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Sample records for abnormal laboratory findings

  1. Spondylodiscitis after Cervical Nucleoplasty without Any Abnormal Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jun; Choi, Eun Joo

    2013-01-01

    Infective spondylodiscitis is a rare complication that can occur after interventional spinal procedures, of which symptoms are usually back pain and fever. Early diagnosis of infective spondylodiscitis is critical to start antibiotics and to improve prognosis. Laboratory examinations including complet blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are conventional tools for the early detection of infectious spondylitis. However, we experienced infective spondylodiscitis after cervical nucleoplasty which did not display any laboratory abnormalities, but was diagnosed through an MRI. A patient with cervical disc herniation received nucleoplasty at C5/6 and C6/7. One month later, the patient complained of aggravated pain. There were neither signs of chill nor fever, and the laboratory results appeared normal. However, the MRI findings were compatible with infectious spondylodiscitis at the nucleoplasty site. In conclusion, infectious spondylodiscitis can develop after cervical nucleoplasty without any laboratory abnormalities. Therefore, an MRI should be taken when there is a clinical suspicion for infection in order to not miss complications after interventional procedures, even if the laboratory findings are normal. PMID:23614083

  2. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  3. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  5. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  6. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  7. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  8. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  9. Clinical relevance of abnormal scintigraphic findings of adult equine ribs.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Jessica A; Ross, Michael W; Martin, Benson B; Davidson, Elizabeth J; Leitch, Midge

    2011-01-01

    Horses with cranial rib abnormalities may exhibit severe acute lameness and may have unusual gait deficits characterized by forelimb abduction during protraction at the walk. Horses with caudal rib abnormalities may resent being saddled and ridden. In a retrospective evaluation of 20 horses with a documented rib lesion, 25 sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake were found in one or more ribs. Thirteen (52%) scintigraphic lesions involved the first rib; four were located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, eight were near the costochondral junction and one was at the costovertebral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved ribs 2-8; one was located immediately dorsal to the sternal articulation, three were at the costovertebral junction and two were near the costochondral junction. Six (24%) scintigraphic rib lesions involved the mid-portion (five) or costovertebral junction (one) of ribs 9-18. The 20 horses were divided into three groups based on the clinical relevance of the scintigraphic findings. Group 1 (n=3) horses had clinical signs attributed to a rib abnormality; Group 2 (n=6) horses had a rib abnormality that was a plausible explanation for clinical signs; Group 3 (n=11) horses had clinical signs that could not be attributed to a rib abnormality. For horses with cranial rib abnormalities, a modified lateral scintigraphic image with the ipsilateral limb pulled caudally and a left (right) 45° caudal-right (left) radiograph facilitated the diagnosis.

  10. Auditory abnormalities in autism: toward functional distinctions among findings.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Gabriella R; Fan, Jin; Gorman, Jack M

    2005-09-01

    Recently, findings on a wide range of auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism have been reported. To date, functional distinctions among these varied findings are poorly established. Such distinctions should be of interest to clinicians and researchers alike given their potential therapeutic and experimental applications. This review suggests three general trends among these findings as a starting point for future analyses. First, studies of auditory perception of linguistic and social auditory stimuli among individuals with autism generally have found impaired perception versus normal controls. Such findings may correlate with impaired language and communication skills and social isolation observed among individuals with autism. Second, studies of auditory perception of pitch and music among individuals with autism generally have found enhanced perception versus normal controls. These findings may correlate with the restrictive and highly focused behaviors observed among individuals with autism. Third, findings on the auditory perception of non-linguistic, non-musical stimuli among autism patients resist any generalized conclusions. Ultimately, as some researchers have already suggested, the distinction between impaired global processing and enhanced local processing may prove useful in making sense of apparently discordant findings on auditory abnormalities among individuals with autism.

  11. Hip arthroplasty. Part 2: normal and abnormal radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Pluot, E; Davis, E T; Revell, M; Davies, A M; James, S L J

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses the normal and abnormal radiographic findings that can be encountered during the follow-up of patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). The relative significance of different patterns of radiolucency, bone sclerosis, and component position is discussed. The normal or pathological significance of these findings is correlated with design, surface, and fixation of the prosthetic components. It is essential to have a good knowledge of expected and unexpected radiological evolution according to the different types of prostheses. This paper emphasizes the importance of serial studies compared with early postoperative radiographs during follow-up in order to report accurately any sign of prosthetic failure and trigger prompt specialist referral. Basic technical guidelines and schedule recommendations for radiological follow-up are summarized.

  12. Normal and abnormal US findings at the mastectomy site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of a mastectomy site is more effective with ultrasonography (US) than with either mammography or chest computed tomography because abnormalities are usually small and close to the skin surface. US does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and has a multiplanar scanning capability. The technique is readily available and inexpensive, and it allows real-time monitoring of needle tip placement during biopsy of a lesion. Normal US anatomy of the chest wall after mastectomy usually consists of four layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, pectoral muscles, and rib and intercostal muscle. The axilla is changed in appearance after lymph node dissection, but it remains the same in patients who have undergone simple mastectomy. US can accurately depict benign and malignant conditions in the mastectomy site, including fluid collection, fibrosis, local recurrent tumor, and metastatic lymphadenopathy, and can enable accurate diagnosis based on findings at fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  13. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Obscure Choroidal Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of choroidal neurofibromatosis, detected with the aid of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF)-1, otherwise having obscure findings based on ophthalmoscopy and fluoresceine angiography (FA). In case 1, the ophthalmoscopic exam showed diffuse bright or yellowish patched areas with irregular and blunt borders at the posterior pole. The FA showed multiple hyperfluorescent areas at the posterior pole in the early phase, which then showed more hyperfluorescence without leakage or extent in the late phase. The ICGA showed diffuse hypofluorescent areas in both the early and late phases, and the deep choroidal vessels were also visible. In case 2, the fundus showed no abnormal findings, and the FA showed weakly hypofluorescent areas with indefinite borders in both eyes. With the ICGA, these areas were more hypofluorescent and had clear borders. Choroidal involvement in NF-1 seems to occur more than expected. In selected cases, ICGA is a useful tool to be utilized when an ocular examination is conducted in a patient that has no definite findings based on the ophthalmoscope, B-scan, or FA tests. PMID:22670083

  14. Terminology of developmental abnormalities in common laboratory mammals (version 1).

    PubMed

    Wise, L D; Beck, S L; Beltrame, D; Beyer, B K; Chahoud, I; Clark, R L; Clark, R; Druga, A M; Feuston, M H; Guittin, P; Henwood, S M; Kimmel, C A; Lindstrom, P; Palmer, A K; Petrere, J A; Solomon, H M; Yasuda, M; York, R G

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the first version of an internationally-developed glossary of terms for structural developmental abnormalities in common laboratory animals. The glossary is put forward by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) Committee on International Harmonization of Nomenclature in Developmental Toxicology, and represents considerable progress toward harmonization of terminology in this area. The purpose of this effort is to provide a common vocabulary that will reduce confusion and ambiguity in the description of developmental effects, particularly in submissions to regulatory agencies worldwide. The glossary contains a primary term or phrase, a definition of the abnormality, and notes, where appropriate. Selected synonyms or related terms, which reflect a similar or closely related concept, are noted. Nonpreferred terms are indicated where their usage may be incorrect. Modifying terms used repeatedly in the glossary (e.g., absent, branched) are listed and defined separately, instead of repeating their definitions for each observation. Syndrome names are generally excluded from the glossary, but are listed separately in an appendix. The glossary is organized into broad sections for external, visceral, and skeletal observations, then subdivided into regions, structures, or organs in a general overall head to tail sequence. Numbering is sequential, and not in any regional or hierarchical order. Uses and misuses of the glossary are discussed. Comments, questions, suggestions, and additions from practitioners in the field of developmental toxicology are welcomed on the organization of the glossary as well as on the specific terms and definitions. Updates of the glossary are planned based on the comments received.

  15. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc.) x-rays, and psychological tests. ..., physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart from the claimant's own statements... psychological phenomena which can be shown by the use of medically acceptable laboratory diagnostic...

  16. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc.) x-rays, and psychological tests. ..., physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart from the claimant's own statements... psychological phenomena which can be shown by the use of medically acceptable laboratory diagnostic...

  17. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc.) x-rays, and psychological tests. ..., physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart from the claimant's own statements... psychological phenomena which can be shown by the use of medically acceptable laboratory diagnostic...

  18. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc.) x-rays, and psychological tests. ..., physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart from the claimant's own statements... psychological phenomena which can be shown by the use of medically acceptable laboratory diagnostic...

  19. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, etc.) x-rays, and psychological tests. ..., physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart from the claimant's own statements... psychological phenomena which can be shown by the use of medically acceptable laboratory diagnostic...

  20. Prevalence of respiratory abnormalities and pneumoconiosis in dental laboratory technicians.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir Doğan, Derya; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin; Dal, Uğur; Gümüş, Cesur; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    A preventable occupational disease, pneumoconiosis that is often widespread on to a very kind of quartz, carbon and metal dust exposed work place.The data for the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and respiratory findings among dental laboratory technician is insufficient. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis and respiratory findings among dental laboratory technicians, working in province of Sivas. For this reason all the dental technicians (except 2, totally 36) participated in the study. A questionnaire which contains demographic characteristics, work conditions and symptoms were applied to all participants. Also spirometric measurements and chest x-rays were performed. The x-rays of dental technicians were evaluated by a radiologist and a chest disease specialist according to the ILO-2000 classification of pneumoconiosis. Almost half of the all participants have dyspnea and phlegm expectoration. The prevalence of pneumoconiosis was 5 (13.8%) among 36 dental technicians. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups with regard to respiratory symptoms. Values of lung function parameters of the dental technician group were not significantly different from those of control group except FEV(1). In conclusion, dental laboratory technicians are at significant risks for occupational respiratory diseases so the primary prevention rules are essential for these work places.

  1. [Clinical findings in a lamb with congenital multiple abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Chavez Moreno, V J; Henze, P

    1995-01-01

    A case of multiple, congenital malformations, with special emphasis on cardiac malformations (atrial- and ventricle septum defect, Ductus Botalli persistens, bilateral ventricle and atrial dilatation) in a lamb are described. Clinical findings, X-ray, ultrasound examination, electrocardio- and phonocardiogram, as well as pathology are discussed.

  2. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in pigmentation: annotated tables.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Tobin, Desmond J; Richards-Smith, Beverly; Sundberg, John P; Paus, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian pigment cell research has recently entered a phase of significantly increased activity due largely to the exploitation of the many mutant mouse stocks that are coming on stream. Numerous transgenic, targeted mutagenesis (so-called 'knockouts'), conditional (so-called 'gene switch') and spontaneous mutant mice develop abnormal coat color phenotypes. The number of mice that exhibit such abnormalities is increasing exponentially as genetic engineering methods become routine. Since defined abnormalities in such mutant mice provide important clues to the as yet often poorly understood functional roles of many gene products, this overview includes a corresponding, annotated table of mutant mice with pigmentation alterations. These range from early developmental defects via a large array of coat color abnormalities to a melanoma metastasis model. This overview should provide helpful pointers to investigators who are looking for mouse models to explore or to compare functional activities of genes of interest and for comparing coat color phenotypes of spontaneous or genetically engineered mouse mutants with novel ones. Secondly, this review includes a table of mouse models of specific human diseases with genetically defined pigmentation abnormalities. In summary, this annotated table should serve as a useful reference for anyone interested in the molecular controls of pigmentation.

  3. Abnormal findings on knee magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic NBA players.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.

  4. Correlation between abnormal cardiac physical examination and echocardiographic findings in neonates with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Doff B; Straka, Michele; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Zackai, Elaine H

    2002-12-01

    Congenital heart disease is present in 40-50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Although cardiovascular evaluation is a standard component of the diagnostic work-up in patients with Down syndrome, the value of routine neonatal echocardiography in this population is debated. We studied 114 neonates with Down syndrome who underwent both cardiac physical examination and echocardiography in the neonatal period to assess the accuracy of physical examination for identifying cardiovascular anomalies in this population. We retrospectively reviewed physical examination records and echocardiogram reports in 114 neonates with Down syndrome and trisomy 21. A patient was considered to have an abnormal cardiac physical examination if there was a pathologic cardiac murmur and/or cyanosis or an abnormal systemic arterial oxygen saturation. The median age at the time of physical examination was 2 days (1-30 days). Physical examination findings suggestive of cardiovascular pathology were noted in 77 patients (68%), with an abnormal cardiac murmur in 34 (30%), cyanosis and/or a pulse oximeter reading of < or = 92% in 35 (31%), and both in 7 (6%). The echocardiogram was abnormal in 75 patients (66%), with an atrioventricular septal defect in 33, tetralogy of Fallot in 13, both of these anomalies in 2, a ventricular septal defect in 17, a patent ductus arteriosus beyond 7 days of age in 7, and other anomalies in 2. The sensitivity of physical examination findings for detection of cardiovascular anomalies was 80% and the specificity was 56%. The positive predictive value of an abnormal physical examination was 78% and the negative predictive value of a normal physical examination was 59%. Fifteen patients had a normal physical examination but an abnormal echocardiogram, nine of whom eventually required surgery. Physical examination alone is not sufficient to identify cardiovascular anomalies in neonates with Down syndrome. In the newborn with Down syndrome, the potential benefits of

  5. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalaei, Bahram; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist. Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter. Conclusion: Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay. PMID:28229064

  6. Identification of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia by modeling spatial uncertainty in computed tomography imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tsunoyama, Taichiro; Pham, Tuan D; Fujita, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal abnormalities and ischemia are medical conditions in which inflammation and injury of the intestine are caused by inadequate blood supply. Acute ischemia of the small bowel can be life-threatening. Computed tomography (CT) is currently a gold standard for the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in the emergency department. However, the assessment of the diagnostic performance of CT findings in the detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia has been a difficult task for both radiologists and surgeons. Little effort has been found in developing computerized systems for the automated identification of these types of complex gastrointestinal disorders. In this paper, a geostatistical mapping of spatial uncertainty in CT scans is introduced for medical image feature extraction, which can be effectively applied for diagnostic detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia from control patterns. Experimental results obtained from the analysis of clinical data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty mapping model.

  7. Predictive value of specific ultrasound findings when used as a screening test for abnormalities on VCUG

    PubMed Central

    Logvinenko, Tanya; Chow, Jeanne S.; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is often used as an initial screening test for children after urinary tract infection (UTI). The 2011 AAP guidelines specifically recommend that RBUS be performed first, with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) to be performed only if the ultrasound is abnormal. While prior research has suggested that RBUS is neither sensitive nor specific for VCUG findings, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), it is uncertain as to whether specific RBUS findings, alone or in combination, might make RBUS more useful as a predictor of VCUG abnormalities. Aims To evaluate the association of specific RBUS with VCUG findings, and determine whether predictive models that accurately predict patients at high risk of VCUG abnormalities, based on RBUS findings, can be constructed. Methods and study sample A total of 3995 patients were identified with VCUG and RBUS performed on the same day. The RBUS and VCUG reports were reviewed and the findings were classified. Analysis was limited to patients aged 0–60 months with no prior postnatal genitourinary imaging and no history of prenatal hydronephrosis. Analysis The associations between large numbers of specific RBUS findings with abnormalities seen on VCUG were investigated. Both multivariate logistic models and a neural network machine learning algorithms were constructed to evaluate the predictive power of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities (including VUR or bladder/urethral findings). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and area under receiving operating curves (AUROC) of RBUS for VCUG abnormalities were determined. Results A total of 2259 patients with UTI as the indication for imaging were identified. The RBUS was reported as “normal” in 75.0%. On VCUG, any VUR was identified in 41.7%, VUR grade >II in 20.9%, and VUR grade >III in 2.8%. Many individual RBUS findings were significantly associated with VUR on VCUG. Despite these strong univariate associations, multivariate modeling

  8. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL. A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed. In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1–2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient. The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC. PMID:27124066

  9. The Evaluation of the Clinical, Laboratory, and Radiological Findings of 16 Cases of Brucellar Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baohui; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; He, Xijing

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and radiological presentation of 16 cases of brucellar spondylitis. Methods. The clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings of 16 patients (aged from 24 to 66 years) with brucellar spondylitis treated between September 2012 and September 2014 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Xi'an, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. Clinical manifestations included high fever, severe pain, sweating, and fatigue. One patient had epididymitis, and two showed clear signs of spinal nerve damage. Laboratory tests showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein content. Serum brucella agglutination tests were positive, and 11 brucella blood cultures were positive. Imaging manifestations mainly consisted of abnormal signals in the intervertebral space or abnormal signals in the adjacent vertebral bodies (16/16, 100%) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disc space narrowing (14/16, 88%) in X-ray and MRI, or bone destruction and sclerosis around the damaged zone (13/16, 81%) in computed tomography, with rare cases of psoas abscess (2/16, 13%) and sequestrum (1/16, 6%). Conclusion. Since brucellar spondylitis exhibited characteristic clinical and imaging manifestations, it could be diagnosed with specific laboratory tests. Early MRI examination of suspected cases could improve rapid diagnosis. PMID:27672661

  10. Prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with proven ovarian torsion and a proposed triage schema.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher; Meyers, Arthur B; Capotasto, Juliana; Bokhari, Jamal

    2009-03-01

    Many women with ovarian torsion present with nonspecific abdominal/pelvic pain and initially receive computed tomography (CT). We hypothesize that the CT scans preformed on these women will all show abnormalities of the involved ovary. Our purpose is to review cases of surgically proven ovarian torsion at our institution over the last 20 years, assessing CT findings in women with ovarian torsion. A retrospective review of all patients at our institution with surgically proven ovarian torsion from 1985-2005 was conducted. Two physicians reviewed available CT reports, and a radiologist reviewed all available images. CT was obtained in 33% of the 167 patients. Dictated reports were available for 28 studies; all described an enlarged ovary, ovarian cyst, or adnexal mass of the involved ovary. Radiologist review of the available CT images confirmed these findings. This series supports the claim that a CT scan with well-visualized normal appearing ovaries rules out ovarian torsion, while abnormal pelvic findings or failure to visualize the ovaries in women with pelvic pain necessitates further evaluation of torsion.

  11. Multidetector CT appearance of the pelvis after cesarean delivery: normal and abnormal acute findings.

    PubMed

    Gui, Benedetta; Danza, Francesco Maria; Valentini, Anna Lia; Laino, Maria Elena; Caruso, Alessandro; Carducci, Brigida; Rodolfino, Elena; Devicienti, Ersilia; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section (CS) may have several acute complications that can occur in the early postoperative period. The most common acute complications are hematomas and hemorrhage, infection, ovarian vein thrombosis, uterine dehiscence and rupture. Pelvic hematomas usually occur at specific sites and include bladder flap hematoma (between the lower uterine segment and the bladder) and subfascial or rectus sheath hematoma (rectus sheath or prevescical space). Puerperal hemorrhage can be associated with uterine dehiscence or rupture. Pelvic infections include endometritis, abscess, wound infection, and retained product of conception. Radiologists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of postoperative complications as a result of increasing use of multidetector CT in emergency room. The knowledge of normal and abnormal postsurgical anatomy and findings should facilitate the correct diagnosis so that the best management can be chosen for the patient, avoiding unnecessary surgical interventions and additional treatments. In this article we review the surgical cesarean technique and imaging CT technique followed by description of normal and abnormal post-CS CT findings.

  12. Multidetector CT appearance of the pelvis after cesarean delivery: normal and abnormal acute findings

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Benedetta; Danza, Francesco Maria; Valentini, Anna Lia; Laino, Maria Elena; Caruso, Alessandro; Carducci, Brigida; Rodolfino, Elena; Devicienti, Ersilia; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section (CS) may have several acute complications that can occur in the early postoperative period. The most common acute complications are hematomas and hemorrhage, infection, ovarian vein thrombosis, uterine dehiscence and rupture. Pelvic hematomas usually occur at specific sites and include bladder flap hematoma (between the lower uterine segment and the bladder) and subfascial or rectus sheath hematoma (rectus sheath or prevescical space). Puerperal hemorrhage can be associated with uterine dehiscence or rupture. Pelvic infections include endometritis, abscess, wound infection, and retained product of conception. Radiologists play an important role in the diagnosis and management of postoperative complications as a result of increasing use of multidetector CT in emergency room. The knowledge of normal and abnormal postsurgical anatomy and findings should facilitate the correct diagnosis so that the best management can be chosen for the patient, avoiding unnecessary surgical interventions and additional treatments. In this article we review the surgical cesarean technique and imaging CT technique followed by description of normal and abnormal post-CS CT findings. PMID:27756714

  13. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  15. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  16. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  18. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1528 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  2. 20 CFR 416.928 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....), roentgenological studies (X-rays), and psychological tests. .... (b) Signs are anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be observed, apart... techniques. Psychiatric signs are medically demonstrable phenomena that indicate specific...

  3. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  4. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data–based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved. PMID:26196165

  5. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  6. Abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A

    1994-11-01

    The normal anatomy of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder has been described in detail [1]. Descriptions of different pathologic processes affecting this structure also have been published [1-3] but have been incomplete, showing only a limited variety of abnormalities. In this article, abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon seen on MR images are illustrated in greater variety and detail. Recognizing abnormalities of the biceps tendon is important because they are a common source of shoulder pain both alone and in combination with abnormalities of the rotator cuff, labrum, and other structures. Because incomplete diagnosis can lead to treatment failure, it is important to recognize less common imaging manifestations of common entities.

  7. Abnormal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Vestibular Schwannoma as the Most Common Cause of MRI Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Choi, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Eun; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2016-04-01

    The etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains unclear in most cases. This study aimed to assess abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SSNHL and evaluate the value of MRI in identifying the cause of SSNHL.A retrospective analysis of the charts and MRI findings of 291 patients with SSNHL was performed.In 291 patients, MRI abnormality, which was considered a cause of SSNHL, was detected in 13 patients. Vestibular schwannoma involving the internal auditory canal (IAC) and/or cerebellopontine angle was observed in 9 patients. All 9 patients had intrameatal tumors, and 6 of the 9 patients displayed extrameatal extension of their tumors. The tumor was small (<1 cm) or medium-sized (1.1-2.9 cm) in these 6 patients. Intralabyrinthine schwannoma, labyrinthine hemorrhage, IAC metastasis, and a ruptured dermoid cyst were each observed in 1 patient.The most commonly observed MRI abnormality in patients with SSNHL was vestibular schwannoma, and all of the lesions were small or medium-sized tumors involving the IAC.

