not generate a sufficient number of fragments at the MS2 level for comprehensive structural characterization. Here, we studied the electronic excitation dissociation (EED) behaviors of metal-adducted, permethylated glycans, and identified key spectral features that could facilitate both topology and linkage determinations. We developed an EED-based, nanoscale, reversed phase (RP)LC-MS/MS platform, and demonstrated its ability to achieve complete structural elucidation of up to five structural isomers in a single LC-MS/MS analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Slow and stored light by photo-isomerization induced transparency in dye doped chiral nematics.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Bortolozzo, U; Huignard, J P; Residori, S

    2013-08-26

    Decelerating and stopping light is fundamental for optical processing, high performance sensor technologies and digital signal treatment, many of these applications relying on the ability of controlling the amplitude and phase of coherent light pulses. In this context, slow-light has been achieved by various methods, as coupling light into resonant media, Brillouin scattering in optical fibers, beam coupling in photorefractive and liquid crystal media or engineered dispersion in photonic crystals. Here, we present a different mechanism for slowing and storing light, which is based on photo-isomerization induced transparency of azo-dye molecules hosted in a chiral liquid crystal structure. Sharp spectral features of the medium absorption/dispersion, and the long population lifetime of the dye metastable state, enable the storage of light pulses with a significant retrieval after times much longer than the medium response time.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of isomeric pentanols under elevated pressures determined by the acoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzida, M.

    2008-02-01

    Three isomeric pentanols were studied: pentan-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-buta- nol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol. Isobaric heat capacities and internal pressure at pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures ranging from 293 K to 318 K were determined by the acoustic method. In calculations the measured speeds of sound as function of temperature and pressure together with densities as function of temperature under atmospheric pressure and the literature isobaric heat capacities for the atmospheric pressure were used. To this end, the method, based on the suggestion of Davis and Gordon [1] was applied. The results obtained show that the effect of pressure on and the values of isobaric heat capacity and internal presure of 2-methyl-2-butanol is higher than that of pentan-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-butanol over the whole pressure range. That facilitates telling 2-methyl-2-butanol from pentan-1-ol and 2-methyl-1-butanol.

  17. Holographic recording materials development. [development of cis-trans isomerization for holographic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Developments in the area of organic cis-trans isomerization systems for holographic memory applications are reported. The chemical research effort consisted of photochemical studies leading to the selection of a stilbene derivative and a polymer matrix system which have greatly improved refractive index differences between the cis and trans isomers as well as demonstrated efficiency of the photoisomerization process. In work on lithium niobate effects of sample stoichiometry and of read and write beam polarizations on recording efficiency were investigated. LiNbO3 was used for a study of angular sensitivity and of capability for simultaneous recording of extended objects without interference. The current status of LiNbO3 as a holographic recording material is summarized.

  18. Carotene Degradation and Isomerization during Thermal Processing: A Review on the Kinetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Colle, Ines J P; Lemmens, Lien; Knockaert, Griet; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2016-08-17

    Kinetic models are important tools for process design and optimization to balance desired and undesired reactions taking place in complex food systems during food processing and preservation. This review covers the state of the art on kinetic models available to describe heat-induced conversion of carotenoids, in particular lycopene and β-carotene. First, relevant properties of these carotenoids are discussed. Second, some general aspects of kinetic modeling are introduced, including both empirical single-response modeling and mechanism-based multi-response modeling. The merits of multi-response modeling to simultaneously describe carotene degradation and isomerization are demonstrated. The future challenge in this research field lies in the extension of the current multi-response models to better approach the real reaction pathway and in the integration of kinetic models with mass transfer models in case of reaction in multi-phase food systems.

  19. Evidence for percutaneous absorption of isotretinoin from the photo-isomerization of topical tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Lehman, P A; Malany, A M

    1989-11-01

    Tretinoin (0.1% Retin-A cream) was topically applied to human cadaver skin in vitro using Franz diffusion chambers. The photo-isomerization of tretinoin and retinoic acid percutaneous absorption in the absence of metabolic activity were assessed with and without ambient light exposure to the skin. Using HPLC, UV, and GC/MSD, a retinoid exhibiting identical chromatographic and spectral characteristics of isotretinoin was observed in the samples from the skin exposed to light, but was virtually absent in the skin samples maintained in the dark. From a single topical application of tretinoin, isotretinoin was as abundant as tretinoin in the chamber receiver solution, dermis, epidermis, and on the skin surface at 24 h after topical application. The data suggest the possibility that isotretinoin may have an important role in the pharmacology of topically applied tretinoin.

  20. Kinetic barriers in the isomerization of substituted ureas: implications for computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Johannes R; Ehmki, Emanuel S R; Fuchs, Julian E; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-05-01

    Urea derivatives are ubiquitously found in many chemical disciplines. N,N'-substituted ureas may show different conformational preferences depending on their substitution pattern. The high energetic barrier for isomerization of the cis and trans state poses additional challenges on computational simulation techniques aiming at a reproduction of the biological properties of urea derivatives. Herein, we investigate energetics of urea conformations and their interconversion using a broad spectrum of methodologies ranging from data mining, via quantum chemistry to molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations. We find that the inversion of urea conformations is inherently slow and beyond the time scale of typical simulation protocols. Therefore, extra care needs to be taken by computational chemists to work with appropriate model systems. We find that both knowledge-driven approaches as well as physics-based methods may guide molecular modelers towards accurate starting structures for expensive calculations to ensure that conformations of urea derivatives are modeled as adequately as possible.

  1. Iridium-mediated isomerization-cyclization of bicyclic Pauson-Khand derived allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Yvonne; Chaney, Cíara M; Muldoon, Jimmy; Evans, Paul

    2008-11-07

    Treatment of 2-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-[2]pyrindin-6-ol 10, accessed from the diastereoselective Luche reduction of a Pauson-Khand derived bicylic cyclopentenone, with a catalytic amount of (1,5-cyclooctadiene)(pyridine)(tricyclohexylphosphine)iridium(I) hexafluorophosphate 1 (Crabtree's catalyst) under a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in the formation of 4-(toluene-4-sulfonyl)-2-oxa-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(3,8)]decane 12 as a single diastereoisomer. This process is likely to proceed via an initial Ir(I)-mediated isomerization of the alkene to form an N-sulfonyl enamine 11, followed by cyclization. Evidence to support this came when, after short reaction periods, 11 was isolated, characterized spectroscopically, and on resubmission to the reaction conditions formed 12.

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Isomerization Studies of Light-Driven Molecular Motors for Single Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The design of a multicomponent system that aims at the direct visualization of a synthetic rotary motor at the single molecule level on surfaces is presented. The synthesis of two functional motors enabling photochemical rotation and fluorescent detection is described. The light-driven molecular motor is found to operate in the presence of a fluorescent tag if a rigid long rod (32 Å) is installed between both photoactive moieties. The photochemical isomerization and subsequent thermal helix inversion steps are confirmed by 1H NMR and UV–vis absorption spectroscopies. In addition, the tetra-acid functioned motor can be successfully grafted onto amine-coated quartz and it is shown that the light responsive rotary motion on surfaces is preserved. PMID:29741383

  3. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Murgida, G. E., E-mail: murgida@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Arranz, F. J., E-mail: fj.arranz@upm.es; Borondo, F., E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of themore » method.« less

  4. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques.

  5. Isomerization and Fragmentation of Cyclohexanone in a Heated Micro-Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterfield, Jessica P.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Baraban, Joshua H.; Buckingham, Grant; Troy, Tyler; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Stanton, John F.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, Barney

    2016-06-01

    he thermal decomposition of cyclohexanone (C_6H10=O) has been studied in a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. Samples of C_6H10=O were first observed to decompose at 1200 K. Short residence times of 100 μsec and dilution of samples (<0.1%) isolate unimolecular decomposition. Products were identified by tunable VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy, photoionization appearance thresholds, and complementary matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Thermal cracking of cyclohexanone appeared to result from a variety of competing pathways pictured to the right. Isomerization of cyclohexanone to the enol, cyclohexen-1-ol (C_6H_9OH), is followed by retro-Diels-Alder cleavage to CH_2=CH_2 and CH_2=C(OH)-CH=CH_2. Further isomerization of CH_2=C(OH)CH=CH_2 to methyl vinyl ketone (CH_3COCH=CH_2, MVK) was also observed. Photoionization spectra identified both enols, C_6H_9OH and CH=C(OH)CH=CH_2, and the ionization threshold of C_6H_9OH was measured to be 8.2 ± 0.1 eV. At 1200 K, the products of cyclohexanone pyrolysis were found to be: C_6H_9OH, CH_2=C(OH)CH=CH_2, MVK, CH_2CHCH_2, CO, CH_2=C=O, CH_3, CH_2=C=CH_2, CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2, CH_2=CHCH_2CH_3, CH_2=CH_2, and HCCH.

  6. Triphenylamine based reactive coloro/fluorimetric chemosensors: Structural isomerism and solvent dependent sensitivity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Anu; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2018-01-01

    Triphenyl amine based chemosensors, (2-(((2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)imino)methyl)-5-(diphenylamino)phenol (ortho-CPDP) and 2-(((4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)imino)methyl)-5-(diphenylamino)phenol (para-CPDP), showed solvent and isomerism dependent selective coloro/fluorometric sensing of multiple metal ions (Fe3 +, Al3 + and Zn2 +) with distinguishable responses. In CH3CN, ortho and para-CPDP selectively produced yellow color upon addition of Al3 + and Fe3 + that was slowly disappeared. The yellow color of ortho and para-CPDP in DMF was decolourised selectively by adding Al3 + and Fe3 +. Both ortho and para-CPDP in CH3CN showed nearly similar rate of decolourization for Fe3 + and Al3 +. However, the rate of decolourization of ortho and para-CPDP in DMF was different for Fe3 + (10 μM, 8 min) and Al3 + (5 × 10- 4 M, 40 min) ions. The limit of detection of para-CPDP for Fe3 + is 10 μM and Al3 + 500 μM. The mechanistic studies revealed the imine hydrolysis of ortho and para-CPDP in presence of Lewis acidic Fe3 + and Al3 +. The reactivity based sensing lead to high selectivity for Al3 + and Fe3 + ions. Further, para-CPDP exhibited selective fluorescence turn-on for Zn2 + in DMF (λmax = 513 nm) and detection limit of 6.0 μM. Thus, reactive chemosensors, ortho and para-CPDP, exhibited selective and distinguishable colorimetric sensing of Fe3 + and Al3 + ions and isomerism and solvent dependent fluorescence sensing of Zn2 +.

  7. Magnetic navigation in adults with atrial isomerism (heterotaxy syndrome) and supraventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Suman-Horduna, Irina; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Ueda, Akiko; Mantziari, Lilian; Gujic, Marko; Marchese, Procolo; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Rigby, Michael L; Ho, Siew Yen; Ernst, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    We analysed the type and mechanism of supraventricular arrhythmias encountered in a series of symptomatic adults with atrial isomerism undergoing catheter ablation procedures. The study population included consecutive adults with atrial isomerism who had previously undergone surgical repair or palliation of the associated anomalies. Patients underwent electrophysiological study for symptomatic arrhythmia in our institution between 2010 and 2012 using magnetic navigation in conjunction with CARTO RMT and three-dimensional (3D) image integration. Eight patients (five females) with a median age of 33 years [interquartile range (IQR) 24-39] were studied. Access to the cardiac chambers of interest was obtained retrogradely via the aorta using remotely navigated magnetic catheters in six patients. Radiofrequency ablation successfully targeted twin atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia in two patients, atrial fibrillation (AF) in three, focal atrial tachycardia (AT) mainly originating in the left-sided atrium in four patients, and macro-reentrant AT dependent on a right-sided inferior isthmus in three patients. The median fluoroscopy time was 3.0 min (IQR 2-11). After a median follow-up of 10 months (IQR 6-21), five of the ablated patients are free from arrhythmia; two patients experienced episodes of self-terminated AF and AT, respectively, within one month post-ablation; the remaining patient had only non-sustained AT during the electrophysiological study and was managed medically. Various supraventricular tachycardia mechanisms are possible in adults with heterotaxy syndrome, all potentially amenable to radiofrequency ablation. The use of remote magnetic navigation along with 3D mapping facilitated the procedures and resulted in a short radiation time.

  8. Mechanism for generation of left isomerism in Ccdc40 mutant embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sugrue, Kelsey F.

    2017-01-01

    Leftward fluid flow in the mouse node is generated by cilia and is critical for initiating asymmetry of the left-right axis. Coiled-coil domain containing-40 (Ccdc40) plays an evolutionarily conserved role in the assembly of motile cilia and establishment of the left-right axis. Approximately one-third of Ccdc40lnks mutant embryos display situs defects and here we investigate the underlying mechanism. Ccdc40lnks mutants show delayed induction of markers of the left-lateral plate mesoderm (L-LPM) including Lefty1, Lefty2 and Nodal. Consistent with defective cilia motility compromising fluid flow across the node, initiation of asymmetric perinodal Cerberus like-2 (Cerl2) expression is delayed and then randomized. This is followed by delayed and then randomized asymmetric Nodal expression around the node. We propose a model to explain how left isomerism arises in a proportion of Ccdc40lnks mutants. We postulate that with defective motile cilia, Cerl2 expression remains symmetric and Nodal is antagonized equally on both sides of the node. This effectively reduces Nodal activation bilaterally, leading to reduced and delayed activation of Nodal and its antagonists in the LPM. This model is further supported by the failure to establish Nodal expression in the left-LPM with reduced Nodal gene dosage in Ccdc40lnks/lnks;NodalLacZ/+ mutants causing a predominance of right not left isomerism. Together these results suggest a model where cilia generated fluid flow in the node functions to ensure robust Nodal activation and a timely left-sided developmental program in the LPM. PMID:28182636

  9. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  12. Formation and Decay of the Arrestin·Rhodopsin Complex in Native Disc Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Beyrière, Florent; Sommer, Martha E.; Szczepek, Michal; Bartl, Franz J.; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin; Ritter, Eglof

    2015-01-01

    In the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin, light-induced cis/trans isomerization of the retinal ligand triggers a series of distinct receptor states culminating in the active Metarhodopsin II (Meta II) state, which binds and activates the G protein transducin (Gt). Long before Meta II decays into the aporeceptor opsin and free all-trans-retinal, its signaling is quenched by receptor phosphorylation and binding of the protein arrestin-1, which blocks further access of Gt to Meta II. Although recent crystal structures of arrestin indicate how it might look in a precomplex with the phosphorylated receptor, the transition into the high affinity complex is not understood. Here we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the interaction of arrestin-1 and phosphorylated rhodopsin in native disc membranes. By isolating the unique infrared signature of arrestin binding, we directly observed the structural alterations in both reaction partners. In the high affinity complex, rhodopsin adopts a structure similar to Gt-bound Meta II. In arrestin, a modest loss of β-sheet structure indicates an increase in flexibility but is inconsistent with a large scale structural change. During Meta II decay, the arrestin-rhodopsin stoichiometry shifts from 1:1 to 1:2. Arrestin stabilizes half of the receptor population in a specific Meta II protein conformation, whereas the other half decays to inactive opsin. Altogether these results illustrate the distinct binding modes used by arrestin to interact with different functional forms of the receptor. PMID:25847250

  13. β-decay properties in the Cs decay chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzoni, G.; Lică, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; IDS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The study of the decay of neutron-rich Cs isotopes has two main objectives: on one side β decay is a perfect tool to access the low-spin structures in the daughter Ba nuclei, where the evolution of octupole deformed shapes can be followed, while, on the other hand, the study of the gross properties of these decays, in terms of decay rates and branching to delayed-neutron emission, are fundamental inputs for the modelling of the r-process in the Rare-Earth Elements peak. Results obtained at CERN-ISOLDE are discussed within this framework and compared to existing data and predictions from state-of-the-art nuclear models.

  14. Prediction of cis/trans isomerization in proteins using PSI-BLAST profiles and secondary structure information.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangning; Burrage, Kevin; Yuan, Zheng; Huber, Thomas

    2006-03-09

    The majority of peptide bonds in proteins are found to occur in the trans conformation. However, for proline residues, a considerable fraction of Prolyl peptide bonds adopt the cis form. Proline cis/trans isomerization is known to play a critical role in protein folding, splicing, cell signaling and transmembrane active transport. Accurate prediction of proline cis/trans isomerization in proteins would have many important applications towards the understanding of protein structure and function. In this paper, we propose a new approach to predict the proline cis/trans isomerization in proteins using support vector machine (SVM). The preliminary results indicated that using Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels could lead to better prediction performance than that of polynomial and linear kernel functions. We used single sequence information of different local window sizes, amino acid compositions of different local sequences, multiple sequence alignment obtained from PSI-BLAST and the secondary structure information predicted by PSIPRED. We explored these different sequence encoding schemes in order to investigate their effects on the prediction performance. The training and testing of this approach was performed on a newly enlarged dataset of 2424 non-homologous proteins determined by X-Ray diffraction method using 5-fold cross-validation. Selecting the window size 11 provided the best performance for determining the proline cis/trans isomerization based on the single amino acid sequence. It was found that using multiple sequence alignments in the form of PSI-BLAST profiles could significantly improve the prediction performance, the prediction accuracy increased from 62.8% with single sequence to 69.8% and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) improved from 0.26 with single local sequence to 0.40. Furthermore, if coupled with the predicted secondary structure information by PSIPRED, our method yielded a prediction accuracy of 71.5% and MCC of 0.43, 9% and 0

  15. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of ¹³C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy E; Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Novotny, Janet A; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid in tomatoes, has been hypothesized to mediate disease-preventive effects associated with tomato consumption. Lycopene is consumed primarily as the all-trans geometric isomer in foods, whereas human plasma and tissues show greater proportions of cis isomers. With the use of compartmental modeling and stable isotope technology, we determined whether endogenous all-trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization or isomeric-bioavailability differences underlie the greater proportion of lycopene cis isomers in human tissues than in tomato foods. Healthy men (n = 4) and women (n = 4) consumed (13)C-lycopene (10.2 mg; 82% all-trans and 18% cis), and plasma was collected over 28 d. Unlabeled and (13)C-labeled total lycopene and lycopene-isomer plasma concentrations, which were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were fit to a 7-compartment model. Subjects absorbed a mean ± SEM of 23% ± 6% of the lycopene. The proportion of plasma cis-(13)C-lycopene isomers increased over time, and all-trans had a shorter half-life than that of cis isomers (5.3 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 0.6 d, respectively; P < 0.001) and an earlier time to reach maximal plasma concentration than that of cis isomers (28 ± 7 and 48 ± 9 h, respectively). A compartmental model that allowed for interindividual differences in cis- and all-trans-lycopene bioavailability and endogenous trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization was predictive of plasma (13)C and unlabeled cis- and all-trans-lycopene concentrations. Although the bioavailability of cis (24.5% ± 6%) and all-trans (23.2% ± 8%) isomers did not differ, endogenous isomerization (0.97 ± 0.25 μmol/d in the fast-turnover tissue lycopene pool) drove tissue and plasma isomeric profiles. (13)C-Lycopene combined with physiologic compartmental modeling provides a strategy for following complex in vivo metabolic processes in humans and reveals that postabsorptive trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization

  16. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of 13C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults123

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy E; Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Novotny, Janet A; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid in tomatoes, has been hypothesized to mediate disease-preventive effects associated with tomato consumption. Lycopene is consumed primarily as the all-trans geometric isomer in foods, whereas human plasma and tissues show greater proportions of cis isomers. Objective: With the use of compartmental modeling and stable isotope technology, we determined whether endogenous all-trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization or isomeric-bioavailability differences underlie the greater proportion of lycopene cis isomers in human tissues than in tomato foods. Design: Healthy men (n = 4) and women (n = 4) consumed 13C-lycopene (10.2 mg; 82% all-trans and 18% cis), and plasma was collected over 28 d. Unlabeled and 13C-labeled total lycopene and lycopene-isomer plasma concentrations, which were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, were fit to a 7-compartment model. Results: Subjects absorbed a mean ± SEM of 23% ± 6% of the lycopene. The proportion of plasma cis-13C-lycopene isomers increased over time, and all-trans had a shorter half-life than that of cis isomers (5.3 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 0.6 d, respectively; P < 0.001) and an earlier time to reach maximal plasma concentration than that of cis isomers (28 ± 7 and 48 ± 9 h, respectively). A compartmental model that allowed for interindividual differences in cis- and all-trans-lycopene bioavailability and endogenous trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization was predictive of plasma 13C and unlabeled cis- and all-trans-lycopene concentrations. Although the bioavailability of cis (24.5% ± 6%) and all-trans (23.2% ± 8%) isomers did not differ, endogenous isomerization (0.97 ± 0.25 μmol/d in the fast-turnover tissue lycopene pool) drove tissue and plasma isomeric profiles. Conclusion: 13C-Lycopene combined with physiologic compartmental modeling provides a strategy for following complex in vivo metabolic processes in humans and reveals that

  17. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  18. A dispersive treatment of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, Peter; Colangelo, Gilberto; Passemar, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    decays have several features of interest: they allow an accurate measurement of ππ-scattering lengths; the decay is the best source for the determination of some low-energy constants of chiral perturbation theory (χPT) one form factor of the decay is connected to the chiral anomaly. We present the results of our dispersive analysis of decays, which provides a resummation of ππ- and Kπ-rescattering effects. The free parameters of the dispersion relation are fitted to the data of the high-statistics experiments E865 and NA48/2. By matching to χPT at NLO and NNLO, we determine the low-energy constants and . In contrast to a pure chiral treatment, the dispersion relation describes the observed curvature of one of the form factors, which we understand as an effect of rescattering beyond NNLO.

  19. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  20. Identification of abnormal accident patterns at intersections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations based on the Identification of Abnormal Accident Patterns at Intersections. This project used a statistically valid sampling method to determine whether a specific intersection has an abnormally h...

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...