  8. Magnetic resonance angiography in children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasonography findings enrolled in the STOP study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Miguel R; Cure, Joel; Granger, Suzanne; Gallagher, Dianne; Hsu, Lewis; Wang, Winfred; Woods, Gerald; Berman, Brian; Brambilla, Don; Pegelow, Charles; Lewin, Jonathan; Zimmermann, Robert A; Adams, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The stroke prevention study in sickle cell disease (STOP) demonstrated a 90% reduction in stroke risk with transfusion among patients with time-averaged mean cerebral blood velocity (TAMV) of 200 cm/s or more as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD). In STOP, 232 brain magnetic resonance angiograms (MRAs) were performed on 100 patients, 47 in the transfusion arm and 53 in the standard care arm. Baseline MRA findings were interpreted as normal in 75 patients and as indicating mild stenosis in 4 patients and severe stenosis in 21 patients. Among 35 patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography within 30 days of random assignment, the TAMV was significantly higher in 7 patients with severe stenosis compared with 28 patients with normal MRA findings or mild stenosis (276.7 +/- 34 vs 215 +/- 15.6 cm/s; P<.001). In the standard care arm, 4 of 13 patients with abnormal MRA findings had strokes compared with 5 of 40 patients with normal MRA findings (P=.03). In this arm, TAMV became normal (less than 170 cm/s) or conditional (170-199 cm/s) in 26 of 38 patients with normal or mildly abnormal baseline MRA but remained abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with severely abnormal baseline MRA. These results suggest that TCD often detects flow abnormalities indicative of stroke risk before MRA lesions become evident. Furthermore, patients with abnormal MRA findings and higher TCD velocities are at higher risk for stroke, and their cerebral TAMVs are unlikely to decrease without transfusion.

  9. Vestibular Migraine in Children and Adolescents: Clinical Findings and Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Langhagen, Thyra; Lehrer, Nicole; Borggraefe, Ingo; Heinen, Florian; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in children. We summarize the clinical findings and laboratory test results in a cohort of children and adolescents with VM. We discuss the limitations of current classification criteria for dizzy children. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 118 children with migraine related vertigo at a tertiary care center. Patients were grouped in the following categories: (1) definite vestibular migraine (dVM); (2) probable vestibular migraine (pVM); (3) suspected vestibular migraine (sVM); (4) benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV); and (5) migraine with/without aura (oM) plus vertigo/dizziness according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Results: The mean age of all patients was 12 ± 3 years (range 3–18 years, 70 females). 36 patients (30%) fulfilled criteria for dVM, 33 (28%) for pVM, 34 (29%) for sVM, 7 (6%) for BPV, and 8 (7%) for oM. Somatoform vertigo (SV) co-occurred in 27% of patients. Episodic syndromes were reported in 8%; the family history of migraine was positive in 65%. Mild central ocular motor signs were found in 24% (most frequently horizontal saccadic pursuit). Laboratory tests showed that about 20% had pathological function of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex, and almost 50% had abnormal postural sway patterns. Conclusion: Patients with definite, probable, and suspected VM do not differ in the frequency of ocular motor, vestibular, or postural abnormalities. VM is the best explanation for their symptoms. It is essential to establish diagnostic criteria in clinical studies. In clinical practice, however, the most reasonable diagnosis should be made in order to begin treatment. Such a procedure also minimizes the fear of the parents and children, reduces the need to interrupt leisure time and school activities, and prevents the development of SV. PMID:25674076

  10. Attachment in Day Care Children: Field and Laboratory Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozin, Arlene

    A total of 20 children, between 17 and 38 months old, were observed in their day care centers and in a standardized laboratory procedure. In both settings, preseparation, separation, and reunion situations were observed. Observers coded proximity-increasing and proximity-decreasing behaviors to mother and to other adults; in addition, distress,…

  11. Abnormal 18 F-FDG and 82 Rb PET Findings in Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Salimy, Medhi S; Parwani, Purvi J; Mukai, Kanae; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Flavell, Robert R

    2017-03-03

    Uptake of the radiopharmaceutical F-FDG visualized by PET imaging can reflect abnormal myocardial inflammation. When utilized in conjunction with other imaging modalities, such as echocardiography, PET F-FDG imaging can help distinguish between active cardiac sarcoidosis and other etiologies of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We present a case of a 46-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia who underwent an echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac Chagas disease. A subsequent F-FDG PET demonstrated abnormal hypermetabolism. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive serologic examination results.

  12. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    York, G. E.; Reid, M. W.; Cooper, D. B.; Jones, L.; Robin, D. A.; Kennedy, J. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  13. Predictors of resolution and persistence of renal laboratory abnormalities in Pediatric HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Charles D.; Chernoff, Miriam C.; Seage, George R.; Purswani, Murli U.; Spiegel, Hans M.L.; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn; Heckman, Barbara; Ponce, Christopher B.; Oleske, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among HIV infected youth, the role of renal disease (RD) and its management has become more important as children/adolescents age into young adulthood. Identification of predictors of abnormal renal laboratory events (RLE) may be helpful in the management of their HIV infection and its associated renal complications.” Methods Data collected from HIV-infected children and youth followed for ≥48 months was analyzed to identify predictors of resolution versus persistence of RLE and determine the utility of RLE to predict the onset of RD. Analysis included descriptive and inferential methods using a multivariable extended Cox proportional hazards model. Results 428 of 1874 at risk children (23%) developed RLE, which persisted in 229 of 428(54%). CD4<25% (hazard ratio[HR] 0.63, p<0.002) and HIV viral load>100,000 copies/ml (HR 0.31, p<0.01) were associated with reduced rates of resolution. Exposure to HAART/nephrotoxic HAART prior to or subsequent to RLE in most cases were not. Persistence of RLE was 88% sensitive for identifying new RD. Negative predictive values for RD were >95% for both the at risk cohort and in those with RLE. Conclusions Advanced HIV disease predicted persistence of RLE in HIV-infected youth. Persistent RLE were useful for identifying RD. PMID:25149850

  14. Molecular abnormalities of the hippocampus in severe psychiatric illness: postmortem findings from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Knable, Michael B; Barci, Beata M; Webster, Maree J; Meador-Woodruff, James; Torrey, E Fuller

    2004-06-01

    Between 1997 and 2002, 48 data sets from the hippocampus were produced on samples from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. From these data sets, 224 total measures were available from the various subdivisions of the hippocampus. An integrative analysis of these measures was performed using a multivariate, nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA with correction for multiple comparisons indicated that parvalbumin-containing cells in CA2 were reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In addition, reelin protein in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was decreased in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression at the trend level of statistical significance (P=0.065). These results strongly suggest a dysfunction of inhibitory GABA-ergic interneurons in severe mental illness. Without correction for multiple comparisons, 31 measures were abnormal in at least one disease, whereas 11 measures would be expected to appear abnormal by chance. Abnormal molecules included measures of synaptic density or neuronal plasticity (reelin, SNAP-25, BDNF, Complexin I and II), as well as parvalbumin, tyrosine receptor kinase A, glucocorticoid receptors, glutamate NR1 receptor subunits, serotonin 5HT2(A) and 5HT1(B) receptors, and dopamine D(5) receptors.

  15. Pathologic findings suggest long-term abnormality after conservative management of complex acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Matthew; Chalupka, Andrew; Butler, Kathryn; Gupta, Alok; Odom, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    Perforated or phlegmonous appendicitis is often treated with antibiotics and drainage as needed. The rationale, risk of recurrence, timing, or even the necessity of subsequent elective interval appendectomy (IA) is debated. We retrospectively reviewed all appendectomies performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 1997 and 2011. We determined if the appendix was removed emergently or as IA. Demographic characteristics, hospital length of stay, computed tomography (CT) results, and operation type (open or laparoscopic) were determined. In IA specimens, narrative pathology reports were assessed for evidence of anatomic, acute, or chronic abnormality. A total of 3562 patients had their appendix removed during this time period. Thirty-four patients were identified as having IA. Of these, only three (8.8%) had a pathologically normal appendix. All three patients were female and all had initially abnormal CT scans. Eight specimens (23.5%) had evidence of chronic and 10 (29.4%) had evidence of acute appendicitis. An additional 10 (29.4%) specimens contained a combination of acute and chronic inflammation. Mean time to operation in the IA group was 57.1 days (range, nine to 234 days) after index diagnosis by CT scan. Given the high percentage of IA specimens with acute or chronic appendicitis and the extremely high proportion (91%) of patients with pathologically abnormal specimens, it appears that IA may be justified in most cases.

  16. Electrocardiograhic findings resulting in inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Shariq; McCrary, Justin; Wayne, Lori; Gratton, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt reperfusion has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a goal of culprit vessel patency in <90 minutes. This requires a coordinated approach between the emergency medical services (EMS), emergency department (ED) and interventional cardiology. The urgency of this process can contribute to inappropriate cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) activations. Objectives One of the major determinants of inappropriate activations has been misinterpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the patient with acute chest pain. Methods We report the ECG findings for all CCL activations over an 18-month period after the inception of a STEMI program at our institution. Results There were a total of 139 activations with 77 having a STEMI diagnosis confirmed and 62 activations where there was no STEMI. The inappropriate activations resulted from a combination of atypical symptoms and misinterpretation of the ECG (45% due to anterior ST-segment elevation) on patient presentation. The electrocardiographic abnormalities were particularly problematic in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusions In this single-center, prospective observational study, nearly half of the inappropriate STEMI activations were due to the misinterpretation of anterior ST-segment elevation and this finding was commonly seen in African-Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:25009790

  17. Clinical disease and laboratory abnormalities in free-ranging desert tortoises in California (1990-1995)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopher, Mary M.; Berry, Kristin H.; Henen, Brian T.; Nagy, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations have experienced precipitous declines resulting from the cumulative impact of habitat loss and human and disease-related mortality. Diagnosis of disease in live, free-ranging tortoises is facilitated by evaluation of clinical signs and laboratory test results but may be complicated by seasonal and environmental effects. The goals of this study were: 1) to describe and monitor clinical and laboratory signs of disease in adult, free-ranging desert tortoises at three sites in the Mojave Desert of California (USA) between October 1990 and October 1995; 2) to evaluate associations between clinical signs and hematologic, biochemical, serologic, and microbiologic test results; 3) to characterize disease patterns by site, season, and sex; and 4) to assess the utility of diagnostic tests in predicting morbidity and mortality. Venous blood samples were obtained four times per year from tortoises of both sexes at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA), Goffs/Fenner Valley, and Ivanpah Valley. Tortoises were given a physical examination, and clinical abnormalities were graded by type and severity. Of 108 tortoises, 68.5% had clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease consistent with mycoplasmosis at least once during the study period. In addition, 48.1% developed moderate to severe shell lesions consistent with cutaneous dyskeratosis. Ulcerated or plaque-like oral lesions were noted on single occasions in 23% of tortoises at Goffs and 6% of tortoises at Ivanpah. Tortoises with oral lesions were significantly more likely than tortoises without lesions to have positive nasal cultures for Mycoplasma agassizii(P=0.001) and to be dehydrated (P=0.0007). Nine tortoises had marked azotemia (blood urea nitrogen [BUN] >100 mg/dl) or persistent azotemia (BUN 63–76 mg/dl); four of these died, three of which had necropsy confirmation of urinary tract disease. Laboratory tests had low sensitivity but high specificity in

  18. Oral clefts with associated anomalies: findings in the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sárközi, Andrea; Wyszynski, Diego F; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the years, great efforts have been made to record the frequency of orofacial clefts in different populations. However, very few studies were able to account for the etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity of these conditions. Thus, data of cases with syndromic orofacial clefts from large population-based studies are infrequent. Methods Clinically recognized and notified syndromes and associations including cleft lip with or without cleft palate and other congenital anomalies were selected from the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry (HCAR) between 1973 and 1982 and prevalence rates were calculated. Results Of 3,110 cases reported as having orofacial clefts, 653 had multiple congenital abnormalities. Of these, 60 (9.2%) had a known etiology (monogenic: 25 or 3.8%, chromosomal: 31 or 4.7%, teratogenic: 4 or 0.6%). Seventy-three subjects (11.2%) had schisis in addition to the oral cleft. Skeletal anomalies were the most common malformations among cases with cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Disorders of the central nervous system and cardiovascular malformations were also frequently associated. Conclusion Surveillance systems, such as the HCAR, provide useful information about prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in a population. However, in a field where new syndromes are being discovered and classifications regularly updated, these rates should only be accepted as provisional. PMID:15985166

  19. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  20. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Two Malaysian Siblings with Abnormal MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bee Chin; Mohd Rawi, Rowani; Meinsma, Rutger; Meijer, Judith; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; van Kuilenburg, André B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of thymine and uracil and a deficiency of metabolites distal to the catabolic enzyme. The disorder presents with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic to severe neurological manifestations, including intellectual disability, seizures, microcephaly, autistic behavior, and eye abnormalities. Here, we report on an 11-year-old Malaysian girl and her 6-year-old brother with DPD deficiency who presented with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and hypotonia. Brain MRI scans showed generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and callosal body dysgenesis in the boy. Urine analysis showed strongly elevated levels of uracil in the girl and boy (571 and 578 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively) and thymine (425 and 427 mmol/mol creatinine, respectively). Sequence analysis of the DPYD gene showed that both siblings were homozygous for the mutation c.1651G>A (pAla551Thr). PMID:25565930

  1. [Biochemical and clinical findings in congenital abnormalities of galactose metabolism (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, F C; Kaloud, H; Istvan, L

    1975-01-10

    Current knowledge of the biochemical basis of abnormalities in galactose metabolism are discussed. The clinical picture, analysis of frequency and therapy are described. Although the galactokinase defect hat been described only rarely, abundant literature has been published on the Gal-1-PUT defect. Five variations of this defect are known (Duarte, Los Angeles, Rennes, Indiana and Negro variants), but these simulate only partially the clinical picture of galactosaemia. The UDP-Gal-4-epimerase defect has only once been described. Defects in galactose metabolism which show autosomal recessive inheritance are demonstrated in milk-fed infants by means of the Guthrie test. If the clinical picture arouses the suspicion of a defect in Gal-1-PUT or galactokinase, then a milk-free diet should be given until the diagnosis has been verified by enzyme analysis. Children who have been fed on a lactose-free diet show normal physical and mental development. If possible the entire family of the proband should undergo enzyme analysis in order to detect and to counsel all the heterozygotes in the family. Genetic counselling is considered to be absolutely indicated in this case. Termination of pregnancy is not indicated under any circumstances.

  2. Do preclinical findings of methamphetamine-induced motor abnormalities translate to an observable clinical phenotype?

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Buitenhuys, Casey

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes the preclinical literature of the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on subcortical dopaminergic and GABAergic mechanisms underlying motor behavior with the goal of elucidating the clinical presentation of human MA-induced movement disorders. Acute and chronic MA exposure in laboratory animal can lead to a variety of motor dysfunctions including increased locomotor activity, stereotypies, diminished or enhanced response times, and parkinsonian-like features. With the exception of psychomotor impairment and hyperkinesia, MA-induced movement disorders are not well documented in humans. This review attempts to draw parallels between the animal and human changes in basal ganglia neurochemistry associated with MA exposure and offers explanations for why a parkinsonian phenotype is not apparent among individuals who use and abuse MA. Significant differences in the expression of neurotoxicity and presence of multiple environmental and pharmacologic confounds may account for the lack of a parkinsonian phenotype in humans despite evidence of altered dopamine function.

  3. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris.

  4. Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and White Matter Abnormality Findings in Service Members With Persistent Cognitive Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tate, David F; Gusman, Maria; Kini, Jonathan; Reid, Matthew; Velez, Carmen S; Drennon, Ann Marie; Cooper, Douglas B; Kennedy, Jan E; Bowles, Amy O; Bigler, Erin D; Lewis, Jeffrey D; Ritter, John; York, Gerald E

    2017-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major health concern among active duty service members and Veterans returning from combat operations, and it can result in variable clinical and cognitive outcomes. Identifying biomarkers that can improve diagnosis and prognostication has been at the forefront of recent research efforts. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of abnormalities identified using more traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences such as fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) to more advanced MRI sequences such as susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) among a cohort of active duty service members experiencing persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI. One-hundred and fifty-two active duty service members (77 mTBI, 58 orthopedically injured [OI] only, 17 post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD] only) underwent MRI and neuropsychological evaluation at a large military treatment facility. Results demonstrated that FLAIR white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were present in all three groups at statistically similar rates (41% mTBI, 49% OI, and 29% PTSD). With the exception of a single OI participant showing a small discrete SWI lesion, SWI abnormalities were overwhelmingly present in mTBI patients (22% mTBI, 1% OI, and 0% PTSD). Functionally, mTBI participants with and without SWI abnormalities did not differ in demographics, symptom reporting, or cognitive performance. However, mTBI participants with and without WMH did differ for on measures of working memory with the mTBI participants with WMH having worse cognitive performance. No other significant differences were noted for those participants with and without imaging abnormalities for either the OI or PTSD only cohorts. These results appear to illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of SWI findings though these results did not have any significant functional impact in this cohort. In contrast, WMHs noted on FLAIR imaging were not sensitive or

  5. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones.

  6. Comparative observation of skeletal-dental abnormalities in wild, domestic, and laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Ayako; Hori, Yutaka; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Asari, Masao; Wiggs, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    Dietary habits must be considered as one of the major potential factors resulting in acquired malocclusions in rabbits. Although the dentition of the wild rabbit and the domesticated laboratory rabbit are basically identical, dietary habits are noticeably different. Therefore, the prevalence of tooth problems between these lagomorph species were investigated anatomically and radiographically. Mean measurements of the skull and dental arches suggested that wild rabbits have slightly shorter and wider skulls and dental arches compared with domestic laboratory rabbits. Root elongation of incisors and check teeth, and periodontal disease were more frequently observed in domestic laboratory rabbits. Diagnostic radiographs from domestic pet rabbits showed relatively higher crowns, severe root elongation, and advanced periodontitis. These results do not provide definitive evidence that dietary habits cause malocclusions, however they suggest that diet is a major factor in the initiation of malocclusions in rabbits.

  7. [Reversed clinicopathological conference (R-CPC)--interpreting laboratory data in the same way as physical findings].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Shimada, Masashi; Moriyoshi, Miho; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Nakashima, Hiromi; Wada, Hideo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Fujisawa, Shinya; Yonekawa, Osamu; Honda, Takayuki

    2012-05-01

    Routine laboratory data are discussed by time series analysis in reversed clinicopathological conferences (R-CPC) at Shinshu University School of Medicine. We can identify fine changes in the laboratory data and the importance of negative data (without any changes) using time series analysis. Routine laboratory tests can be performed repeatedly and relatively cheaply, and time series analysis can be performed. The examination process of routine laboratory data in the R-CPC is almost the same as the process of taking physical findings. Firstly, general findings are checked and then the state of each organ is examined. Although routine laboratory data are cheap, we can obtain much more information about a patient's state than from physical examinations. In this R-CPC, several specialists in the various fields of laboratory medicine discussed the routine laboratory data of a patient, and we tried to understand the detailed state of the patient. R-CPC is an educational method to examine laboratory data and we, reconfirmed the usefulness of R-CPC to elucidate the clinical state of the patient.

  8. Visual Assessment of CT Findings in Smokers With Nonobstructed Spirometric Abnormalities in The COPDGene® Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Stinson, Douglas S.; Zach, Jordan A.; McKenzie, Alexander S.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Wan, Emily S.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Lynch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study population of cigarette smokers, 9% were found to be unclassifiable by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. This study was to identify the differences in computed tomography (CT) findings between this nonobstructed (GOLDU) group and a control group of smokers with normal lung function. This research was approved by the institutional review board of each institution. CT images of 400 participants in the COPDGene® study (200 GOLDU, 200 smokers with normal lung function) were retrospectively evaluated in a blinded fashion. Visual CT assessment included lobar analysis of emphysema (type, extent), presence of paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, expiratory air trapping, centrilobular nodules, atelectasis, non-fibrotic and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), pleural thickening, diaphragmatic eventration, vertebral body changes and internal thoracic diameters (in mm). Univariate comparisons of groups for each CT parameter and multiple logistic regression were performed to determine the imaging features associated with GOLDU. When compared with the control group, GOLDU participants had a significantly higher prevalence of unilateral diaphragm eventration (30% vs. 16%), airway wall thickening, centrilobular nodules, reticular abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (33% vs. 17%), linear atelectasis (60% vs. 35.6%), kyphosis (12% vs. 4%), and a smaller internal transverse thoracic diameter (255 ± 22.5 [standard deviation] vs. 264.8 ± 22.4, mm) (all p<0.05). With multiple logistic regression, all of these CT parameters, except non-fibrotic ILD and kyphosis, remained significantly associated with GOLDU status (p<0.05). In cigarette smokers, chest wall abnormalities and parenchymal lung disease, which contribute to restrictive physiologic impairment, are associated with GOLD-nonobstructed status. PMID:25197723

  9. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  10. Laboratory approaches to understanding gonadal development and abnormalities in wild-caught smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous work reported smallmouth bass in Northeastern Minnesota rivers and lakes with a prevalence of testicular oocytes (TOs) ranging from 7 to 57%, which is consistent with findings reported in other U.S. river systems. While it is often presumed that TOs are caused by ex...

  11. Radiologic abnormalities of the appendicular skeleton of the lion (Panthera leo): incidental findings and Mycobacterium bovis-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Keet, Dewald F; Wagner, Wencke M

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic and pelvic limbs from 15 euthanized free-ranging lions (Panthera leo), ranging in age from 16 to 144 months, underwent standard radiographic evaluation. All lions had tested positive for Mycobacterium bovis by means of a modified intradermal tuberculn test. The radiographs of six lions were normal and nine had incidental findings of which six had more than one lesion. Seven lions had lesions suspected to be associated with tuberculosis, which was confirmed in specific joints in two lions. Incidental pathology was classified as traumatic injuries and degenerative or trauma-associated joint disease. The traumatic lesions were fractures of which the most remarkable was a femur malunion. Four lions had fibula and another three lions had metacarpal/tarsal and phalangeal fractures. Joint lesions included glenoid, humeral head, and accessory carpal bone osteophytes. There was evidence of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture in an 8-year-old male. Trauma induced joint lesions were seen in four stifles (fragmented or displaced sesamoid bones, fragmented meniscal ossicle, or mineralized fragments). Radiological abnormalities believed to be caused by M. bovis were present in one stifle, one radiocarpal three tibiotarsal, and one tarsometatarsal joints. These had evidence of septic arthritis with extensive bone formation and capsular mineralization. In one 20-month-old lion, changes typical of a bone abscess were found in a proximal tibia. Radiologic evidence of elbow hygromas were seen in three elbows, all believed to be caused by M. bovis. Lions appeared to cope fairly well with a variety of traumatic injuries and were also susceptible to some of the aging/incidental radiologic findings seen in dogs and cats. The suspected M. bovis osseous lesions were more likely to involve the joints, particularly the tarsal joint and were mainly proliferative.

  12. Canine immune-mediated polyarthritis: Clinical and laboratory findings in 83 cases in western Canada (1991–2001)

    PubMed Central

    Stull, Jason W.; Evason, Michelle; Carr, Anthony P.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    A hospital-based, case-control study was used to describe clinical and laboratory findings in 83 dogs diagnosed with noninfectious, nonerosive, immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) in western Canada. Case medical records were reviewed. Cases were analyzed as total IMPA cases and as subgroups [breed, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), reactive, and idiopathic] and compared with the general canine hospital population. Dogs with IMPA differed in age (P = 0.004) and weight (P = 0.01) from other hospital admissions. Idiopathic IMPA cases were older (4–10 y; P < 0.05), compared with the general canine hospital population, and their common laboratory abnormalities included the following: leukocytosis, nonregenerative anemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, and hypoalbuminemia. The SLE cases were seen more often in summer and fall (P = 0.04), raising concern of an undiagnosed etiologic agent. The hock joint appeared to be the most reliable for diagnosis of IMPA, and arthrocentesis of both hock joints may aid in case identification. PMID:19252711

  13. [Usefulness of a single radial immunodiffusion method for the immediate diagnosis of abnormal fibrinogenemia in the laboratory].

    PubMed

    Yoshika, Masamichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Terauchi, Satoe; Teraoka, Atsuko; Munakata, Machiko; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Amakawa, Ryuuichi; Masaki, Hiroya; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2008-05-01

    Patients with dysfibrinogenemia demonstrate a low concentration of plasma fibrinogen. However, many cases remain a symptomatic and are incidentally identified on a pre-operative or screening test for pregnancy. Therefore, urgent diagnosis is desirable. To diagnose this abnormality, it is important to demonstrate a discrepancy between test results by the Clauss and immunologic methods. We use a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) method to measure the fibrinogen level immunologically. We present one dysfibrinogenemia case diagnosed by SRID. The present case was 23 year-old pregnant female. She demonstrated a low plasma level of fibrinogen (91 mg/dl by the Clauss method) on a pre-delivery-screening test in the 39th week of pregnancy. We suspected dysfibrinogenemia, and measured the fibrinogen level immunologically with SRID. Briefly, we dissolved agar in 10% PBS solution and added 1 mg/ml anti-fibrinogen antibody. Then, patient plasma and 50-200 mg/dl of control plasma were placed on the agar overnight. The immunoreactive fibrinogen level in this patient was 400 mg/dl. Therefore, we diagnosed her as dysfibrinogenemia. She did not have a bleeding episode during the normal vaginal delivery even through fibrinogen was not transfused. The SRID method is readily available, and requires only an anti-fibrinogen antibody and agar, both of which are usually stocked by a general laboratory. The practical method and application described in this report provide instructive information for hospital laboratories.

  14. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P < 0.001). A tick bite was not a risk factor. Fever; bleeding, vomiting, leucopoenia, thrombocytopenia, and increases in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were also indicative of CCHF infection. Accurate and speedy diagnosis of CCHF and appropriate treatment play an important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis.

  15. Prevalence of renal and hepatobiliary disease, laboratory abnormalities, and potentially toxic medication exposures among persons with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mapel, Douglas W; Marton, Jenõ P

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of renal and hepatic disease, related laboratory abnormalities, and potentially hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic medication use in a population-based cohort of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This was a retrospective case-control cohort analysis of COPD patients enrolled in one regional health system for at least 12 months during a 36-month study period (n = 2284). Each COPD patient was matched by age and gender to up to three persons not diagnosed with COPD (n = 5959). Results The mean age for cases and controls was 70.3 years, and 52.5% were women. The COPD cohort had significantly higher prevalences (cases/100) of acute, chronic, and unspecified renal failure as compared with controls (1.40 versus 0.59, 2.89 versus 0.79, and 1.09 versus 0.44, respectively). Among the cases, 31.3% had at least one renal or urinary tract diagnosis during the study period, as compared with 21.1% of controls. COPD cases also had more gallbladder disease (2.76 versus 1.63) and pancreatic disease (1.40 versus 0.60), but not hepatic disease. COPD patients were more likely to have at least one serum creatinine level (5.1 versus 2.1) or liver aspartate aminotransferase level (4.5 versus 2.7) that was more than twice the upper limit of normal. COPD patients had prescription fills for an average of 17.6 potentially nephrotoxic and 27.4 hepatotoxic drugs during the study period, as compared with 13.6 and 19.9 for the controls (P value for all comparisons < 0.01). Conclusion COPD patients have a substantially increased prevalence of renal, gallbladder, and pancreatic diseases, as well as abnormal renal and hepatic laboratory values, but not diagnosed liver disease. COPD patients are also more likely to be prescribed medications with potentially toxic renal or hepatic side effects. PMID:23515180

  16. Association of nailfold capillary changes with disease activity, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Shenavandeh, Saeedeh; Zarei Nezhad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the Nailfold Capillaroscopy (NC) features of the patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and its correlation with their disease activity indices, physical findings, and laboratory results. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 DM patients above 16 years old who had referred to an(there are 3 clinics not one) outpatient rheumatology clinics from 2012 to 2013. Nailfold capillaroscopy and calculation of disease activity indices were performed separately for all the patients by two rheumatologists who were blinded to each other's results. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.2±14.1 years with the mean disease duration of 13.1±15.2 months (range: 1-72 months). Myopathic electromyography (EMG) findings showed a strong association with scleroderma pattern (p=0.015). However, disease activity in each organ system and global disease activity showed no significant association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings. (Disease activity in each organ system and also global disease activity were both assessed to see if they are associated with scleroderma pattern and other NC findings so if we use between it means we are looking for an association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings and this is not what we have done and is wrong.) Conclusion: This study revealed no significant relationship between disease activity indices and NC features. Thus, it may be more precise to interpret the results of NC in conjunction with other physical and laboratory findings. PMID:26793626

  17. Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Laboratory Findings of Methadone Poisoning in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Nouri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poisoning accounts for about 7% of all accidents in children under 5 years and is implicated in over 5% of all childhood deaths in developing countries. Objectives: Due to the potential risks of methadone poisoning in children and increased cases of methadone poisoning among Iranian children, this study was conducted to investigate the clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory findings of methadone toxicity in children. Patients and Methods: The present retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study describes the clinical symptoms and signs and laboratory findings of methadone poisoning in children under 12 years old in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, during the years 2009 to 2013. Results: Of 58 patients, 33 (56.9%) were male and 25 (43.1%) female (P = 0.294). The mean age of patients was 5.2 ± 1.0 years. All the cases of poisoning happened with methadone syrup, due to unsafe keeping of methadone in mineral water bottles and containers of other drugs. Signs and symptoms included drowsiness (91.4 %), miosis (75.9%), vomiting (69.0%), ineffective breathing (any kind of breathing problem except apnea) (62.1%), apnea (53.4%), cyanosis (43.1%), seizure (8.6%), ataxia (6.9%) and delirium (3.4%). Conclusions: Keeping methadone in appropriate containers and warning methadone consumers about the dangerous side effects of its consumption and the symptoms of methadone poisoning in children may minimize the occurrence of this form of poisoning and its complications in children. PMID:26199683

  18. Spontaneous Crenosoma vulpis infection in 10 dogs: laboratory, radiographic and endoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Unterer, S; Deplazes, P; Arnold, P; Flückiger, M; Reusch, C E; Glaus, T M

    2002-04-01

    Crenosoma (C.) vulpis infection was diagnosed in 10 dogs aged between 0.5 and 12 years (median 4 years) during a 4-year period. The predominant clinical sign in all dogs was coughing which lasted from 1 day to > 4 months. Hematological abnormalities included eosinophilia in 5/9 dogs, basophilia in 3/9 dogs, and mild monocytosis in 6/9 dogs. Thoracic radiographs (n = 9) were normal in 1 dog, showed a mild bronchial or interstitial pattern in 4 dogs, and moderate to marked changes (bronchial-interstitial to alveolar) in 4 dogs. Endoscopic findings (n = 9) varied from mild erythematous bronchitis (n = 3) to marked bronchitis with accumulation of large amounts of mucus (n = 2), irregular nodular mucosal surface (n = 2), accumulation of pus (n = 1), and bronchial hemorrhage (n = 1). Adult worms were observed in 2 dogs. Bronchial lavage cytology revealed inflammation with predominance of eosinophils in 7/10 dogs, eosinophils and neutrophils in 2/10 dogs, and neutrophils in 1/10 dogs. C. vulpis larvae were identified in the BAL of 5/10 dogs. Fecal examinations with the Baermann technique was the most sensitive method and positive in all 10 dogs. C. vulpis infection has to be considered in the differential diagnosis in dogs of all ages presenting with acute or chronic cough.

  19. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Amani E; Moemen, Dalia; El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis. METHODS A retrospective study on cases of infective keratitis, attended our institution from Mar. 2013 to Feb. 2015, was done at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt. Corneal scrapings were performed and processed for direct microscopy and culture in appropriate media using standard laboratory protocols. RESULTS Out of 245 patients enrolled for study, 247 corneal scrapings were obtained. Ocular trauma was the most common predisposing factor (51.4%), followed by diabetes mellitus (15.1%). Cultures were positive in 110 scraping samples (44.5%): 45.5% samples had pure fungal infection, 40% had pure bacterial infections and 10% had mixed fungal and bacterial growths. Acanthamoeba was detected in 5 (4.5%) samples. The most common fungal pathogen was Aspergillus spp. (41%). The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (38.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.8%). CONCLUSION Incidence of fungal keratitis is high in our region. Therapeutic approach can initially be based on clinical features and sensitivity/resistance patterns. Microbiological research should direct the antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides is an important consideration. PMID:28149778

  20. Botulism in Brazil, 2000-2008: epidemiology, clinical findings and laboratorial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Lopes, Giselle Ibette S Lopez; Paula, Ana Maria Ramalho de; Sakuma, Harumi; Grigaliunas, Raquel; Lopreato Filho, Roberto; Gelli, Dilma Scala; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Jakabi, Miyoko

    2010-01-01

    Botulism is a rare and potentially lethal illness caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. We describe the findings of a laboratorial investigation of 117 suspected cases of botulism reported to the surveillance system in Brazil from January 2000 to October 2008. Data on the number and type of samples analyzed, type of toxins identified, reporting of the number of botulism cases and transmission sources are discussed. A total of 193 clinical samples and 81 food samples were analyzed for detection and identification of the botulism neurotoxin. Among the clinical samples, 22 (11.4%) presented the toxin (nine type A, five type AB and eight with an unidentified type); in food samples, eight (9.9%) were positive for the toxin (five type A, one type AB and two with an unidentified type). Of the 38 cases of suspected botulism in Brazil, 27 were confirmed by a mouse bioassay. Laboratorial botulism diagnosis is an important procedure to elucidate cases, especially food-borne botulism, to confirm clinical diagnosis and to identify toxins in food, helping sanitary control measures.

  1. Clinical and laboratory findings of childhood buckwheat allergy in a single tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyujung; Jeong, Kyunguk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Buckwheat allergy is one of the most severe types of food allergy in some countries, especially among children. However, few studies have investigated this condition. The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory findings in Korean children with buckwheat allergy. Methods Thirty-seven subjects, aged 1 to 14 years, were enrolled by retrospective medical record review from January 2000 through May 2015 at the Department of Pediatrics in Ajou University Hospital. The demographic profile, previous exposure to buckwheat pillows, clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings of each subject were recorded. Results Twenty-six of the 37 children had immediate-type allergic symptoms to buckwheat, while 11 subjects were tolerant to buckwheat. Seventeen out of 26 buckwheat allergic children (65.4%) had anaphylaxis. The median buckwheat specific IgE level in the buckwheat allergic group (7.71 kUA/L) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the buckwheat tolerant group (0.08 kUA/L) with an optimal cutoff value of 1.27 kUA/L (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 100%). When adjusted for age, the difference between the 2 groups showed no statistical significance (P=0.063). In subjects who had anaphylaxis, buckwheat-specific IgE levels ranged from 0.37 to 100 kUA/L. Conclusion Almost two-thirds of buckwheat-allergic children had anaphylaxis, and a wide-range of buckwheat specific IgE levels were observed in these children. Anaphylaxis occurred in a subject with a remarkably low IgE level (0.37 kUA/L). PMID:27826326

  2. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  3. Screening of sarcomere gene mutations in young athletes with abnormal findings in electrocardiography: identification of a MYH7 mutation and MYBPC3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Chika; Arimura, Takuro; Hayashi, Takeharu; Naruse, Taeko K; Kawai, Sachio; Kimura, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    There is an overlap between the physiological cardiac remodeling associated with training in athletes, the so-called athlete's heart, and mild forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common hereditary cardiac disease. HCM is often accompanied by unfavorable outcomes including a sudden cardiac death in the adolescents. Because one of the initial signs of HCM is abnormality in electrocardiogram (ECG), athletes may need to monitor for ECG findings to prevent any unfavorable outcomes. HCM is caused by mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins, but there is no report on the systematic screening of gene mutations in athletes. One hundred and two genetically unrelated young Japanese athletes with abnormal ECG findings were the subjects for the analysis of four sarcomere genes, MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2 and TNNI3. We found that 5 out of 102 (4.9%) athletes carried mutations: a heterozygous MYH7 Glu935Lys mutation, a heterozygous MYBPC3 Arg160Trp mutation and another heterozygous MYBPC3 Thr1046Met mutation, all of which had been reported as HCM-associated mutations, in 1, 2 and 2 subjects, respectively. This is the first study of systematic screening of sarcomere gene mutations in a cohort of athletes with abnormal ECG, demonstrating the presence of sarcomere gene mutations in the athlete's heart.

  4. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  5. Lower Urinary Tract Urological Abnormalities and Urodynamic Findings of Physiological Urinary Incontinence Versus Non-mono Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 98% of children attain daytime bladder control by three years of age, urinary incontinence is regarded physiological up to the fifth year of life. Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether lower urinary tract urological abnormalities and abnormal urodynamic findings are infrequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence in contrast to those with non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Patients and Methods: During a three-year period (2007-2009), 66 neurologically normal children including 51 children (34 girls, 17 boys) older than five years of age with NMNE and intermittent daytime incontinence, and 15 children with physiological urinary incontinence (eight girls and seven boys) aged four to five years of age without any known urological abnormalities were enrolled in the study. Patients with neurologic deficits or known urological anomalies were excluded from the study. Kidney-bladder ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), and urodynamic studies were performed to evaluate the anatomy of urinary tract and bladder function. Results: Urinary tract infection was found in 23 (34.8%) children, 17 (33.3%) and 6 (40%) patients with NMNE and physiological urinary incontinence, respectively. Out of 48 patients who underwent VCUG, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was found in seven and eight children younger and older than five years of age, respectively. Abnormal urodynamic findings were reported in 5 (62.5%) of eight children younger than five-year-old, and 14 (63.6%) of 22 patients older than 5-year-old. Conclusions: VUR might be more frequent in children with physiological urinary incontinence than the normal population, and might be as common as NMNE with intermittent daytime incontinence. PMID:24783173

  6. What Can Be Learned From a Laboratory Model of Conceptual Change? Descriptive Findings and Methodological Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Cosejo, David G.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of how people process novel and unexpected information— deep learning (Ohlsson in Deep learning: how the mind overrides experience. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011)—is central to several fields of research, including creativity, belief revision, and conceptual change. Researchers have not converged on a single theory for conceptual change, nor has any one theory been decisively falsified. One contributing reason is the difficulty of collecting informative data in this field. We propose that the commonly used methodologies of historical analysis, classroom interventions, and developmental studies, although indispensible, can be supplemented with studies of laboratory models of conceptual change. We introduce re- categorization, an experimental paradigm in which learners transition from one definition of a categorical concept to another, incompatible definition of the same concept, a simple form of conceptual change. We describe a re-categorization experiment, report some descriptive findings pertaining to the effects of category complexity, the temporal unfolding of learning, and the nature of the learner's final knowledge state. We end with a brief discussion of ways in which the re-categorization model can be improved.

  7. [Pathogenesis and Laboratory Findings in Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Especially Associated with Lupus Anticoagulant].

    PubMed

    Ieko, Masahiro; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Yoshida, Mika; Takahashi, Nobuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an acquired thrombotic condition, is a complex clinical state characterized by the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. Revised APS classification criteria are used for diagnosis, which include at least one clinical criterion (thrombosis or pregnancy loss) and at least one of the laboratory criteria [anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2GPI antibodies, lupus anticoagulant (LA)]. LA is also an independent risk factor for developing thrombosis, though some LA-positive cases have been reported to have a bleeding symptom. Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS) is a rare disorder characterized by a bleeding tendency due to low prothrombin activity in patients with LA, and has recently been reported not only in children but also in adults We have encountered LA cases with bleeding and low coagulation factor activities except for prothrombin. Based on our findings, we propose that LA-positive cases with a bleeding symptom and characterized by low coagulation factor activity including prothrombin be termed lupus anticoagulant-associated coagulopathy (LAAC). Furthermore, coagulation factor autoantibodies are often detected in LAAC patients; thus, correct measurement of LA is important to distinguish LAAC patients from those possessing an inhibitor to coagulation factors such as acquired hemophilia A as well as to select the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  8. [Cowpox virus infection in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and pathological changes].

    PubMed

    Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A

    2014-01-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection.

  9. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    at a dose of about 1.5 microg/kg per day, taken on an empty stomach. Elderly patients and those with coronary artery disease should start at a lower dose: 12.5 to 50 microg per day. Treatment monitoring is based mainly on blood TSH assay. Dose adjustment should only be considered after 6 to 12 weeks, given the long half-life of levothyroxine. Certain drugs, such as iron and calcium, reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of levothyroxine. Enzyme inducers reduce its efficacy. In 2015, there is no robust evidence that levothyroxine therapy has any tangible benefit in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Some practice guidelines recommend treatment when the TSH level is above 10 mIU/L, or sometimes trial treatment for a few months for patients with symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. In practice, replacement therapy is needed for patients with overt hypothyroidism and a blood TSH concentration above 10 mIU/L. The main challenge is to recognise transient hypothyroidism, which does not require life-long treatment. When the TSH is only slightly elevated, there is a risk of attributing non-specific symptoms to an abnormal laboratory result and prescribing unnecessary treatment. Watchful waiting is an alternative to routine levothyroxine prescription in case of TSH elevation.

  10. Clinical and laboratory findings in chronic conjunctivitis in cats: 91 cases (1983-1991).

    PubMed

    Nasisse, M P; Guy, J S; Stevens, J B; English, R V; Davidson, M G

    1993-09-15

    Clinical findings and laboratory test results from 91 cats with chronic conjunctivitis were studied to determine the causes of the disease and the sensitivity of diagnostic procedures used, and to identify correlations between results of various diagnostic procedures and clinical or signalment variations. Mean age of affected cats was 2.9 +/- 2.7 years (+/- SD), with a range from 1 month to 11 years. Conjunctivitis was more likely to be bilateral (56 cats) than unilateral (35 cats). In cats tested for FeLV or feline immunodeficiency virus infection, 15 and 8.5%, respectively, of the results were positive, compared with 4 and 2.6% for the general hospital population. Culturing or immunofluorescent assay (IFA) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and Chlamydia psittaci IFA resulted in identification of pathogens (positive test results) in 19% (FHV-1) and 18% (C psittaci) of tested cats. For FHV-1, culturing was more sensitive than was IFA, yielding positive results in 19 vs 8.8% of cases. In only 1 cat were FHV-1 and chlamydiae recovered. The probability of positive test results for FHV-1 or chlamydiae was unrelated to concurrent corneal disease, unilateral vs bilateral involvement, or age. Cause of conjunctivitis could not be definitively determined in the remaining 35 cases tested for both agents. Bacterial species considered to be potentially pathogenic were isolated from conjunctival sac specimens in only 1 of 38 attempts. Cytologic changes considered compatible with chlamydial or FHV-1 infection (intracytoplasmic inclusions or multinucleated epithelial cells, respectively) were found in 8 and 5 cases, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Kawasaki Disease: Laboratory Findings and an Immunopathogenesis on the Premise of a "Protein Homeostasis System"

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited systemic inflammatory illness, and coronary artery lesions (CALs) are a major complication determining the prognosis of the disease. Epidemiologic studies in Asian children suggest that the etiologic agent(s) of KD may be associated with environmental changes. Laboratory findings are useful for the diagnosis of incomplete KD, and they can guide the next-step in treatment of initial intravenous immunoglobulin non-responders. CALs seem to develop in the early stages of the disease before a peak in inflammation. Therefore early treatment, before the peak in inflammation, is mandatory to reduce the risk of CAL progression and severity of CALs. The immunopathogenesis of KD is more likely that of acute rheumatic fever than scarlet fever. A hypothetical pathogenesis of KD is proposed under the premise of a "protein homeostasis system"; where innate and adaptive immune cells control pathogenic proteins that are toxic to host cells at a molecular level. After an infection of unknown KD pathogen(s), the pathogenic proteins produced from an unknown focus, spread and bind to endothelial cells of coronary arteries as main target cells. To control the action of pathogenic proteins and/or substances from the injured cells, immune cells are activated. Initially, non-specific T cells and non-specific antibodies are involved in this reaction, while hyperactivated immune cells produce various cytokines, leading to a cytokine imbalance associated with further endothelial cell injury. After the emergence of specific T cells and specific antibodies against the pathogenic proteins, tissue injury ceases and a repair reaction begins with the immune cells. PMID:22318812

  12. Collective opinion paper on findings of the 2010 convocation of experts on laboratory quality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Greg; DeJonge, Niels; Ehrmeyer, Sharon; Yundt-Pacheco, John; Jansen, Rob; Ricós, Carmen; Plebani, Mario

    2011-05-01

    As a part of a series of yearly meeting, in May 2010 over 40 medical laboratory opinion leaders, pathologists, clinical biochemists and physicians from Europe, Israel and South Africa gathered together in Bardolino, Italy to discuss issues and current challenges for laboratory medicine, including a) the use of biological variation 10 years after the Stockholm Conference; b) achieving quality in point-of-care testing; c) assessing risk and controlling sources of error in the laboratory; d) determining the appropriate frequency of quality control; and f) putting laboratory medicine at the core of patient care. The intended goal of the convocation was to give laboratory professionals from different countries and backgrounds the opportunity to share ideas, concerns and experiences in previously mentioned areas of interest. This paper provide a synopsis of the reports from each working group.