  2. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  3. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Communication: An accurate calculation of the S{sub 1} C{sub 2}H{sub 2} cis-trans isomerization barrier height

    SciTech Connect

    Baraban, Joshua H.; Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2016-03-21

    A high level ab initio calculation of the cis-trans isomerization barrier height in the first excited singlet electronic state of acetylene is found to agree very well with a recent experimental determination.

  5. Identification of activities that catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the double bond of a mono-unsaturated fatty acid in Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, H; Enari, D; Shibahara, A; Yamamoto, K; Morita, N

    1996-06-01

    A cell-free extract of Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3 catalyzed the conversion of 9-cis-hexadecenoic acid [16:1(9c)] to 9-trans-hexadecenoic acid [16:1(9t)] in the free acid form and when 16:1(9c) was esterified to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The cytosolic fraction catalyzed the isomerizations of free 16:1(9c) by itself and of 16:1(9c) esterified to PE in the presence of the membrane fraction. Tracer experiments using [2,2-2H2]16:1(9c) demonstrated that the isomerization of free 16:1(9c) occurred independently of the isomerization of 16:1(9c) esterified to PE, indicating that this bacterium has two types of activities that catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of the double bond of a mono-unsaturated fatty acid.

  6. a Search for Nucleon Decay with Multiple Muon Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas James

    A search was made for nucleon decays which result in multiple delayed muon decays using the HPW (Harvard -Purdue-Wisconsin) water Cerenkov detector. The HPW detector consists of 680 metric tons of purified water instrumented with 704 five-inch photomultiplier tubes. The phototubes are situated on a volume array with a lattice spacing of approximately one meter, and the inside walls of the detector are lined with mirrors. This combination of mirrors and a volume array of phototubes gives the HPW detector a low trigger energy threshold and a high muon decay detection efficiency. The detector is surrounded by wire chambers to provide an active shield, and is located at a depth of 1500 meters-of-water-equivalent in the Silver King Mine in Park City, Utah. The entire HPW data set, consisting of 17.2 million events collec- ted during 282 live days between May 1983 and October 1984, was analyzed. No contained events with multiple muon decays were found in a 180 ton fiducial volume. This is consistent with the background rate from neutrino interactions, which is expected to be 0.7 (+OR-) 0.2 events. The calculated lower lifetime limit for the decay mode p (--->) (mu)('+)(mu)('+)(mu)('-) is: (tau)/B.R. = 1 x 10('31) years (90% C.L.). Limits are calculated for ten other proton decay modes and five bound neutron decay modes, most of which are around 4 x 10('30) years (90% C.L.). No previous studies have reported results from direct searches for eight of these modes.

  7. Transient abnormal Q waves during exercise electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, F F; Zafari, A M

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia during exercise electrocardiography is usually manifested by ST segment depression or elevation. Transient abnormal Q waves are rare, as Q waves indicate an old myocardial infarction. The case of a patient with exercise induced transient abnormal Q waves is reported. The potential mechanisms involved in the development of such an abnormality and its clinical implications are discussed. PMID:14676264

  8. A new twist in the photophysics of the GFP chromophore: a volume-conserving molecular torsion couple† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic methods and characterization; fluorescence up-conversion data; additional computational details; Cartesian coordinates of key structures; photochemical isomerization data; data for the anion of I. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04091a

    PubMed Central

    Conyard, Jamie; Heisler, Ismael A.; Chan, Yohan; Bulman Page, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    The simple structure of the chromophore of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), a phenol and an imidazolone ring linked by a methyne bridge, supports an exceptionally diverse range of excited state phenomena. Here we describe experimentally and theoretically the photochemistry of a novel sterically crowded nonplanar derivative of the GFP chromophore. It undergoes an excited state isomerization reaction accompanied by an exceptionally fast (sub 100 fs) excited state decay. The decay dynamics are essentially independent of solvent polarity and viscosity. Excited state structural dynamics are probed by high level quantum chemical calculations revealing that the fast decay is due to a conical intersection characterized by a twist of the rings and pyramidalization of the methyne bridge carbon. The intersection can be accessed without a barrier from the pre-twisted Franck–Condon structure, and the lack of viscosity dependence is due to the fact that the rings twist in the same direction, giving rise to a volume-conserving decay coordinate. Moreover, the rotation of the phenyl, methyl and imidazolone groups is coupled in the sterically crowded structure, with the methyl group translating the rotation of one ring to the next. As a consequence, the excited state dynamics can be viewed as a torsional couple, where the absorbed photon energy leads to conversion of the out-of-plane orientation from one ring to the other in a volume conserving fashion. A similar modification of the range of methyne dyes may provide a new family of devices for molecular machines, specifically torsional couples. PMID:29675225

  9. Is HO3 minimum cis or trans? An analytic full-dimensional ab initio isomerization path.

    PubMed

    Varandas, A J C

    2011-05-28

    The minimum energy path for isomerization of HO(3) has been explored in detail using accurate high-level ab initio methods and techniques for extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. In agreement with other reports, the best estimates from both valence-only and all-electron single-reference methods here utilized predict the minimum of the cis-HO(3) isomer to be deeper than the trans-HO(3) one. They also show that the energy varies by less than 1 kcal mol(-1) or so over the full isomerization path. A similar result is found from valence-only multireference configuration interaction calculations with the size-extensive Davidson correction and a correlation consistent triple-zeta basis, which predict the energy difference between the two isomers to be of only Δ = -0.1 kcal mol(-1). However, single-point multireference calculations carried out at the optimum triple-zeta geometry with basis sets of the correlation consistent family but cardinal numbers up to X = 6 lead upon a dual-level extrapolation to the complete basis set limit of Δ = (0.12 ± 0.05) kcal mol(-1). In turn, extrapolations with the all-electron single-reference coupled-cluster method including the perturbative triples correction yield values of Δ = -0.19 and -0.03 kcal mol(-1) when done from triple-quadruple and quadruple-quintuple zeta pairs with two basis sets of increasing quality, namely cc-cpVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ. Yet, if added a value of 0.25 kcal mol(-1) that accounts for the effect of triple and perturbative quadruple excitations with the VTZ basis set, one obtains a coupled cluster estimate of Δ = (0.14 ± 0.08) kcal mol(-1). It is then shown for the first time from systematic ab initio calculations that the trans-HO(3) isomer is more stable than the cis one, in agreement with the available experimental evidence. Inclusion of the best reported zero-point energy difference (0.382 kcal mol(-1)) from multireference configuration interaction calculations enhances further the relative

  10. Cardiac Abnormalities in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Mookadam, Farouk; Smith, Travis; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Moustafa, Sherif E; Monico, Carla G.; Lieske, John C.; Milliner, Dawn S.

    2018-01-01

    Background In patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH), oxalate overproduction can result in recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, which in some cases results in a progressive decline in renal function, oxalate retention, and systemic oxalosis involving bone, retina, arterial media, peripheral nerves, skin, and heart. Oxalosis involving the myocardium or conduction system can potentially lead to heart failure and fatal arrhythmias. Methods and Results A retrospective review of our institution’s database was conducted for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH between 1/1948 and 1/2006 (n=103). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were used to identify cardiac abnormalities. Ninety-three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 58% were male. Mean follow-up was 11.9 (median 8.8) years. In 38 patients who received an ECG or echocardiography, 31 were found to have any cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac findings correlated with decline in renal function. Conclusions Our data suggests that physicians caring for patients with PH should pay close attention to cardiac status, especially if renal function is impaired. PMID:20921818

  11. Thermal cis-trans isomerization of cis,cis-3,7-decadiene - A model for cis-1,4-polybutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Lee, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal cis-trans isomerization of cis,cis-3,7-decadiene (DD), a model compound for cis-PBD, is reported. It is demonstrated that the rather low E for the polyalkenamer isomerizations compared with that for the 2-olefins is not an artifact of the solid polymer structures, but rather is characteristic of both small and large molecules possessing pairs of nonconjugated vinylene double bonds in a suitable arrangement.

  12. Isomerization reaction dynamics and equilibrium at the liquid-vapor interface of water. A molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Ilan; Pohorille, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The gauche-trans isomerization reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane at the liquid-vapor interface of water is studied using molecular-dynamics computer simulations. The solvent bulk and surface effects on the torsional potential of mean force and on barrier recrossing dynamics are computed. The isomerization reaction involves a large change in the electric dipole moment, and as a result the trans/gauche ratio is considerably affected by the transition from the bulk solvent to the surface. Reactive flux correlation function calculations of the reaction rate reveal that deviation from the transition-state theory due to barrier recrossing is greater at the surface than in the bulk water. This suggests that the system exhibits non-Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus behavior due to the weak solvent-solute coupling at the water liquid-vapor interface.

  13. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy 229Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T.; Rellergert, Wade G.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A.; Jenssen, H. P.; Tkalya, Eugene V.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2015-06-01

    We report the results of a direct search for the 229Th (Iπ=3 /2+←5 /2+ ) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing 229Th -doped LiSrAlF6 crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s ≲τ ≲(2000 - 5600 ) s . This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  14. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n ,γ ) at the LANL DANCE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Romain, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) to the Jπ=5 /2- , 761.7 keV, T1 /2=32.8 ns and the Jπ=15 /2+ , 1356.9 keV, T1 /2=11.1 ns levels of 177Lu have been measured for the first time. The experiment was carried out with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measured isomeric ratios are compared with talys calculations using different models for photon strength functions, level densities, and optical potentials. In order to reproduce the experimental γ -ray spectra, a low-energy resonance must be added in the photon strength function used in our Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  15. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  16. Broad Separation of Isomeric Lipids by High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Andrew P.; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2017-08-01

    Maturation of metabolomics has brought a deeper appreciation for the importance of isomeric identity of lipids to their biological role, mirroring that for proteoforms in proteomics. However, full characterization of the lipid isomerism has been thwarted by paucity of rapid and effective analytical tools. A novel approach is ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and particularly differential or field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS) at high electric fields, which is more orthogonal to mass spectrometry. Here we broadly explore the power of FAIMS to separate lipid isomers, and find a 75% success rate across the four major types of glycero- and phospho- lipids ( sn, chain length, double bond position, and cis/ trans). The resolved isomers were identified using standards, and (for the first two types) tandem mass spectrometry. These results demonstrate the general merit of incorporating high-resolution FAIMS into lipidomic analyses.

  17. Investigating the large deformation of the 5 /2+ isomeric state in 73Zn: An indicator for triaxiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Tsunoda, Y.; Babcock, C.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Cheal, B.; Flanagan, K. T.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Gorges, C.; Grob, L. K.; Heylen, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Kowalska, M.; Krämer, J.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Otsuka, T.; Papuga, J.; Sánchez, R.; Wraith, C.; Xie, L.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2018-04-01

    Recently reported nuclear spins and moments of neutron-rich Zn isotopes measured at ISOLDE-CERN [C. Wraith et al., Phys. Lett. B 771, 385 (2017), 10.1016/j.physletb.2017.05.085] show an uncommon behavior of the isomeric state in 73Zn. Additional details relating to the measurement and analysis of the Znm73 hyperfine structure are addressed here to further support its spin-parity assignment 5 /2+ and to estimate its half-life. A systematic investigation of this 5 /2+ isomer indicates that significant collectivity appears due to proton/neutron E 2 excitations across the proton Z = 28 and neutron N = 50 shell gaps. This is confirmed by the good agreement of the observed quadrupole moments with large scale Monte Carlo shell model calculations. In addition, potential energy surface calculations in combination with T plots reveal a triaxial shape for this isomeric state.

  18. Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Catalysts for the Selective Isomerization of n-Hexane: The Roles of Surface Acidity and Platinum Metal.

    PubMed

    Musselwhite, Nathan; Na, Kyungsu; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2015-08-19

    Several types of mesoporous aluminosilicates were synthesized and evaluated in the catalytic isomerization of n-hexane, both with and without Pt nanoparticles loaded into the mesopores. The materials investigated included mesoporous MFI and BEA type zeolites, MCF-17 mesoporous silica, and an aluminum modified MCF-17. The acidity of the materials was investigated through pyridine adsorption and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was found that the strong Brönsted acid sites in the micropores of the zeolite catalysts facilitated the cracking of hexane. However, the medium strength acid sites on the Al modified MCF-17 mesoporous silica greatly enhanced the isomerization reaction. Through the loading of different amounts of Pt into the mesopores of the Al modified MCF-17, the relationship between the metal nanoparticles and acidic sites on the support was revealed.

  19. Thermally and vibrationally induced conformational isomerizations, infrared spectra, and photochemistry of gallic acid in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justino, Licínia L. G.; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared (near-IR) narrowband selective vibrational excitation and annealing of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) isolated in cryogenic matrices were used to induce interconversions between its most stable conformers. The isomerizations were probed by infrared spectroscopy. An extensive set of quantum chemical calculations, carried out at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation, was used to undertake a detailed analysis of the ground state potential energy surface of the molecule. This investigation of the molecule conformational space allowed extracting mechanistic insights into the observed annealing- or near-IR-induced isomerization processes. The infrared spectra of the two most stable conformers of gallic acid in N2, Xe, and Ar matrices were fully assigned. Finally, the UV-induced photochemistry of the matrix isolated compound was investigated.

  20. Evidence for tunneling in base-catalyzed isomerization of glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone by hydride shift under formose conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Doubleday, Charles; Breslow, Ronald

    2015-04-07

    Hydrogen atom transfer reactions between the aldose and ketose are key mechanistic features in formose chemistry by which formaldehyde is converted to higher sugars under credible prebiotic conditions. For one of these transformations, we have investigated whether hydrogen tunneling makes a significant contribution to the mechanism by examining the deuterium kinetic isotope effect associated with the hydrogen transfer during the isomerization of glyceraldehyde to the corresponding dihydroxyacetone. To do this, we developed a quantitative HPLC assay that allowed us to measure the apparent large intrinsic kinetic isotope effect. From the Arrhenius plot of the kinetic isotope effect, the ratio of the preexponential factors AH/AD was 0.28 and the difference in activation energies Ea(D) - Ea(H) was 9.1 kJ·mol(-1). All these results imply a significant quantum-mechanical tunneling component in the isomerization mechanism. This is supported by multidimensional tunneling calculations using POLYRATE with small curvature tunneling.

  1. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy Th 229 Nuclear Isomeric Transition

    DOE PAGES

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T.; ...

    2015-06-23

    We report the results of a direct search for the 229Tn (I π = 3/2 + ← 5/2 +) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing 229Tn-doped LiSrAlF 6 crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1–2) s≲τ≲ (2000-5600) s. Lastly, this measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  2. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    PubMed

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  3. DFT study on the isomerization and tautomerism in vitamins B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid) and B7 (biotin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadbeigi, Younes; Farrokhpour, Hossein; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Isomerization and tautomerism of the three water soluble vitamins including B3, B5 and B7 were studied applying density functional theory using B3LYP method in gas and aqueous phases. Activation energies (Ea), Gibbs free energies of activation (ΔG#), and imaginary frequencies of the transition state structures were calculated for all the isomerization and tautomerism reactions. Activation energies of the neutral → zwitterion (amine-enamine) tautomerism in vitamin B3 were 310-360 kJ/mol where these values for the keto-enol tautomerism were 100-130 kJ/mol. It was found that water molecule catalyzes the tautomerism and decreases the activation energies about 90-160 kJ/mol.

  4. Thermally and vibrationally induced conformational isomerizations, infrared spectra, and photochemistry of gallic acid in low-temperature matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Justino, Licínia L. G., E-mail: liciniaj@ci.uc.pt; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2016-07-07

    Near-infrared (near-IR) narrowband selective vibrational excitation and annealing of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) isolated in cryogenic matrices were used to induce interconversions between its most stable conformers. The isomerizations were probed by infrared spectroscopy. An extensive set of quantum chemical calculations, carried out at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation, was used to undertake a detailed analysis of the ground state potential energy surface of the molecule. This investigation of the molecule conformational space allowed extracting mechanistic insights into the observed annealing- or near-IR-induced isomerization processes. The infrared spectra of the two most stable conformers of gallic acid in N{sub 2},more » Xe, and Ar matrices were fully assigned. Finally, the UV-induced photochemistry of the matrix isolated compound was investigated.« less

  5. Ru-Catalyzed Estragole Isomerization under Homogeneous and Ionic Liquid Biphasic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The isomerization of estragole to trans-anethole is an important reaction and is industrially performed using an excess of NaOH or KOH in ethanol at high temperatures with very low selectivity. Simple Ru-based transition-metal complexes, under homogeneous, ionic liquid (IL)-supported (biphasic) and “solventless” conditions, can be used for this reaction. The selectivity of this reaction is more sensitive to the solvent/support used than the ligands associated with the metal catalyst. Thus, under the optimized reaction conditions, 100% conversion can be achieved in the estragole isomerization, using as little as 4 × 10–3 mol % (40 ppm) of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in toluene, reflecting a total turnover number (TON) of 25 000 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 500 min–1 at 80 °C. Using a dimeric Ru precursor, [RuCl(μ-Cl)(η3:η3-C10H16)]2, in ethanol associated with P(OEt)3, a TON of 10 000 and a TOF of 125 min–1 are obtained with 100% conversion and 99% selectivity. These two Ru catalytic systems can be transposed to biphasic IL systems by using ionic-tagged P-ligands such as 1-(3-(diphenylphosphanyl)propyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide immobilized in 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide with up to 99% selectivity and almost complete estragole conversion. However, the reaction is much slower than that performed under solventless or homogeneous conditions. The use of ionic-tagged ligands significantly reduces the Ru leaching to the organic phase, compared to that in reactions performed under homogeneous conditions, where the catalytic system loses catalytic performance after the second recycling. Detailed kinetic investigations of the reaction catalyzed by [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] indicate that a simplified kinetic model (a monomolecular reversible first-order reaction) is adequate for fitting the homogeneous reaction at 80 °C and under biphasic conditions. However, the kinetics of

  6. Isomerization and Fragmentation of Cyclohexanone in a Heated Micro-Reactor.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Jessica P; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Baraban, Joshua H; Buckingham, Grant T; Troy, Tyler P; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Stanton, John F; Daily, John W; Ellison, G Barney

    2015-12-24

    The thermal decomposition of cyclohexanone (C6H10═O) has been studied in a set of flash-pyrolysis microreactors. Decomposition of the ketone was observed when dilute samples of C6H10═O were heated to 1200 K in a continuous flow microreactor. Pyrolysis products were detected and identified by tunable VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy and by photoionization appearance thresholds. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures were roughly 100 Torr, and contact times with the microreactors were roughly 100 μs. Thermal cracking of cyclohexanone appeared to result from a variety of competing pathways, all of which open roughly simultaneously. Isomerization of cyclohexanone to the enol, cyclohexen-1-ol (C6H9OH), is followed by retro-Diels-Alder cleavage to CH2═CH2 and CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2. Further isomerization of CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2 to methyl vinyl ketone (CH3CO-CH═CH2, MVK) was also observed. Photoionization spectra identified both enols, C6H9OH and CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2, and the ionization threshold of C6H9OH was measured to be 8.2 ± 0.1 eV. Coupled cluster electronic structure calculations were used to establish the energetics of MVK. The heats of formation of MVK and its enol were calculated to be ΔfH298(cis-CH3CO-CH═CH2) = -26.1 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and ΔfH298(s-cis-1-CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2) = -13.7 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1). The reaction enthalpy ΔrxnH298(C6H10═O → CH2═CH2 + s-cis-1-CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2) is 53 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and ΔrxnH298(C6H10═O → CH2═CH2 + cis-CH3CO-CH═CH2) is 41 ± 1 kcal mol(-1). At 1200 K, the products of cyclohexanone pyrolysis were found to be C6H9OH, CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2, MVK, CH2CHCH2, CO, CH2═C═O, CH3, CH2═C═CH2, CH2═CH-CH═CH2, CH2═CHCH2CH3, CH2═CH2, and HC≡CH.

  7. Pin1 Modulates the Synaptic Content of NMDA Receptors via Prolyl-Isomerization of PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Roberta; De Filippo, Roberto; Middei, Silvia; Stancheva, Stefka; Pastore, Beatrice; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Barberis, Andrea; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola

    2016-05-18

    Phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues preceding a proline regulates the fate of its targets through postphosphorylation conformational changes catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-/trans isomerase Pin1. By flipping the substrate between two different functional conformations, this enzyme exerts a fine-tuning of phosphorylation signals. Pin1 has been detected in dendritic spines and shafts where it regulates protein synthesis required to sustain the late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 residing in postsynaptic structures can interact with postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a key scaffold protein that anchors NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in PSD via GluN2-type receptor subunits. Pin1 recruitment by PSD-95 occurs at specific serine-threonine/proline consensus motifs localized in the linker region connecting PDZ2 to PDZ3 domains. Upon binding, Pin1 triggers structural changes in PSD-95, thus negatively affecting its ability to interact with NMDARs. In electrophysiological experiments, larger NMDA-mediated synaptic currents, evoked in CA1 principal cells by Schaffer collateral stimulation, were detected in hippocampal slices obtained from Pin1(-/-) mice compared with controls. Similar results were obtained in cultured hippocampal cells expressing a PSD-95 mutant unable to undergo prolyl-isomerization, thus indicating that the action of Pin1 on PSD-95 is critical for this effect. In addition, an enhancement in spine density and size was detected in CA1 principal cells of Pin1(-/-) or in Thy-1GFP mice treated with the pharmacological inhibitor of Pin1 catalytic activity PiB.Our data indicate that Pin1 controls synaptic content of NMDARs via PSD-95 prolyl-isomerization and the expression of dendritic spines, both required for LTP maintenance. PSD-95, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase, is the major scaffolding protein at excitatory postsynaptic densities and a potent regulator of synaptic strength and plasticity. The

  8. Isomerization and Fragmentation of Cyclohexanone in a Heated Micro-Reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Porterfield, Jessica P.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Baraban, Joshua H.; ...