  13. A study of neurosonogram abnormalities, clinical correlation with neurosonogram findings, and immediate outcome of high-risk neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Niranjan; Berwal, Pramod Kumar; Srinivas, Anusha; Sehra, Ramnarayan; Swami, Sarika; Jeevaji, Prathyusha; Swami, Gotam; Choudary, Lokesh; Berwal, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically. Methodology: An observational correlation clinical study was conducted at Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner involving 100 high-risk neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) who was subjected to neurosonography on selected days as per protocol. Perinatal details were recorded, and clinical examination with appropriate investigations was done. The cranial ultrasound was done, and morphology of various findings was studied and recorded. Clinical correlation with cranial ultrasound findings and follow-up was done. Results: On cranial ultrasound, 38% of neonates had abnormal findings. Twelve percent of these had evidence of intracranial bleed, 13% periventricular echogenicity, 7% had ventriculomegaly, 2% had cerebral edema, and 1% had leukomalacia. Three neonates had findings suggestive of simple cyst in middle cranial fossa, agenesis of corpus callosum, and choroid plexus cyst. Conclusions: Cranial ultrasonography is the best point of care neuroimaging method available for high-risk neonates. It is critical as an investigatory modality in NICU and effectively documents morphology of cerebral damage. PMID:27857787

  14. Findings from the Supersonic Qualification Program of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Steltzner, Adam; Witkowski, Allen; Candler, Graham; Pantano, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL) will deploy NASA's largest extra-terrestrial parachute, a technology integral to the safe landing of its advanced robotic explorer on the surface. The supersonic parachute system is a mortar deployed 21.5 m disk-gap-band (DGB) parachute, identical in geometric scaling to the Viking era DGB parachutes of the 1970's. The MSL parachute deployment conditions are Mach 2.3 at a dynamic pressure of 750 Pa. The Viking Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) successfully demonstrated a maximum of 700 Pa at Mach 2.2 for a 16.1 m DGB parachute in its AV4 flight. All previous Mars deployments have derived their supersonic qualification from the Viking BLDT test series, preventing the need for full scale high altitude supersonic testing. The qualification programs for Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, and Phoenix Scout Missions were all limited to subsonic structural qualification, with supersonic performance and survivability bounded by the BLDT qualification. The MSL parachute, at the edge of the supersonic heritage deployment space and 33% larger than the Viking parachute, accepts a certain degree of risk without addressing the supersonic environment in which it will deploy. In addition, MSL will spend up to 10 seconds above Mach 1.5, an aerodynamic regime that is associated with a known parachute instability characterized by significant canopy projected area fluctuation and dynamic drag variation. This aerodynamic instability, referred to as "area oscillations" by the parachute community has drag performance, inflation stability, and structural implications, introducing risk to mission success if not quantified for the MSL parachute system. To minimize this risk and as an alternative to a prohibitively expensive high altitude test program, a multi-phase qualification program using computation simulation validated by subscale test was developed and implemented for MSL. The first phase consisted of 2% of fullscale

  15. Fracture induced electromagnetic emissions: extending laboratory findings by observations at the geophysical scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Kopanas, John; Kalimeris, Anastasios; Antonopoulos, George; Peratzakis, Athanasios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos; Nomicos, Constantinos

    2014-05-01

    Under natural conditions, it is practically impossible to install an experimental network on the geophysical scale using the same instrumentations as in laboratory experiments for understanding, through the states of stress and strain and their time variation, the laws that govern the friction during the last stages of EQ generation, or to monitor (much less to control) the principal characteristics of a fracture process. Fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EME) in a wide range of frequency bands are sensitive to the micro-structural chances. Thus, their study constitutes a nondestructive method for the monitoring of the evolution of damage process at the laboratory scale. It has been suggested that fracture induced MHz-kHz electromagnetic (EM) emissions, which emerge from a few days up to a few hours before the main seismic shock occurrence permit a real time monitoring of the damage process during the last stages of earthquake preparation, as it happens at the laboratory scale. Since the EME are produced both in the case of the laboratory scale fracture and the EQ preparation process (geophysical scale fracture) they should present similar characteristics in these two scales. Therefore, both the laboratory experimenting scientists and the experimental scientists studying the pre-earthquake EME could benefit from each- other's results. Importantly, it is noted that when studying the fracture process by means of laboratory experiments, the fault growth process normally occurs violently in a fraction of a second. However, a major difference between the laboratory and natural processes is the order-of-magnitude differences in scale (in space and time), allowing the possibility of experimental observation at the geophysical scale for a range of physical processes which are not observable at the laboratory scale. Therefore, the study of fracture-induced EME is expected to reveal more information, especially for the last stages of the fracture process, when it

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  17. A familial case of Coffin-Lowry syndrome caused by RPS6KA3 C.898C>T mutation associated with multiple abnormal brain imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Aksoy, A; Ceylaner, S; Hanauer, A

    2015-01-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X linked mental retardation syndrome characterised by severe psychomotor and growth retardation, distinct facial phenotype, and progressive skeletal malformations. It is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene located at Xp22.2. In this report we describe a family with CLS consists of three affected males, and two affected females, arising from c.898C>T mutation in RPS6KA3 gene. A 6 year-old, and a 3 year-old boy both had distinct clinical features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome; severe mental and motor retardation, microcephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, large mouth, large ears, large soft hands, puffy tapered fingers, and pectus carinatum. In addition, they had multiple abnormal brain MRI findings. Other siblings presented with a mild and variable phenotype.

  18. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  19. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population.

  20. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  1. Searching for evidence: a guide to finding the evidence in laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nia W; Christenson, Robert H; Price, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    Laboratory medicine is strong in the basic scientific background that underpins the pathological rationale for considering the use of a test, as well as characterising analytical performance of laboratory procedures. Evidence of the impact of test utilisation on health outcomes and adding value to the patient's care pathway is more limited. However, purchasers and commissioners of laboratory services, as well as clinicians, are bombarded with a burgeoning literature on new biomarkers and devices, against a backdrop of fiscal constraints. This increasingly critical appraisal of both current practice, as well as new developments, demands that all health professionals are up-to-date in the knowledge of their subject, as well as being able to access and impart this knowledge in real time to their colleagues in the clinical team. This requirement for knowledge means that the laboratory medicine professional can be asked to provide information at any time, from a host of differing scenarios, and with a considerable variation in the depth of response being required. Thus, the biochemist may need to respond to a query from the Emergency Department on the one hand, to preparing the justification for a new test - or disinvestment in an old (and now inappropriate) test, to writing the case for a research grant proposal. All of these scenarios require clarity in the question being asked, and the ability to search for the evidence across a wide range of resources. This review takes the reader through the steps to efficient retrieval of good quality information.

  2. Unusual Laboratory Findings in a Case of Norwegian Scabies Provided a Clue to Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson S. Y.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of Norwegian scabies was missed for a year for an elderly long-term-care facility resident. Serpiginous tracks were noted on the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar used for fungal culture of the skin scrapings. This unusual laboratory manifestation must alert clinical microbiologists to the possible diagnosis of scabies. PMID:15872307

  3. Dehydration of 2-Methyl-1-Cyclohexanol: New Findings from a Popular Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, J. Brent; Schretzman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The mineral acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methyl-1-cyclohexanol has been a popular laboratory exercise in second-year organic chemistry for several decades. The dehydration experiment is often performed by organic chemistry students to illustrate Zaitsev's rule. However, sensitive analytical techniques reveal that the results do not entirely…

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with δ-Storage Pool Disease: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Selle, Fabien; James, Chloé; Tuffigo, Marie; Pillois, Xavier; Viallard, Jean-François; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Fiore, Mathieu

    2017-02-01

    Platelet δ-storage pool disease (δ-SPD) is a platelet function disorder characterized by a reduction in the number or content of dense granules. Reports on δ-SPD are mostly limited to case presentations. We aimed to retrospectively describe a series of patients with δ-SPD to better characterize the disease. We studied 16 patients with congenital or acquired δ-SPD. Lumiaggregometry, α- and δ-granules content, platelet ultrastructure, αIIbβ3 integrin, and glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) activation were assessed. Most of the patients generally demonstrate mild to moderate bleeding diathesis. Platelet aggregation studies showed moderate abnormalities with variable profiles, while all the individuals had almost complete absence of adenosine triphosphate release. Mepacrine capture, CD63 expression, and study of dense granules by electron microscopy enabled to distinguish different subtypes of δ-SPD with quantitative or qualitative defect. Surprisingly, significantly decreased GPIb expression levels after platelet activation with thrombin receptor activating peptide 50 μM were found, suggesting that GPIb-impaired mobilization may represent an additional feature of the disorder. In conclusion, δ-SPD represents a complex disorder with various clinical and biological aspects, requiring a great deal of expertise to be properly diagnosed.

  5. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luis H; Pinter, Adriano; Saito, Tais B; Pacheco, Richard C; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2008-11-01

    The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1) was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3) was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

  6. Laboratory findings in four cases of adult botulism suggest colonization of the intestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L

    1988-01-01

    There was laboratory evidence of intestinal colonization in four cases of adult botulism confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control. No performed toxin was detected in available foods, but Clostridium botulinum was isolated from foods in two instances. Botulinal toxin was detected in the sera of all four patients, in one case at 47 days after ingestion of suspected food. C. botulinum was demonstrated in the stool of all four patients and persisted for 119 days after the onset of illness in one patient. Two patients had surgical alterations of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have promoted the colonization. The apparent lack of ingestion of performed toxin in these cases and the persistence of botulinal toxin or C. botulinum, or both, for long periods in three of the patients suggest that colonization of the intestinal tract occurred. PMID:3290234

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  8. [Etiology of pediatric inpatients with pneumonia--analysis of clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings].

    PubMed

    Ishiwada, N; Kurosaki, T; Toba, T; Niimi, H

    1995-03-01

    In pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia, most of the patients have received antibiotics before admission. In this study, we tried to determine whether we could identify the etiology of pneumonia by clinical and laboratory findings on admission. The etiology of acute pneumonia was studied in 596 pediatric inpatients. A pathogen was identified in 384 (64.4%) episodes of pneumonia. These 384 episodes were divided into six groups as follows; I: pneumonia with blood culture positive or pneumonia with bacterial antigen positive in urine, II: pneumonia with dominant bacterial pathogens in washed sputum. III: Mycoplasma pneumonia, IV: viral pneumonia, V: bacterial (I, II) + viral pneumonia, VI: bacterial (I, II) + Mycoplasma pneumonia. These groups were analyzed by clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings on admission. Patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia have increased blood sedimentation rate, high value of positive C-reactive protein and normal white blood cell count. It was difficult to distinguish bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia only based upon clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Improving Financial Management via Contemplation: Novel Interventions and Findings in Laboratory and Applied Settings

    PubMed Central

    Harkin, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The present research tackles two main areas of financial mismanagement, namely avoiding debt-related information and underestimating expenditure. We draw upon research which has shown that inviting people to think about reasons for avoiding something actually serves to reduce the likelihood that they will then avoid it, and potentially improves what they know about it. Therefore, in three studies we investigated if prompting participants to contemplate their debt (Studies 1 and 2) and expenditure (Study 3) would decrease avoidance of debt-related information and improve estimates of expenditure, respectively. Conform to our expectations prompting contemplation via questionnaire (Study 1) and video (Study 2) reduced avoidance of debt-related information. In other words, contemplation reduced the likelihood that people would avoid viewing their risk of debt. The success of prompting contemplation via video offers a new and important addition to the literature on contemplation, which has previously focused on using the traditional questionnaire format. In Study 3 we observed that contemplation improved the estimates of expenditure that loan applicants at a credit union provided. Specifically, contemplation resulted in participants providing larger and more detailed accounts of their expenditure, and increased the agreement between staff and clients for the number of expenditure items provided by the clients. In sum, these findings suggest that contemplation in the context of the above financial decision-making is a robust intervention, as it was effective for different types of interventions (questionnaire and video), behaviors (avoidance of debt-related information and improving estimates of expenditure), and samples (students and university staff; Studies 1 and 2 and loan applicants at a credit union; Study 3). We discuss the theoretical, policy and applied impact of these findings, and highlight limitations and considerations for future research. PMID:28326053

  11. Improving Financial Management via Contemplation: Novel Interventions and Findings in Laboratory and Applied Settings.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The present research tackles two main areas of financial mismanagement, namely avoiding debt-related information and underestimating expenditure. We draw upon research which has shown that inviting people to think about reasons for avoiding something actually serves to reduce the likelihood that they will then avoid it, and potentially improves what they know about it. Therefore, in three studies we investigated if prompting participants to contemplate their debt (Studies 1 and 2) and expenditure (Study 3) would decrease avoidance of debt-related information and improve estimates of expenditure, respectively. Conform to our expectations prompting contemplation via questionnaire (Study 1) and video (Study 2) reduced avoidance of debt-related information. In other words, contemplation reduced the likelihood that people would avoid viewing their risk of debt. The success of prompting contemplation via video offers a new and important addition to the literature on contemplation, which has previously focused on using the traditional questionnaire format. In Study 3 we observed that contemplation improved the estimates of expenditure that loan applicants at a credit union provided. Specifically, contemplation resulted in participants providing larger and more detailed accounts of their expenditure, and increased the agreement between staff and clients for the number of expenditure items provided by the clients. In sum, these findings suggest that contemplation in the context of the above financial decision-making is a robust intervention, as it was effective for different types of interventions (questionnaire and video), behaviors (avoidance of debt-related information and improving estimates of expenditure), and samples (students and university staff; Studies 1 and 2 and loan applicants at a credit union; Study 3). We discuss the theoretical, policy and applied impact of these findings, and highlight limitations and considerations for future research.

  12. Laboratory findings in acute Cytauxzoon felis infection in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John W; Dunbar, Mike R; Norton, Terry M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    Intraerythrocytic piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from Cytauxzoon felis, were identified in stained blood films from more than one third of free-ranging cougars (Puma concolor couguar) in southern Florida in a study that failed to demonstrate negative effects of piroplasm infection on measured hematologic parameters. However, a recent study with a nested 18s rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identified only 9% of the free-ranging cougars in southern Florida as infected with C. felis but found 83% of these animals were infected with an unnamed small Babesia sp. In this study, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters were determined during the initial appearance of piroplasms in stained blood films of three western cougars housed in northern Florida. One animal became ill, but the remaining two animals did not exhibit clinical signs of disease. The hematocrit decreased in all three cougars concomitant with the first recognized parasitemia. A regenerative response to anemia (increased polychromasia, increased mean cell volume, and increased red cell distribution width) was recognized in two cougars that were examined twice during the following 2 weeks. Thrombocytopenia and probable leukopenia occurred in one animal. The most consistent clinical chemistry findings were increased serum bilirubin concentrations and increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at the time of initial recognition of parasitemia. Serum protein findings were not consistent in these cougars. The use of PCR and determination of 18S rRNA gene sequences in the blood from these three animals revealed infection with C. felis, but not with the Babesia sp. In this report, we demonstrate that mild hemolytic anemia, and probably liver injury, occurs concomitant with the initial discovery of C. felis piroplasms in stained blood films.

  13. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  14. Laboratory tests addressed to realize customized restoration procedures of underwater archaeological ceramic finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Randazzo, Luciana; Montana, Giuseppe; Pezzino, Antonino; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Aloise, Piergiorgio

    2014-03-01

    The present contribution is part of a biennial research project funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR). This study, currently in progress, deals with innovative experimental approaches applied to the chemical, mineralogical and physical transformations occurring during the prolonged permanence of archaeological ceramic finds in seawater environments as well as to restoration and conservation issues of the same underwater artifacts. The experimental approach used in this research consisted in the manufacture of ceramic test-pieces (briquettes) and their successive placing in underwater environment. This work aims at assessing how textural and compositional parameters along with firing temperatures of a ceramic paste could affect total porosity, pore size distribution and kinetics of capillary water absorption. A further purpose is concerned with the study of the potential modification of porosity and pore size distribution in the same ceramic bodies after immersion in seawater (3 and 6 months). The study was carried out using a multi-technique approach including investigations through polarized light microscopy (PLM), capillary water absorption test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) analyses and theoretical calculation of salt crystallization pressures. The obtained results show a different behavior of the six experimental pastes as a function of their compositional and textural features as well as pore size distribution and firing temperatures. These parameters, in various extents, have been found significantly influencing the kinetics of water absorption and the susceptibility of ceramic artifacts to salt crystallization processes, with important implications on conservation procedures needed before the musealization.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J B; Foxall, W

    2002-04-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site Seismic Safety Program was conceived in 1979 during the preparation of the site Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The impetus for the program came from the development of new methodologies and geologic data that affect assessments of geologic hazards at the LLNL site; it was designed to develop a new assessment of the seismic hazard to the LLNL site and LLNL employees. Secondarily, the program was also intended to provide the technical information needed to make ongoing decisions about design criteria for future construction at LLNL and about the adequacy of existing facilities. This assessment was intended to be of the highest technical quality and to make use of the most recent and accepted hazard assessment methodologies. The basic purposes and objectives of the current revision are similar to those of the previous studies. Although all the data and experience assembled in the previous studies were utilized to their fullest, the large quantity of new information and new methodologies led to the formation of a new team that includes LLNL staff and outside consultants from academia and private consulting firms. A peer-review panel composed of individuals from academia (A. Cornell, Stanford University), the Department of Energy (DOE; Jeff Kimball), and consulting (Kevin Coppersmith), provided review and guidance. This panel was involved from the beginning of the project in a ''participatory'' type of review. The Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC, a committee sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DOE, and the Electric Power Research Institute) strongly recommends the use of participatory reviews, in which the reviewers follow the progress of a project from the beginning, rather than waiting until the end to provide comments (Budnitz et al., 1997). Following the requirements for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) stipulated in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1023-95, a special

  16. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  17. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  18. Radiological findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of an unusual and life-threatening cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Farias, Marcela Sales; Santi, Clara Campagnaro; Lima, Aline Aparecida A de A; Teixeira, Sabrina Mendes; De Biase, Tatiana Co Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations may cause life-threatening abnormal genital bleeding in women at childbearing age. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. The authors report the case of a patient with history of gestational trophoblastic disease and multiple curettage procedures who developed uterine arteriovenous malformations, with remission of the lesions after treatment with methotrexate.

  19. Radiological findings of uterine arteriovenous malformation: a case report of an unusual and life-threatening cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Marcela Sales; Santi, Clara Campagnaro; Lima, Aline Aparecida A. de A.; Teixeira, Sabrina Mendes; De Biase, Tatiana Co Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations may cause life-threatening abnormal genital bleeding in women at childbearing age. Transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography is a widely available, noninvasive and excellent diagnostic method. The authors report the case of a patient with history of gestational trophoblastic disease and multiple curettage procedures who developed uterine arteriovenous malformations, with remission of the lesions after treatment with methotrexate. PMID:25741061

  20. Assessing the relationship between farming practices, laboratory analyses and post-mortem findings: a case study in pig fattening.

    PubMed

    Langkabel, N; Fries, R

    2013-12-01

    European Union legislation on animal production associated with food safety requires the collection and management of information and data about the farm, the herd and the individual animal. This paper describes the technical steps of the generation, collection and interpretation of data from 296 pig-fattening farms, belonging to two farming associations and using indoor production systems (56 management parameters). The paper also describes post-mortem findings and the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antibodies to salmonellae, Trichinella spp. and Yersinia spp. A total of nearly 30 million data points were collected and analysed for this study. The results of the ELISA were negative for Trichinella spp.; for salmonellae and Yersinia spp., both negative and positive results were obtained. Analysis of the farm management parameters showed no significant differences; therefore, the cut-off levels for salmonellae and Yersinia spp. were increased, in order to identify farms with a greater hygiene burden. Post-mortem findings, possibly related to 'farm hygiene', were used in the analysis. As a result, three farms with particular management decisions were identified as potentially having contributed to the high burden of pathogens detected using ELISA. A relationship between laboratory results and farm management parameters assessed from yes/no answers could not be established in this study without further work on the available data set.

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in a patient with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type I: The first report describing an important association between cytogenetic findings and TD

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Mehmet; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Canoz, Perihan Yasemen; Temiz, Fatih; Tumgor, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is the most lethal and most severe type of dysplasia. It has distinct features, the most important of which is short tubular bones and short ribs with platyspondyly, allowing a precise radiologic and prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis. It has been reported to be caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene, but exactly how cytogenetic abnormalities might lead to TD is unclear. Case Report: We report a case of TD with different prenatal sonographic features compatible with the classification of type I. In the result of cytogenetic examination, we found de novo CAs in 28% of cells analyzed from the affected infant; 75% of the abnormalities were numerical, and of those, 25% were structural aberrations; 21% of cells revealed predominantly numerical aberrations. Monosomy 18, 21 and 22 was observed in 4% of cells, monosomy 20 in 2%, and monosomy 7, 8, 14, 17 and 19 in 1%. Structural changes were observed in 7% of cells. Conclusions: It appears that these chromosomes may be preferentially involved in and important for TD development. PMID:23569503

  4. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings.

    PubMed

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of "probable" CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2).

  5. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of “probable” CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2). PMID:26682685

  6. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Louise C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Adelson, P David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  7. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Louise C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Adelson, P. David; Arango, Jorge; Balaj, Leonora; Breakefield, Xandra; Carlson, Elizabeth; Carter, Bob S.; Majem, Blanca; Chen, Clark C.; Cocucci, Emanuele; Danielson, Kirsty; Courtright, Amanda; Das, Saumya; Elmageed, Zakaria Y. Abd; Enderle, Daniel; Ezrin, Alan; Ferrer, Marc; Freedman, Jane; Galas, David; Gandhi, Roopali; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Kalani, Yashar; Kim, Yong; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Lai, Charles; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Laurent, Clara D.; Leonardo, Trevor; Li, Feng; Malenica, Ivana; Mondal, Debasis; Nejad, Parham; Patel, Tushar; Raffai, Robert L.; Rubio, Renee; Skog, Johan; Spetzler, Robert; Sun, Jie; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Vickers, Kasey; Wang, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Wei, Zhiyun; Weiner, Howard L.; Wong, David; Yan, Irene K.; Yeri, Ashish; Gould, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field. PMID:26320937

  8. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: Finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Kemble, N.E.; Allert, A.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Dowling, B.; Gruenenfelder, C.; Roland, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    studies in an experimental pond (8-week duration) indicated that two of the most metal-contaminated UCR sediments (dominated by high levels of sand-sized slag particles) exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization compared with sand-based reference sediments. Field-exposed SIR-300 resin samples also exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization numbers compared with reference materials, which may indicate behavioral avoidance of this material under field conditions. Multiple lines of evidence (analytical chemistry, laboratory toxicity, and field colonization results), along with findings from previous studies, indicate that high metal concentrations associated with slag-enriched sediments in the UCR are likely to adversely impact the growth and survival of native benthic invertebrate communities. Additional laboratory toxicity testing, refinement of the applications of sediment benchmarks for metal toxicity, and in situ benthic invertebrate studies will assist in better defining the spatial extent, temporal variations, and ecological impacts of metal-contaminated sediments in the UCR system.

  9. LANGUAGE LABORATORY RESEARCH STUDIES IN NEW YORK CITY HIGH SCHOOLS--A DISCUSSION OF THE PROGRAM AND THE FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LORGE, SARAH W.

    TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE BUREAU OF AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTION OF NEW YORK CITY CONDUCTED EXPERIMENTS IN 1ST-, 2D-, AND 3D-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL CLASSES. THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, WHICH COMPARED CONVENTIONALLY TAUGHT CLASSES WITH GROUPS HAVING SOME LABORATORY TEACHING, SHOWED THAT GROUPS WITH…

  10. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Biological and Psychological Effects--Clinical and Laboratory Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge about cocaine's effect on the human mind and body is limited and not clearly documented. This article discusses various biological and psychological effects of the drug based on clinical and laboratory studies of man. (Author/DF)

  11. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  12. [Abnormal MR findings in the temporal lobe and basal ganglia along with vasospasm in a case of hemiballism associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Uchibori, Ayumi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Chiba, Atsuro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Sakuta, Manabu

    2003-06-01

    A 46-year-old woman with a nine-year history of diabetes mellitus (DM) without treatment had an acute onset of right hemiballism. For the treatment of hyperglycemia (random blood sugar 588 mg/dl) conventional insulin therapy was started, and HbA1c rapidly decreased from 16.3% to 8.8% over the first two months. During this period, there were no hypoglycemic symptoms or episodes, though amnesia appeared just after the insulin therapy was started. T1-weighted MRI showed hyperintensity in the left basal ganglia, which has been reported in many cases of chorea or ballism associated with DM. In addition, there were unique changes in the left temporal lobe, including transient contrast enhancement along the cortex followed by transient hyperintensity in the cortical-subcortical area on T2 weighted and FLAIR images, and then hyperintensity along the cortex on T1 weighted images and atrophy. These findings were thought to indicate a consecutive process, i.e., capillary hyperlucency followed mainly by vasogenic edema and then laminar necrosis. Similar MR findings were reported in hypoglycemic coma. MRA also revealed a transient vasospasm in the left MCA M1-M2 portions in this patient. These signal changes may have been related to the prolonged hyperglycemic state as well as blood sugar control that was too rapid.