    2015-11-30

    Here, the thermal decomposition of cyclohexanone (C 6H 10=O) has been studied in a set of flash-pyrolysis microreactors. Decomposition of the ketone was observed when dilute samples of C 6H 10=O were heated to 1200 K in a continuous flow microreactor. Pyrolysis products were detected and identified by tunable VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy and by photoionization appearance thresholds. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures were roughly 100 Torr, and contact times with the microreactors were roughly 100 μs. Thermal cracking of cyclohexanone appeared to result from a variety of competing pathways, all of whichmore » open roughly simultaneously. Isomerization of cyclohexanone to the enol, cyclohexen-1-ol (C 6H 9OH), is followed by retro-Diels–Alder cleavage to CH 2=CH 2 and CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2. Further isomerization of CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2 to methyl vinyl ketone (CH 3CO–CH=CH 2, MVK) was also observed. Photoionization spectra identified both enols, C 6H 9OH and CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2, and the ionization threshold of C 6H 9OH was measured to be 8.2 ± 0.1 eV. Coupled cluster electronic structure calculations were used to establish the energetics of MVK. The heats of formation of MVK and its enol were calculated to be Δ fH 298(cis-CH 3CO–CH=CH 2) = -26.1 ± 0.5 kcal mol –1 and Δ fH 298(s-cis-1-CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2) = -13.7 ± 0.5 kcal mol –1. The reaction enthalpy Δ rxnH 298(C 6H 10=O → CH 2=CH 2 + s-cis-1-CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2) is 53 ± 1 kcal mol –1 and Δ rxnH 298(C 6H 10=O → CH 2=CH 2 + cis-CH 3CO–CH=CH 2) is 41 ± 1 kcal mol –1. At 1200 K, the products of cyclohexanone pyrolysis were found to be C 6H 9OH, CH 2=C(OH)–CH=CH 2, MVK, CH 2CHCH 2, CO, CH 2=C=O, CH 3, CH 2=C=CH 2, CH 2=CH–CH=CH 2, CH 2=CHCH 2CH 3, CH 2=CH 2, and HC≡CH.« less

  9. Hydro-isomerization of n-hexane on bi-functional catalyst: Effect of total and hydrogen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoa, Dao Thi Kim; Loc, Luu Cam

    2017-09-01

    The effect of both total pressure and hydrogen partial pressure during n-hexane hydro-isomerization over platinum impregnated on HZSM-5 was studied. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization was conducted at atmospheric pressure and 0.7 MPa to observe the influence of total pressure. In order to see the effect of hydrogen partial pressure, the reaction was taken place at different partial pressure of hydrogen varied from 307 hPa to 718 hPa by dilution with nitrogen to keep the total pressure at 0.1 MPa. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalyst were determined by the methods of nitrogen physi-sorption BET, SEM, XRD, TEM, NH3-TPD, TPR, and Hydrogen Pulse Chemi-sorption. Activity of catalyst in the hydro-isomerization of n-hexane was studied in a micro-flow reactor in the temperature range of 225-325 °C; the molar ratio H2/ hydrocarbon: 5.92, concentration of n-hexane: 9.2 mol.%, GHSV 2698 h-1. The obtained catalyst expressed high acid density, good reducing property, high metal dispersion, and good balance between metallic and acidic sites. It is excellent contact for n-hexane hydro-isomerization. At 250 °C, n-hexane conversion and selectivity were as high as 59-76 % and 85-99 %, respectively. It was found that catalytic activity was promoted either by total pressure or hydrogen partial pressure. At total pressure of 0.7 MPa while hydrogen partial pressure of 718 hPa, catalyst produced 63 RON liquid product containing friendly environmental iso-paraffins which is superior blending stock for green gasoline. Hydrogen did not only preserve catalyst actives by depressing hydrocracking and removing coke precursors but also facilitated hydride transfer step in the bi-functional bi-molecular mechanism.

  10. The introduction of hydrogen bond and hydrophobicity effects into the rotational isomeric states model for conformational analysis of unfolded peptides.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet; Erman, Burak

    2009-01-13

    Relative contributions of local and non-local interactions to the unfolded conformations of peptides are examined by using the rotational isomeric states model which is a Markov model based on pairwise interactions of torsion angles. The isomeric states of a residue are well described by the Ramachandran map of backbone torsion angles. The statistical weight matrices for the states are determined by molecular dynamics simulations applied to monopeptides and dipeptides. Conformational properties of tripeptides formed from combinations of alanine, valine, tyrosine and tryptophan are investigated based on the Markov model. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulation results on these tripeptides identifies the sequence-distant long-range interactions that are missing in the Markov model. These are essentially the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions that are obtained between the first and the third residue of a tripeptide. A systematic correction is proposed for incorporating these long-range interactions into the rotational isomeric states model. Preliminary results suggest that the Markov assumption can be improved significantly by renormalizing the statistical weight matrices to include the effects of the long-range correlations.

  11. The introduction of hydrogen bond and hydrophobicity effects into the rotational isomeric states model for conformational analysis of unfolded peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet; Erman, Burak

    2009-03-01

    Relative contributions of local and non-local interactions to the unfolded conformations of peptides are examined by using the rotational isomeric states model which is a Markov model based on pairwise interactions of torsion angles. The isomeric states of a residue are well described by the Ramachandran map of backbone torsion angles. The statistical weight matrices for the states are determined by molecular dynamics simulations applied to monopeptides and dipeptides. Conformational properties of tripeptides formed from combinations of alanine, valine, tyrosine and tryptophan are investigated based on the Markov model. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulation results on these tripeptides identifies the sequence-distant long-range interactions that are missing in the Markov model. These are essentially the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions that are obtained between the first and the third residue of a tripeptide. A systematic correction is proposed for incorporating these long-range interactions into the rotational isomeric states model. Preliminary results suggest that the Markov assumption can be improved significantly by renormalizing the statistical weight matrices to include the effects of the long-range correlations.

  12. CH 3NO 2 decomposition/isomerization mechanism and product branching ratios: An ab initio chemical kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. S.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-08-01

    The low-lying energy pathways for the decomposition/isomerization of nitromethane (NM) have been investigated using different molecular orbital methods. Our results show that in addition to the commonly known CH 3 + NO 2 products formed by direct C-N bond breaking and the trans-CH 3ONO formed by nitro-nitrite isomerization, NM can also isomerize to cis-CH 3ONO via a very loose transition state (TS) lying 59.2 kcal/mol above CH 3NO 2 or 0.6 kcal/mol below the CH 3 + NO 2 asymptote predicted at the UCCSD(T)/CBS level of theory. Kinetic results indicate that in the energy range of 59 ± 1 kcal/mol, production of CH 3O + NO is dominant, whereas above the C-N bond breaking threshold, the formation of CH 3 + NO 2 sharply increases and becomes dominant. The k( E) values predicted at different energies clearly indicate that CH 3O + NO could be detected in an infrared multi-photon dissociation study, whereas in UV dissociation experiments with energies high above the C-N bond breaking threshold the CH 3 + NO 2 products are generated predominantly.

  13. Isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions of molybdenum isotopes induced by bremsstrahlung in the giant dipole resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiep, Tran Duc; An, Truong Thi; Cuong, Phan Viet; Vinh, Nguyen The; Hue, Bui Minh; Belov, A. G.; Maslov, O. D.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Zhemenik, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    We have determined the isomeric ratios of isomeric pairs 97m,gNb, 95m,gNb and 91m,gMo produced in 98Mo(γ, p)97m,gNb, 96Mo(γ, p)95m,gNb and 92Mo(γ, n)91m,gMo photonuclear reactions in the giant dipole resonance (GDR) region by the activation method. The results were analyzed, discussed and compared with the similar data from literature to examine the role of excitation energy, neutron configuration, channel effect and direct and pre-equilibrium processes in (γ, p) photonuclear reactions. In this work the isomeric ratios for 97m,gNb from 14 to 19 MeV, for 195m,gNb from14 to 24 MeV except 20 and 23.5 MeV and for 91m,gMo at 14 and 15 MeV are the first time measurements.

  14. The thermal Z-isomerization-induced change in solubility and physical properties of (all-E)-lycopene.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazuya; Honda, Masaki; Takemura, Ryota; Fukaya, Tetsuya; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Wahyudiono; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2017-09-16

    The effect of Z-isomerization of (all-E)-lycopene on its solubility in organic solvents and physical properties was investigated. Lycopene samples containing different Z-isomer contents (23.8%, 46.9%, and 75.6% of total lycopene) were prepared from high-purity (all-E)-lycopene by thermal Z-isomerization in dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ). As the Z-isomer content increased, the relative solubility of lycopene significantly improved. Although (all-E)-lycopene barely dissolved in ethanol (0.6 mg/L), the solubilities of lycopene containing 23.8%, 46.9%, and 75.6% Z-isomers were 484.5, 914.7, and 2401.7 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses clearly indicated that (all-E)-lycopene was present in the crystal state, while Z-isomers of lycopene were present in amorphous states. A number of studies have suggested that Z-isomers of lycopene are better absorbed in the human body than the all-E-isomer. This may be due to the change in solubility and physical properties of lycopene by the Z-isomerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Special feature of kinetics of ZcE isomerization of β-N-methylaminovinyl trifluoromethyl ketone in Ar matrix exposed to UV radiation and spontaneous E ⇌ Z isomerization of α-methyl-β-N-methylaminovinyl trifluoromethyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovenko, Sergey I.; Gerus, Igor I.; Pagacz-Kostrzewa, Magdalena; Wierzejewska, Maria; Zhuk, Yuri I.; Kukhar, Valery P.

    2018-06-01

    Although it is well known that reactivity of α,β-unsaturated enaminoketones is closely associated with spatial and electronic structure but until now little attention was devoted to quantitative investigation of interconversion of different stereoisomeric forms of enaminoketones. In present work we studied peculiarities of kinetics of Z ⇌ E isomerization of enaminoketone 4-(N-methylamino)-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-one F3C-COsbnd CHdbnd CHsbnd NH(CH3) (1) in Ar-matrix exposed to UV-radiation (λ = 340 nm) with IR Fourier and 2D correlation spectroscopy and we found that Z-s-Z-s-trans isomer transforms primarily into two E-isomers, E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans which further turn into the E-s-E-s-cis and E-s-Z-s-cis conformers all interconversion rate constants being comparable in magnitude. Along with this process long-term exposure to the UV-radiation results in proton transfer from nitrogen of methylamino group to carbonyl oxygen with simultaneous isomerization of 'cyclic' iminoenol form into 'linear'one. In solution of enaminoketone 4-(N-methylamino)-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-methylbut-3-en-2-one F3C-CO-C(CH3)dbnd CH-NH(CH3) (2) we observed reversed process, namely, spontaneous interconversion of the E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans conformers into the Z-s-Z-trans isomer. It was found that rate constants of the dimeric forms of the E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans conformers are higher than those of the monomers and are independent on total enaminoketone concentration. Addition of highly polar HMPA promotes proton transfer from nitrogen to oxygen in the Z-s-Z-s-trans isomer of 2 with subsequent isomerization into the linear imino-enol product but the rate constant of this transformation is ten-fold smaller than that for 1 in the Ar matrix exposed to UV radiation. Special feature of kinetics of Z ⇌ E isomerization of β-N-methylaminovinyl trifluoromethyl ketone in Ar matrix exposed to UV radiation and spontaneous E ⇌ Z isomerization of α-Methyl-,

  16. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  17. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  18. LC-MSn Analysis of Isomeric Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using a Chemical Derivatization Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rongrong; Pomin, Vitor H.; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2011-01-01

    Improved methods for structural analyses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are required to understand their functional roles in various biological processes. Major challenges in structural characterization of complex GAG oligosaccharides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) include the accurate determination of the patterns of sulfation due to gas-phase losses of the sulfate groups upon collisional activation and inefficient on-line separation of positional sulfation isomers prior to MS/MS analyses. Here, a sequential chemical derivatization procedure including permethylation, desulfation, and acetylation was demonstrated to enable both on-line LC separation of isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides and accurate determination of sites of sulfation by MSn. The derivatized oligosaccharides have sulfate groups replaced with acetyl groups, which are sufficiently stable to survive MSn fragmentation and reflect the original sulfation patterns. A standard reversed-phase LC-MS system with a capillary C18 column was used for separation, and MSn experiments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed. Our results indicate that the combination of this derivatization strategy and MSn methodology enables accurate identification of the sulfation isomers of CS hexasaccharides with either saturated or unsaturated nonreducing ends. Moreover, derivatized CS hexasaccharide isomer mixtures become separable by LC-MS method due to different positions of acetyl modifications. PMID:21953261

  19. Radiative lifetime and energy of the low-energy isomeric level in 229Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Schneider, Christian; Jeet, Justin; Hudson, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the range of the radiative lifetime and energy of the anomalous, low-energy 3 /2+(7.8 ±0.5 eV) state in the 229Th nucleus. Our phenomenological calculations are based on the available experimental data for the intensities of M 1 and E 2 transitions between excited levels of the 229Th nucleus in the Kπ[N nZΛ ] =5 /2+[633 ] and 3 /2+[631 ] rotational bands. We also discuss the influence of certain branching coefficients, which affect the currently accepted measured energy of the isomeric state. From this work, we establish a favored region, 0.66 ×106seV3/ω3≤τ ≤2.2 ×106seV3/ω3 , where the transition lifetime τ as a function of transition energy ω should lie at roughly the 95% confidence level. Together with the result of Beck et al. [LLNL-PROC-415170 (2009)], we establish a favored area where transition lifetime and energy should lie at roughly the 90% confidence level. We also suggest new nuclear physics measurements, which would significantly reduce the ambiguity in the present data.

  20. Effects of proline cis-trans isomerization on TB domain secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, X.; Werner, J. M.; Knott, V.; Handford, P. A.; Campbell, I. D.; Downing, K.

    1998-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) binding protein-like (TB) domain is found principally in proteins localized to extracellular matrix fibrils, including human fibrillin-1, the defective protein in the Marfan syndrome. Analysis of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data for the sixth TB module from human fibrillin-1 has revealed the existence of two stable conformers that differ in the isomerization states of two proline residues. Unusually, the two isoforms do not readily interconvert and are stable on the time scale of milliseconds. We have computed independent structures of the major and minor conformers of TB6 to assess how the domain fold adjusts to incorporate alternatively cis- or trans-prolines. Based on previous observations, it has been suggested that multiple conformers can only be accommodated in flexible regions of protein structure. In contrast, P22, which exists in trans in the major form and cis in the minor form of TB6, is in a rigid region of the domain, which is confirmed by backbone dynamics measurements. Overall, the structures of the major and minor conformers are similar. However, the secondary structure topologies of the two forms differ as a direct consequence of the changes in proline conformation. PMID:9792099

  1. Nanopore Analysis of the 5-Guanidinohydantoin to Iminoallantoin Isomerization in Duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Fleming, Aaron M; Ding, Yun; Ren, Hang; White, Henry S; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2018-04-06

    In DNA, guanine oxidation yields diastereomers of 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) as one of the major products. In nucleosides and single-stranded DNA, Gh is in a pH-dependent equilibrium with its constitutional isomer iminoallantoin (Ia). Herein, the isomerization reaction between Gh and Ia was monitored in duplex DNA using a protein nanopore by measuring the ionic current when duplex DNA interacts with the pore under an electrophoretic force. Monitoring current levels in this single-molecule method proved to be superior for analysis of population distributions in an equilibrating mixture of four isomers in duplex DNA as a function of pH. The results identified Gh as a major isomer observed when base paired with A, C, or G at pH 6.4-8.4, and Ia was a minor isomer of the reaction mixture that was only observed when the pH was >7.4 in the duplex DNA context. The present results suggest that Gh will be the dominant isomer in duplex DNA under physiological conditions regardless of the base-pairing partner in the duplex.

  2. Characteristics of the isomeric flavonoids apigenin and genistein binding to hemoglobin by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiang-Lan; Liu, Hui; Kang, Xu; Lv, Zhong; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Apigenin (Ap) and genistein (Ge), a couple of isomeric flavonoids with extensive bioactivities, are the most common dietary ingredients. They have been widely investigated due to their potential therapeutic actions for some diseases. In our work, binding characteristics of Ap and Ge to hemoglobin (Hb) were analyzed with fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that Ap and Ge caused strong fluorescence quenching of Hb by static quenching mechanism, but their quenching efficiency and mechanisms were different. The binding site n suggested that there was a single binding site in Hb for Ap and Ge. The results of synchronous fluorescence showed that the microenvironment around Tyr residues of Hb had a slight trend of polarity decreasing, but the polarity around Trp residues increased by adding Ap. Results of CD indicated that the Ap and Ge did not changed the secondary structure of Hb. According to the theory of Förster resonance energy transfer, the binding distance r between Trp 37 and Ap/Ge was predicted to be 3.4 nm and 3.32 nm, respectively. The affinity of Ge toward Hb was higher than that of Ap.

  3. Structure, isomerism, and vibrational assignment of aluminumtrifluoroacetylacetonate. An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali, R.; Vakili, M.; Boluri, E.; Tayyari, S. F.; Nekoei, A.-R.; Hakimi-Tabar, M.; Darugar, V.

    2018-02-01

    An interpretation of the experimental IR and Raman spectra of Aluminum (III) trifluoroacetylacetonate (Al(TFAA)3) complex, which were synthesized by us, is first reported here. The charge distribution, isomerism, strength of metal-oxygen binding and vibrational spectral properties for this complex structure were theoretically investigated through population analysis, geometry optimization and harmonic frequency calculations, performed at B3LYP/6-311G* level of theory. In the population analysis, two different approaches reffered to as ;Atoms in molecules (AIM);, and ;Natural Bond Orbital (NBO); were used. According to the calculation resuls, the energy difference between the cis and trans isomers of Al(TFAA)3 is very small and indicates that both isomers coexist in the sample in comparable proportions. Comparison of the calculated frequency and intensity data with the observed IR and Raman spectra of the complex has supported this conclusion. On the other hand, comparison of the structural and vibrational spectral data of Al(TFAA)3, which were experimentally measured and calculated at B3LYP/6-311G* level, with the corresponding data of Aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(AA)3) has revealed the effects of CF3 substitution on the structural and vibrational spectral data associated with the CH3 groups in the complex structure.

  4. Regio- and conformational isomerization critical to design of efficient thermally-activated delayed fluorescence emitters

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, Marc K.; Franchello, Flavio; Gibson, Jamie; Northey, Thomas; Santos, Jose; Ward, Jonathan S.; Higginbotham, Heather F.; Data, Przemyslaw; Kurowska, Aleksandra; Dos Santos, Paloma Lays; Graves, David R.; Batsanov, Andrei S.; Dias, Fernando B.; Bryce, Martin R.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Monkman, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Regio- and conformational isomerization are fundamental in chemistry, with profound effects upon physical properties, however their role in excited state properties is less developed. Here two regioisomers of bis(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene-S,S-dioxide, a donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, are studied. 2,8-bis(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene-S,S-dioxide exhibits only one quasi-equatorial conformer on both donor sites, with charge-transfer (CT) emission close to the local triplet state leading to efficient TADF via spin-vibronic coupling. However, 3,7-bis(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene-S,S-dioxide displays both a quasi-equatorial CT state and a higher-energy quasi-axial CT state. No TADF is observed in the quasi-axial CT emission. These two CT states link directly to the two folded conformers of phenothiazine. The presence of the low-lying local triplet state of the axial conformer also means that this quasi-axial CT is an effective loss pathway both photophysically and in devices. Importantly, donors or acceptors with more than one conformer have negative repercussions for TADF in organic light-emitting diodes. PMID:28406153

  5. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. PMID:26904593

  6. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    PubMed

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  7. Electron Anisotropy as a Signature of Mode Specific Isomerization in Vinylidene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Stephen T.; Laws, Benjamin A.; Mabbs, Richard; Neumark, Daniel; Lineberger, Carl; Field, Robert W.

    2016-06-01

    he nature of the isomerization process that turns vinylidene into acetylene has been awaiting advances in experimental methods, to better define fractionation widths beyond those available in the seminal 1989 photoelectron spectrum measurement. This has proven a challenge. The technique of velocity-map imaging (VMI) is one avenue of approach. Images of electrons photodetached from vinylidene negative-ions, at various wavelengths, 1064 nm shown, provide more detail, including unassigned structure, but only an incremental improvement in the instrument line width. Intriguingly, the VMIs demonstrate a mode dependent variation in the electron anisotropy. Most notable in the figure, the inner-ring transition clusters are discontinuously, more isotropic. Electron anisotropy may provide an alternative key to examine the character of vinylidene transitions, mediating the necessity for an extreme resolution measurement. Vibrational dependent anisotropy has previously been observed in diatomic photoelectron spectra, associated with the coupling of electronic and nuclear motions. Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP160102585. K. M. Ervin, J. Ho, and W. C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 5974 (1989). doi:10.1063/1.457415 M. van Duzor et al. J. Chem. Phys. 133, 174311 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3493349

  8. LC-MS n Analysis of Isomeric Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using a Chemical Derivatization Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rongrong; Pomin, Vitor H.; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2011-09-01

    Improved methods for structural analyses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are required to understand their functional roles in various biological processes. Major challenges in structural characterization of complex GAG oligosaccharides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) include the accurate determination of the patterns of sulfation due to gas-phase losses of the sulfate groups upon collisional activation and inefficient on-line separation of positional sulfation isomers prior to MS/MS analyses. Here, a sequential chemical derivatization procedure including permethylation, desulfation, and acetylation was demonstrated to enable both on-line LC separation of isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides and accurate determination of sites of sulfation by MS n . The derivatized oligosaccharides have sulfate groups replaced with acetyl groups, which are sufficiently stable to survive MS n fragmentation and reflect the original sulfation patterns. A standard reversed-phase LC-MS system with a capillary C18 column was used for separation, and MS n experiments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed. Our results indicate that the combination of this derivatization strategy and MS n methodology enables accurate identification of the sulfation isomers of CS hexasaccharides with either saturated or unsaturated nonreducing ends. Moreover, derivatized CS hexasaccharide isomer mixtures become separable by LC-MS method due to different positions of acetyl modifications.

  9. Laser probes of the potential energy landscapes and conformational isomerization dynamics of flexible biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dian, Brian; Clarkson, Jasper; Zwier, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    Using a combination of 2-color resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), laser-induced fluorescence excitation (LIF), resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy (RIDIRS), fluorescence-dip infrared spectroscopy (FDIRS), and UV-UV hole-burning spectroscopy, the conformational preferences of a series of flexible biomolecules, including melatonin, N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl amide (NATMA), and their close analogs, have been determined in a molecular beam. These molecules are sufficiently complex to have hundreds of conformational minima, yet small enough that their potential energy landscapes can be explored in some detail. Once the conformational preferences of the molecules are established, these molecules are then studied using infrared-ultraviolet hole-filling and IR-induced population transfer spectroscopy. These methods utilize selective infrared excitation of single conformations of the molecule in the early portions of a gas-phase expansion, followed by collisional re-cooling of the excited population into its conformational minima for subsequent conformation-specific detection. Efficient isomerization is induced by the infrared excitation that redistributes population between the same conformations that have population in the absence of infrared excitation. Examples will be given in which the quantum yields for transfer of the population into the various conformational minima depend both on which conformation is excited and on which hydride stretch vibration is excited within a given conformation; that is, they are both conformation-selective and mode-selective.

  10. Substitution and solvent effects in the chalcones isomerization barrier of flavylium photochromic systems.

    PubMed

    Roque, Ana; Lima, João Carlos; Parola, A Jorge; Pina, Fernando

    2007-04-01

    Useful application of photochromic compounds as optical memories implies the existence of a large kinetic barrier between the forms interconverted by light. In the case of flavylium salts, the ground state isomerization barrier between the photoisomerizable chalcone isomers is shown to correlate with the electron donating ability of the substituents, measured by their effects in the (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the aromatic protons. Substitution with electron donating groups in ring A lowers the barrier while substitution at ring B has the opposite effect. However, in water, the observed increase is higher than expected in the case of compound 4',9-dihydroxychalcone when compared with the analogous 4'-dimethylamino-9-hydroxychalcone, containing a better electron donating group in the same position. Our interpretation is that the water network is providing an efficient pathway to form tautomers. In acetonitrile, unlike water, the expected order is indeed observed: E(a)(4',9-dihydroxychalcone) = 60 kJ mol(-1) < E(a) (4'-dimethylamino-9-hydroxychalcone) = 69 kJ mol(-1).

  11. Ensemble of Transition State Structures for the Cis-Trans Isomerization of N-Methylacetamide

    SciTech Connect

    Mantz, Yves A.; Branduardi, Davide; Bussi, Giovanni

    2009-09-17

    The cis-trans isomerization of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a model peptidic fragment, is studied theoretically in vacuo and in explicit water solvent at 300 K using the metadynamics technique. The computed cis-trans free energy difference is very similar for NMA(g) and NMA(aq), in agreement with experimental measurements of population ratios and theoretical studies at 0 K. By exploiting the flexibility in the definition of a pair of recently introduced collective variables (Branduardi, D.; Gervasio, F. L.; Parrinello, M. J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 054103), an ensemble of transition state structures is generated at finite temperature for both NMA(g) and NMA(aq), as verifiedmore » by computing committor distribution functions. Ensemble members of NMA(g) are shown to have correlated values of the backbone dihedral angle and a second dihedral angle involving the amide hydrogen atom. The dynamical character of these structures is preserved in the presence of solvent, whose influence on the committor functions can be modeled using effective friction/noise terms.« less

  12. Resolution of isomeric new designer stimulants using gas chromatography - Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and theoretical computations.

    PubMed

    Skultety, Ludovit; Frycak, Petr; Qiu, Changling; Smuts, Jonathan; Shear-Laude, Lindsey; Lemr, Karel; Mao, James X; Kroll, Peter; Schug, Kevin A; Szewczak, Angelica; Vaught, Cory; Lurie, Ira; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2017-06-08

    Distinguishing isomeric representatives of "bath salts", "plant food", "spice", or "legal high" remains a challenge for analytical chemistry. In this work, we used vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography to address this issue on a set of forty-three designer drugs. All compounds, including many isomers, returned differentiable vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet spectra. The pair of 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinones (m/z 181.0903), as well as the methoxetamine/meperidine/ethylphenidate (m/z 247.1572) triad, provided very distinctive vacuum ultraviolet spectral features. On the contrary, spectra of 4-methylethcathinone, 4-ethylmethcathinone, 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone triad (m/z 191.1310) displayed much higher similarities. Their resolution was possible only if pure standards were probed. A similar situation occurred with the ethylone and butylone pair (m/z 221.1052). On the other hand, majority of forty-three drugs was successfully separated by gas chromatography. The detection limits for all the drug standards were in the 2-4 ng range (on-column amount), which is sufficient for determinations of seized drugs during forensics analysis. Further, state-of-the-art time-dependent density functional theory was evaluated for computation of theoretical absorption spectra in the 125-240 nm range as a complementary tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DETECTION OF TWO ISOMERIC BINDING CONFIGURATIONS IN A PROTEIN-APTAMER COMPLEX WITH A BIOLOGICAL NANOPORE

    PubMed Central

    Van Meervelt, Veerle; Soskine, Misha; Maglia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions play critical roles in biological systems, and they often involve complex mechanisms and dynamics that are not easily measured by ensemble experiments. Recently, we have shown that folded proteins can be internalised inside ClyA nanopores and studied by ionic current recordings at the single-molecule level. Here, we use ClyA nanopores to sample the interaction between the G-quadruplex fold of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and human thrombin (HT). Surprisingly, the internalisation of the HT:TBA complex inside the nanopore induced two types of current blockades with distinguished residual current and lifetime. Using single nucleobase substitutions to TBA we showed that these two types of blockades originate from TBA binding to thrombin with two isomeric orientations. Voltage dependencies and the use of ClyA nanopores with two different diameters allowed assessing the effect of the applied potential and confinement, and revealed that the two binding configurations of TBA to HT display different lifetimes. These results show that the ClyA nanopores might provide a new approach to probe conformational heterogeneity in protein:DNA interactions. PMID:25493908

  14. Phase-space reaction network on a multisaddle energy landscape: HCN isomerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Biu; Matsunaga, Yasuhiro; Toda, Mikito; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2005-11-08

    By using the HCN/CNH isomerization reaction as an illustrative vehicle of chemical reactions on multisaddle energy landscapes, we give explicit visualizations of molecular motions associated with a straight-through reaction tube in the phase space inside which all reactive trajectories pass from one basin to another, with eliminating recrossing trajectories in the configuration space. This visualization provides us with a chemical intuition of how chemical species "walk along" the reaction-rate slope in the multidimensional phase space compared with the intrinsic reaction path in the configuration space. The distinct nonergodic features in the two different HCN and CNH wells can be easily demonstrated by a section of Poincare surface of section in those potential minima, which predicts in a priori the pattern of trajectories residing in the potential well. We elucidate the global phase-space structure which gives rise to the non-Markovian dynamics or the dynamical correlation of sequential multisaddle chemical reactions. The phase-space structure relevant to the controllability of the product state in chemical reactions is also discussed.

  15. Intramolecular interactions, isomerization and vibrational frequencies of two paracetamol analogues: A spectroscopic and a computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Rommel B.; Ribeiro, Gabriela L. O.; Santos, Sinara F. F.; Quintero, David E.; Viana, Anderson B.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the molecular properties and provide an interpretation of the vibrational mode couplings of these two paracetamol analogues: 2-bromo-2-methyl-N-(4-nitrophenyl)-propanamide and 2-bromo-2-methyl-N-p-tolyl-propanamide. E/Z isomers, keto/enol unimolecular rearrangement and prediction of the transition state structures in each mechanism were also assessed using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT estimates a high energy gap between E and Z isomers (9-11 kcal·mol- 1), with barrier heights ranging from 16 to 19 kcal·mol- 1. In contrast, the barrier energies on the keto/enol isomerization are almost 10 kcal·mol- 1 higher than those estimated for the E/Z rearrangement. The kinetic rate constant was also determined for each reaction mechanism. Natural bond orbital analysis and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules were used to interpret the intramolecular hydrogen bonds and to understand the most important interactions that govern the stabilization of each isomer. Furthermore, an analysis of the atomic charge distribution using different population methodologies was also performed.

  16. Understanding M-ligand bonding and mer-/fac-isomerism in tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) metallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carlos F R A C; Taveira, Ricardo J S; Costa, José C S; Fernandes, Ana M; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2016-06-28

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) metallic complexes, Mq3, are one of the most important classes of organic semiconductor materials. Herein, the nature of the chemical bond in Mq3 complexes and its implications on their molecular properties were investigated by a combined experimental and computational approach. Various Mq3 complexes, resulting from the alteration of the metal and substitution of the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand in different positions, were prepared. The mer-/fac-isomerism in Mq3 was explored by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, evidencing that, irrespective of the substituent, mer- and fac-are the most stable molecular configurations of Al(iii) and In(iii) complexes, respectively. The relative M-ligand bond dissociation energies were evaluated experimentally by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS), showing a non-monotonous variation along the group (Al > In > Ga). The results reveal a strong covalent character in M-ligand bonding, which allows for through-ligand electron delocalization, and explain the preferred molecular structures of Mq3 complexes as resulting from the interplay between bonding and steric factors. The mer-isomer reduces intraligand repulsions, being preferred for smaller metals, while the fac-isomer is favoured for larger metals where stronger covalent M-ligand bonds can be formed due to more extensive through-ligand conjugation mediated by metal "d" orbitals.

  17. Reaction pathway mechanism of thermally induced isomerization of 9,12-linoleic acid triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Jiang, Fan; Deng, Zhaoxuan; Li, Qingpeng; Jin, Jing; Ha, Yiming; Wang, Feng

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the formation mechanism of trans linoleic acid isomers in edible oils during the heating process, trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, as representative oils, were placed in glass ampoules and sealed before heating at 180, 240 and 320 °C. The glass ampoules were removed at regular time intervals, and the contents were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The samples were then subjected to derivatization into their methyl esters for gas chromatographic analysis. Analysis results show that 9c,12c and 9t,12t fatty acids from trilinolein and trilinoelaidin molecules undergo chemical bond rotation, migration and degradation, leading to the formation of non-conjugated linoleic acids (NLAs), conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and aldehydes. The formation rate of isomers from the 9c,12c fatty acid is higher than that of the 9t,12t fatty acid. The production of aldehydes increases with heating temperature and time. The isomerization pathways involved in the formation of NLAs and CLAs during heating are clearly presented. These findings suggest possible pathways of NFA and CFA formation from heated trilinolein and trilinoelaidin, complement the mechanistic studies previously published in the literature, and provide a theoretical basis for future control of the quality and safety of fats and oils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization over promoted Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoa Dao, Thi Kim; Loc Luu, Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts modified by various metallic species, including Co, Ni, Fe, Re, and Cu, was prepared by sequential impregnation. Contents of Pd and second metals in modified catalysts were 0.8 and 1.0 wt%, respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts were investigated by nitrogen physi-sorption (BET), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and hydrogen pulse chemisorption (HPC). Coke formation was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activities of catalysts in n-hexane isomerization were studied in a micro-flow reactor under atmospheric pressure at 250 °C, and molar ratio of H2: n-hexane of 5.92. It was found that Co, Ni, Fe, and Re additives exhibited geometric and electronic effects toward Pd/HZSM-5 catalyst, leading to an enhancement of its activity and stability. On the contrary, Cu additive caused Pd/HZSM-5 to become poorer in activity and stability.

  19. Penguin Decays of B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingel, Karen; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, James G.

    Penguin, or loop, decays of B mesons induce effective flavor-changing neutral currents, which are forbidden at tree level in the standard model. These decays give special insight into the CKM matrix and are sensitive to non-standard-model effects. In this review, we give a historical and theoretical introduction to penguins and a description of the various types of penguin processes: electromagnetic, electroweak, and gluonic. We review the experimental searches for penguin decays, including the measurements of the electromagnetic penguins b -> sgamma and B -> K*gamma and gluonic penguins B -> Kpi, B+ -> omegaK+ and B -> eta'K, and their implications for the standard model and new physics. We conclude by exploring the future prospects for penguin physics.

  20. The decay of triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, A. I.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out in the general three-body problem with equal masses with zero initial velocities, to investigate the distribution of the decay times T based on a representative sample of initial conditions. The distribution has a power-law character on long time scales, f( T) ∝ T - α , with α = 1.74. Over small times T < 30 T cr ( T cr is the mean crossing time for a component of the triple system), a series of local maxima separated by about 1.0 T cr is observed in the decay-time distribution. These local peaks correspond to zones of decay after one or a few triple encounters. Figures showing the arrangement of these zones in the domain of the initial conditions are presented.

  1. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal...

  2. Decays of the vector glueball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2017-06-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.

  3. Polarizations in B→VV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsiang-Nan; Mishima, Satoshi

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate that the polarization fractions of most tree-dominated B→VV decays can be simply understood by means of kinematics in the heavy-quark or large-energy limit. For example, the longitudinal polarization fractions RL of the B0→(D*+s,D*+,ρ+)D*- and B+→(D*+s,D*+,ρ+)ρ0 modes increase as the masses of the mesons D*+s,D*+,ρ+ emitted from the weak vertex decrease. The subleading finite-mass or finite-energy corrections modify these simple estimates only slightly. Our predictions for the B→D*(s)D* polarization fractions derived in the perturbative QCD framework, especially RL˜1 for B0→D¯*0D*0 governed by nonfactorizable W-exchange amplitudes, can be confronted with future data. For penguin-dominated modes, such as B→ρ(ω)K*, the polarization fractions can be understood by the annihilation effect from the (S-P)(S+P) operators, plus the interference with a small tree amplitude. At last, we comment on the various mechanisms proposed in the literature to explain the abnormal B→ϕK* polarization data, none of which are satisfactory.

  4. β decay of Na32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Koopmans, K. A.; Leslie, J. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Washbrook, B.; Zganjar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The β-decay of Na32 has been studied using β-γ coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of Mg32 from an analysis of γ-γ and β-γ-γ coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in Mg32 removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in Mg32 is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of Na32.

  5. The decay of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1981-06-01

    The principal decay modes of subatomic particles are governed by fundamental conservation laws, and it is recounted how traditional views of conservation laws have been altered by the development of modern theories of elementary particle interactions. Proton decay experiments have gradually increased the empirical lower boundary on the lifetime of the proton. It is now known to have a lifetime at least 10 to the 30th times the age of the universe, but recent theoretical work is cited as an indication that this fundamental constituent of matter is not immortal. The conclusion is that all matter will eventually disintegrate if the proton indeed does not live forever.

  6. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  7. Spectroscopy and high-spin structure of 210Fr: Isomerism and potential evidence for configuration mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerin, V.; Lane, G. J.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Palalani, N.; Smith, M. L.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The structure of 210Fr has been established up to an excitation energy of ˜5.5 MeV and spins of ˜25 ℏ , via time-correlated γ -ray spectroscopy and using the 197Au(18O,5 n )210Fr reaction with pulsed beams at an energy of 97 MeV. A significantly different level scheme has been obtained compared to previous publications. Several isomers are reported here, including a Jπ=(23) +,τ =686 (9 ) -ns state at 4417 keV and a 10-, 29.8(11)-ns state at 1113 keV. The former isomer has been associated with the π (h9/2 3i13/2 2) ν (p1/2 -2f5/2 -1) configuration and decays via proposed E 3 transitions with strengths of 8.4(3) and 21.2(8) W.u. There are only very few known cases of a high-spin isomer decaying via two parallel E 3 transitions. Indeed, this is not seen in other Fr nuclei, and consequently these strengths differ from related decays in the neighboring isotopes. However, by examining the systematics of E 3 transitions in trans-lead nuclei, we suggest that the weaker of the two transitions decays to a mixed 20- state. Systematics of the 10- isomer are also discussed. Comparisons are made between the observed spectrum of states and those predicted from semiempirical shell-model calculations.

  8. Formation of an Isomeric State of Zn$sup 67$ by Bombardment with Slow Neutrons; FORMACION DE UN ESTADO ISOMERO DEL ZN$sup 67$$sub 30$ MEDIANTE BOMBARDEO CON NEUTRONES LENTOS

    SciTech Connect

    Montes Ponce De Leon, J.; Sanchez Del Rio, C.

    1956-01-01

    In this paper the identification of the isomeric state of Zn/sup 67/ by a new method is described. The isotopes Zn/sup 68/ and Zn/sup 67/ being both stable, the capture of slow neutrons by Zn/sup 68/ leads sometimes to the formation of the isomeric state of Zn/sup 67/; the state is identified by its half life, measured by delayed coincidences between the capture and the isomeric gamma rays. (auth)

  9. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  10. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Detecting decay in wood components

    Treesearch

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  12. First observation of the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Holtrop, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-11-01

    The first observation of the decay is reported. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 of pp collisions at TeV, collected with the LHCb detector. A yield of 30 ± 6 decays is found in the mass windows 1012.5 < M ( K + K -) < 1026.5 MeV/ c 2 and 746 < M( K - π +) < 1046 MeV/ c 2. The signal yield is found to be dominated by decays, and the corresponding branching fraction is measured to be = (1.10 ± 0.24 (stat) ± 0.14 (syst) ± 0.08 ( f d / f s )) × 10-6, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and from the ratio of fragmentation fractions f d / f s which accounts for the different production rate of B 0 and mesons. The significance of signal is 6.1 standard deviations. The fraction of longitudinal polarization in decays is found to be f 0 = 0.51 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Phomopsis seed decay of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. Infected seed range from symptomless to shriveled, elongated, ...

  14. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  15. Rare decays in quark flavour physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Johannes; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Rare heavy-flavour decays are an ideal place to search for the effects of potential new particles that modify the decay rates or the Lorentz structure of the decay vertices. Recent results on Flavour Changing Neutral Current decays from the LHC are reviewed. An emphasis is put on the very rare decay Bs0 →μ+μ-, which was recently observed by the CMS and LHCb experiments, on a recent test of lepton universality in loop processes and on the analysis of the angular distributions of the B0 →K*0μ+μ- decays, both by the LHCb collaboration.

  16. Dandy-Walker syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Imataka, George; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a brain malformation of unknown etiology, but several reports have been published indicating that there is a causal relationship to various types of chromosomal abnormalities and malformation syndromes. In the present article, we present a bibliographical survey of several previously issued reports on chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS, including our case of DWS found in trisomy 18. There are various types of chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS; most of them are reported in chromosome 3, 9, 13 and 18. We also summarize some other chromosomal abnormalities and various congenital malformation syndromes.

  17. Does proline isomerization shape the folding funnel of the wild type and mutant staphylococcal nuclease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsong, Tian Yow; Su, Zheng-Ding

    1999-10-01

    Cis/trans isomerization of proline residues is known to exhibit high activation energies. These kinetic barriers often dominate the energy landscape of protein folding. There are 6 proline residues (at positions 11, 31, 42, 47, 56 and 117) in staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) [EC 3.1.31.1]. Stopped-flow CD222nm measuring the evolution of the secondary structure of protein has detected 5 kinetic barriers in SNase folding (ΔG≠ for τfr<15, τf1 16.9, τf2 18.5, τf3 19.5, and τfs 21.8 kcal/mol) and 3 kinetic barriers in unfolding (ΔG≠ for τur<15, τu1 17.4, τus 21.6 kcal/mol). To investigate systematically how individual proline residues and 6 proline residues in toto can shape the folding funnel we have expediently constructed 7 proline mutants for study. They are 6 single-proline-substituted mutants (P11A, P31A, P42A, P47A, P56A and P117A) and 1 proline-free mutant (PallA). Study of equilibrium folding/unfolding and stopped-flow kinetics of the wildtype and the 7 mutants of SNase have allowed us to identify sources of 3 main kinetic barriers in the SNase folding. The highest barrier (ΔG≠=21.8 kcal) belongs to the cis/trans isomerization of Pro117. The next barrier (ΔG≠=19.5 kcal) involves synergetic effects of proline residues which limits the rate of folding of the oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain in all 7 proline-containing SNase. For the proline-free mutant (PallA) the OB domain folds rapidly. Furthermore, we have found that the equilibrium folding/unfolding properties of these proline mutants are remarkably similar to that of the wildtype despite their startlingly different folding/unfolding kinetics. These results lead us to conclude that while free energy of folding (ΔGF=-4.5 kcal/mol) provides the driving force, it is the activation energy that forms a conduit or shapes a kinetic funnel for SNase folding. The landscape for SNase folding is extremely rugged. Data support our previously proposed Least Activation Path (LAP) model for protein

  18. Tunneling in hydrogen-transfer isomerization of n-alkyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai; Tsang, Wing

    2012-01-12

    The role of quantum tunneling in hydrogen shift in linear heptyl radicals is explored using multidimensional, small-curvature tunneling method for the transmission coefficients and a potential energy surface computed at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. Several one-dimensional approximations (Wigner, Skodje and Truhlar, and Eckart methods) were compared to the multidimensional results. The Eckart method was found to be sufficiently accurate in comparison to the small-curvature tunneling results for a wide range of temperature, but this agreement is in fact fortuitous and caused by error cancellations. High-pressure limit rate constants were calculated using the transition state theory with treatment of hindered rotations and Eckart transmission coefficients for all hydrogen-transfer isomerizations in n-pentyl to n-octyl radicals. Rate constants are found in good agreement with experimental kinetic data available for n-pentyl and n-hexyl radicals. In the case of n-heptyl and n-octyl, our calculated rates agree well with limited experimentally derived data. Several conclusions made in the experimental studies of Tsang et al. (Tsang, W.; McGivern, W. S.; Manion, J. A. Proc. Combust. Inst. 2009, 32, 131-138) are confirmed theoretically: older low-temperature experimental data, characterized by small pre-exponential factors and activation energies, can be reconciled with high-temperature data by taking into account tunneling; at low temperatures, transmission coefficients are substantially larger for H-atom transfers through a five-membered ring transition state than those with six-membered rings; channels with transition ring structures involving greater than 8 atoms can be neglected because of entropic effects that inhibit such transitions. The set of computational kinetic rates were used to derive a general rate rule that explicitly accounts for tunneling. The rate rule is shown to reproduce closely the theoretical rate constants.