  13. Towards the development of laboratory methods for studying drinking games: Initial findings, methodological considerations, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Mark M.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; Borsari, Brian; Correia, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Drinking games are prevalent among college students and are associated with increased alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences. There has been substantial growth in research on drinking games. However, the majority of published studies rely on retrospective self-reports of behavior and very few studies have made use of laboratory procedures to systematically observe drinking game behavior. Objectives The current paper draws on the authors’ experiences designing and implementing methods for the study of drinking games in the laboratory. Results The paper addressed the following key design features: (a) drinking game selection; (b) beverage selection; (c) standardizing game play; (d) selection of dependent and independent variables; and (e) creating a realistic drinking game environment. Conclusions The goal of this methodological review paper is to encourage other researchers to pursue laboratory research on drinking game behavior. Use of laboratory-based methodologies will facilitate a better understanding of the dynamics of risky drinking and inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25192209

  14. Reporting Incidental Findings in Genomic Scale Clinical Sequencing-A Clinical Laboratory Perspective: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Bone Jeng, Linda Jo; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-02-11

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories.

  15. Reporting incidental findings in genomic scale clinical sequencing--a clinical laboratory perspective: a report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Madhuri; Bale, Sherri; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Gibson, Jane; Jeng, Linda Jo Bone; Joseph, Loren; Laser, Jordan; Lubin, Ira M; Miller, Christine E; Ross, Lainie F; Rothberg, Paul G; Tanner, Alice K; Vitazka, Patrik; Mao, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have facilitated concurrent testing for many disorders, and the results generated may provide information about a patient's health that is unrelated to the clinical indication, commonly referred to as incidental findings. This is a paradigm shift from traditional genetic testing in which testing and reporting are tailored to a patient's specific clinical condition. Clinical laboratories and physicians are wrestling with this increased complexity in genomic testing and reporting of the incidental findings to patients. An enormous amount of discussion has taken place since the release of a set of recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. This discussion has largely focused on the content of the incidental findings, but the laboratory perspective and patient autonomy have been overlooked. This report by the Association of Molecular Pathology workgroup discusses the pros and cons of next-generation sequencing technology, potential benefits, and harms for reporting of incidental findings, including the effect on both the laboratory and the patient, and compares those with other areas of medicine. The importance of genetic counseling to preserve patient autonomy is also reviewed. The discussion and recommendations presented by the workgroup underline the need for continued research and discussion among all stakeholders to improve our understanding of the effect of different policies on patients, providers, and laboratories.

  16. If You Don't Have a Good Laboratory, Find a Good Volcano: Mount Vesuvius as a Natural Chemical Laboratory in Eighteenth-Century Italy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Corinna

    2015-08-01

    This essay that examines the role of the volcano as a chemical site in the late eighteenth century, as the "new chemistry" spread throughout the southern Italian Kingdom of Naples, resulting in lively debates. In Naples itself, these scientific debates were not confined to academies, courts, and urban spaces. In the absence of well-equipped chemical laboratories, Neapolitan scholars also carried out research on chemistry on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, a natural site that furnished them with all the tools and substances necessary for practising chemistry. By examining various Neapolitan publications on Vesuvius and the chemical reactions and products associated with its periodic eruptions, I argue that the volcano's presence contributed to a distinctive, local approach to chemical theory and practice. Several case studies examine the ways in which proximity to Vesuvius was exploited by Neapolitan scholars as they engaged with the new chemistry, including Giuseppe Vairo, Michele Ferrara, Francesco Semmola, and Emanuele Scotti.

  17. Epidemiological findings and laboratory evaluation of sporotrichosis: a description of 103 cases in cats and dogs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Isabel Martins; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis, which affects mainly small animals, and is considered an important public health disease. This paper describes the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of 103 clinical cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed over a 10-year period in southern Brazil. The 92 cats and 11 dogs from eight municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State developed especially the disseminated cutaneous and fixed cutaneous forms of the disease. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, serous nasal discharge and dyspnea were found in about 57% of the animals. The detection of Sporothrix schenckii in different clinical samples showed highest isolation in testicles (46.6%), oral cavity (45.2%) and conjunctival mucosa (38.1%). A differentiated histological pattern was found between the fixed cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous (DC) manifestations of the disease; well-organized granulomas of nodular distribution and various fungal structures prevailed in the DC form in cats. Melanin detection in S. schenckii cells by the Fontana-Masson technique was positive in 45.4% of the samples. The study revealed that the State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic sporotrichosis area and demonstrated the possibility of involvement of other pathways in the infection and spread of the disease. In addition, it emphasized the importance of laboratory tests for mycosis confirmation, especially in dogs that develop clinical manifestations without the presence of cutaneous lesions.

  18. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings between those with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Chunpongthong, Pongsak; Phojanamongkolkij, Kamol; Jitruckthai, Pasakorn; Kasetjaroen, Yuttichai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    In tuberculosis endemic areas, patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are usually diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is often ascertained only after lung disease progression occurs, increasing the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. We conducted a matched case-control study among a prospective cohort of 300 patients with newly diagnosed AFB-positive sputum in Thailand during 2010-2012. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, NTM lung disease and NTM colonization. A mycobacterial culture was performed in all patients. Ten patients with NTM lung disease were compared to 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with NTM colonization. The presence of diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus infection, were associated with NTM lung disease (p = 0.030). Patients with NTM lung disease had a significantly lower body weight prior to treatment (p = 0.021), a higher body weight change from baseline (p = 0.038), and were more likely to have cavitations on chest radiograph (p = 0.033) than those with NTM colonization. In tuberculosis endemic areas, mycobacterial identification should be performed among patients with impaired immune function. NTM lung disease treatment should be considered in patients with NTM sputum isolates who have a history of significant weight loss or cavitations on chest radiography.

  19. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 252 Chinese patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome: comparison with Euro-Phospholipid cohort.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Teng, Jia-Lin; Sun, Yue; Wu, Xin-Yao; Hu, Qiong-Yi; Liu, Hong-Lei; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Yin, Yu-Feng; Ye, Jun-Na; Chen, Pojen P; Yang, Cheng-de

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to characterize the Chinese Han patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and compare the data with those of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. We conducted a single center study consisting of 252 patients with definite APS from 2000 to 2015. We analyzed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of our cohort and compared the data with those of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. Our cohort consisted of 216 females and 36 males, with a mean age at entry into this study of 41 years (range 11-74 years). Of these patients, 69 (27.4%) patients had primary APS, and 183 (72.6%) had secondary APS (SAPS), including 163 (64.7%) patients had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thrombotic events occurred in 190 (75.4%) patients, and the most common ones were deep vein thrombosis (40.1%) and stroke (23.8%), which were similar to the reports of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. In contrast, our cohort had less pulmonary embolism (6.7%). Among 93 females with 299 pregnancy episodes, the rates of early (<10 weeks) and late fetal loss (≥10 weeks) were, respectively, 37.8% and 24.4%. The latter was significantly higher than that of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. Moreover, 7 APS nephropathy patients (characterized histopathologically by thrombotic microangiopathy) and 8 catastrophic APS patients were found in our cohort. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were detected in 169 (67.1%) patients, lupus anti-coagulant (LA) was detected in 83 (32.9%), and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI) in 148 (58.7%) patients. These results show that some clinical manifestations of APS may vary among different racial groups.

  20. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  1. Confirmation of Our Predictions, Based on Laboratory and Theoretical Studies, on the Findings of the Huygens Probe on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Jacovi, R.; Laufer, D.; Dimitrov, V.

    2005-05-01

    1. The very low abundances of Ar, Kr and Xe in Titan's atmosphere can be easily explained by our experimental findings. These gases are trapped in the aerosols, which are formed by UV photolysis of acetylene in their presence. When the aerosols fall down to the surface, they clean the atmosphere of these gases. A continuous supply of the radiogenic produced 40Ar from the interior can explain its small abundance in the atmosphere. 2. The originally soft and sticky photochemical aerosols, as found by us experimentally, were calculated to harden by spontaneous and radiation induces chemical cross-linking. Indeed the camera and other detectors were not covered by sticky aerosols and the intake ports were not clogged. 3. As we predicted, no lightning discharges were detected in the quiescent Titan atmosphere. Therefore, Titan's atmospheric chemistry is driven mainly by solar UV irradiation and not by electrical discharges. 4. The mixing ratios of the major gas phase species produced by UV photolysis of acetylene, as found experimentally: methylacetylene ; diacetylene ; divinyl ; and benzene were observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere, with an agreement within better than an order of magnitude. 5. The N:C ratio in Titan's aerosols was measured by the Huygens probe, but no results were published yet. UV photolysis of gas mixtures containing C2H2:HCN=10 yield aerosols with a ratio N:C=0.007 up to 0.01. Electrical discharges through a N2:CH4~10 gas mixtures yield a much higher N:C ratio. 6. We anticipate mountains not higher than 1900 m on Titan's surface.

  2. The evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and the radiological findings of the fifty-five cases diagnosed with tuberculous, Brucellar and pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Kadriye; Pehlivanoglu, Filiz; Cicek, Gulten; Sengoz, Gonul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the evaluation of the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings belonging to 55 cases that were hospitalized in our clinic to be followed-up and were diagnosed with tuberculous, brucellar and pyogenic spondylodiscitis (SD) was aimed. Materials and Methods: The cases with SD were evaluated retrospectively. Hematological, serological, biochemical laboratory tests and imaging technics were used for diagnosis. Results: Of 55 cases aged ranging between 25 to 79, 33 (59%) were female. The cases with tuberculous SD (TBSD), brucellar SD (BSD) and pyogenic SD (PSD) were found in 24 (43%), 12 (21%) and in 19 (34%) patients. Erytrocyte sedimentation rate, increased C-reactive protein, and leucocytosis were present in 51 (91%), 22 (39%) and 8 (14%) cases. The number of the cases with history of previous surgery or trauma was 14 (25%). Diagnosis of TBSD was established by acid fast bacilli positiveness and Löwenstein Jensen culture positiveness, in two and seven patients, respectively. While all 12 cases with BSD had positive standard tube aglutination test, only 3 (25%) had hemoculture positivity. In PSDs, diagnosis was confirmed with culture positivity in 9 of 19 cases.Of the cases in our study, 89% responded to medical treatment while three required surgery and three died (5.5% and 5.5%, respectively). Conclusion: SD may develop secondary to infections or following spinal surgical procedures and traumas. Also, the importance of endemicity should be kept in mind, beside the helpful diagnostic findings while treatment regulation. PMID:22346185

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  4. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. Variable Association between Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Ko, Kwan-Ho; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Little is known, however, about the association between individual components of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities, especially in Asian populations. Methods We examined clinical and laboratory data from 31,399 subjects (age 20 to 89 years) who underwent medical check-ups. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode criteria. Ischemic ECG findings were separately identified and analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rates of ECG abnormalities were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Ischemic ECG was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in all age groups of both sexes, except for younger women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with ischemic ECG (odds ratio, 2.30 [2.04 to 2.62]; p < 0.01), after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, hyperglycemia in younger subjects and hypertension in elderly subjects were major factors for ischemic ECG changes, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was not an independent risk factor in any age group. The association between ischemic ECG findings and central obesity was weaker in women than in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex. PMID:20526391

  7. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Toxoplasma gondii in stray and household cats in Kerman-Iran: seroprevalence and correlation with clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Akhtardanesh, Baharak; Ziaali, Naser; Sharifi, Hamid; Rezaei, Shirin

    2010-10-01

    This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection among stray and owned cats in southeastern Iran and to identify the influence of age, sex, lifestyle, health status, and laboratory findings on seropositivity. The overall infection rate for FIV, FeLV, and T. gondii was 19.2%, 14.2%, and 32.1% respectively. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that old adults more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for FIV, FeLV, and T. gondii (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 1.84, 1.56, and 2.57 respectively). Anemic and diseased cats ([ORs], 6.62 and 0.9) were at a greater risk of testing positive for FeLV. Male cats were 4.91 times as likely to have FIV as were female and hyperglobulinemia was significantly more prevalent in FIV-infected cats ([ORs], 3.4). In conclusion, FIV and FeLV seem to be endemic in Iran and retroviral-associated immunosuppression may be a risk factor for active toxoplasmosis in infected cats.

  8. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  11. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  12. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  13. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality.

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Gruber, G; Saletu, M; Brandstätter, N; Hauer, C; Prause, W; Ritter, K; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G

    2000-01-01

    Although the restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate (8% in Austria) and leads to insomnia and excessive daytime tiredness, there is a paucity of sleep laboratory data concerning objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated RLS patients as compared with 12 normal controls and subsequently measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a nonergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In 3 nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) sleep induction, maintenance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual-analog scales, and objective awakening quality was evaluated by a psychometric test battery. In polysomnography, RLS patients demonstrated, as compared with normal controls, a decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficacy, increased wakefulness during the total sleep period and frequency of nocturnal awakenings, increased sleep stage S1, decreased S2 and increased stage shifts. Subjective sleep quality tended to decrease, and morning well-being, mood, affectivity and wakefulness were deteriorated. In the noopsyche, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were deteriorated. Ropinirole 0.5 mg induced, as compared with placebo, an increase in TST, sleep efficacy, S2 sleep and stage shifts. In the morning, somatic complaints increased slightly, while fine motor activity and reaction time performance improved. Our findings suggest a key-lock principle in the diagnosis/treatment of RLS and a dopaminergic mechanism in its pathogenesis, which is supported by the data on periodic leg movements during sleep and arousals of the subsequent paper.

  14. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  16. [Ischemic changes and blood coagulation abnormalities as complications of pneumococcal meningitis].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takashi; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi; Takashima, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Keishiro; Shimizu, Takako; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Ohashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    One explanation for cerebral infarctions that occur as a complication of pneumococcal meningitis is blood coagulation abnormalities. We investigated the clinical features, laboratory test results, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and pathological features of 10 patients with pneumococcal meningitis between 2006 and 2013 to examine the abnormal findings that may be associated with prognosis. Five patients (50%) that had Glasgow Outcome Scale scores between 1 and 4 were classified as the poor outcome group. In this group, the MRI revealed a high signal intensity on the diffusion-weighted image (DWI), and there was an abnormal signal along the cerebral cortex and Virchow-Robin spaces, which were characterized pathologically by ischemic changes. The plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels showed greater differences between the poor and good prognosis groups than platlet and D-dimer levels; this suggested that high plasma TAT levels indicate a poor prognosis.

  17. Molecular profiling of gene copy number abnormalities in key regulatory genes in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency and their association with clinicopathological findings in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Prerana; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2017-05-01

    Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.

  18. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  19. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  20. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  2. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  3. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3, Appendix B, Technical findings and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation Report on Waste Area Grouping, (NVAG) 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting, the results of a site chacterization for public review. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.1.05.40.02 (Activity Data Sheet 3305, ``WAG 5``). Publication of this document meets a Federal Facility Agreement milestone of March 31, 1995. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at WAG 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding, the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5.

  4. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  5. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  6. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-05-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin.

  7. Periradicular lesions in HIV-infected patients attending the faculty of dentistry: clinical findings, socio-demographics status, habits and laboratory data - seeking an association

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Tatiana Vasconcellos; Ferreira, Sonia Maria Soares; Silva-Júnior, Arley; dos Santos Marotta, Patrícia; Noce, Cesar Werneck; de Carvalho Ferreira, Dennis; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periradicular lesions in HIV-infected Brazilian patients and to assess the correlation of several factors with the periradicular status. METHOD: One hundred full-mouth periapical radiographs were evaluated. A total of 2,214 teeth were evaluated for the presence of periradicular lesions, caries lesions, coronal restorations, pulp cavity exposure and endodontic treatment. RESULTS: The prevalence of periradicular lesions was 46%. There were no significant differences between individuals with or without periradicular lesions with respect to their socio-demographic status, habits, laboratory data and route of HIV infection. However, the presence of a periradicular lesion was statistically correlated with the number of teeth with endodontic treatment (p = 0.018), inadequate endodontic treatment (p = 0.025), images suggesting pulp cavity exposure (p = 0.002) and caries lesions (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of periradicular lesions in HIV-infected individuals was 46% and was not related to HIV infection. PMID:25318095

  8. Finding of no significant impact for the interim action for cleanup of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0854, for an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The proposed action would be conducted at Pit 9, Operable Unit 7--10, located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The proposed action consists of construction of retrieval and processing buildings, excavation and retrieval of wastes from Pit 9, selective physical separation and chemical extraction, and stabilization of wastes either through thermal processing or by forming a stabilized concentrate. The proposed action would involve limited waste treatment process testing and full-scale waste treatment processing for cleaning up pre-1970 Transuranic (TRU) wastes in Pit 9. The purpose of this interim action is to expedite the overall cleanup at the RWMC and to reduce the risks associated with potential migration of Pit 9 wastes to the Snake River Plain Aquifer.

  9. Floodplain statement of findings for corrective actions in Potrillo Canyon technical area-36, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David Charles

    2016-05-18

    In 2014, baseline storm water monitoring samples for Potrillo Canyon Sample Management Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Individual Permit No. NM0030759 target action level (TAL) of 15 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for gross-alpha radioactivity (393 pCi/L) and a TAL of 30 pCi/L for radium-226 and radium-228 (95.9 pCi/L). Consequently, erosion control measures within the management area are proposed to minimize sediment migration, a corrective action under the permit that is a requirement of the New Mexico Environment Department consent decree and a good management practice to limit off-site sediment migration. The area proposed for erosion controls consists of portions of Technical Area 36 that were used as firing sites primarily involving high explosives (HE) and metal (e.g., depleted uranium, lead, copper, aluminum, and steel), small-explosives experiments and burn pits (burn pits were used for burning and disposal of test debris). In addition, underground explosive tests at an approximate depth of 100 feet were also conducted. These watershed-based storm water controls will focus on addressing erosion occurring within the floodplain through mitigating and reducing both current and future channelization and head cutting.

  10. Analysis of Diagnostic Findings From the European Mobile Laboratory in Guéckédou, Guinea, March 2014 Through March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Romy; Krumkamp, Ralf; Diallo, Boubacar; Jaeger, Anna; Rudolf, Martin; Lanini, Simone; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Fleischmann, Erna; Stoecker, Kilian; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stéphane; Newman, Edmund N. C.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Korva, Misa; Wolff, Svenja; Molkenthin, Peter; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Bocquin, Anne; Strecker, Thomas; Fizet, Alexandra; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Ottowell, Lisa; Kurth, Andreas; Atkinson, Barry; Badusche, Marlis; Cannas, Angela; Pallasch, Elisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Yue, Constanze; Pályi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Kohl, Claudia; Oestereich, Lisa; Logue, Christopher H.; Lüdtke, Anja; Richter, Martin; Ngabo, Didier; Borremans, Benny; Becker, Dirk; Gryseels, Sophie; Abdellati, Saïd; Vermoesen, Tine; Kuisma, Eeva; Kraus, Annette; Liedigk, Britta; Maes, Piet; Thom, Ruth; Duraffour, Sophie; Diederich, Sandra; Hinzmann, Julia; Afrough, Babak; Repits, Johanna; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Bah, Amadou; Sachse, Andreas; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Wurr, Stephanie; Bockholt, Sabrina; Nitsche, Andreas; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Strasser, Marc; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Becker, Stephan; Raoul, Herve; Carroll, Miles W.; De Clerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Keïta, Sakoba; Drury, Patrick; Gurry, Cèline; Formenty, Pierre; May, Jürgen; Gabriel, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Background. A unit of the European Mobile Laboratory (EMLab) consortium was deployed to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) treatment unit in Guéckédou, Guinea, from March 2014 through March 2015. Methods. The unit diagnosed EVD and malaria, using the RealStar Filovirus Screen reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit and a malaria rapid diagnostic test, respectively. Results. The cleaned EMLab database comprised 4719 samples from 2741 cases of suspected EVD from Guinea. EVD was diagnosed in 1231 of 2178 hospitalized patients (57%) and in 281 of 563 who died in the community (50%). Children aged <15 years had the highest proportion of Ebola virus–malaria parasite coinfections. The case-fatality ratio was high in patients aged <5 years (80%) and those aged >74 years (90%) and low in patients aged 10–19 years (40%). On admission, RT-PCR analysis of blood specimens from patients who died in the hospital yielded a lower median cycle threshold (Ct) than analysis of blood specimens from survivors (18.1 vs 23.2). Individuals who died in the community had a median Ct of 21.5 for throat swabs. Multivariate logistic regression on 1047 data sets revealed that low Ct values, ages of <5 and ≥45 years, and, among children aged 5–14 years, malaria parasite coinfection were independent determinants of a poor EVD outcome. Conclusions. Virus load, age, and malaria parasite coinfection play a role in the outcome of EVD. PMID:27638946

  11. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  12. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  13. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  14. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Alveolar Hemorrhage Confirmed by Clinical, Laboratory, Computed Tomography, and Bronchoscopy Findings: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Yang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Shihai; Guo, Weina; Li, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Zhongliang; Han, Jie; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Propylthiouracil (PTU) is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and can induce antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Although this is a rare side effect, ANCA-associated vasculitis can progress to severe disease if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Presentation A 43-year-old woman with Graves’ disease developed pulmonary vasculitis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with ANCA against myeloperoxidase and proteinase-3 that was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy and treated with PTU. The symptoms and signs of alveolar hemorrhage were rapidly resolved after PTU withdrawal and treatment with corticosteroids. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient maintained complete ANCA-negative clinical remission status, as confirmed by normal CT and bronchoscopy findings. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of bronchoscopic comparison of PTU-induced DAH before and after steroid treatment. Conclusions Patients treated with PTU should be closely monitored and followed up, even if the drug has been used for several years. When patients develop progressive dyspnea with alveolar opacities on chest imaging that cannot be explained otherwise, alveolar hemorrhage should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. Early diagnosis and prompt discontinuation of the PTU treatment are essential for improving patient outcomes. PMID:27257510

  15. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  16. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  17. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  18. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  19. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A; Varma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings.

  20. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  1. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  8. Ocular findings in conjoined (Siamese) twins.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mansour, N; Rosenberg, H S

    1991-01-01

    Conjoined twinning is a rare form of congenital anomaly. The ocular findings in six sets of conjoined twins as well as those reported elsewhere include abnormal optic nerve decussation, pseudosynophthalmos, microphthalmia, abnormal eyelids, orbital encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, and eyelid coloboma. These findings are interpreted as due to deformations from appositional fusion-related factors or malformations from developmental factors.

  9. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  10. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  11. Transient abnormal myelopoiesis in a phenotypically normal newborn with polyclonal trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Francesco; Astolfi, Annalisa; Libri, Virginia; Franzoni, Monica; Serravalle, Salvatore; Alessandroni, Rosina; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    We report a rare case of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) in a phenotypically normal neonate. The presence of a palpable hepatomegaly prompted in-depth laboratory tests, which revealed the presence of severe hyperleukocytosis, with blast cells present in a peripheral blood smear. Although no signs of Down syndrome were present, we suspected TAM. Further analysis identified a mutation in GATA1 along with the unique finding of two different trisomic cell lines, detected upon karyotyping; one with trisomy 21 only, and one with trisomies 21 and 22, which was present in a subpopulation of peripheral blood cells. These genetic abnormalities disappeared by the age of 6 months. The presence of two different trisomic clones may be an evidence of the polyclonal nature of TAM in this patient.

  12. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  13. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  14. Discoveries of tau, abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau and others of neurofibrillary degeneration: a personal historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer disease was described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, but it was not until approximately 60-70 years later that any new significant developments were reported on the pathology of this disease. The discoveries that laid down the foundation for the exciting research that has been carried out during the last approximately 20 years and that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the disease are the ultrastructure of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic (senile) plaques, the clinical-pathological correlation of these lesions to the presence of dementia, and the bulk isolation and protein composition of paired helical filaments and plaque amyloid. We discovered tau as the major protein subunit of paired helical filaments/neurofibrillary tangles, the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of this protein in this lesion and in Alzheimer brain cytosol and the gain of toxic function by the cytosolic abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer brain. Here we present a personal historical account of the work in our laboratories that led, in 1986, to the discoveries of tau and its abnormal hyperphosphorylation in paired helical filaments and Alzheimer brain cytosol. This article also describes several major findings which subsequently resulted from the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and in a large part account for the current understanding of the role of this lesion in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies.

  15. Morphology of the adrenal medulla indicating multiple neuroectodermal abnormalities in pheochromocytoma patients.

    PubMed

    Jansson, S; Tisell, L E; Hansson, G

    1988-01-01

    25 of 85 (29.4%) consecutive patients operated on for pheochromocytoma had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. Medullary thyroid carcinoma was the most common associated neuroectodermal abnormality followed by von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. Other abnormalities were intracranial tumors, parathyroid hyperplasia and midgut carcinoid. The adrenal medulla was studied to find out morphological characteristics in patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities. All patients with multiple pheochromocytomas (n = 7) and all patients with hyperplasia of the extratumoral adrenal medulla (n = 13) had other neuroectodermal abnormalities. It is important to detect the associated neuroectodermal abnormalities because they can be lethal. Patients with associated neuroectodermal abnormalities often have hereditary syndromes.

  16. Computed tomography of the abnormal pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Harell, G.S.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-06-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 18 patients with documented pericardial disease are reported. The pericardium appears as a thin, curvilinear, 1- to 2-mm-thick density best seen anterior to the right ventricular part of the heart. Pericardial abnormalities detected by CT include effusions, thickening, calcification, and cystic and solid masses. Computed tomography is complimentary to echocardiography in its ability to more accurately characterize pericardial effusions, masses, and pericardial thickening.

  17. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, A; Ono, S; Shibata, M; Imai, T; Suzuki, M; Shimizu, N

    2001-01-01

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease.
Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI.
In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease.

 PMID:11723201

  18. Laboratory Persistence and Clinical Progression of Small Monoclonal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Murray, David L.; Seningen, Justin L.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Snyder, Melissa R.; Kyle, Robert A.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Katzmann, Jerry A.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) that presents with no quantifiable M spike on immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) can be termed IFE MGUS. We retrospectively identified patients with IFE MGUS who were monitored with at least 1 subsequent assessment that included an IFE, and evaluated the persistence of the monoclonal protein and the progression of disease. Although the monoclonal proteins persisted in the majority of patients, 16% did not experience this persistence, and had no documented immunomodulatory therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, the disease clinically progressed in 14 patients (3.2%). Eight of these 14 patients with clinical progression had an immunoglobulin (Ig) A IFE M protein and 6 had an IgG M protein. This study demonstrates that in some patients with IFE MGUS, the M proteins are transient and that IgA IFE MGUS is more likely to persist and progress to myeloma. PMID:23010717

  19. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  2. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  3. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  4. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  5. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  6. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  7. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  8. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  10. Changes in and Efficacies of Indications for Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenomic Abnormalities: 13 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinlai; Matarese, Chelsea; Crivello, Julianna; Wilcox, Katherine; Wang, Dongmei; DiAdamo, Autumn; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining

    2015-01-01

    Background Because the future application of cell-free fetal DNA screening is expected to dramatically improve the diagnostic yield and reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, it is time to summarize the indications of invasive prenatal diagnosis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the changes and efficacies of indications of invasive procedures for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities from 2000 to 2012. Material/Methods From our regional obstetric unit, 7818 invasive procedures were referred by indications of advance maternal age (AMA), abnormal ultrasound findings (aUS), abnormal maternal serum screening (aMSS), and family history (FH). Chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses were performed on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens at the Yale Cytogenetics Laboratory. The abnormal findings from single or combined indications were compared to evaluate the diagnostic yield. Results The annual caseload declined by 57.2% but the diagnostic yield increased from 7.2% to 13.4%. Chromosomal and genomic abnormalities were detected in 752 cases (9.6%, 752/7818) and 12 cases (4%, 12/303), respectively. Significantly decreased AMA referrals and increased aUS and aMSS referrals were noted. The top 3 indications by diagnostic yield were AMA/aUS (51.4% for CVS, 24.2% for AF), aUS (34.7% for CVS, 14.5% for AF), and AMA/aMSS (17.8% for CVS, 9.9% for AF). Conclusions Over a period of 13 years, the indication of aMSS and aUS were increasing while AMA was decreasing for prenatal diagnosis of cytogenomic abnormalities, and there was a continuous trend of reduced invasive procedures. Prenatal evaluation using AMA/aUS was the most effective in detecting chromosomal abnormalities, but better indications for genomic abnormalities are needed. PMID:26143093

  11. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  12. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  13. Transvaginal Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Karen C; Goldstein, Steven R

    2017-03-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound is the first-line imaging test for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Transvaginal ultrasound can be used to diagnose structural causes of abnormal bleeding such as polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyomas, hyperplasia, and malignancy, and can also be beneficial in making the diagnosis of ovulatory dysfunction. Traditional 2-dimensional imaging is often enhanced by the addition of 3-dimension imaging with coronal reconstruction and saline infusion sonohysterography. In this article we discuss specific ultrasound findings and technical considerations useful in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  14. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder subtypes correlate with different recurring chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Miroslav; Le Beau, Michelle M; Swinnen, Lode J; Smith, Sonali M; Rubin, Charles M; Anastasi, John; Carlson, Katrin M

    2006-03-01

    Although cytogenetic analysis advanced the understanding of the pathogenesis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma and led to improved clinical management, there have been no large cytogenetic studies of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). We examined the karyotypes of 36 PTLD cases and correlated them with clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings. The cases included 2 early lesions, 13 polymorphic PTLDs, and 21 monomorphic PTLDs (18 B-cell and 3 T-cell proliferations). Cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 72% of monomorphic B-cell PTLDs and in all T-cell PTLDs, but in only 15% of polymorphic PTLDs and in no early lesions. The most frequent clonal abnormalities in monomorphic PTLD were trisomies 9 and/or 11 (5 cases), followed by rearrangements of 8q24.1 (4 cases), 3q27 (2 cases), and 14q32 (2 cases). MYC rearrangement (8q24.1) and T-cell-associated chromosomal abnormalities correlated with poor outcome and short survival. PTLD with trisomy 9 and/or 11 developed early after transplant, presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma with prolonged survival.

  15. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  16. The Pea Seedling as a Model of Normal and Abnormal Morphogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkdjian, Armen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes several simple and inexpensive experiments designed to facilitate the study of normal and abnormal morphogenesis in the biology laboratory. Seedlings of the common garden pea are used in the experiments, and abnormal morphogenesis (tumors) are induced by a virulent strain of the crown-gall organism, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (JR)

  17. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V.

  18. Novel brain MRI abnormalities in Gitelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Norbash, Alexander; Vattoth, Surjith

    2015-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. The syndrome is caused by a defective thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys. Gitelman syndrome could be confused with Bartter syndrome; the main differentiating feature is the presence of low urinary calcium excretion in the former. Descriptions of neuroradiological imaging findings associated with Gitelman syndrome are very scarce in the literature and include basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and sclerochoroidal calcification. Cauda equina syndrome-like presentation has been reported, but without any corresponding imaging findings on lumbar spine MRI. We report a 13-year-old male with Gitelman syndrome who presented with altered mental status following a fall and scalp laceration and unremarkable brain CT, followed during hospitalization by somnolence and seizures. Metabolically the patient demonstrated hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. MRI demonstrated features of encephalopathy including predominantly right-sided cerebral hemispheric signal abnormality and cytotoxic edema, with bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalami, midbrain tegmentum and tectum and cerebellar dentate nuclei. MRI after five months obtained during a later episode of encephalopathy showed resolution of the signal abnormalities with setting in of brain atrophy and also areas of newly developed cytotoxic edema in the left thalamus, bilateral dorsal midbrain and right greater than left dentate nuclei. The described abnormalities, either recurrent or in isolation, have not previously been published in patients with Gitelman syndrome. We believe that the findings are due to alteration of respiratory chain function secondary to the metabolic derangement and hence have a similar imaging appearance as encephalopathy related to mitochondrial cytopathy or

  19. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  20. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  1. Hindlimb lameness and gait abnormalities in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Klainbart, S; Ranen, E; Glikman, G; Kelmer, E; Bdolah-Abram, T; Aroch, I

    2014-07-12

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of gait abnormalities and lameness (GAL) in bitches with pyometra, and their association with clinical and laboratory findings. The study included 79 bitches diagnosed with pyometra and 35 negative control intact bitches presented with other soft tissue surgical disorders. Dogs with a history of chronic lameness due to orthopaedic or neurological origin were excluded. A history of GAL was more frequent in the pyometra group (47 per cent) compared with the control group (20 per cent) (P=0.007). In the pyometra group, bitches presenting GAL had (P<0.04) higher frequencies of closed-cervix pyometra, anorexia and vomiting, as well as higher serum creatinine concentration and muscle enzymes activity, compared with those in without GAL. GAL signs resolved postovariohysterectomy in all but one bitch. The results suggest that GAL signs occur frequently in bitches with pyometra, especially in closed-cervix disease. Therefore, pyometra should be considered among the differential diagnoses when GAL occurs, especially when the clinical signs are non-specific and the reproductive history is unclear.

  2. [Characteristic asymmetric abnormal eye movement and dystonic posture as the first symptoms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood].

    PubMed

    Motoki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    A 3-month-old girl exhibited asymmetric abnormal eye movement and unilateral dystonic posture intermittently after the first few days of life. Unilateral ocular deviation or nystagmus were the main signs of abnormal eye movements. She was suspected to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) despite the absence of apparent alternating hemiplegic episodes. Gene analysis revealed a de-novo missense mutation (Asp801Asn) of ATP1A3. AHC is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia affecting the unilateral or bilateral side of the body; in most cases, these attacks begin in the first 6 months of life. Initial symptoms of AHC are not alternating hemiplegic episodes, but rather asymmetric abnormal eye movement, dystonic posture, or seizures. It is difficult to diagnose AHC early because no specific findings are observed in the diagnostic laboratory or neuroradiological examinations. Early diagnosis is important because flunarizine may have a protective effect on the severe motor deterioration associated with AHC. Asymmetric abnormal eye movement could be an important clinical symptom for the diagnosis of AHC in early infancy.

  3. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Lipid abnormalities in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erum, Uzma; Ahsan, Tasnim; Khowaja, Danish

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dyslipidemia in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from November 2013 to May 2014. A total of 200 patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), diagnosed according to the ACR/EULAR criteria 2010, were included in the study. Laboratory investigations including creatinine, ALT, CBC, TSH and fasting lipid profile (LDL, HDL, and Total cholesterol) were done for all patients. Results: Out of 200 patients, 23 (11.5%) were male and 177 (88.5%) were female. The mean age was 36.31±10.46 years and the mean duration of disease was 3.82±3.03 years. A total of 107 (53.5%) patients had dyslipidemia, and the commonest abnormality was a low HDL, seen in 83 (41.5 %) patients. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was frequently observed in Rheumatoid Arthritis. This may be considered as a secondary impact of chronic inflammatory state, seen in RA. Lipid abnormalities should be sought at regular intervals, and corrective actions taken to mitigate increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28367205

  6. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  7. Myelin vs axon abnormalities in white matter in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-03-13

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ.

  8. Myelin vs Axon Abnormalities in White Matter in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

  9. Ultrasound findings in trisomy 22.

    PubMed

    Schwendemann, Wade D; Contag, Stephen A; Koty, Patrick P; Miller, Richard C; Devers, Patricia; Watson, William J

    2009-02-01

    We sought to identify the characteristic sonographic findings of fetal trisomy 22 by performing a retrospective review of nine cases of fetal trisomy 22. All cases of chromosomal mosaicism were excluded, as were first-trimester losses. Indications for sonography, gestational age, and sonographically detected fetal anomalies were analyzed. The majority of patients were referred for advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound findings on screening exam. Oligohydramnios was the most common sonographic finding, present in 55% of affected fetuses. Intrauterine growth restriction and increased nuchal thickness were slightly less frequent.

  10. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  11. Response to an abnormal ovarian cancer-screening test result: test of the social cognitive processing and cognitive social health information processing models.

    PubMed

    Andrykowski, Michael A; Pavlik, Edward J

    2011-04-01

    All cancer screening tests produce a proportion of abnormal results requiring follow up. Consequently, the cancer-screening setting is a natural laboratory for examining psychological and behavioural response to a threatening health-related event. This study tested hypotheses derived from the social cognitive processing and cognitive-social health information processing models in trying to understand response to an abnormal ovarian cancer (OC) screening test result. Women (n = 278) receiving an abnormal screening test result a mean of 7 weeks earlier were assessed prior to a repeat screening test intended to clarify their previous abnormal result. Measures of disposition (optimism, informational coping style), social environment (social support and constraint), emotional processing, distress, and benefit finding were obtained. Regression analyses indicated greater distress was associated with greater social constraint and emotional processing and a monitoring coping style in women with a family history of OC. Distress was unrelated to social support. Greater benefit finding was associated with both greater social constraint and support and greater distress. The primacy of social constraint in accounting for both benefit finding and distress was noteworthy and warrants further research on the role of social constraint in adaptation to stressful events.

  12. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  13. Is Having Clonal Cytogenetic Abnormalities the Same as Having Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Farina, Mirko; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Daniella; Marchina, Eleonora; Gale, Robert Peter

    2016-01-01

    A finding of cytogenetic abnormalities, even when these are clonal and even when the abnormalities are typically associated with leukaemia, is not the same as a person having leukaemia. We describe a person who had acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and achieved a complete haematological remission and who then had persistent and transient clonal cytogenetic abnormalities for 22 years but no recurrence of leukaemia. These data suggest that clones of myeloid cells with mutations and capable of expanding to levels detectable by routine cytogenetic analyses do not all eventuate in leukaemia, even after a prolonged observation interval. The possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a person as having leukaemia becomes even greater when employing more sensitive techniques to detect mutations such as by polymerase chain reaction and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Caution is needed when interpreting clonal abnormalities in AML patients with normal blood and bone marrow parameters.

  14. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF.

  15. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  16. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism.

    PubMed

    Good, Ryan J; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V; Press, Craig A; Carpenter, Todd C

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots.

  17. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  18. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedure--Hematology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Presented are laboratory studies focusing on blood cells and the complete scheme of blood coagulation. Formed is the basis for the following types of laboratory operations: (1) distinguishing the morphology of normal and abnormal blood cells; (2) measuring the concentrations or number of blood cells; (3) measuring concentration and detecting…

  19. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  20. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura with Reversible Neurological Features: Brain Diffusion MRI with ADC Map, Spect and EEG Findings. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yerdelen, D; Göksel, B K; Yıldırım, T; Karataş, M; Karaca, S; Reyhan, M; Ozdoğu, H

    2006-11-30

    Although nervous system involvement is common in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), abnormalities on computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography are not encountered so frequently and if present, these abnormalities are often reversible. We describe a 39-year-old woman with recurring transient focal neurological findings found to have laboratory findings consistent with TTP. In cerebral diffusion weighted images (DWI), diffuse cortical hyperintensity was noted in right frontal lobe, but the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) map was normal. Electroencephalography demonstrated lateralized slowing and repeated DWI showed diffuse cortical hyperintensity in the right hemisphere. SPECT showed luxury perfusion in the right hemisphere areas. The patient's condition resolved with plasmapheresis. Our patient illustrates that diffuse hemispheric involvement can be seen in DWI and EEG, and SPECT may show luxury perfusion after resolution of neurological findings in TTP cases. To our knowledge, this is the first TTP case in which the ADC map was normal.

  1. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  2. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  3. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  4. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  5. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  6. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  7. Scintigraphic findings in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1977-06-01

    A prospective study of bone scintigraphic findings has been carried out in 63 patients, firmly diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. In addition to abnormal uptake of the radiotracer at the sacroiliac joints, a peripheral arthropathy has been a common finding, particularly in the proximal joints, occurring in up to 50% of patients. Increased uptake of radiotracer in the spine has also been found both diffusely and focally. Focal increases have been noted at the apophyseal joints in 40% of patients and in three patients with a sterile intervertebral diskitis, an unusual complication of this disease only diagnosed in two patients after bone scintigraphy.

  8. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  9. Abnormalities in offspring associated with prenatal marihuana exposure.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Q H; Mariano, E; Milman, D H; Beller, E; Crombleholme, W

    1985-01-01

    5 newborn infants, whose mothers acknowledged steady use of marihuana prior to and during pregnancies, displayed symptoms of intrauterine growth retardation, neurological problems, and abnormal morphogenesis. These findings fit in with the experimental studies and surveys of pregnant human populations which have indicated that cannabis products have teratogenic potential, though rigorous proof must await further information.

  10. Cognitive and Academic Skills in Children with Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Bruce G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Follows 46 unselected children with various sex chromosome abnormalities using intellectual, language, and achievement testing. Notes that, although most children were not mentally retarded, most received special education help. Finds support for the inference that learning disorders were genetically mediated in this group. (RS)

  11. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  12. Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

  13. Abnormal Grain Growth in M-252 and S-816 Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R F; Rush, A I; Dano, A G; Freeman, J W

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out on air- and vacuum-melted M-252 and S-816 alloys to find conditions of heating and hot-working which resulted in abnormal grain growth. The experiments were mainly limited to normal conditions of heating for hot-working and heat treatment and normal temperatures of solution treatment were used to allow grain growth after susceptibility to abnormal grain growth was developed by various experimental conditions. Results indicated that small reductions of essentially strain-free metal were the basic cause of such grain growth.

  14. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  15. [Abnormal hemoglobins in a Negroid population in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Franco, O E; Villacorta Wettstein, M E; Zaga Catacora, R E; Márquez Torres, M C

    1990-08-01

    A study was performed on 100 blood samples from black people native of the Chincha province and living in Pueblo Nuevo Ica district, in Peru. No haematological abnormalities were seen in any of the cases. Upon haemoglobin electrophoresis, 8 carriers of abnormal haemoglobin were found, the A/S pattern appearing in 5 instances and the A/C pattern in 3. These 8 samples were subjected to deoxyhaemoglobin solubility tests and to differential solubility test with urea, the initial results being confirmed. These data correlate, in general terms with previous findings.

  16. Assessment of dental abnormalities by full-mouth radiography in small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Geun; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate full-mouth radiographic findings to determine the prevalence of dental abnormalities and analyze the relationship between dental abnormalities and age in small breed dogs. Sixteen predetermined categories of abnormal radiographic findings were evaluated in 233 small breed dogs. In total, 9,786 possible permanent teeth could be evaluated. Of those, 8,308 teeth were evaluated and abnormal radiographic findings were found in 2,458 teeth (29.6%). The most common teeth with abnormal radiographic findings were the mandibular first molars (74.5% on the left and 63.9% on the right) and the maxillary fourth premolars (40.5% on the left and 38.2% on the right). Bone loss of any type (15.8%) was the most commonly detected radiographic abnormal finding among the 16 categories. Dental conditions with a genetic predisposition were frequently occurred in the mandibular premolar teeth. Shih tzu frequently had unerupted teeth and dentigerous cysts. Among the teeth with abnormal radiographic findings, 4.5%, 19.8%, and 5.3% were considered incidental, additional, and important, respectively. Findings that were only detected on radiographs, which were not noted on routine oral examination, were more common in older dogs. Full-mouth radiographic evaluation should be performed to obtain important information for making accurate diagnoses.

  17. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  18. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  19. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  20. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia with a PML-RARA insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in XYY syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Li, Xudong; Wang, Dongning; Zhang, Erhong; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Wenwen; Huang, Renwei; Xiao, Ruozhi

    2014-12-01

    The concomitant presence of the XYY syndrome with haematological malignancies is rare. This report presents a case of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) with the promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA) gene insertional translocation and a chromosome 21 abnormality in a 29-year-old XYY male patient. Karyotype analysis revealed an abnormal karyotype of 47,XYY [14]/46,XYY,-21[16]. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the existence of a PML-RARA fusion gene. The patient was treated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy. Laboratory results revealed that the coagulopathy improved and the patient achieved complete remission, based on bone-marrow morphology. The patient then received sequential monthly therapy using arsenic trioxide, followed by ATRA, followed by chemotherapy; he has survived disease-free for 36 months. Our findings suggest that the additional chromosomal abnormalities involving the sex chromosomes and chromosome 21 did not affect the prognosis of APL, and that the sequential treatment strategy had a good clinical effect without being associated with severe side-effects.

  1. Cranial base abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta: phenotypic and genotypic determinants.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Arponen, Heidi; Roughley, Peter; Azouz, Michel E; Glorieux, Francis H; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Rauch, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Cranial base abnormalities are an important complication of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a hereditary bone fragility disorder that in most patients is caused by mutations affecting collagen type I. To elucidate which clinical characteristics are associated with the occurrence of cranial base abnormalities in OI, we compared cephalometric results of 187 OI patients (median age 12.0 years, range 3.4 to 47 years; 96 female) with those of 191 healthy subjects and related findings to clinical descriptors of the disease. Overall, 41 patients (22%) had at least one unambiguously abnormal skull base measure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with OI types I, III, and IV (n = 169) revealed that height Z-score [odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.66, p < .001]--but not age, gender, scleral hue, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density, or a history of bisphosphonate treatment--was a significant independent determinant of skull base abnormalities. Among patients with a height Z-score below -3, 48% had a skull base abnormality regardless of whether they had received bisphosphonate treatment in the first year of life or not. Genotype-phenotype correlations were evaluated in patients with detectable mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2, the genes coding for collagen type I (n = 140). Skull base abnormalities were present in 6% of patients with haploinsufficiency (frameshift or nonsense) mutations, in 43% of patients with helical glycine substitutions caused by COL1A1 mutations, in 32% of patients with helical glycine substitutions owing to COL1A2 mutations, and in 17% of patients with splice-site mutations affecting either COL1A1 or COL1A2. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that height Z-score but not the type of collagen type I mutation was independently associated with the prevalence of skull base abnormalities. In conclusion, this study shows that clinical severity of OI, as expressed by the height Z-score, was

  2. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  3. Renal abnormalities in the Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tieder, M; Levy, M; Gubler, M C; Gagnadoux, M F; Broyer, M

    1982-09-01

    Four cases of BARDET-Biedl syndrome (BBS) are described which all suffer from renal abnormalities. Polyuria or polydipsia with impairment of renal concentration capacity were the earliest signs of renal dysfunction. Renal insufficiency developed in 3 cases and hypertension in two. Urographic abnormalities were demonstrated in all patients. The most remarkable features were cystic spaces communicating with the calices and lobulation of kidney. Caliceal clubbing and caliectasis surrounded by narrowed, unscarred parenchyma were frequent findings. Previous investigators reported various renal histological pictures in BBS. We found tubulo- interstitial lesions in all cases. Features of dysplasia and cystic formations were less frequent. Mesangial proliferation was not noted. Ultra-structural changes in the glomerular basement membrane were not observed in this study. Thirty-one of 32 recently reported cases of BBS included renal lesions which are the major cause of death. It is therefore suggested that renal abnormalities are accepted as the cardinal feature of this syndrome.