  19. Differentiation of isomeric 2-aryldimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Chary, V Naresh; Dinesh, A; Reddy, P S; Srinivas, K; Gayatri, G; Sastry, G N; Prabhakar, S

    2011-10-15

    A series of isomeric 2-aryl-6,6-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set I) and 2-aryl-7,7-dimethyltetrahydro-5-quinolinones (set II) were studied under positive ion electron ionization (EI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) techniques. Under EI conditions, the molecular ions were found to be less stable in set I isomers, and they resulted in abundant fragment ions, i.e., [M-CH(3)](+), [M-CO](+.), [M-HCO](+), [M-(CH(3),CO)](+), and [M-(CH(3),CH(2)O)](+), when compared with set II isomers. In addition, the set I isomers showed specific fragment ions corresponding to [M-OH](+) and [M-OCH(3)](+). The retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) product ion was always higher in set II isomers. The ESI mass spectra produced [M + H](+) ions, and their decomposition showed favorable loss of CH(3) radical, CH(4) and C(2)H(6) molecules in set I isomers. The set II isomers, however, showed predominant RDA product ions, and specific loss of H(2)O. The selectivity in EI and ESI was attributed to the instability of set I isomers by the presence of a gem-dimethyl group at the α-position, and it was supported by the data from model compounds without a gem-dimethyl group. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations successfully corroborated the fragmentation pathways for diagnostic ions. This study revealed the effect of a gem-dimethyl group located at the α-position to the carbonyl having aromatic/unsaturated carbon on the other side of the carbonyl group. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Validation of electronic structure methods for isomerization reactions of large organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sijie; Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-14

    In this work the ISOL24 database of isomerization energies of large organic molecules presented by Huenerbein et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 6940] is updated, resulting in the new benchmark database called ISOL24/11, and this database is used to test 50 electronic model chemistries. To accomplish the update, the very expensive and highly accurate CCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVDZ method is first exploited to investigate a six-reaction subset of the 24 reactions, and by comparison of various methods with the benchmark, MCQCISD-MPW is confirmed to be of high accuracy. The final ISOL24/11 database is composed of six reaction energies calculated by CCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVDZ and 18 calculated by MCQCISD-MPW. We then tested 40 single-component density functionals (both local and hybrid), eight doubly hybrid functionals, and two other methods against ISOL24/11. It is found that the SCS-MP3/CBS method, which is used as benchmark for the original ISOL24, has an MUE of 1.68 kcal mol(-1), which is close to or larger than some of the best tested DFT methods. Using the new benchmark, we find ωB97X-D and MC3MPWB to be the best single-component and doubly hybrid functionals respectively, with PBE0-D3 and MC3MPW performing almost as well. The best single-component density functionals without molecular mechanics dispersion-like terms are M08-SO, M08-HX, M05-2X, and M06-2X. The best single-component density functionals without Hartree-Fock exchange are M06-L-D3 when MM terms are included and M06-L when they are not.

  1. Crystal structure, matrix-isolation FTIR, and UV-induced conformational isomerization of 3-quinolinecarboxaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Nihal; Henriques, Marta Sofia; Paixão, José António; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui

    2014-09-25

    The crystal structure of 3-quinolinecarboxaldehyde (3QC) has been solved, and the compound has been shown to crystallize in the space group P21/c (monoclinic) with a = 6.306(4), b = 18.551(11), c = 6.999(4) Å, β = 106.111(13)°, and Z = 4. The crystals were found to exhibit pseudomerohedral twinning with a twin law corresponding to a two-fold rotation around the monoclinic (100) reciprocal lattice axis (or [4 0 1] in direct space). Individual molecules adopt the syn conformation in the crystal, with the oxygen atom of the aldehyde substituent directed toward the same side of the ring nitrogen atom. In the gas phase, the compound exists in two nearly isoenergetic conformers (syn and anti), which could be successfully trapped in solid argon at 10 K, and their infrared spectra are registered and interpreted. Upon in situ irradiation of matrix-isolated 3QC with UV light (λ > 315 nm), significant reduction of the population of the less stable anti conformer was observed, while that of the conformational ground state (syn conformer) increased, indicating occurrence of the anti → syn isomerization. Upon irradiation at higher energy (λ > 235 nm), the syn → anti reverse photoreaction was observed. Interpretation of the structural, spectroscopic, and photochemical experimental data received support from quantum chemical theoretical results obtained at both DFT/B3LYP (including TD-DFT investigation of excited states) and MP2 levels, using the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

  2. Effect of nuclear-reaction mechanisms on the population of excited nuclear states and isomeric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N. K., E-mail: skobelev@jinr.ru

    2016-07-15

    Experimental data on the cross sections for channels of fusion and transfer reactions induced by beams of radioactive halo nuclei and clustered and stable loosely bound nuclei were analyzed, and the results of this analysis were summarized. The interplay of the excitation of single-particle states in reaction-product nuclei and direct reaction channels was established for transfer reactions. Respective experiments were performed in stable ({sup 6}Li) and radioactive ({sup 6}He) beams of the DRIBs accelerator complex at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, and in deuteron and {sup 3}He beams of the U-120M cyclotron at themore » Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy Sciences of Czech Republic (Řež and Prague, Czech Republic). Data on subbarrier and near-barrier fusion reactions involving clustered and loosely bound light nuclei ({sup 6}Li and {sup 3}He) can be described quite reliably within simple evaporation models with allowance for different reaction Q-values and couple channels. In reactions involving halo nuclei, their structure manifests itself most strongly in the region of energies below the Coulomb barrier. Neutron transfer occurs with a high probability in the interactions of all loosely bound nuclei with light and heavy stable nuclei at positive Q-values. The cross sections for such reactions and the respective isomeric ratios differ drastically for nucleon stripping and nucleon pickup mechanisms. This is due to the difference in the population probabilities for excited single-particle states.« less

  3. Isomeric forms of specifically. beta. -subunit labeled mitochondrial F/sub 1/-adenosinetriphosphatase with different properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.H.; Wu, J.C.; Joshi, V.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of the mitochondrial F/sub 1/-ATPase (MF/sub 1/) containing 1 specific 7-(4-nitro-2,1,3-(/sup 14/C)benzoxadiazolyl)-label (NBD) per enzyme molecule with acetylcysteine (AC) shows that the ratio r of specific ATPase activity of (O-NBD)/sub n/MF/sub 1/ to that of the control MF/sub 1/ increases linearly with the number of labels removed by AC from r < 0.1 to r > 0.9 and that dr/dn approx. = -1 as expected from specific labeling of an essential Tyr in the catalytic ..beta..' subunit. The r value of this labeled enzyme can also be increased 10-fold by LiCl-induced rearrangement of its subunits without removing any ofmore » the label. Similar treatment of the rearranged (O-NBD)/sub n/MF/sub 1/ shows that only a fraction of its radioactive labels can be removed at the normal rate by AC with dr/dn approx. = -1. The remaining labels have little inhibitory effect and are removed at much slower rates by AC with dr/dn approx. = 0. If the reaction with the rearranged (O-NBD)/sub n/MF/sub 1/ is terminated by gel-filtration when most of the labels on ..beta..' have been removed, an isomeric form of the covalently labeled enzyme is obtained with n > 0.5 but r approx. = 1, indicating that its labels are on the subunits (..beta..'') which do not catalyze directly. Incubation of O-..beta..'-NBD-MF/sub 1/ and O-BETA''-NBD-MF/sub 1/ at pH 8.95 gives N-..beta..'-NBD-MF/sub 1/ and N-..beta..''-NBD-MF/sub 1/ respectively with different fluorescence quenching characteristics.« less

  4. Cis→Trans Isomerization of Pro7 in Oxytocin Regulates Zn2+ Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Daniel R.; Glover, Matthew S.; Pierson, Nicholas A.; Kim, DoYong; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2016-08-01

    Ion mobility/mass spectrometry techniques are employed to investigate the binding of Zn2+ to the nine-residue peptide hormone oxytocin (OT, Cys1-Tyr2-Ile3-Gln4-Asn5-Cys6-Pro7-Leu8-Gly9-NH2, having a disulfide bond between Cys1 and Cys6 residues). Zn2+ binding to OT is known to increase the affinity of OT for its receptor [Pearlmutter, A. F., Soloff, M. S.: Characterization of the metal ion requirement for oxytocin-receptor interaction in rat mammary gland membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 3899-3906 (1979)]. In the absence of Zn2+, we find evidence for two primary OT conformations, which arise because the Cys6-Pro7 peptide bond exists in both the trans- and cis-configurations. Upon addition of Zn2+, we determine binding constants in water of KA = 1.43 ± 0.24 and 0.42 ± 0.12 μM-1, for the trans- and cis-configured populations, respectively. The Zn2+ bound form of OT, having a cross section of Ω = 235 Å2, has Pro7 in the trans-configuration, which agrees with a prior report [Wyttenbach, T., Liu, D., Bowers, M. T.: Interactions of the hormone oxytocin with divalent metal ions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5993-6000 (2008)], in which it was proposed that Zn2+ binds to the peptide ring and is further coordinated by interaction of the C-terminal, Pro7-Leu8-Gly9-NH2, tail. The present work shows that the cis-configuration of OT isomerizes to the trans-configuration upon binding Zn2+. In this way, the proline residue regulates Zn2+ binding to OT and, hence, is important in receptor binding.

  5. Two isomeric lead(II) carboxylate-phosphonates: syntheses, crystal structures and characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chong; Mao, Jiang-Gao; Sun, Yan-Qiong

    2004-07-01

    Two isomeric layered lead(II) carboxylate-phosphonates of N-(phosphonomethyl)- N-methyl glycine ([MeN(CH 2CO 2H)(CH 2PO 3H 2)]=H 3L), namely, monoclinic Pb 3L 2·H 2O 1 and triclinic Pb 3L 2·H 2O 2, have been synthesized and structurally determined. Compound 1 synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150°C is monoclinic, space group C2/ c with a=19.9872(6), b=11.9333(1) and c=15.8399(4) Å, β=110.432(3)°, V=3540.3(1) Å 3, and Z=8. The structure of compound 1 features a <400> layer in which the lead(II) ions are bridged by both phosphonate and carboxylate groups. The lattice water molecules are located between the layers, forming hydrogen bonds with the non-coordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms. Compound 2 with a same empirical formula as compound 1 was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 170°C. It has a different layer structure from that of compound 1 due to the adoption of a different coordination mode for the ligand. It crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P 1¯ with cell parameters of a=7.1370(6), b=11.522(1), c=11.950(1) Å, α=110.280(2), β=91.625(2), γ=95.614(2)°, V=915.3(1) Å 3 and Z=2. The structure of compound 2 features a <020> metal carboxylate-phosphonate double layer built from 1D lead(II) carboxylate chains interconnected with 1D lead(II) phosphonate double chains. XRD powder patterns of compounds 1 and 2 indicate that each compound exists as a single phase.

  6. “W-X-M” transformations in isomerization of B{sub 39}{sup −} borospherenes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Ting-Ting; Chen, Qiang; Mu, Yue-Wen

    2016-06-15

    The Stone-Wales transformation plays an important role in the isomerization of fullerenes and graphenic systems. The continuous conversions between neighboring six- and seven-membered rings in the borospherene (all-boron fullerene) B{sub 40} had been discovered (Martínez-Guajardo et al. Sci. Rep. 5, 11287 (2015)). In the first axially chiral borospherenes C{sub 3} B{sub 39}{sup −} and C{sub 2} B{sub 39}{sup −}, we identify three active boron atoms which are located at the center of three alternative sites involving five boron atoms denoted as “W”, “X”, and “M”, respectively. The concerted movements of these active boron atoms and their close neighbors between neighboringmore » six- and seven-membered rings define the “W-X-M” transformation of borospherenes. Extensive first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and quadratic synchronous transit transition-state searches indicate that, via three transition states (TS1, TS2, and TS3) and two intermediate species (M1 and M2), the three-step “W-X-M” transformations convert the C{sub 3} B{sub 39}{sup −} global minimum into its C{sub 2} isomer at room temperature (300 K) and vice versa. The maximum barriers are only 3.89 kcal/mol from C{sub 3} to C{sub 2} B{sub 39}{sup −} and 2.1 kcal/mol from C{sub 2} to C{sub 3} B{sub 39}{sup −}, rendering dynamic fluxionalities to these borospherenes. Therefore, the “W-X-M” transformation plays an important role in the borospherenes and borospherene-based nanostructures.« less

  7. Proline cis-trans isomerization in staphylococcal nuclease: multi-substrate free energy perturbation calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, A.; Rice, L. M.; Simonson, T.; Fox, R. O.; Brünger, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Staphylococcal nuclease A exists in two folded forms that differ in the isomerization state of the Lys 116-Pro 117 peptide bond. The dominant form (90% occupancy) adopts a cis peptide bond, which is observed in the crystal structure. NMR studies show that the relatively small difference in free energy between the cis and trans forms (delta Gcis-->trans approximately 1.2 kcal/mol) results from large and nearly compensating differences in enthalpy and entropy (delta Hcis-->trans approximately delta TScis-->trans approximately 10 kcal/mol). There is evidence from X-ray crystal structures that the structural differences between the cis and the trans forms of nuclease are confined to the conformation of residues 112-117, a solvated protein loop. Here, we obtain a thermodynamic and structural description of the conformational equilibrium of this protein loop through an exhaustive conformational search that identified several substates followed by free energy simulations between the substrates. By partitioning the search into conformational substates, we overcame the multiple minima problem in this particular case and obtained precise and reproducible free energy values. The protein and water environment was implicitly modeled by appropriately chosen nonbonded terms between the explicitly treated loop and the rest of the protein. These simulations correctly predicted a small free energy difference between the cis and trans forms composed of larger, compensating differences in enthalpy and entropy. The structural predictions of these simulations were qualitatively consistent with known X-ray structures of nuclease variants and yield a model of the unknown minor trans conformation. PMID:7613463

  8. High-voltage electric-field-induced growth of aligned ``cow-nipple-like'' submicro-nano carbon isomeric structure via chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chengwei; Zhang, Yupeng; Pan, Chunxu

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a novel vertically aligned carbon material, named "cow-nipple-like" submicro-nano carbon isomeric structure, was synthesized by the thermal decomposition of C2H2 in a chemical-vapor deposition system with a high-voltage external electric field. The microstructures were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results revealed that (1) the total height of the carbon isomeric structure was in a rang of 90-250 nm; (2) the carbon isomeric structure consisted of a submicro- or nano-sized hemisphere carbon ball with 30-120 nm in diameter at the bottom and a vertically grown carbon nanotube with 10-40 nm in diameter upon the carbon ball; (3) there was a sudden change in diameter at the junction of the carbon ball and carbon nanotube. In addition, the carbon isomeric structure showed an excellent controllability, that is, the density, height, and diameter could be controlled effectively by adjusting the precursor ferrocene concentration in the catalytic solution and C2H2 ventilation time. A possible growth model was proposed to describe the formation mechanism, and a theoretic calculation was carried out to discuss the effect of high-voltage electric field upon the growth of the carbon isomeric structure.

  9. Intra- and intermolecular interaction inducing pyramidalization on both sides of a proline dipeptide during isomerization: an ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation study in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Yasushige; Nakata, Kazuto; Sakakura, Kota; Takada, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Haruki

    2009-04-01

    The cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline plays important roles in protein folding and biological function. Although many experimental and theoretical studies have been done, the mechanism has not yet been clearly elucidated. We studied the cis-trans isomerization of the proline dipeptide (Ace-Pro-NMe) in explicit water by molecular dynamics simulations using a combined potential derived from ab initio quantum mechanics and empirical molecular mechanics. We obtained the free energy landscape during the isomerization by using the umbrella sampling method. The free energy landscape is in good accordance with previous experimental and theoretical values. We observed that in the middle of the isomerization, the prolyl nitrogen transiently takes pyramidal conformations in two polarized directions and that, simultaneously, the prolyl C-N bond extends. We show that these geometrical changes cooperatively transform the prolyl nitrogen from a sp(2)-hybridized electronic state into a sp(3)-hybridized one, and thus realize a transition state that reduces the rotational barriers separating the cis- and trans-states. We also found that the hydration of the prolyl nitrogen stabilizes the negative pyramidal conformation, while an intramolecular interaction mainly stabilizes the positive one. Fluctuations in the polarity and magnitude of the pyramidal conformation during the isomerization are interpreted as a competition between the hydrogen-bonding partners for the prolyl nitrogen between different sides of the pyrrolidine ring.

  10. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from...

  11. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from bacterial or fungus infection...

  12. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from...

  13. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from bacterial or fungus infection...

  14. 7 CFR 51.490 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or...

  15. Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD Format

    Science.gov Websites

    nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD National Laboratory Report BNL-NCS-52142, February 29, 1988) More information concerning medical

  16. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  17. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  18. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  19. Isomerization of α-pinene in the terpentin oil with TCA/Natural Zeolite using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayati, N.; Supartono; Kusumastuti, E.

    2018-04-01

    The catalytic potensial of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)//Natural Zeolite in the isomerization of α-pinene in the terpentin oil was investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the power of microvawe on activity and selectivity of catalyst. The main product were champhene, terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, and terpinolene. The highest selectivity was 28.26% with a conversion of 23.25%, whereas the higher conversion was 98.99% with selectivity of 16.90% at room temperature using power of microwave 640 W.

  20. Biofuel by isomerizing metathesis of rapeseed oil esters with (bio)ethylene for use in contemporary diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Kai F.; Baader, Sabrina; Baader, Mathias; Berndt, Silvia; Goossen, Lukas J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste. It demonstrates that the pressing challenge of increasing the fraction of renewables in engine fuel may be addressed purely chemically rather than by motor engineering. PMID:28630908

  1. Biofuel by isomerizing metathesis of rapeseed oil esters with (bio)ethylene for use in contemporary diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Kai F; Baader, Sabrina; Baader, Mathias; Berndt, Silvia; Goossen, Lukas J

    2017-06-01

    Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste. It demonstrates that the pressing challenge of increasing the fraction of renewables in engine fuel may be addressed purely chemically rather than by motor engineering.

  2. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  3. Wood decay: a submicroscopic view

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Typical patterns of decay in softwoods are shown by ultrastructural differences revealed by SEM. Illustrative micrographs are reproduced showing fungi and their effects. Brown rot fungi (e.g. Fomitopsis pinicolor) degrade cellulose leaving a lignin skeleton. White rot fungi (e.g. Coriolus versicolor and Hirschioporus abietinus) degrade both lignin and cellulose. White pocket rots (e.g. Phellinus pini) primarily degrade lignin; they have potential for use in paper making, or the production of animal feed.

  4. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  5. Proton decay of 73Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Andrew; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Estee, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R. H.; Sweany, S.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Brown, K. W.; Elson, J. M.; Pruitt, C.; Sobotka, L. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Lee, J.

    2017-09-01

    Properties of nuclei beyond the proton drip-line are important for mass models, nuclear structure, and astrophysics. Weakly-bound or proton-unbound nuclei near the rp-process waiting points, such as the unbound Tz = -1/2 nucleus 73Rb, play a critical role in constraining calculations and observations of type I x-ray bursts. For instance, the rp process is greatly slowed near 72Kr (N = Z) due to its relatively long β-decay half life and inhibited proton capture. This waiting point, however, may be bypassed by sequential 2p-capture through 73Rb -a reaction which is sensitive to the 73Rb proton separation energy, Sp. Using invariant-mass spectroscopy, we have performed an experiment at NSCL to measure the decay of 73Rb ->p+72Kr in an attempt to directly determine Sp (73Rb) . Analysis of reconstructed proton-emission spectra and decay signatures will be discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, Award No. DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  6. Quantification of in vivo site-specific Asp isomerization and Asn deamidation of mAbs in animal serum using IP-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mehl, John T; Sleczka, Bogdan G; Ciccimaro, Eugene F; Kozhich, Alexander T; Gilbertson, Deb G; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Huang, Christine S; Stevens, Brenda; Mo, Jingjie; Deyanova, Ekaterina G; Wang, Yun; Huang, Richard Yc; Chen, Guodong; Olah, Timothy V

    2016-08-01

    Isomerization of aspartic acid and deamidation of asparagine are two common amino acid modifications that are of particular concern if located within the complementarity-determining region of therapeutic antibodies. Questions arise as to the extent of modification occurring in circulation due to potential exposure of the therapeutic antibody to different pH regimes. To enable evaluation of site-specific isomerization and deamidation of human mAbs in vivo, immunoprecipitation (IP) has been combined with LC-MS providing selective enrichment, separation and detection of naive and modified forms of tryptic peptides comprising complementarity-determining region sequences. IP-LC-MS can be applied to simultaneously quantify in vivo drug concentrations and measure the extent of isomerization or deamidation in PK studies conducted during the drug discovery stage.

  7. ‘Horror vacui’ or topological in-out isomerism in perhydrogenated fullerenes: C60H60 and monoalkylated perhydrogenated fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodziuk, Helena; Nowinski, Krzysztof

    1996-02-01

    In endohedral chemistry, one of the exciting prospects offered by the cage-like structure of fullerenes, several aspects of the calculations on in-out isomerism of perhydrogenated fullerene and their consequences went unnoticed, e.g. the topological character of the isomerism, the instability of C 60F 60, which was thought to revolutionize industry as an ideal lubricant, as well as the possibility of in-out isomerism in alkylated fulleranes. Molecular mechanics calculations indicate that for smaller alkyl groups the 'in' isomer is significantly more stable extending the possibility of endohedral fullerene chemistry. C 60H 60 and its derivatives can be considered as examples of a manifestation of the ancient 'horror vacui' concept.