  4. Defining Normal and Abnormal Fetal Growth: Promises and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Merialdi, Mario; Platt, Lawrence D.; Kramer, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Normal fetal growth is a critical component of a healthy pregnancy and influences the long-term health of the offspring. However, defining normal and abnormal fetal growth has been a long-standing challenge in clinical practice and research. The authors review various references and standards that are widely used to evaluate fetal growth, and discuss common pitfalls of current definitions of abnormal fetal growth. Pros and cons of different approaches to customize fetal growth standards are described. The authors further discuss recent advances towards an integrated definition for fetal growth restriction. Such a definition may incorporate fetal size with the status of placental health measured by maternal and fetal Doppler velocimetry and biomarkers, biophysical findings and genetics. Although the concept of an integrated definition appears promising, further development and testing are required. An improved definition of abnormal fetal growth should benefit both research and clinical practice. PMID:20074690

  5. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R.; Constine, L.S.

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  6. Lung in Dengue: Computed Tomography Findings

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Brum, Ana Livia Garcia; Paes, Marciano Viana; Póvoa, Tiago Fajardo; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Marchiori, Edson; Borghi, Danielle Provençano; Ramos, Grazielle Viana; Bozza, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Dengue virus infection may be asymptomatic or lead to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever with or without warning signs, or severe dengue. Lower respiratory symptoms are unusual and lung-imaging data in patients with dengue are scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate lung changes associated with dengue infection, we retrospectively analyzed 2,020 confirmed cases of dengue. Twenty-nine of these patients (11 females and 18 males aged 16–90 years) underwent chest computed tomography (CT), which yielded abnormal findings in 17 patients: 16 patients had pleural effusion (the sole finding in six patients) and 11 patients had pulmonary abnormalities. Lung parenchyma involvement ranged from subtle to moderate unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. The most common finding was ground-glass opacity in eight patients, followed by consolidation in six patients. Less common findings were airspace nodules (two patients), interlobular septal thickening (two patients), and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (one patient). Lung histopathological findings in four fatal cases showed thickening of the alveolar septa, hemorrhage, and interstitial edema. Conclusions/Significance In this largest series involving the use of chest CT to evaluate lung involvement in patients with dengue, CT findings of lower respiratory tract involvement were uncommon. When abnormalities were present, pleural effusion was the most frequent finding and lung involvement was often mild or moderate and bilateral. Extensive lung abnormalities are infrequent even in severe disease and when present should lead physicians to consider other diagnostic possibilities. PMID:24836605

  7. First evaluation of automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples by use of the Previ Isola system compared to manual inoculation in a routine laboratory: finding a cost-effective and accurate approach.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Alexander; Mieth, Markus; Busch, Cornelius J; Hofer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Automation of plate streaking is ongoing in clinical microbiological laboratories, but evaluation for routine use is mostly open. In the present study, the recovery of microorganisms from the Previ Isola system plated polyurethane (PU) swab samples is compared to manually plated control viscose swab samples from wounds according to the CLSI procedure M40-A (quality control of microbiological transport systems). One hundred twelve paired samples (224 swabs) were analyzed. In 80/112 samples (71%), concordant culture results were obtained with the two methods. In 32/112 samples (29%), CFU recovery of microorganisms from the two methods was discordant. In 24 (75%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, Previ Isola plated PU swabs were superior. In 8 (25%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, control viscose swabs were superior. The quality of colony growth on culture media for further investigations was superior with Previ Isola inoculated plates compared to manual plating techniques. Gram stain results were concordant between the two methods in 62/112 samples (55%). In 50/112 samples (45%), the results of Gram staining were discordant between the two methods. In 34 (68%) of the 50 paired samples with discordant results, Gram staining of PU swabs was superior to that of control viscose swabs. In 16 (32%) of the 50 paired samples, Gram staining of control viscose swabs was superior to that of PU swabs. We report the first clinical evaluation of Previ Isola automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples. This study suggests that use of an automated specimen inoculation system has good results with regard to CFU recovery, quality of Gram staining, and accuracy of diagnosis.

  8. Sperm shape abnormalities in carbaryl-exposed employees

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Watchmaker, G.; Gordon, L.; Wong, K.; Moore, D.; Whorton, D.

    1981-01-01

    Semen was collected from 50 men occupationally exposed to carbaryl (1-naphthyl methyl carbamate) in a produciton plant for durations of 1 to 18 years and compared to semen from a control group of 34 unexposed, newly-hired workers. Employment, fertility, health, personal data, and blood samples were collected for each individual. Semen samples were analyzed for changes in sperm count, morphology, and frequency of sperm carrying double flourescent bodies (YFF). As a group, the exposed workers showed a significantly higher proportion of sperm with abnormal head shapes than did the control group (p < 0.005). Age, smoking habits, and medical problems did not appear to affect this result. This finding appears to be limited to men working in the carbaryl production area at the time of sampling. Sperm count and YFF did not show similar differences, which may be because they are known to be statistically less sensitive to small changes. Formerly exposed workers (away from carbaryl for an average of 6.3 years) showed a marginally significant elevation in sperm abnormalities compared to controls (p < .05, one-tailed statistical analyses) suggesting that the increase in abnormal morphology may not be reversible. However, the question of reversibility is sensitive to confounding factors and small sample sizes and, therefore, requires further study. With these data a definitive link between carbaryl exposure and human seminal defects cannot be established. Although a distinct effect on sperm morphology was seen in the exposed group, the increases in sperm shape abnormalities were not related to exposure dose (estimated by number of years on the job or job classification during the year prior to semen collection). Inexplicably, the increases in sperm abnormalities were seen primarily in currently exposed men who had worked with carbaryl for less than approximately 6 years. These findings suggest the need for further study since other workplace-related factor(s) may be responsible

  9. Outcome and management of babies with prenatal ultrasonographic renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lam, B C; Wong, S N; Yeung, C Y; Tang, M H; Ghosh, A

    1993-07-01

    Between January 1987 and December 1990, 60 fetuses were found to have renal abnormalities on antenatal ultrasonography. Six fetuses were aborted because of major renal abnormalities with or without associated chromosomal aberrations. Twelve babies with major renal abnormalities died in the immediate neonatal period. Forty-two babies were studied after birth and followed up. Babies who were found to have mild dilation of the renal pelvis of 6 to 10 mm during fetal life revealed either normal renal findings in the postnatal period or complete resolution of the abnormalities within the first year. Significant pelvic dilation of more than 10 mm occurred in 32 babies. A significant proportion (34%) had transitional hydronephrosis that resolved spontaneously during the follow-up period (mean, 2 1/2 years; range, 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 years). Extrarenal pelvis, another benign condition, accounted for 15.6%. Most babies with pelviureteral junction obstruction (15%) and vesicoureteral junction obstruction (6.2%) required early neonatal surgery. The technetium-99m diethylenetriamine renal scan with the diuretic renogram half-time was found to be a very useful tool to distinguish between obstructive and nonobstructive hydronephrosis. With early diagnosis and intervention, the prognosis for many of these renal abnormalities is much more favorable and such information is invaluable for antenatal counseling.

  10. Structural abnormality of the corticospinal tract in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientists are beginning to document abnormalities in white matter connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent developments in diffusion-weighted image analyses, including tractography clustering methods, may yield improved characterization of these white matter abnormalities in MDD. In this study, we acquired diffusion-weighted imaging data from MDD participants and matched healthy controls. We analyzed these data using two tractography clustering methods: automated fiber quantification (AFQ) and the maximum density path (MDP) procedure. We used AFQ to compare fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of water diffusion) in these two groups across major white matter tracts. Subsequently, we used the MDP procedure to compare FA differences in fiber paths related to the abnormalities in major fiber tracts that were identified using AFQ. Results FA was higher in the bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in MDD (p’s < 0.002). Secondary analyses using the MDP procedure detected primarily increases in FA in the CST-related fiber paths of the bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule, right superior corona radiata, and the left external capsule. Conclusions This is the first study to implicate the CST and several related fiber pathways in MDD. These findings suggest important new hypotheses regarding the role of CST abnormalities in MDD, including in relation to explicating CST-related abnormalities to depressive symptoms and RDoC domains and constructs. PMID:25295159

  11. Long memory of abnormal investor attention and the cross-correlations between abnormal investor attention and trading volume, volatility respectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoqian; Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xintian; Jin, Xiu

    2017-03-01

    Taking Baidu Index as a proxy for abnormal investor attention (AIA), the long memory property in the AIA of Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) 50 Index component stocks was empirically investigated using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that abnormal investor attention is power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.64 and 0.98. Furthermore, the cross-correlations between abnormal investor attention and trading volume, volatility respectively are studied using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA). The results suggest that there are positive correlations between AIA and trading volume, volatility respectively. In addition, the correlations for trading volume are in general higher than the ones for volatility. By carrying on rescaled range analysis (R/S) and rolling windows analysis, we find that the results mentioned above are effective and significant.

  12. [Meiotic abnormalities as expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in crosses of Pisum sativum subspecies].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, V S; Galieva, E R

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis in anthers and mitosis in somatic cells were studied in reciprocal F1 hybrids of the accession VIR320, which belonged to wild Pisum sativum ssp. elatius (Bieb.) Schmal., and the laboratory line Sprint-1. When VIR320 was used as a maternal form, the hybrids displayed nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict, which caused chlorophyll defects and meiotic abnormalities. One or two chromosomes lagged in the equatorial region during chromosome segregation to the poles, distorting cytokinesis and yielding abnormal microspores. Chlorophyll defects were not observed, and meiotic abnormalities were far less frequent in reciprocal hybrids and in the case of an abnormal paternal inheritance of plastids from Sprint-1. Mitosis lacked overt abnormalities in all of the hybrids.

  13. Ocular findings in cytogenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W A; Alfi, O S; Donnell, G N

    1979-06-01

    Several cytogenetic syndromes are reviewed, and the salient ocular and facial abnormalities that might lead to a diagnosis are pointed out. Examples are given of mongoloid slant to the palpebral fissures, not only in Down's syndrome, but also in monosomy 9p, where, in addition, the triangular skull is almost diagnostic. Antimongoloid slant is found in trisomy 9p, where the eyes also have enophthalmos of monosomy 9p. Hypertelorism is another common finding in these syndromes; in monosomy 5p it is almost always present, although it occurs in other conditions as well, including trisomy 12p. The ring 22 syndrome has a distinguishing finding called "doe's eyes" because of the shape of the palpebral fissures. Trisomy 13 has numerous ocular findings as well as skull and facial involvements.

  14. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ataga, K I; Orringer, E P

    2000-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia and the related hemoglobinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of renal abnormalities. The patients have impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects in urinary acidification and potassium excretion, and supranormal proximal tubular function. The latter is manifest by increased secretion of creatinine and by reabsorption of phosphorus and beta(2)-microglobulin. Young patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have supranormal renal hemodynamics with elevations in both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These parameters decrease with age as well as following the administration of prostaglandin inhibitors. Proteinuria, a common finding in adults with sickle cell disease, may progress to the nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria, hypertension, and increasing anemia predict end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While ESRD can be managed by dialysis and/or renal transplantation, there may be an increased rate of complications in renal transplant recipients with SCD. Hematuria is seen in individuals with all of the SCDs as well as with sickle cell trait. In most cases the etiology of the hematuria turns out to be benign. However, there does appear to be an increased association between SCD and renal medullary carcinoma. Therefore, those SCD patients who present with hematuria should initially undergo a thorough evaluation in order to exclude this aggressive neoplasm. Papillary necrosis may occur due to medullary ischemia and infarction. Erythropoietin levels are usually lower than expected for their degree of anemia and decrease further as renal function deteriorates. An abnormal balance of renal prostaglandins may be responsible for some of the changes in sickle cell nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a component of the acute multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS). Finally, progression of sickle cell nephropathy to ESRD may be slowed by adequate control of hypertension and proteinuria. However, the prevention of the

  15. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  16. Abnormal osmotic regulation in trpv4-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Wolfgang; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Osmotic homeostasis is one of the most aggressively defended physiological parameters in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying osmotic regulation are poorly understood. The transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily (TRPV4), is an osmotically activated ion channel that is expressed in circumventricular organs in the mammalian CNS, which is an important site of osmotic sensing. We have generated trpv4-null mice and observed abnormalities of their osmotic regulation. trpv4-/- mice drank less water and became more hyperosmolar than did wild-type littermates, a finding that was seen with and without administration of hypertonic saline. In addition, plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone were significantly lower in trpv4-/- mice than in wild-type littermates after a hyperosmotic challenge. Continuous s.c. infusion of the antidiuretic hormone analogue, dDAVP, resulted in systemic hypotonicity in trpv4-/- mice, despite the fact that their renal water reabsorption capacity was normal. Thus, the response to both hyper- and hypoosmolar stimuli is impaired in trpv4-/- mice. After a hyperosmolar challenge, there was markedly reduced expression of c-FOS in the circumventricular organ, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, of trpv4-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. This finding suggests that there is an impairment of osmotic sensing in the CNS of trpv4-/- mice. These data indicate that TRPV4 is necessary for the normal response to changes in osmotic pressure and functions as an osmotic sensor in the CNS. PMID:14581612

  17. Neural correlates of abnormal sensory discrimination in laryngeal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.

  18. Physiological consequences of abnormal connectivity in a developmental epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Mouhsin M.; Vernet, Marine; Klooster, Debby; Chu, Catherine J.; Boric, Katica; Barnard, Mollie E.; Romatoski, Kelsey; Westover, M. Brandon; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Chang, Bernard S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many forms of epilepsy are associated with aberrant neuronal connections, but the relationship between such pathological connectivity and the underlying physiological predisposition to seizures is unclear. We sought to characterize the cortical excitability profile of a developmental form of epilepsy known to have structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. Methods We employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous EEG recording in eight patients with epilepsy from periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and matched healthy controls. We used connectivity imaging findings to guide TMS targeting and compared the evoked responses to single-pulse stimulation from different cortical regions. Results Heterotopia patients with active epilepsy demonstrated a relatively augmented late cortical response that was greater than that of matched controls. This abnormality was specific to cortical regions with connectivity to subcortical heterotopic gray matter. Topographic mapping of the late response differences showed distributed cortical networks that were not limited to the stimulation site, and source analysis in one subject revealed that the generator of abnormal TMS-evoked activity overlapped with the spike and seizure onset zone. Interpretation Our findings indicate that patients with epilepsy from gray matter heterotopia have altered cortical physiology consistent with hyperexcitability, and that this abnormality is specifically linked to the presence of aberrant connectivity. These results support the idea that TMS-EEG could be a useful biomarker in epilepsy in gray matter heterotopia, expand our understanding of circuit mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and have potential implications for therapeutic neuromodulation in similar epileptic conditions associated with deep lesions. PMID:25858773

  19. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  20. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  2. Clinical research into anesthetic neurotoxicity: does anesthesia cause neurological abnormalities in humans?

    PubMed

    Lei, Susan Y; Hache, Manon; Loepke, Andreas W

    2014-10-01

    General anesthetics mitigate distress and exaggerated hemodynamic responses to pain and stressful stimulation, allowing surgery and diagnostic procedures to be performed worldwide in millions of children every year. Emerging studies, mainly carried out in early postnatal laboratory animals, demonstrate widespread neuronal elimination, alteration in neuronal circuitry, and long-term neurological disabilities following exposure to all commonly used sedatives and anesthetics. These findings have raised concerns among parents, anesthesiologists, neuroscientists, and government regulators about the safety of anesthetic drugs in children, especially infants. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between surgery with anesthesia in early childhood and subsequent behavioral and cognitive abnormalities. During the Fourth Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) symposium, a meeting attended by many stakeholders, the most recent findings in the field were presented and discussed. This review summarizes the current state of clinical research into the effects of anesthetic exposure in human brain development, addresses some of the difficulties in examining the phenomenon, and introduces the most recent clinical findings presented at the PANDA symposium. The unanimous consensus among participants was that additional preclinical and clinical research efforts are urgently required to address this important concern for child health.

  3. Laboratory diagnosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  4. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  5. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  6. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  7. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R≥0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  8. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  9. Considerations in Using US-Based Laboratory Toxicity Tables to Evaluate Laboratory Toxicities Among Healthy Malawian and Ugandan Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lubega, Irene R.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Musoke, Philippa M.; Elbireer, Ali; Bagenda, Danstan; Kafulafula, George; Ko, Jeanne; Mipando, Linda; Mubiru, Mike; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha; Jackson, J. Brooks; Guay, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine normal hematologic and selected blood chemistry values among healthy, full-term, non–HIV-exposed infants in Uganda and Malawi, and to determine the proportion of healthy babies with an apparent laboratory toxicity based on Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Design This was a cross-sectional laboratory study of infants from birth to 6 months of age. Methods Blood samples were collected from a total of 561 infants and analyzed according to age categories similar to those in the 2004 Division of AIDS toxicity tables. Select chemistry and hematology parameters were determined and values compared with those in the toxicity tables. Results In the first 56 days of life, there were few graded toxicities except for neutropenia in 2 of 10 (20%) Ugandan and 13 of 45 (29%) Malawian infants at birth. After 7 days, about 20% of the infants in Uganda and Malawi would have been classified as having a neutropenia whereas 47% and 53% of those more than 2 months of age in Uganda and Malawi respectively, would have been reported as having an abnormal hemoglobin. Chemistry findings were not different from US norms. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of establishing relevant local laboratory norms for infants. PMID:20588184

  10. Cochlear abnormality in a case of Pallister-Hall syndrome.

    PubMed

    Avula, Shivaram; Alam, Nusrat; Roberts, Elaine

    2012-12-01

    Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS) is a rare condition characterised by anomalies including hypothalamic hamartoma, bifid epiglottis and postaxial polydactyly. Hearing loss has been recognised in this condition. Cochlear abnormalities have been described in mouse models of PHS, but there are no reports of similar findings in humans to date. This report describes a case of PHS with bilateral cochlear hypoplasia as seen on MRI.

  11. Abnormal brain structure implicated in stimulant drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Turton, Abigail J; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-02-03

    Addiction to drugs is a major contemporary public health issue, characterized by maladaptive behavior to obtain and consume an increasing amount of drugs at the expense of the individual's health and social and personal life. We discovered abnormalities in fronto-striatal brain systems implicated in self-control in both stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological siblings who have no history of chronic drug abuse; these findings support the idea of an underlying neurocognitive endophenotype for stimulant drug addiction.

  12. Analysis of supratentorial cystic abnormalities using in utero MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Hannah M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our anecdotal experience from foetal neuroimaging studies suggests that there are often significant disagreements between the findings of ultrasonography (USS) and in utero MR (iuMR) imaging in cases of antenatally detected supratentorial extra-axial cysts. Although this is a relatively rare clinical situation, it warrants further investigation because of the high risk of other intracranial abnormalities that are likely to cause long-term neurodevelopmental problems. Methods: We reviewed 957 consecutive referrals for iuMR of the foetal brain over a 3.5-year period and studied all cases where the referral from USS described supratentorial extra-axial cysts in the foetus. The iuMR imaging was reviewed, and a comparison between the results of the two examinations was made. Results: Supratentorial extra-axial cysts were an unusual referral for iuMR occurring in only 13/957 (1.4%) of cases. The findings on USS and iuMR imaging were conflicting in all 13 cases with intracranial pathology being excluded on iuMR imaging in 4 cases and more significant pathology being shown in 9 cases. Abnormalities of the corpus callosum were recognized in association with a cyst in eight cases, and this was recognized in only two cases on USS. Six of those cases also had abnormalities of cortical formation. Conclusion: iuMR imaging should be used in the assessment of pregnancies in which a supratentorial extra-axial cyst has been detected on USS. This is based on the improved primary diagnosis and a high rate of associated brain abnormalities not detected on USS. Advances in knowledge: Our retrospective observational study examines a range of foetal intracranial abnormalities which are better defined using iuMRI. This is a previously described spectrum of neurodevelopmental anomalies which we suggest would benefit from MRI. PMID:26577541

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipid Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karkinski, Dimitar; Georgievski, Oliver; Dzekova-Vidimliski, Pavlina; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Dokic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a great interest in the interaction between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic dysfunction, but there is no consistent data suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients suspected of OSA, referred to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients referred to our hospital with suspected OSA, and all of them underwent for standard polysomnography. All patients with respiratory disturbance index (RDI) above 15 were diagnosed with OSA. In the morning after 12 hours fasting, the blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were determined in all study patients. In the study, both OSA positive and OSA negative patients were divided according to the body mass index (BMI) in two groups. The first group with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 and the second group with BMI > 30 kg/m^2. RESULTS: OSA positive patients with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and statistically significant lower level of HDL compared to OSA negative patients with BMI ≤ 30. There were no statistically significant differences in age and LDL levels between these groups. OSA positive patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2 had higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and lower levels of HDL versus OSA negative patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2, but without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients. PMID

  14. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  15. Counseling Challenges with Variants of Uncertain Significance and Incidental Findings in Prenatal Genetic Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Westerfield, Lauren; Darilek, Sandra; van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal genetic screening and testing provides prospective parents information about the health of their fetus. It is offered to find or address an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic conditions in the fetus or to identify the cause of fetal structural abnormalities detected by prenatal imaging. Genome-wide tests, such as the already widely-used chromosomal microarray analysis and emerging diagnostic whole exome and whole genome sequencing, have improved the ability to detect clinically significant findings, but have also increased the chance of detecting incidental findings and variants of uncertain significance. There is an extensive ongoing discussion about optimal strategies for diagnostic laboratories to report such findings and for providers to communicate them with patients. While consensus opinions and guidelines are beginning to appear, they often exclude the prenatal setting, due to its unique set of challenging considerations. These include more limited knowledge of the impact of genetic variants when prospectively detected in an ongoing pregnancy, the absence or limitations of detecting clinically recognizable phenotypes at the time of testing and the different decision-making processes that will ensue from testing. In this review, we examine these challenges within the medical ethical framework unique to prenatal care. PMID:26237491

  16. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  17. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  18. FATAL FOETAL ABNORMALITY, IRISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, AND MELLET v IRELAND.

    PubMed

    de Londras, Fiona

    2016-12-27

    Under the Irish Constitution abortion is allowed only where the life of the pregnant woman is at risk. The provision in question, Article 40.3.3 (or the 8th Amendment) has long been criticised for failing to respect women's autonomy, and in Mellet v Ireland, the UN Human Rights Committee found that Amanda Jane Mellet, who travelled to Liverpool to access abortion following a finding that her foetus suffered a fatal abnormality, had suffered a violation of her rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). In this commentary I demonstrate the value of Mellet when compared to the possible legal findings in such circumstances under both the Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights, and argue that the findings are not restricted to cases of fatal foetal abnormality. Rather, the Committee's decision illustrates the suffering that all women in Ireland who travel to access abortion experience, arguably constituting a violation of their right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. On that reading, Mellet signifies the need to implement a comprehensive rethink of Irish abortion law including, but going beyond, access to abortion in cases of fatal foetal abnormality.