  8. Characterization of a low-level unknown isomeric degradation product using an integrated online-offline top-down tandem mass spectrometry platform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Warme, Christopher; Lee, Dinah; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Wendy

    2013-10-01

    An integrated online-offline platform was developed combining automated online LC-MS fraction collection, continuous accumulation of selected ions (CASI), and offline top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) tandem mass spectrometry experiments to identify a low-level, unknown isomeric degradant in a formulated drug product during an accelerated stability study. By identifying the diagnostic ions of the isoaspartic acid (isoAsp), the top-down ECD experiment showed that the Asp9 in exenatide was converted to isoAsp9 to form the unknown isomeric degradant. The platform described here provides an accurate, straightforward, and low limit of detection method for the analysis of Asp isomerization as well as other potential low-level degradants in therapeutic polypeptides and proteins. It is especially useful for unstable and time-sensitive degradants and impurities.

  9. Syn/anti isomerization of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in the determination of airborne unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivation.

    PubMed

    Binding, N; Müller, W; Witting, U

    1996-10-01

    Aldehydes and ketones readily react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) to form the corresponding hydrazones. This reaction has been frequently used for the quantification of airborne carbonyl compounds. Since unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones are known to form isomeric 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (syn/ anti-isomers), the influence of isomerization on the practicability and accuracy of the 2,4-DNPH-method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid sorbent samplers has been studied with three ketones (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isopropyl ketone (MIPK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). With all three ketones the reaction with 2,4-DNPH resulted in mixtures of the isomeric hydrazones which were separated by HPLC and GC and identified by mass spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The isomers show similar chromatographic behaviour in HPLC as well as in GC, thus leading to problems in quantification and interpretation of chromatographic results.

  10. Formation and decay of the arrestin·rhodopsin complex in native disc membranes.

    PubMed

    Beyrière, Florent; Sommer, Martha E; Szczepek, Michal; Bartl, Franz J; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Heck, Martin; Ritter, Eglof

    2015-05-15

    In the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin, light-induced cis/trans isomerization of the retinal ligand triggers a series of distinct receptor states culminating in the active Metarhodopsin II (Meta II) state, which binds and activates the G protein transducin (Gt). Long before Meta II decays into the aporeceptor opsin and free all-trans-retinal, its signaling is quenched by receptor phosphorylation and binding of the protein arrestin-1, which blocks further access of Gt to Meta II. Although recent crystal structures of arrestin indicate how it might look in a precomplex with the phosphorylated receptor, the transition into the high affinity complex is not understood. Here we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the interaction of arrestin-1 and phosphorylated rhodopsin in native disc membranes. By isolating the unique infrared signature of arrestin binding, we directly observed the structural alterations in both reaction partners. In the high affinity complex, rhodopsin adopts a structure similar to Gt-bound Meta II. In arrestin, a modest loss of β-sheet structure indicates an increase in flexibility but is inconsistent with a large scale structural change. During Meta II decay, the arrestin-rhodopsin stoichiometry shifts from 1:1 to 1:2. Arrestin stabilizes half of the receptor population in a specific Meta II protein conformation, whereas the other half decays to inactive opsin. Altogether these results illustrate the distinct binding modes used by arrestin to interact with different functional forms of the receptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. NOSH-Aspirin Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth: Effects Of Positional Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Federica; Kodela, Ravinder; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-08-01

    NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was designed to overcome the potential side effects of aspirin. We compared the cell growth inhibitory properties of ortho-, meta-, and para-NOSH-aspirins. Effects of electron donating/withdrawing groups on the stability and biological activity of these novel compounds were also evaluated. Cell line: HT-29 (Cyclooxygenase, COX-1 & -2 expressing) and HCT 15 (COX null) human colon adenocarcimoa; Cell growth: MTT; Cell cycle phase distribution: Flow cytometry; Apoptosis: subdiploid (sub-G 0 /G 1 ) peak in DNA content histograms; Proliferation: PCNA; ROS: measured hydrogen peroxide and super oxide by flow cytometry using DCFDA and DHE dyes. The IC 50 s for growth inhibition in µM at 24h were, HT-29: ortho-NOSH-ASA (0.04±0.011), meta-NOSH-ASA (0.24±0.11), para-NOSH-ASA (0.46±0.17); significance between the groups were: o vs m P>0.05, o vs p P<0.05, m vs p P>0.05; HCT 15: ortho-NOSH-ASA (0.062±0.006), meta-NOSH-ASA (0.092±0.004), para-NOSH-ASA (0.37±0.04); significance between the groups were: o vs m P<0.01, o vs p P<0.001, m vs p P<0.001. Electron donating/withdrawing groups significantly affected these IC 50 s. All positional isomers qualitatively had similar effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and caused G 0 /G 1 cell cycle arrest in both colon cancer cell lines. The underlying mechanism for these observations appeared to be mediated through ROS, as pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine, partially blocked these effects. Positional isomerism affects the potency of NOSH-aspirin. The effects appear to be COX independent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. How to compute isomerization energies of organic molecules with quantum chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Grimme, Stefan; Steinmetz, Marc; Korth, Martin

    2007-03-16

    The reaction energies for 34 typical organic isomerizations including oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms are investigated with modern quantum chemical methods that have the perspective of also being applicable to large systems. The experimental reaction enthalpies are corrected for vibrational and thermal effects, and the thus derived "experimental" reaction energies are compared to corresponding theoretical data. A series of standard AO basis sets in combination with second-order perturbation theory (MP2, SCS-MP2), conventional density functionals (e.g., PBE, TPSS, B3-LYP, MPW1K, BMK), and new perturbative functionals (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP) are tested. In three cases, obvious errors of the experimental values could be detected, and accurate coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] reference values have been used instead. It is found that only triple-zeta quality AO basis sets provide results close enough to the basis set limit and that sets like the popular 6-31G(d) should be avoided in accurate work. Augmentation of small basis sets with diffuse functions has a notable effect in B3-LYP calculations that is attributed to intramolecular basis set superposition error and covers basic deficiencies of the functional. The new methods based on perturbation theory (SCS-MP2, X2-PLYP) are found to be clearly superior to many other approaches; that is, they provide mean absolute deviations of less than 1.2 kcal mol-1 and only a few (<10%) outliers. The best performance in the group of conventional functionals is found for the highly parametrized BMK hybrid meta-GGA. Contrary to accepted opinion, hybrid density functionals offer no real advantage over simple GGAs. For reasonably large AO basis sets, results of poor quality are obtained with the popular B3-LYP functional that cannot be recommended for thermochemical applications in organic chemistry. The results of this study are complementary to often used benchmarks based on atomization energies and should guide chemists in their search for

  13. The influence of constitutional isomerism and change on molecular recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Avril R; Northrop, Brian H; Houk, Kendall N; Stoddart, J Fraser; Williams, David J

    2004-10-25

    Three constitutionally isomeric bis(naphthylmethyl)ammonium ions, in which the two naphthyl groups are substituted 1) both at their 1-positions, 2) one at its 1-position and the other at its 2-position, and 3) both at their 2-positions, have been investigated separately in solution for their propensities to undergo spontaneous self-assembly with three different [24]crown-8 derivatives, namely, pyrido[24]crown-8 (P24C8), dipyrido[24]crown-8 (DP24C8) and dibenzo[24]crown-8 (DB24C8), in turn to form [2]pseudorotaxanes. The strengths of the 1:1 complexes depend on the composition of the secondary dialkylammonium ions and on the nature of the crown ether hosts; generally, as far as the guest cation is concerned, the 1/1- and 2/2-isomers form stronger complexes, as indicated by stability constant measurements, than the 1/2-isomer and, as far as the crown ethers are concerned, the more flexible P24C8 is a much more efficient host than either DP24C8 or DB24C8. The rates of formation of the [2]pseudorotaxanes are fast (i.e., taking no more than a few minutes) in solution with the exception of one case, that is, in which the crown ether host is DB24C8 and the guest cation is the 1/1-isomer, when it can take upwards of one month for the complexation-decomplexation equilibrium to be established at room temperature. In all cases, the equilibrium between complexed and uncomplexed species is slow on the NMR timescale, allowing the determination of stability constants to be made readily using the single-point method. X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling have been used to gain insight into ground and transition state interactions, respectively, in some of the [2]pseudorotaxanes. The relative stabilities of the three [2]pseudorotaxanes formed by each guest cation in the presence of the three crown ether hosts were also evaluated in solution by competition experiments that were monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. By and large the results of the competition experiments could

  14. Benzil-tethered precipitons for controlling solubility: a round-trip energy-transfer mechanism in the isomerization of extended stilbene analogues.

    PubMed

    Ams, Mark R; Wilcox, Craig S

    2007-04-04

    We are investigating photoresponsive molecules called "precipitons" that undergo a solubility change co-incident with isomerization. Isomerization can be induced by light or by catalytic reagents. Previous work demonstrated that covalent attachment of a metal complex, Ru(II)(bpy)3, greatly accelerates photoisomerization and influences the photostationary state. In this paper, we describe precipitons (1,2-biphenylethenes; analogous to stilbenes) that are activated by a covalently attached organic sensitizer (benzil). We find that isomerization of these stilbene analogues is little effected by the presence of benzil in solution but that the intramolecular benzil effect is to increase the rate of isomerization and to significantly change the photostationary state. What is most interesting about these observations is that the precipiton is the primary chromophore in this bichromophoric system (precipiton absorbance is many times greater than benzil absorbance in the 300-400 nm range), yet the neighboring benzil has a significant effect on the rate and the photostationary state. The effect of unattached benzil on the rate was small, about a 24% increase in rate as compared with 4-6-fold changes for an attached benzil. We speculate that the isomerization process occurs by a "round-trip" energy-transfer mechanism. Initial excitation of the precipiton chromophore initiates a sequence that includes (1) formation of the precipiton singlet state, (2) singlet excitation transfer from the precipiton unit to the benzil, (3) benzil-centered intersystem crossing to the localized benzil triplet state, (4) triplet energy transfer from the benzil moiety back to the precipiton, and (5) isomerization.

  15. Abnormal branching and regression of the notochord and its relationship to foregut abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vleesch Dubois, V N; Quan Qi, B; Beasley, S W; Williams, A

    2002-04-01

    An abnormally positioned notochord has been reported in embryos that develop foregut abnormalities, vertebral defects and other abnormalities of the VATER association. This study examines the patterns of regression of the abnormal notochord in the rat model of the VATER association and investigates the relationship between developmental abnormalities of the notochord and those of the vertebra and foregut. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin on gestational days 6 - 9 inclusive. Rats were sacrificed between days 14 and 20 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned and stained and examined serially. The location and appearance of the degenerating notochord and its relationship to regional structural defects were analysed. All 26 embryos exposed to adriamycin developed foregut abnormalities and had an abnormal notochord. The notochord disappeared by a process of apoptotic degeneration that lagged behind that of the normal embryo: the notochord persisted in the abnormal embryo beyond day 17, whereas in the normal rat it had already disappeared. Similarly, formation of the nucleus pulposus was delayed. Vertebral abnormalities occurred when the notochord was ventrally-positioned. The notochord disappears during day 16 in the normal embryo whereas abnormal branches of the notochord persist until day 19 in the adriamycin-treated embryo. Degeneration of the notochord is dominated by apoptosis. An excessively ventrally-placed notochord is closely associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column, especially hemivertebrae.

  16. Influence of pH on the cis- trans isomerization of Valine-Proline dipeptide: An integrated NMR and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Galya; Yakimova, Boryana; Angelova, Silvia; Stoineva, Ivanka; Enchev, Venelin

    2010-06-01

    The pH influence on the cis- trans isomerization of the Valine-Proline dipeptide was investigated by means of NMR spectral techniques and quantum chemical calculations at different computational levels. It was found that the process of isomerization is strongly pH dependent. The trans-isomer of Val-Pro is the more abundant isomer when the amino group is protonated, while an approximately equal distribution between the cis and trans-isomers for the neutral and anion forms of the dipeptide was confirmed.

  17. Titanium-Beta Zeolites Catalyze the Stereospecific Isomerization of D-Glucose to L-Sorbose via Intramolecular C5-C1 Hydride Shift

    SciTech Connect

    Gounder, Rajamani; Davis, Mark E.

    Pure-silica zeolite beta containing Lewis acidic framework Ti 4+ centers (Ti-Beta) is shown to catalyze the isomerization of D-glucose to L-sorbose via an intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift. Glucose–sorbose isomerization occurs in parallel to glucose–fructose isomerization on Ti-Beta in both water and methanol solvents, with fructose formed as the predominant product in water and sorbose as the predominant product in methanol (at 373 K) at initial times and over the course of >10 turnovers. Isotopic tracer studies demonstrate that 13C and D labels placed respectively at the C1 and C2 positions of glucose are retained respectively at the C6 and C5more » positions of sorbose, consistent with its formation via an intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift isomerization mechanism. This direct Lewis acid-mediated pathway for glucose–sorbose isomerization appears to be unprecedented among heterogeneous or biological catalysts and sharply contrasts indirect base-mediated glucose–sorbose isomerization via 3,4-enediol intermediates or via retro-aldol fragmentation and recombination of sugar fragments. Measured first-order glucose–sorbose isomerization rate constants (per total Ti; 373 K) for Ti-Beta in methanol are similar for glucose and glucose deuterated at the C2 position (within a factor of ~1.1), but are a factor of ~2.3 lower for glucose deuterated at each carbon position, leading to H/D kinetic isotope effects expected for kinetically relevant intramolecular C5–C1 hydride shift steps. Optical rotation measurements show that isomerization of D-(+)-glucose (92% enantiomeric purity) with Ti-Beta in water (373 K) led to the formation of L-(-)-sorbose (73% enantiomeric purity) and D-(-)-fructose (87% enantiomeric purity) as the predominant stereoisomers, indicating that stereochemistry is preserved at carbon centers not directly involved in intramolecular C5–C1 or C2–C1 hydride shift steps, respectively. This new Lewis acid-mediated rearrangement of glucose

  18. N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Promotors for the Rearrangement of Phosphaketenes to Phosphaheteroallenes: A Case Study for OCP to OPC Constitutional Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongshu; Chen, Xiaodan; Benkő, Zoltán; Liu, Liu; Ruiz, David A; Peltier, Jesse L; Bertrand, Guy; Su, Chen-Yong; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2016-05-10

    The concept of isomerism is essential to chemistry and allows defining molecules with an identical composition but different connectivity (bonds) between their atoms (constitutional isomers) and/or a different arrangement in space (stereoisomers). The reaction of phosphanyl ketenes, (NHP)-P=C=O (NHP=N-heterocyclic phosphenium) with N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) leads to phosphaheteroallenes (NHP)-O-P=C=NHC in which the PCO unit has been isomerized to OPC. Based on the isolation of several intermediates and DFT calculations, a mechanism for this fundamental isomerisation process is proposed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ultrafast kinetics of linkage isomerism in Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] aqueous solution revealed by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Azhr A.; Wilke, Martin; Borgwardt, Mario; Engel, Nicholas; Bokarev, Sergey I.; Grell, Gilbert; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kühn, Oliver; Kiyan, Igor Yu.; Merschjann, Christoph; Aziz, Emad F.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of ultrafast photoinduced structural changes in linkage isomers is investigated using Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] as a model complex. The buildup of the metastable side-on configuration of the NO ligand, as well as the electronic energy levels of ground, excited, and metastable states, has been revealed by means of time-resolved extreme UV (XUV) photoelectron spectroscopy in aqueous solution, aided by theoretical calculations. Evidence of a short-lived intermediate state in the isomerization process and its nature are discussed, finding that the complete isomerization process occurs in less than 240 fs after photoexcitation. PMID:28713840

  20. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  1. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  2. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  3. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzhu; Yang, Jian; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Xin; Li, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed. It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. PMID:27992373

  4. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. General and Facile Route to Isomerically Pure Tricyclic Peptides Based on Templated Tandem CLIPS/CuAAC Cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Richelle, Gaston J J; Ori, Sumeet; Hiemstra, Henk; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Timmerman, Peter

    2018-01-08

    We report a one-pot ligation/cyclization technology for the rapid and clean conversion of linear peptides into tricyclic peptides that is based on using tetravalent scaffolds containing two benzyl bromide and two alkyne moieties. These react via CLIPS/CuAAC reactions with cysteines and azides in the peptide. Flexibility in the scaffolds is key to the formation of isomerically pure products as the flexible scaffolds T4 1 and T4 2 mostly promote the formation of single isomeric tricycles while the rigid scaffolds T4 3 and T4 4 do not yield clean products. There seems to be no limitation to the number and types of amino acids present as 18 canonical amino acids were successfully implemented. We also observed that azides at the peptide termini and cysteine residues in the center gave better results than compounds with the functional groups placed the other way round. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and photo physical properties of isomeric fluorinated s-shaped polyaromatic dibenzo[c,l]chrysene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Tabuchi, Daichi; Yakeya, Daisuke; Tsuge, Akihiko; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Yoza, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Two s-shaped fluorinated isomeric polyaromatic dibenzo[c,l]chrysene derivatives have been synthesized by a two step process using the Wittig, Heck and iodine promoted cyclization reactions. These cyclized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and EI-MS. Further, absolute configurations of isomeric 4a and 4b were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 4a crystallized under monoclinic system with space group P21/c and compound 4b crystallized under monoclinic system with space group Cc. They have good solubility in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform and THF. Photophysical properties of 4a and 4b were evaluated by using UV-Visible and Fluorescence spectrophotometer. Compounds 4a and 4b showed strong absorption maximum wavelength at 317 nm. The emission spectra of 4a and 4b displayed sharp peaks in the visible region from 417 to 441 nm. The shape of the UV-Visible and Fluorescence spectra of 4a and 4b looks almost identical. But compound 4a exhibited better fluorescence intensity than compound 4b. This difference may be due to the difference in the configuration of compounds 4a and 4b.

  7. Analysis of ECs and related compounds in plasma: artifactual isomerization and ex vivo enzymatic generation of 2-MGs.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Fitó, Montserrat; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; de la Torre, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of peripheral endocannabinoids (ECs) is a good biomarker of the EC system. Their concentrations, from clinical studies, strongly depend on sample collection and time processing conditions taking place in clinical and laboratory settings. The analysis of 2-monoacylglycerols (MGs) (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol or 2-oleoylglycerol) is a particularly challenging issue because of their ex vivo formation and chemical isomerization that occur after blood sample collection. We provide evidence that their ex vivo formation can be minimized by adding Orlistat, an enzymatic lipase inhibitor, to plasma. Taking into consideration the low cost of Orlistat, we recommend its addition to plasma collecting tubes while maintaining sample cold chain until storage. We have validated a method for the determination of the EC profile of a range of MGs and N-acylethanolamides in plasma that preserves the original isomer ratio of MGs. Nevertheless, the chemical isomerization of 2-MGs can only be avoided by an immediate processing and analysis of samples due to their instability during conservation. We believe that this new methodology can aid in the harmonization of the measurement of ECs and related compounds in clinical samples.

  8. Surface chemistry and catalytic performance of amorphous NiB/Hβ catalyst for n-hexane isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinshe; Cai, Tingting; Jing, Xiaohui; Zhu, Lijun; Zhou, Yulu; Xiang, Yuzhi; Xia, Daohong

    2016-12-01

    The amorphous NiB nanoparticles were synthesized and a novel type of NiB/Hβ catalyst was prepared for the isomerization of n-hexane. The optimum preparation conditions were investigated and the effect of preparation conditions on the surface chemistry information of catalysts was characterized by XRD, N2 sorption studies, XPS, TPD and other related means. It was demonstrated that the loading amounts of NiB have effect on textural properties and the acid properties of surface. The loading amounts of NiB were also related to the amount of strong Lewis acid sites and the ratios of weak acid to strong acid of samples. Meanwhile, calcination temperatures of samples were closely associated with the structure of active components that function as metal centers. When the loading amount of NiB was 5 wt.% and calcination temperature was 200 °C, the catalyst had proper surface acidity sites and metal active sites to provide suitable synergistic effects. The mechanism for n-hexane isomerization was also investigated and the existence of unique structure of Bsbnd Nisbnd H was proved, which could provide good hydrogenation-dehydrogenation functions.

  9. Relationship between surface property and catalytic application of amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst for n-hexane isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinshe; Duan, Zunbin; Song, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhou, Yulu; Xiang, Yuzhi; Xia, Daohong

    2017-12-01

    The amorphous NiP nanoparticles were synthesized and a novel amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst was prepared successfully further. Due to the superior surface property of amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst, it exhibited good catalytic application for n-hexane isomerization. The catalytic activity of amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst was close to that of the prepared Pt/Hβ sample, and better than that of commercial catalyst and crystalline Ni2P/Hβ catalyst. What's more, the amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst shows high resistance to different sulfur compounds and water on account of its unique surface property. The effect of loading amounts on surface property and catalytic performance was investigated, and the structure-function relationship among them was studied ulteriorly. The results demonstrate that loading amounts have effect on textural property and surface acid property, which further affect the catalytic performance. The 10 wt.% NiP/Hβ sample has appropriate pore structure and acid property with uniformly dispersed NiP nanoparticles on surface, which is helpful for providing suitable synergistic effect. The effects of reaction conditions on surface reactions and the mechanism for n-hexane isomerization were investigated further. Based on these results, the amorphous NiP/Hβ catalyst with superior surface property probably pavesa way to overcome the drawbacks of traditional noble metal catalyst, which shows good catalytic application prospects.

  10. Metal-centred azaphosphatriptycene gear with a photo- and thermally driven mechanical switching function based on coordination isomerism.

    PubMed

    Ube, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Hiroyasu; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2017-02-08

    Metal ions can serve as a centre of molecular motions due to their coordination geometry, reversible bonding nature and external stimuli responsiveness. Such essential features of metal ions have been utilized for metal-mediated molecular machines with the ability to motion switch via metallation/demetallation or coordination number variation at the metal centre; however, motion switching based on the change in coordination geometry remain largely unexplored. Herein, we report a Pt II -centred molecular gear that demonstrates control of rotor engagement and disengagement based on photo- and thermally driven cis-trans isomerization at the Pt II centre. This molecular rotary motion transmitter has been constructed from two coordinating azaphosphatriptycene rotators and one Pt II ion as a stator. Isomerization between an engaged cis-form and a disengaged trans-form is reversibly driven by ultraviolet irradiation and heating. Such a photo- and thermally triggered motional interconversion between engaged/disengaged states on a metal ion would provide a selector switch for more complex interlocking systems.

  11. Ligand Rearrangements at Fe/S Cofactors: Slow Isomerization of a Biomimetic [2Fe-2S] Cluster.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Marie; Roy, Lisa; Dechert, Sebastian; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa; Meyer, Franc

    2017-04-18

    Ligand exchange plays an important role in the biogenesis of Fe/S clusters, most prominently during cluster transfer from a scaffold protein to its target protein. Although in vivo and in vitro studies have provided some insight into this process, the microscopic details of the ligand exchange steps are mostly unknown. In this work, the kinetics of the ligand rearrangement in a biomimetic [2Fe-2S] cluster with mixed S/N capping ligands have been studied. Two geometrical isomers of the cluster are present in solution, and mechanistic insight into the isomerization process was obtained by variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Combined experimental and computational results reveal that this is an associative process that involves the coordination of a solvent molecule to one of the ferric ions. The cluster isomerizes at least two orders of magnitude faster in its protonated and mixed-valent states. These findings may contribute to a deeper understanding of cluster transfer and sensing processes occurring in Fe/S cluster biogenesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Impact of adenosine nucleotide translocase (ANT) proline isomerization on Ca2+-induced cysteine relative mobility/mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Cezar R; Silva, Carlos H T P; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Santos, Antonio C; Curti, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial membrane carriers containing proline and cysteine, such as adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), are potential targets of cyclophilin D (CyP-D) and potential Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) components or regulators; CyP-D, a mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, is the probable target of the PTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). In the present study, the impact of proline isomerization (from trans to cis) on the mitochondrial membrane carriers containing proline and cysteine was addressed using ANT as model. For this purpose, two different approaches were used: (i) Molecular dynamic (MD) analysis of ANT-Cys(56) relative mobility and (ii) light scattering techniques employing rat liver isolated mitochondria to assess both Ca(2+)-induced ANT conformational change and mitochondrial swelling. ANT-Pro(61) isomerization increased ANT-Cys(56) relative mobility and, moreover, desensitized ANT to the prevention of this effect by ADP. In addition, Ca(2+) induced ANT "c" conformation and opened PTP; while the first effect was fully inhibited, the second was only attenuated by CsA or ADP. Atractyloside (ATR), in turn, stabilized Ca(2+)-induced ANT "c" conformation, rendering the ANT conformational change and PTP opening less sensitive to the inhibition by CsA or ADP. These results suggest that Ca(2+) induces the ANT "c" conformation, apparently associated with PTP opening, but requires the CyP-D peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity for sustaining both effects.

  13. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  14. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  15. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  16. Abnormal findings in peers during skills learning.

    PubMed

    Wearn, Andy; Nakatsuji, Miriam; Bhoopatkar, Harsh

    2017-02-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), where students examine each other, is common in contemporary clinical skills learning. A range of benefits and risks have been explored in the literature. One persistent concern has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings. Two previous studies have attempted to quantify the risk, one through the discussion of two exemplar cases and the other with a retrospective student survey. Here, we report the first prospective study of the number and type of abnormalities encountered as part of early clinical skills learning in a medical programme. We have a formal written consent process for PPE, which includes the management of abnormal findings through the completion of an event form. Our data come from cohorts undertaking years 2 and 3 of the programme between 2003 and 2014. One persistent concern (of PPE) has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings RESULTS: Nineteen event forms were completed over this period. The incidence rates per year ranged from 0.23 to 1.05 per cent. Abnormal findings included raised blood pressure, heart murmur, abnormal bedside test values, and eye and skin conditions. The low event rate, along with a feasible process for dealing with this issue, goes some way to reassuring those with concerns. We acknowledge that some abnormalities may have been missed, and that some data may have been lost as a result of incorrect process; however, even the highest annual rate is low in absolute terms. We recommend a formal process for managing abnormalities. Ideally this would be part of an overall PPE written policy, communicated to students, enacted by tutors and approved by the local ethics committee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  18. Vacuum Decay via Lorentzian Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, J. L.

    We speculate about the space-time description due to the presence of Lorentzian worm-holes (handles in space-time joining two distant regions or other universes) in quantum gravity. The semiclassical rate of production of these Lorentzian wormholes in Reissner-Nordström space-times is calculated as a result of the spontaneous decay of vacuum due to a real tunneling configuration. In the magnetic case it only depends on the value of the field theoretical fine structure constant. We predict that the quantum probability corresponding to the nucleation of such geodesically complete space-times should be acutally negligible in our physical Universe.

  19. Weak decays of doubly heavy baryons: multi-body decay channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Xing, Ye; Xu, Ji

    2018-01-01

    The newly-discovered Ξ _{cc}^{++} decays into the Λ c^+ K^-π ^+π ^+, but the experimental data has indicated that this decay is not saturated by any two-body intermediate state. In this work, we analyze the multi-body weak decays of doubly heavy baryons Ξ _{cc}, Ω _{cc}, Ξ _{bc}, Ω _{bc}, Ξ _{bb} and Ω _{bb}, in particular the three-body nonleptonic decays and four-body semileptonic decays. We classify various decay modes according to the quark-level transitions and present an estimate of the typical branching fractions for a few golden decay channels. Decay amplitudes are then parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. With these amplitudes, we find a number of relations for decay widths, which can be examined in future.

  20. The decay widths, the decay constants, and the branching fractions of a resonant state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the differential and the total decay widths of a resonant (Gamow) state decaying into a continuum of stable states. When the resonance has several decay modes, we introduce the corresponding partial decay widths and branching fractions. In the approximation that the resonance is sharp, the expressions for the differential, partial and total decay widths of a resonant state bear a close resemblance with the Golden Rule. In such approximation, the branching fractions of a resonant state are the same as the standard branching fractions obtained by way of the Golden Rule. We also introduce dimensionless decay constants along with their associated differential decay constants, and we express experimentally measurable quantities such as the branching fractions and the energy distributions of decay events in terms of those dimensionless decay constants.

  1. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  2. Special feature of kinetics of ZcE isomerization of β-N-methylaminovinyl trifluoromethyl ketone in Ar matrix exposed to UV radiation and spontaneous E⇌Z isomerization of α-methyl-β-N-methylaminovinyl trifluoromethyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Vdovenko, Sergey I; Gerus, Igor I; Pagacz-Kostrzewa, Magdalena; Wierzejewska, Maria; Zhuk, Yuri I; Kukhar, Valery P

    2018-06-15

    Although it is well known that reactivity of α,β-unsaturated enaminoketones is closely associated with spatial and electronic structure but until now little attention was devoted to quantitative investigation of interconversion of different stereoisomeric forms of enaminoketones. In present work we studied peculiarities of kinetics of Z⇌E isomerization of enaminoketone 4-(N-methylamino)-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-one F 3 C-COCHCHNH(CH 3 ) (1) in Ar-matrix exposed to UV-radiation (λ=340nm) with IR Fourier and 2D correlation spectroscopy and we found that Z-s-Z-s-trans isomer transforms primarily into two E-isomers, E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans which further turn into the E-s-E-s-cis and E-s-Z-s-cis conformers all interconversion rate constants being comparable in magnitude. Along with this process long-term exposure to the UV-radiation results in proton transfer from nitrogen of methylamino group to carbonyl oxygen with simultaneous isomerization of 'cyclic' iminoenol form into 'linear'one. In solution of enaminoketone 4-(N-methylamino)-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-methylbut-3-en-2-one F 3 C-CO-C(CH 3 )CH-NH(CH 3 ) (2) we observed reversed process, namely, spontaneous interconversion of the E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans conformers into the Z-s-Z-trans isomer. It was found that rate constants of the dimeric forms of the E-s-E-s-trans and E-s-Z-s-trans conformers are higher than those of the monomers and are independent on total enaminoketone concentration. Addition of highly polar HMPA promotes proton transfer from nitrogen to oxygen in the Z-s-Z-s-trans isomer of 2 with subsequent isomerization into the linear imino-enol product but the rate constant of this transformation is ten-fold smaller than that for 1 in the Ar matrix exposed to UV radiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormalities in auditory efferent activities in children with selective mutism.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, Chava; Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Arie, Miri; Bar-Haim, Yair; Henkin, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Two efferent feedback pathways to the auditory periphery may play a role in monitoring self-vocalization: the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MEAR) and the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex. Since most studies regarding the role of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization were conducted in animals, human data are scarce. The working premise of the current study was that selective mutism (SM), a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak normally in other situations, may serve as a human model for studying the potential involvement of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization. For this purpose, auditory efferent function was assessed in a group of 31 children with SM and compared to that of a group of 31 normally developing control children (mean age 8.9 and 8.8 years, respectively). All children exhibited normal hearing thresholds and type A tympanograms. MEAR and MOCB functions were evaluated by means of acoustic reflex thresholds and decay functions and the suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, respectively. Auditory afferent function was tested by means of auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Results indicated a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal MEAR and MOCB function in the SM group (58.6 and 38%, respectively) compared to controls (9.7 and 8%, respectively). The prevalence of abnormal MEAR and/or MOCB function was significantly higher in the SM group (71%) compared to controls (16%). Intact afferent function manifested in normal absolute and interpeak latencies of ABR components in all children. The finding of aberrant efferent auditory function in a large proportion of children with SM provides further support for the notion that MEAR and MOCB may play a significant role in the process of self-vocalization. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Decay of ultralight axion condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion massesmore » $$m\\sim10^{-22}$$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. As a result, we find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.« less

  5. Heavy neutrino decay at SHALON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Masip, M.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2013-06-01

    The SHALON Cherenkov telescope has recorded over 2 × 106 extensive air showers during the past 17 years. The analysis of the signal at different zenith angles has included observations from the sub-horizontal direction Θ = 97° This inclination defines an Earth skimming trajectory with 7 km of air and around 1000 km of rock in front of the telescope. During a period of 324 hours of observation, after a cut of shower-like events that may be caused by chaotic sky flashes or reflections on the snow of vertical showers, we have detected 5 air showers of TeV energies. We argue that these events may be caused by the decay of a long-lived penetrating particle entering the atmosphere from the ground and decaying in front of the telescope. We show that this particle can it not be a muon or a tau lepton. As a possible explanation, we discuss two scenarios with an unstable neutrino of mass m ≈ 0.5 GeV and cτ ≈ 30 m. Remarkably, one of these models has been recently proposed to explain an excess of electron-like neutrino events at MiniBooNE.

  6. Decay of ultralight axion condensates

    DOE PAGES

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter; ...

    2018-01-15

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion massesmore » $$m\\sim10^{-22}$$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. As a result, we find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.« less

  7. Rare decays at the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rare flavour-changing neutral-current (FCNC) decays of beauty and charm quarks, lepton flavour- and lepton-number-violating decays can provide a powerful probe for as yet unobserved virtual particles. Recent results on these topics from the LHCb experiment are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the angular distribution of the B^0 → K^{*0}μ^+μ^- decay, where a measurement performed by LHCb shows a local discrepancy of 3.7 standard deviations with respect to the SM prediction. Using the decay B+ → K+ π+π- γ , LHCb have also been able to demonstrate the polarisation of photons produced in b → s transitions. An update for the studies dedicated to decays τ+ → μ+ μ- μ+ and B^0_{(s)} → μ^{±} e^{∓} and to the on-shell Majorana neutrinos coupling to muons in the B+ → π- μ+ μ+ decay channel are also presented.

  8. Second-Chance Forward Isomerization Dynamics of the Red/Green Cyanobacteriochrome NpR6012g4 from Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter W.; Freer, Lucy H.; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2011-01-01

    The primary ultrafast Z-to-E isomerization photodynamics of the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) NpR6012g4 from N. punctiforme were studied by transient absorption pump-dump-probe spectroscopy. A 2-ps dump pulse resonant with the stimulated emission band depleted 21 % of the excited-state population, while the initial photoproduct Lumi-R was depleted by only 11 %. We observe a red-shifted ground-state intermediate (GSI) that we assign to a metastable state that failed to fully isomerize. Multi-component global analysis implicates the generation of additional Lumi-R from GSI via crossing over the ground-state thermal barrier for full isomerization, explaining the discrepancy of excited-state and Lumi-R depletion by the dump pulse. This second-chance ground-state dynamics provides a plausible explanation for the unusually high quantum yield of 40 % for the primary isomerization step in the forward reaction of NpR6012g4. PMID:22107125

  9. Second-chance forward isomerization dynamics of the red/green cyanobacteriochrome NpR6012g4 from Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter W; Freer, Lucy H; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S

    2012-01-11

    The primary ultrafast Z-to-E isomerization photodynamics of the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochrome NpR6012g4 from Nostoc punctiforme was studied by transient absorption pump-dump-probe spectroscopy. A 2 ps dump pulse resonant with the stimulated emission band depleted 21% of the excited-state population, while the initial photoproduct Lumi-R was depleted by only 11%. We observed a red-shifted ground-state intermediate (GSI) that we assign to a metastable state that failed to isomerize fully. Multicomponent global analysis implicates the generation of additional Lumi-R from the GSI via crossing over the ground-state thermal barrier for full isomerization, explaining the discrepancy between excited-state and Lumi-R depletion by the dump pulse. This second-chance ground-state dynamics provides a plausible explanation for the unusually high quantum yield of 40% for the primary isomerization step in the forward reaction of NpR6012g4. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Effective Ion Mobility Peak Width as a New Isomeric Descriptor for the Untargeted Analysis of Complex Mixtures Using Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farenc, Mathilde; Paupy, Benoit; Marceau, Sabrina; Riches, Eleanor; Afonso, Carlos; Giusti, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry was proven to be an efficient way to characterize complex mixtures such as petroleum samples. However, the identification of isomeric species is difficult owing to the molecular complexity of petroleum and no availability of standard molecules. This paper proposes a new simple indicator to estimate the isomeric content of highly complex mixtures. This indicator is based on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the extracted ion mobility peak measured in millisecond or square angstrom that is corrected for instrumental factors such as ion diffusion. This value can be easily obtained without precisely identifying the number of isomeric species under the ion mobility peaks. Considering the Boduszynski model, the ion mobility profile for a particular elemental composition is expected to be a continuum of various isomeric species. The drift time-dependent fragmentation profile was studied and confirmed this hypothesis, a continuous evolution of the fragmentation profile showing that the larger alkyl chain species were detected at higher drift time values. This new indicator was proven to be a fast and efficient method to compare vacuum gas oils for which no difference was found using other analytical techniques.

  11. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  12. Transient-Absorption Spectroscopy of Cis-Trans Isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-Azodianiline with 3D-Printed Temperature-Controlled Sample Holder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosenkov, Dmytro; Shaw, James; Zuczek, Jennifer; Kholod, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory unit demonstrates a project based approach to teaching physical chemistry laboratory where upper-division undergraduates carry out a transient-absorption experiment investigating the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-azodianiline. Students participate in modification of a standard flash-photolysis spectrometer…

  13. Quantum optimal control of isomerization dynamics of a one-dimensional reaction-path model dominated by a competing dissociation channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Artamonov, Maxim; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-07-01

    Quantum wave packet optimal control simulations with intense laser pulses have been carried out for studying molecular isomerization dynamics of a one-dimensional (1D) reaction-path model involving a dominant competing dissociation channel. The 1D intrinsic reaction coordinate model mimics the ozone open→cyclic ring isomerization along the minimum energy path that successively connects the ozone cyclic ring minimum, the transition state (TS), the open (global) minimum, and the dissociative O2+O asymptote on the O3 ground-state A1' potential energy surface. Energetically, the cyclic ring isomer, the TS barrier, and the O2+O dissociation channel lie at ˜0.05, ˜0.086, and ˜0.037 hartree above the open isomer, respectively. The molecular orientation of the modeled ozone is held constant with respect to the laser-field polarization and several optimal fields are found that all produce nearly perfect isomerization. The optimal control fields are characterized by distinctive high temporal peaks as well as low frequency components, thereby enabling abrupt transfer of the time-dependent wave packet over the TS from the open minimum to the targeted ring minimum. The quick transition of the ozone wave packet avoids detrimental leakage into the competing O2+O channel. It is possible to obtain weaker optimal laser fields, resulting in slower transfer of the wave packets over the TS, when a reduced level of isomerization is satisfactory.

  14. Platinum-mordenite catalysts for n-Hexane isomerization: Characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and chemical probes

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.M.; Clayton, M.J.; Lamb, H.H.

    Platinum-mordenite (Pt-MOR) catalysts were prepared from NH{sub 4}-MOR by ion exchange with (Pt{sup II}(NH{sub 3}){sub 4})(OH){sub 2}, calcination in O{sub 2} at 350{degrees}C, and reduction in H{sub 2} at 350{degrees}C. The resultant Pt-H-MOR was active for n-hexane isomerization and hydrocracking via bifunctional catalysis at 240-300{degrees}C and 1 atm. The observed activation energies for C{sub 6} branched-isomer formation are unusually low, suggesting that the isomerization rates were controlled by pore diffusion. A Pt-KH-MOR catalyst was prepared by ion exchange with aqueous KNO{sub 3} and re-reduction at 350{degrees}C; elemental analysis evidenced 90% exchange of protons for K{sup +} ions. The product distributionmore » and observed activation energies for C{sub 6} branched-isomer formation over Pt-KH-MOR are consistent with n-hexane isomerization via bifunctional catalysis. Hydrocracking was strongly suppressed, and light hydrocarbons were formed primarily by Pt-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. From in-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed desorption, we conclude that the Pt-MOR catalysts consist of small Pt clusters hosted within the mordenite crystals. The PtL{sub III}X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of Pt-H-MOR and Pt-KH-MOR are closely similar, suggesting that the electronic structure of the Pt clusters is unaffected by mordenite acid-base chemistry. The infrared spectrum of CO adsorbed on Pt-H-MOR contains an intense band at 2084 cm{sup -1}, which is assigned to linear CO moieties on Pt clusters. The infrared spectrum of CO adsorbed on Pt-KH-MOR evidences a red shift of the linear CO band, which the authors suggest is due to electrostatic interactions between carbonyl O atoms and nearby K{sup +} ions. 45 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  15. Solution NMR structure and inhibitory effect against amyloid-β fibrillation of Humanin containing a D-isomerized serine residue

    SciTech Connect

    Alsanousi, Nesreen; Sugiki, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiki@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp; Furuita, Kyoko

    Humanin comprising 24 amino acid residues is a bioactive peptide that has been isolated from the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Humanin reportedly suppressed aging-related death of various cells due to amyloid fibrils and oxidative stress. There are reports that the cytoprotective activity of Humanin was remarkably enhanced by optical isomerization of the Ser14 residue from L to D form, but details of the molecular mechanism remained unclear. Here we demonstrated that Humanin D-Ser14 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against fibrillation of amyloid-β and remarkably higher binding affinity for amyloid-β than that of the Humanin wild-type and S14G mutant.more » In addition, we determined the solution structure of Humanin D-Ser14 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and showed that D-isomerization of the Ser14 residue enables drastic conformational rearrangement of Humanin. Furthermore, we identified an amyloid-β-binding site on Humanin D-Ser14 at atomic resolution by NMR. These biophysical and high-resolution structural analyses clearly revealed structure–function relationships of Humanin and explained the driving force of the drastic conformational change and molecular basis of the potent anti-amyloid-β fibrillation activity of Humanin caused by D-isomerization of the Ser14 residue. This is the first study to show correlations between the functional activity, tertiary structure, and partner recognition mode of Humanin and may lead to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of the cytoprotective activity of Humanin. - Highlights: • Humanin D-Ser14 showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Aβ40 fibrillation. • NMR structure of Humanin D-Ser14 was determined in alcohol/water mixture solution. • Humanin D-Ser14 directly bound Aβ40 stronger than Humanin wild-type and Humanin S14G. • Aβ40 and zinc ion binding sites of Humanin D-Ser14 were identified. • Structure around Ser14 of Humanin is critical for Aβ40 binding and

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a ...

  17. Isomeric Character of the Lowest Observed 4+ State in 44S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. J.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Cottle, P. D.; Baker, J.; McPherson, D.; Riley, M. A.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Volya, A.; Bader, V. M.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Ginter, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Loelius, C.; Morse, C.; Recchia, F.; Smalley, D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Whitmore, K.; Weisshaar, D.; Lemasson, A.; Crawford, H. L.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wimmer, K.

    2017-02-01

    Previous experiments observed a 4+ state in the N =28 nucleus 44S and suggested that this state may exhibit a hindered E 2 -decay rate, inconsistent with being a member of the collective ground state band. We populate this state via two-proton knockout from a beam of exotic 46Ar projectiles and measure its lifetime using the recoil distance method with the GRETINA γ -ray spectrometer. The result, 76 (14 )stat(20 )syst ps , implies a hindered transition of B (E 2 ;4+→21+)=0.61 (19 ) single-particle or Weisskopf units strength and supports the interpretation of the 4+ state as a K =4 isomer, the first example of a high-K isomer in a nucleus of such low mass.

  18. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav, E-mail: dvornicky@dnp.fmph.uniba.sk; Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  19. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Daniels, Katleen; Walters, Mark; Clement, John; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2012-02-06

    The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

  20. Abnormalities of High Density Lipoproteins in Abetalipoproteinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, John W.; Ways, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Detailed studies of the high density lipoproteins from three patients with abetalipoproteinemia have revealed the following principal abnormalities: 1) High density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) is reduced in both absolute and relative concentration, although HDL2 is present in normal amounts. 2) The phospholipid distribution of both HDL fractions is abnormal, with low concentrations of lecithin and an increased percentage (though normal absolute quantity) of sphingomyelin. 3) In both HDL fractions, lecithin contains less linoleate and more oleate than normal. The cholesteryl esters are also low in linoleic acid, and the sphingomyelin is high in nervonic acid. Dietary intake influences the linoleic acid concentration within 2 weeks, and perhaps sooner, but the elevated sphingomyelin nervonic acid is little affected by up to 6 months of corn oil supplementation. Qualitatively similar changes in fatty acid composition, but not phospholipid distribution, are also found in other malabsorption states. The available evidence suggests that the abnormally low levels of HDL3 and the deranged phospholipid distribution are more specific for abetalipoproteinemia than the fatty acid abnormalities. However, the absence of these abnormalities in obligate heterozygous subjects makes their relationship to the primary defect of abetalipoproteinemia difficult to assess. Images PMID:6027078

  1. [Liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Mendes, João Luiz Barberino; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Nascimento, Ana Lísia Cunha; Lima Júnior, Alberto Soares; Cunha, Tatiana Oliveira Bernardo da

    2006-02-01

    Occupational exposure typical of an oil refinery may alter liver function among the workers. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify risk factors for liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. The workers at an oil refinery in Northeastern Brazil underwent routine annual medical examination from 1982 to 1998. This case-control study investigated all the 150 cases of individuals with simultaneous gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase abnormalities of at least 10% above reference levels. As controls, 150 workers without any liver enzyme or bilirubin abnormalities since starting to work there were selected. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated from logistic regression models. In all the production sectors, the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities was significantly higher than in the administrative sector (OR=5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-18.4), even when the effects of alcohol, obesity and medical history of hepatitis were controlled for. During the period from 1992 to 1994, 88 out of the 89 cases occurred among workers from the various production sectors. Occupational exposure plays an important role in causing liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. This is in addition to the specifically biological and/or behavioral risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption.

  2. Chromosome and molecular abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are seen in approximately 50% of cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 80% of cases of secondary MDS (following chemotherapy or radiotherapy). These abnormalities generally consist of partial or complete chromosome deletion or addition (del5q, -7, +8, -Y, del20q), whereas balanced or unbalanced translocations are rarely found in MDS. Fluorescence hybridization techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH], multiplex FISH, and spectral karyotyping) are useful in detecting chromosomal anomalies in cases in which few mitoses are obtained or rearrangements are complex. Ras mutations are the molecular abnormalities most frequently found in MDS, followed by p15 gene hypermethylation, FLT3 duplications, and p53 mutations, but none of these abnormalities are specific for MDS. The rare cases of balanced translocations in MDS have allowed the identification of genes whose rearrangements appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of MDS. These genes include MDS1-EVI1 in t(3;3) or t(3;21) translocations, TEL in t(5;12), HIP1 in t(5;7), MLF1 in t(3;5), and MEL1 in t(1;3). Genes more frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS cases, such as those involving del5q, remain unknown, although some candidate genes are currently being studied. Cytogenetic and known molecular abnormalities generally carry a poor prognosis in MDS and can be incorporated into prognostic scoring systems such as the International Prognostic Scoring System.

  3. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will...

  4. Conversion of alkanes to linear alkylsilanes using an iridium-iron-catalysed tandem dehydrogenation-isomerization-hydrosilylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiangqing; Huang, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    The conversion of inexpensive, saturated hydrocarbon feedstocks into value-added speciality chemicals using regiospecific, catalytic functionalization of alkanes is a major goal of organometallic chemistry. Linear alkylsilanes represent one such speciality chemical—they have a wide range of applications, including release coatings, silicone rubbers and moulding products. Direct, selective, functionalization of alkanes at primary C-H bonds is difficult and, to date, methods for catalytically converting alkanes into linear alkylsilanes are unknown. Here, we report a well-defined, dual-catalyst system for one-pot, two-step alkane silylations. The system comprises a pincer-ligated Ir catalyst for alkane dehydrogenation and an Fe catalyst that effects a subsequent tandem olefin isomerization-hydrosilylation. This method exhibits exclusive regioselectivity for the production of terminally functionalized alkylsilanes. This dual-catalyst strategy has also been applied to regioselective alkane borylations to form linear alkylboronate esters.

  5. Covalent Immobilization of (-)-Riboflavin on Polymer Functionalized Silica Particles: Application in the Photocatalytic E→Z Isomerization of Polarized Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Metternich, Jan B; Sagebiel, Sven; Lückener, Anne; Lamping, Sebastian; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Gilmour, Ryan

    2018-03-20

    The covalent immobilization of the biomimetic, photo-organocatalyst (-)-riboflavin on silica micro- and nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is disclosed. Given the effectiveness of (-)-riboflavin as a versatile, environmentally benign photocatalyst, an immobilization strategy based on acrylate-linker modification of the catalyst core and controlled polymerization on initiator pre-functionalized silica particles has been developed. Validation of this approach is demonstrated in the E→Z isomerization of a benchmark cinnamonitrile (Z/E up to 88:12) with 0.97 mol % catalyst loading. Characterization of the immobilized photocatalyst supports covalent embedding of the catalyst in the polymeric brushes on the silica particle surface. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Thermal isomerizations of ketenimines to nitriles: evaluations of sigma-Dot (sigma(*)) constants for spin-delocalizations

    PubMed

    Kim; Zhu; Lee

    2000-05-19

    Rate constants (k(Y)) of the isomerizations of 11 diphenyl N-(substituted benzyl) ketenimines were measured at 40, 50, 60, and 70 degrees C. Activation parameters DeltaH()(Y) and DeltaS()(Y) were obtained using the Eyring equation. The relative rates (k(Y)/k(H)) were fitted into Hammett single correlations (log k(Y)/k(H) = rhosigma and log k(Y)/k(H) = rho(*)sigma(*)). The single correlations have been compared with Hammett dual correlations (log k(Y)/k(H) = rhosigma + rho(*)sigma(*) ). Separate treatments of para and meta substituents yielded even better correlations. Para substituents control the rates through spin-delocalizations and inductive effects. The former outweighs the latter when the latter exerts a modest but distinct influence on the rates. On the other hand, inductive effects are the "major" or the sole interactions triggered by meta substituents.

  7. Identification of Isomeric N-Glycan Structures by Mass Spectrometry with 157 nm Laser-Induced Photofragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, Arugadoss; Mechref, Yehia; Kang, Pilsoo; Novotny, Milos V.; Reilly, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of structural isomers has become increasingly important and extremely challenging in glycobiology. This communication demonstrates the capability of ion-trap mass spectrometry in conjunction with 157 nm photofragmentation to identify different structural isomers of permethylated N-glycans derived from ovalbumin without chromatographic separation. The results are compared with CID experiments. Photodissociation generates extensive cross-ring fragment ions as well as diagnostic glycosidic product ions that are not usually observed in CID MS/MS experiments. The detection of these product ions aids in characterizing indigenous glycan isomers. The ion-trap facilitates MSn experiments on the diagnostic glycosidic fragments and cross-ring product ions generated through photofragmentation, thus allowing unambiguous assignment of all of the isomeric structures associated with the model glycoprotein utilized in this study. Photofragmentation is demonstrated to be a powerful technique for the structural characterization of glycans. PMID:18487060

  8. Dynamic actuation of glassy polymersomes through isomerization of a single azobenzene unit at the block copolymer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Rangadurai, Poornima; Antony, Lucas; Swaminathan, Subramani; de Pablo, Juan J.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2018-06-01

    Nature has engineered exquisitely responsive systems where molecular-scale information is transferred across an interface and propagated over long length scales. Such systems rely on multiple interacting, signalling and adaptable molecular and supramolecular networks that are built on dynamic, non-equilibrium structures. Comparable synthetic systems are still in their infancy. Here, we demonstrate that the light-induced actuation of a molecularly thin interfacial layer, assembled from a hydrophilic- azobenzene -hydrophobic diblock copolymer, can result in a reversible, long-lived perturbation of a robust glassy membrane across a range of over 500 chemical bonds. We show that the out-of-equilibrium actuation is caused by the photochemical trans-cis isomerization of the azo group, a single chemical functionality, in the middle of the interfacial layer. The principles proposed here are implemented in water-dispersed nanocapsules, and have implications for on-demand release of embedded cargo molecules.

  9. Structural analysis of isomeric chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides using regioselective 6-O-desulfation method and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2014-09-16

    A strategy based on a regioselective 6-O-desulfation reaction and negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) was developed for the structural delineation of isomeric chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides. Product ions resulting from the glycosidic cleavage provided information about the number of sulfate groups in each sugar residue. After the regioselective 6-O-desulfation reaction, the number of sulfate groups on each residue was obtained using a tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction product. The sulfation pattern could be obtained based on the product ions of analytes before and after the desulfation reaction. The strategy was demonstrated using a series of tetrasaccharides prepared from shark cartilage chondroitin sulfate D. Among the 12 identified tetrasaccharides, six structures had not been reported before. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An automated exploration of the isomerization and dissociation pathways of (E)-1,2-dichloroethene cations and anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki; Nishi, Yuito

    2017-04-01

    Isomerization and dissociation pathways after the photoionization or electron attachment of (E)-1,2-dichloroethene were calculated with an automated exploration method utilizing a scaled hypersphere search of the anharmonic downward distortion following algorithm at the UB3LYP/6-311G(2d,d,p) level of theory. The potential energies of transition states and dissociation channels were calculated by a composite method ((RO)CBS-QB3) and compared with the breakdown diagrams and electron attachment spectra observed in previous spectroscopic studies. The results of single point calculations with several DFT and post-SCF methods are compared using the root mean square deviations from the (RO)CBS-QB3 energies for six states of anionic dichloroethene.

  11. Solvated molecular dynamics of LiCN isomerization: All-atom argon solvent versus a generalized Langevin bath.

    PubMed

    Junginger, Andrej; Garcia-Muller, Pablo L; Borondo, F; Benito, R M; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2016-01-14

    The reaction rate rises and falls with increasing density or friction when a molecule is activated by collisions with the solvent particles. This so-called Kramers turnover has recently been observed in the isomerization reaction of LiCN in an argon bath. In this paper, we demonstrate by direct comparison with those results that a reduced-dimensional (generalized) Langevin description gives rise to similar reaction dynamics as the corresponding (computationally expensive) full molecular dynamics calculations. We show that the density distributions within the Langevin description are in direct agreement with the full molecular dynamics results and that the turnover in the reaction rates is reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively at different temperatures.

  12. Probing the Single-Particle Character of Rotational States in F 19 Using a Short-Lived Isomeric Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Auranen, K.; Avila, M. L.

    2018-03-01

    A beam containing a substantial component of both the J(pi) = 5(+), T-1/2 = 162 ns isomeric state of F-18 and its 1(+), 109.77-min ground state is utilized to study members of the ground-state rotational band in F-19 through the neutron transfer reaction (d,p) in inverse kinematics. The resulting spectroscopic strengths confirm the single-particle nature of the 13/2(+) band-terminating state. The agreement between shell-model calculations using an interaction constructed within the sd shell, and our experimental results reinforces the idea of a single-particle-collective duality in the descriptions of the structure of atomic nuclei.

  13. Study of the weak annihilation contributions in charmless \\varvec{B_s→ VV} decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Qin; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Xin-Qiang; Sun, Junfeng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, in order to probe the spectator-scattering and weak annihilation contributions in charmless B_s→ VV (where V stands for a light vector meson) decays, we perform the χ ^2-analyses for the endpoint parameters within the QCD factorization framework, under the constraints from the measured \\bar{B}s→ ρ ^0φ , φ K^{*0}, φ φ and K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0} decays. The fitted results indicate that the endpoint parameters in the factorizable and nonfactorizable annihilation topologies are non-universal, which is also favored by the charmless B→ PP and PV (where P stands for a light pseudo-scalar meson) decays observed in previous work. Moreover, the abnormal polarization fractions f_{L,\\bot }(\\bar{B}s→ K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0})=(20.1± 7.0)%,(58.4± 8.5)% measured by the LHCb collaboration can be reconciled through the weak annihilation corrections. However, the branching ratio of \\bar{B}s→ φ K^{*0} decay exhibits a tension between the data and theoretical result, which dominates the contributions to χ _min^2 in the fits. Using the fitted endpoint parameters, we update the theoretical results for the charmless B_s→ VV decays, which will be further tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments in the near future.

  14. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru, E-mail: kurosaki.yuzuru@jaea.go.jp; Ho, Tak-San, E-mail: tsho@Princeton.EDU; Rabitz, Herschel, E-mail: hrabitz@Princeton.EDU

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O{sub 2} + O asymptote on the ground-state {sup 1}A{sup ′} potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excitedmore » electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.« less

  15. LC-ESI-QTOF-MS based screening and identification of isomeric jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin aglycones in Bacopa monnieri extract.

    PubMed

    Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Sookying, Sontaya; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2016-09-10

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant used as a memory enhancer. Its major chemical constituents are Bacopa saponins consisting of jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin glycosides. These two aglycones are isomers different at the positions of prenyl substitution i.e., at C-23 for jujubogenin and at C-22 for pseudojujubogenin. In this study, we demonstrate the rapid and comprehensive characterization of saponin glycosides in B. monnieri using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). This shows that ESI-QTOF-MS in positive-ion mode, jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin glycosides could be discriminated by the peak abundance ratio of m/z 455 [Aglycone+H-H2O](+) to m/z of 473 [Aglycone+H](+). Furthermore, the sequence of sugar moieties can be observed. In a similar manner, the isomeric saponins; deoxyjujubogenin and deoxypseudojujubogenin glycosides can be distinguished using the m/z 437[Aglycone+H-H2O](+) and m/z 455[Aglycone+H](+) peak ratio. Use of the negative-ion mode with MS/MS fragmentation can provide information about the type of sugar linked to the aglycone i.e., at m/z 633 (aglycone+glucose) or at m/z 603 (aglycone+arabinose). With our method, 62 chemical constituents in B. monnieri including saponin glycosides, flavonoids, and alkaloids were identified. This is the first systematic study in structural characterization on isomeric saponins and other metabolites in B. monnieri using ESI-QTOF-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Purification and Quantification of an Isomeric Compound in a Mixture by Collisional Excitation in Multistage Mass Spectrometry Experiments.

    PubMed

    Jeanne Dit Fouque, Dany; Maroto, Alicia; Memboeuf, Antony

    2016-11-15

    The differentiation, characterization, and quantification of isomers and/or isobars in mixtures is a recurrent problem in mass spectrometry and more generally in analytical chemistry. Here we present a new strategy to assess the purity of a compound that is susceptible to be contaminated with another isomeric side-product in trace levels. Providing one of the isomers is available as pure sample, this new strategy allows the detection of isomeric contamination. This is done thanks to a "gas-phase collisional purification" inside an ion trap mass spectrometer paving the way for an improved analysis of at least similar samples. This strategy consists in using collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS 2 and MS 3 ) experiments and the survival yield (SY) technique. It has been successfully applied to mixtures of cyclic poly( L -lactide) (PLA) with increasing amounts of its linear topological isomer. Purification in gas phase of PLA mixtures was established based on SY curves obtained in MS 3 mode: all samples gave rise to the same SY curve corresponding then to the pure cyclic component. This new strategy was sensitive enough to detect traces of linear PLA (<3%) in a sample of cyclic PLA that was supposedly pure according to other characterization techniques ( 1 H NMR, MALDI-HRMS, and size-exclusion chromatography). Moreover, in this case, the presence of linear isomer was undetectable according to MS/MS or MS/MS/MS analysis only as fragment ions are also of the same m/z values. This type of approach could easily be implemented in hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques to improve the structural and quantitative analysis of complex samples.

  17. Synchronized Survey Scan Approach Allows for Efficient Discrimination of Isomeric and Isobaric Compounds during LC-MS/MS Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Masike, Keabetswe

    2018-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry- (LC-MS-) based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods have been used to detect and quantify metabolites for years. These approaches rely on the monitoring of various fragmentation pathways of multiple precursors and the subsequent corresponding product ions. However, MRM methods are incapable of confidently discriminating between isomeric and isobaric molecules and, as such, the development of methods capable of overcoming this challenge has become imperative. Due to increasing scanning rates of recent MS instruments, it is now possible to operate MS instruments both in the static and dynamic modes. One such method is known as synchronized survey scan (SSS), which is capable of acquiring a product ion scan (PIS) during MRM analysis. The current study shows, for the first time, the use of SSS-based PIS approach as a feasible identification feature of MRM. To achieve the above, five positional isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) were studied with the aid of SSS-based PIS method. Here, the MRM transitions were automatically optimized using a 3,5-diCQA isomer by monitoring fragmentation transitions common to all five isomers. Using the mixture of these isomers, fragmentation spectra of the five isomers achieved with SSS-based PIS were used to identify each isomer based on previously published hierarchical fragmentation keys. The optimized method was also used to detect and distinguish between diCQA components found in Bidens pilosa and their isobaric counterparts found in Moringa oleifera plants. Thus, the method was shown to distinguish (by differences in fragmentation patterns) between diCQA and their isobars, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) glycosides. In conclusion, SSS allowed the detection and discrimination of isomeric and isobaric compounds in a single chromatographic run by producing a PIS spectrum, triggered in the automatic MS/MS synchronized survey scan mode. PMID:29805830

  18. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  20. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  1. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  2. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate themore » types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.« less

  3. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  4. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  5. Irradiation of organic matter by uranium decay in the Alum Shale, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Buchardt, B.

    1989-06-01

    The Alum Shale of Sweden contains black shales with anomalously high uranium concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Syngenetic or early diagenetic origin of this uranium indicates that organic matter within these shales has been irradiated by decaying uranium for approximately 500 Ma. Radiation-induced polymerization of alkanes through a free-radical cross-linking mechanism appears to be responsible for major alterations within the irradiated organic matter. Specific radiation-induced alterations include generation of condensate-like oils at reduced yields from hydrous pyrolysis experiments, decrease in atomic H/C ratios of kerogens, decrease in bitumen/organic-carbon ratios, and a relative increase in low-molecular weight triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Conversely, stable carbon isotopes of kerogens, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerais, oil-generation kinetics, and isomerization of 20R to 20S αα C 29-steranes were not affected by radiation. The radiation dosage needed to cause the alterations observed in the Alum Shale has been estimated to be in excess of 10 5 Mrads with respect to organic carbon. This value is used to estimate the potential for radiation damage to thermally immature organic matter in black shales through the geological rock record. High potential for radiation damage is not likely in Cenozoic and Mesozoic black shales but becomes more likely in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales.

  6. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  8. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  9. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  10. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations.

  11. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in amateur male marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Anna M; Lewicka, Ewa; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Potocka, Zuzanna; Wabich, Elżbieta; Szerszyńska, Anna; Dyda, Julia; Sobolewski, Jakub; Koenner, Jakub; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2018-06-18

    Sports activity has become extremely popular among amateurs. Electrocardiography is a useful tool in screening for cardiac pathologies in athletes; however, there is little data on electrocardiographic abnormalities in the group of amateur athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the abnormalities in resting and exercise electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a group of amateur athletes, and try to determine whether the criteria applied for the general population or for athletes' ECGs should be implemented in this group. In 40 amateur male marathon runners, 3 consecutive 12-lead ECGs were performed: 2-3 weeks before (stage 1), just after the run (stage 2) and 2-3 weeks after the marathon (stage 3). Resting (stage 1) and exercise (stage 2) ECGs were analyzed following the refined criteria for the assessment of athlete's ECG (changes classified as training-related, borderline or training-unrelated). In resting ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was found in 92.5% of the subjects and the most common was sinus bradycardia (62.5%). In post-exercise ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was present in 77.5% of the subjects and the most common was right atrium enlargement (RAE) (42.5%). Training-related ECG variants were more frequent at rest (82.5% vs 42.5%; p = 0.0008), while borderline variants - after the run (22.5% vs 57.5%; p = 0.0004). Training-unrelated abnormalities were found in 15% and 10% of the subjects, respectively (p-value - nonsignificant), and the most common was T-wave inversion. Even if the refined criteria rather than the criteria used for normal sedentary population were applied, the vast majority of amateur runners showed at least 1 abnormality in resting ECGs, which were mainly training-related variants. However, at rest, in 15% of the subjects, pathologic training-unrelated abnormalities were found. The most frequent post-exercise abnormality was right atrial enlargement. General electrocardiographic screening in amateur athletes should be taken into consideration.

  12. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  13. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effectivemore » Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.« less

  14. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  15. Growth and decay losses in Colorado aspen

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Wengert Hinds

    1977-01-01

    Decay in Colorado aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., was extensively surveyed in 1954-56, but volume estimates were presented on a cubic foot basis. This paper reanalyzes the data on a board foot (Scribner) basis. Tree growth and gross and net volumes per acre expected on commercial aspen sites are given. Decay volumes are correlatzd with site class...

  16. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  17. Decay not serious in northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1971-01-01

    A study of 114 northern red oak, Quercus rubra, indicated that decay is not serious during the time necessary to produce high-quality saw logs and veneer logs. Two heart-rot fungi, Poria oleraceae and P. cocos, accounted for almost 25 percent of the total decay volume in the study trees. Basal fire wounds, dead...

  18. Bacterial associations with decaying wood : a review

    Treesearch

    C. A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of...

  19. Decay causes little loss in hickory

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1972-01-01

    A study of 600 hickory trees indicated that heart-rot fungi cause little economic loss in species of the genus Carya. More than half of the decay volume for which a fungus could be identified was caused by Poria spiculosa, one of seven species of heart-rot fungi associated with decay in hickory that were isolated and identified....

  20. Wood decay fungi of subalpine conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental skills needed for hazard tree assessment is the evaluation of decay. This may be a difficult task as we usually only use external symptoms (wounds, basal swellings, decayed branch stubs), signs (mushrooms, fungal crusts or brackets) or mechanical/indirect sampling methods (drilling, electrical or sonic resistance) to estimate the amount of sound...