  19. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  20. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  1. Different chromosome Y abnormalities in a case with short stature.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özbek, M Nuri; Alp, M Nail; Budak, Turgay

    2012-12-01

    We report a case with different chromosome Y abnormalities. Case was an 11-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with short stature, referred to laboratory of human medical genetics laboratory for genetic evaluation. Chromosomal analysis of the case was carried out on peripheral blood lymphocyte culture. Classic cytogenetic analysis (G and C banding) was confirmed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) technique. Cytogenetic and FISH analysis showed a mosaic 46,X,i(Yq)/45,X/47,X,i(Yq)x2/47,XYY karyotype. Case, which was found interesting due to its rarity, is discussed with its clinical features and cytogenetic results, in the light of relevant source information. This case underlines the importance of karyotyping patients with unexplained short stature. This clinical report also will be helpful in defining the phenotypic range associated with these karyotypes.

  2. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  3. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  4. Abnormal plasticity in dystonia: Disruption of synaptic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Quartarone, Angelo; Pisani, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Work over the past two decades lead to substantial changes in our understanding of dystonia, which was, until recently, considered an exclusively sporadic movement disorder. The discovery of several gene mutations responsible for many inherited forms of dystonia has prompted much effort in the generation of transgenic mouse models bearing mutations found in patients. The large majority of these rodent models do not exhibit overt phenotypic abnormalities, or neuronal loss in specific brain areas. Nevertheless, both subtle motor abnormalities and significant alterations of synaptic plasticity have been recorded in mice, suggestive of an altered basal ganglia circuitry. In addition, robust evidence from experimental and clinical work supports the assumption that dystonia may indeed be considered a disorder linked to the disruption of synaptic "scaling", with a prevailing facilitation of synaptic potentiation, together with the loss of synaptic inhibitory processes. Notably, neurophysiological studies from patients carrying gene mutations as well as from non-manifesting carriers have shown the presence of synaptic plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in carriers of the gene mutation. In this survey, we review findings from a broad range of data, obtained both from animal models and human research, and propose that the abnormalities of synaptic plasticity described in mice and humans may be considered an endophenotype to dystonia, and a valid and powerful tool to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this movement disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia".

  5. Building models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics.

  6. Abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Fan; OuYang, Qi; Dai, Can; Lu, Chang-Fu; Lin, Ge; Gong, Fei; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2016-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are common in human embryos. Previous studies have suggested links between centrosome number and chromosome abnormalities, but information regarding abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos is limited. We analyzed abnormalities in centrosome number in human embryos and embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Following normal fertilization, supernumerary centrosomes were present at rates of 7.3% in two-pronucleus (2PN)-stage zygotes and 6.5% in first-cleavage zygotes. Supernumerary centrosomes were also detected in 24.4% of blastomeres from 60% of embryos derived from 2PN zygotes. Conversely, in mono- (1PN) and tri-pronucleus (3PN) zygotes, the frequency of abnormal centrosome number increased substantially at first cleavage. Rates in blastomeres of Day-3 embryos, however, were about the same between embryos derived from 1PN and 2PN zygotes, whereas abnormalities in centrosome number were higher in those from 3PN zygotes. By comparison, the rate of abnormal centrosome numbers in hESCs was 1.5-11.2%. Thus, abnormalities in centrosome number existed in human zygotes and cleaved embryos-especially those resulting from aberrant fertilization-but the frequency of such abnormalities was lower in hESCs derived from these embryos. These findings identify a source of the chromosomal instability in human embryos and hESCs, and highlight new safety issues for human assisted reproductive technology. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 392-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  8. [ISO 15189 medical laboratory accreditation].

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Tsutomu

    2004-10-01

    This International Standard, based upon ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO 9001, provides requirements for competence and quality that are particular to medical laboratories. While this International Standard is intended for use throughout the currently recognized disciplines of medical laboratory services, those working in other services and disciplines will also find it useful and appropriate. In addition, bodies engaged in the recognition of the competence of medical laboratories will be able to use this International Standard as the basis for their activities. The Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (AB) and the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CCLS) are jointly developing the program of accreditation of medical laboratories. ISO 15189 requirements consist of two parts, one is management requirements and the other is technical requirements. The former includes the requirements of all parts of ISO 9001, moreover it includes the requirement of conformity assessment body, for example, impartiality and independence from any other party. The latter includes the requirements of laboratory competence (e.g. personnel, facility, instrument, and examination methods), moreover it requires that laboratories shall participate proficiency testing(s) and laboratories' examination results shall have traceability of measurements and implement uncertainty of measurement. Implementation of ISO 15189 will result in a significant improvement in medical laboratories management system and their technical competence. The accreditation of medical laboratory will improve medical laboratory service and be useful for patients.

  9. Communication and the laboratory physician

    PubMed Central

    Penistan, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A clinical laboratory documentation system is described, suitable for community hospitals without computer services. The system is cumulative and is designed to provide the laboratory physician with the clinical information necessary for intelligent review and comment on the laboratory's findings. The mode of presentation of requests to the laboratory and lay-out of the reports to the clinicians are designed to make the two-way communication as close and personal as possible; to encourage the selection of those investigations likely to prove rewarding, and to discourage unnecessary investigation. The possibility of important data escaping notice is minimized. The system is economical in capital equipment, labour and supplies. PMID:4758594

  10. Finding the Gatekeeper to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Marwick, Thomas H.; Cho, Iksung; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Functional capacity is a robust predictor of clinical outcomes, and stress testing is used in current practice paradigms to guide referral to invasive coronary angiography. However, invasive coronary angiography is driven by ongoing symptoms, as well as risk of adverse outcomes. The limitations of current functional testing-based paradigms might be avoided by using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease. The growth of CCTA has been supported by comparative prognostic evidence with CCTA and functional testing, as well as radiation dose reduction. Use of CCTA for physiological evaluation of coronary lesion-specific ischemia may facilitate evaluation of moderate stenoses, designation of the culprit lesion, and prediction of benefit from revascularization. The potential of CCTA to serve as an effective gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography will depend, in part, on the adoption of these new developments, as well as definition of the benefit of detecting high-risk plaque for guiding the management of selected patients. PMID:26112200

  11. NLR in Human Diseases: Role and Laboratory Findings.

    PubMed

    Carta, Sonia; Gattorno, Marco; Rubartelli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are a group of inherited and multifactorial disorders characterized by an overactivation of innate immune response. In most cases, the clinical manifestations are due to increased activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in increased IL-1β secretion. Investigating inflammatory cells from subjects affected by autoinflammatory diseases presents a number of technical difficulties related to the rarity of the diseases, to the young age of most patients, and to the difficult modulation of gene expression in primary cells. However, since cell stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases, the study of freshly drawn blood monocytes from patients affected by IL-1-mediated diseases strongly increases the chances that the observed phenomena is indeed pertinent to the pathogenesis of the disease and not influenced by the long-term cell culture conditions (e.g., the high O2 tension) or gene transfection in continuous cell lines that may lead to artifacts.

  12. Epididymis microlithiasis and semen abnormalities in young adult kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, G; Lunelli, L; Berlingheri, M; Groppali, E; Carmignani, L

    2013-10-01

    Microlithiasis of the epididymis is a rare ultrasound finding in the general population, but the incidence of calcifications in various organs of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is extremely high. The aim of this study was to describe epididymal microlithiasis in 22 previously dialysed patients who received kidney transplantations at a median age of 19 years (range 9-30). The patients underwent scrotum ultrasonography, semen analysis and laboratory tests (renal function, sexual hormones, Ca, P and PTH) and were administered the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Seventeen presented calcifications of the epididymis, two of whom had concomitant testicular calcifications; a further three patients had isolated testicular calcifications without epididymis involvement. It was not possible to investigate the fertility of all of the patients but 12 of the 13 whose semen was analysed showed abnormalities: five were azoospermic and seven oligospermic with various degrees of morphological anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first published data concerning the prevalence of epididymal calcifications in young dialysed patients undergoing renal transplantation. Epididymal microlithiasis and infertility were common findings and so performing a spermiogram and preserving semen before ESRD for future paternity may be good advice in this selected population.

  13. Left Temporal Lobe Structural and Functional Abnormality Underlying Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed recent findings from our laboratory, originally presented in Hugdahl et al. (2008). These findings reveal that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia should best be conceptualized as internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the ‘voices’ and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented together with a review of behavioral, structural, and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. We have proposed a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to neuronal abnormality in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks. PMID:19753095

  14. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  15. Higher frequency of brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li-Na; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder often co-exists with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with (n = 6) or without primary Sjögren's syndrome (n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. There were no statistical differences in demographics or first neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibodies, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome are similar. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities.

  16. Higher frequency of brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-na; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Jing-yao

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder often co-exists with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with (n = 6) or without primary Sjögren's syndrome (n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. There were no statistical differences in demographics or first neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibodies, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome are similar. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities. PMID:27904495

  17. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Guozhe; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 5919 hypertensive adults (2892 men and 3027 women) aged 35 years or older, was recruited from rural areas of China. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. The self-reported information was collected by trained personnel. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated triglycerides and elevated waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had significantly higher prevalences of all cardiometabolic risk factors than those without the HTGW phenotype (P < 0.001). Compared with the normal waist normal triglyceride (NWNT) group, hypertensive adults with the HTGW phenotype had much higher possibilities to have all cardiometabolic risk factors, especially for 8.35 times more likely of having ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.92–11.79], 6.14 times more likely of having low HDL cholesterol (95% CI 4.98–7.58), 5.49 times more likely of having hyperuricemia (95% CI 4.40–6.86), and 4.32 times more likely of having 1 to 2 cardiometabolic risk factors (95% CI 3.68–5.07) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities (P < 0.05). This study concluded that the HTGW phenotype was positively associated with metabolic abnormalities in hypertensive adults. The HTGW phenotype showed to be an important tool for monitoring of hypertensive adults with metabolic abnormalities, which is low cost, simple, and useful in clinical practice, especially in primary health care in the rural area of China. PMID:27930589

  18. Abnormality detection in noisy biosignals.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2013-01-01

    Although great strides have been achieved in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) research, a major remaining problem is the ability to perform well under the presence of significant noise. In this work, we propose a mechanism to find instances of potential interest in time series for further analysis. Adaptive Kalman filters are employed in parallel among different feature axes. Lung sounds recorded in noisy conditions are used as an example application, with spectro-temporal feature extraction to capture the complex variabilities in sound. We demonstrate that both disease indicators and distortion events can be detected, reducing long time series signals into a sparse set of relevant events.

  19. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research.

  20. Large brains in autism: the challenge of pervasive abnormality.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Martha R

    2005-10-01

    The most replicated finding in autism neuroanatomy-a tendency to unusually large brains-has seemed paradoxical in relation to the specificity of the abnormalities in three behavioral domains that define autism. We now know a range of things about this phenomenon, including that brains in autism have a growth spurt shortly after birth and then slow in growth a few short years afterward, that only younger but not older brains are larger in autism than in controls, that white matter contributes disproportionately to this volume increase and in a nonuniform pattern suggesting postnatal pathology, that functional connectivity among regions of autistic brains is diminished, and that neuroinflammation (including microgliosis and astrogliosis) appears to be present in autistic brain tissue from childhood through adulthood. Alongside these pervasive brain tissue and functional abnormalities, there have arisen theories of pervasive or widespread neural information processing or signal coordination abnormalities (such as weak central coherence, impaired complex processing, and underconnectivity), which are argued to underlie the specific observable behavioral features of autism. This convergence of findings and models suggests that a systems- and chronic disease-based reformulation of function and pathophysiology in autism needs to be considered, and it opens the possibility for new treatment targets.

  1. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  2. Congenital abnormalities of the ovine paramesonephric ducts.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    1995-01-01

    A 15 month survey of ovine reproductive tracts was undertaken in slaughterhouses in southwest England. A total of 33506 tracts were examined; 23536 from lambs and 9970 from adults. In total, 3.4% of tracts were pregnant and 3.3% exhibited abnormalities. Twenty cases of uterus unicornis, six of uterus didelphys and 11 of segmental aplasia were encountered, such that partial aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 3.3% of all abnormalities. Although developmental abnormalities of the ovine female genital system are relatively uncommon, a substantial proportion of these can be accounted for by development defects of the paramesonephric ducts.

  3. [Radionuclide studies of congenital kidney abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Vlakhov, N

    1984-06-01

    Using the potentialities of isotope nephrograms as a screening test a total of 4746 patients suspected of renal abnormalities were examined. The author established pathological deviations in 561 cases (11.8%). During further verification using scintigraphy unsuspected congenital renal abnormalities (aplasia, hypoplasia, dystopia, double kidney, horseshoe kidney, solitary cyst and polycystic renal disease) were found in 46 patients (8.2%). The diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent venous x-ray urography. A conclusion has been made as to the role of comprehensive nephrographic-scintigraphic examination in the diagnosis of congenital renal abnormalities.

  4. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Electroencephalographic findings in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Velasques, Bruna Brandao; Cagy, Mauricio; Marques, Juliana Bittencourt; Teixeira, Silmar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-12-01

    Some studies have reported the importance of electroencephalography (EEG) as a method for investigating abnormal parameters in psychiatric disorders. Different findings in time and frequency domain analysis with regard to central nervous system arousal during acute panic states have already been obtained. This study aimed to systematically review the EEG findings in panic disorder (PD), discuss them having a currently accepted neuroanatomical hypothesis for this pathology as a basis, and identify limitations in the selected studies. Literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the keywords electroencephalography and panic disorder; 16 articles were selected. Despite the inconsistency of EEG findings in PD, the major conclusions about the absolute power of alpha and beta bands point to a decreased alpha power, while beta power tends to increase. Different asymmetry patterns were found between studies. Coherence studies pointed to a lower degree of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity at the frontal region and intra-hemispheric at the bilateral temporal region. Studies on possible related events showed changes in memory processing in PD patients when exposed to aversive stimuli. It was noticed that most findings reflect the current neurobiological hypothesis of PD, where inhibitory deficits of the prefrontal cortex related to the modulation of amygdala activity, and the subsequent activation of subcortical regions, may be responsible to trigger anxiety responses. We approached some important issues that need to be considered in further researches, especially the use of different methods for analyzing EEG signals.

  6. [Cytogenetic findings in patients with Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cortés, F; Alliende, M; Curotto, B

    1990-01-01

    In order to describe the frequency of non classical forms of 21 trisomy in patients with Down's syndrome at the cytogenetic's laboratory of our institution (Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile) 201 chromosomal studies from peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients referred with a clinical diagnosis of Down's syndrome were analyzed. Among them 22 (11%) cases showed no chromosomal abnormalities, 161 (80%) had classic 21 trisomy, 7 (3.5%), showed 21 trisomy by translocation, 5 (2.5%) had 21 trisomy mosaicism, 6 (3%) showed 21 trisomy plus an autosomic balanced translocation. Male to female rate was 1.18:1 and diagnosis was done at the neonatal period in 26.8% of cases. Early recognition of the different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities in Down's syndrome is important if appropriate genetic council is the goal.

  7. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Mariano; Thomas, Sumi; Kamath, Mohan S.; Ramalingam, Ramya; Kongari, Ann Marie; Yuvarani, S; Srivastava, Vivi M.; George, Korula

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml) attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5%) men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9%) men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133) of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133). Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87). Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:27803587

  8. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  9. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Elaine Y; McBride, Sara W; Hsien, Sophia; Sharon, Gil; Hyde, Embriette R; McCue, Tyler; Codelli, Julian A; Chow, Janet; Reisman, Sarah E; Petrosino, Joseph F; Patterson, Paul H; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2013-12-19

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  11. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

  12. MRI Helps Assess Fetal Brain Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about their pregnancy," said lead author Paul Griffiths. He's a professor of radiology at the University ... the fetus may have a suspected brain abnormality," Griffiths said in a journal news release. In this ...

  13. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interest (Quiz) Breast Cancer (Video) Overview of the Female Reproductive System (News) Study: Plenty of IV Fluids May Make Childbirth Safer, Easier (News) Zejula Approved for Certain Female Cancers Additional Content Medical News Abnormal Position and ...

  14. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  15. Rheumatoid shoulder assessed by ultrasonography: prevalence of abnormalities and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Elbinoune, Imane; Amine, Bouchra; Wabi, Moudjibou; Rkain, Hanan; Aktaou, Souad; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The shoulder involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is common. It can be subclinical and compromise the function of the upper limb. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography can detect subclinical abnormalities in rheumatoid shoulder. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities in rheumatoid shoulder, and investigate their association with different parameters. Methods Cross-sectional study including 37 patients with RA, meeting the ACR/EULAR 2010 classification criteria, who were enrolled during a month. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data was filled in for all patients. Ultrasound evaluation was performed by a single experienced operator. For each patient, both of shoulders were evaluated. Results Mean age was 50 years with female predominance. Median disease duration of RA was 7.5 years. All patients had a seropositive form of RA. Mean clinical DAS28 was 5.1. Mean HAQ was 1.2. Thirty-one (83.8%) patients had involvement of the shoulder: unilateral in 9(24.3%) cases and bilateral in 22(59.5%) cases. Synovitis was found in 16(43.2%) patients with Doppler in 4 (10.8%) cases. Sub-acromial bursitis was noted in 14 (37.8%) cases and the effusion in 20 (54.1%). Synovitis was noted especially in elderly individuals (p: 0.01). The Doppler was visualized in elderly patients (p: 0.01), with a shorter disease duration (p: 0.02) and with a high SDAI (p: 0.006). US inflammatory findings in anterior recess of glenohumeral joint were linked to a higher synovial index (p: 0.03) and a higher level of rheumatoid factor (p: 0.01). Conclusion 59.5% of our RA patients had bilateral involvement of the shoulder which was related to the disease activity. Ultrasound should be a systematic tool to look for the involvement of this joint in RA patients. PMID:27800090

  16. Dental findings in Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M; Odell, E W; Sheehy, E C

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the dental findings of a child with the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe. The genetic abnormality in this condition results in an inborn error of inositol phosphate metabolism. Renal tubular dysfunction leads to metabolic acidosis and phosphaturia. At 4 years, generalised mobility of all primary teeth was noted. It is postulated that a defective inositol phosphate metabolism was responsible for the periodontal pathology found in this case. This is in direct contrast with previous reports of prolonged retention of primary teeth in children with this condition. Histology of extracted primary incisors demonstrated enlarged pulp chambers and mildly dysplastic dentin formation. This is consistent with a chronic subrachitic state, a known feature of Lowe syndrome, but no prominent interglobular dentin was present.

  17. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory CALIOPE overview

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.S.; Kelly, J.F.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1995-03-01

    This overview covers progress in the following areas in which Pacific Northwest Laboratory contributes to the CALIOPE Program: (1) Fabrication of electro-optic modulators to generate FM-coding on IR lasers in the 8-12 and 3-5 {mu}m regions. (2) IR spectroscopy of signature species, abnormal isotopic distributions, hydrolysis and kinetics of effluents interacting with the atmosphere, and reflectance measurements of natural surfaces. (3) Systems analysis of FM-DIAL concepts, including lateral phase coherence and MTF measurements, and laboratory tests of detector technology and demodulation methods. (4) Field tests of FM-DIAL, covering field validation of portable diode laser concepts, FM-CO{sub 2} interrogation of Hanford sites, and signal returns from natural specular surfaces. (5) Ancillary matters: ground-truthing at Hanford (and RSTR?), countermeasures, and new laser design concepts.

  19. Laboratory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Webster, H L

    1983-01-01

    The demonstration of abnormally high concentrations of electrolytes in eccrine sweat is still the only practical laboratory procedure available for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Properly performed, the sweat test is very reliable, but there are many published reports that all of the methods in current use frequently generate incorrect diagnoses. Analysis of potential for error in sweat test methods shows that of the three essential phases involved, stimulation, collection, and analysis, the major cause of intrinsic inaccuracy occurs in the collection process. In this case the problem is due to condensate formation, which leads to the subsequent analysis of nonrepresentative sweat. Human error is also an important cause of false results and is a direct function of the number of critical manual operations involved in the technic. This review provides a critical examination of sweat test methods, identifying problem areas and suggesting ways to improve procedures in the interests of clinically reliable laboratory data in support of diagnosis.

  20. Laboratory tests, interpretation, and use of resources

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Marcia; Paulin, Heidi; Sidhu, Davinder; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed The overuse of laboratory testing has increased rapidly and is contributing to the financial strain on the health care system in Canada. Moreover, a substantial proportion of ordered tests are unnecessary. In a search of all the Canadian family physician residency programs, none lists laboratory training as mandatory or as an optional elective in its curriculum. Objective of program To introduce family medicine residents to appropriate and efficient use of laboratory tests. Program description The program was run as a series of identical 4-hour small group sessions to facilitate discussion and laboratory tours. The curriculum focused on 7 key topics: problems associated with laboratory testing, sources of laboratory errors, definitions of normal and abnormal test results, appropriate use of laboratory requisition forms, laboratory quality assurance methods, laboratory collection processes, and costs of common laboratory tests. Residents were taken to a patient specimen collection site for a tour and introduction, followed by approximately 2 hours of didactic sessions, and ending with a tour of a large tertiary care testing facility. Conclusion The program was very well received by family medicine residents and resulted in a substantial increase in residents’ self-assessed knowledge of the 7 topics covered in the curriculum. It is hoped that this program will fill an important gap in residency training and support residents’ competency in the “selectivity” domain of training. PMID:24627400

  1. Painful heel: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Narváez, J A; Narváez, J; Ortega, R; Aguilera, C; Sánchez, A; Andía, E

    2000-01-01

    Heel pain is a common and frequently disabling clinical complaint that may be caused by a broad spectrum of osseous or soft-tissue disorders. These disorders are classified on the basis of anatomic origin and predominant location of heel pain to foster a better understanding of this complaint. The disorders include plantar fascial lesions (fasciitis, rupture, fibromatosis, xanthoma), tendinous lesions (tendinitis, tenosynovitis), osseous lesions (fractures, bone bruises, osteomyelitis, tumors), bursal lesions (retrocalcaneal bursitis, retroachilleal bursitis), tarsal tunnel syndrome, and heel plantar fat pad abnormalities. With its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help determine the cause of heel pain and help assess the extent and severity of the disease in ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases. Careful analysis of MR imaging findings and correlation of these findings with patient history and findings at physical examination can suggest a specific diagnosis in most cases. The majority of patients with heel pain can be successfully treated conservatively, but in cases requiring surgery (eg, plantar fascia rupture in competitive athletes, deeply infiltrating plantar fibromatosis, masses causing tarsal tunnel syndrome), MR imaging is especially useful in planning surgical treatment by showing the exact location and extent of the lesion.

  2. Unusual Finding in the Inguinal Canal: Abdominal Tuberculosis Presenting as Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Dhandore, Priya; Hombalkar, Narendra Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal findings in the inguinal canal during Herniotomy are not very rare for a paediatric surgeon. These abnormal findings may range from opposite gender sex organ (e.g. uterus and fallopian tube during orchidopexy) to unexpected malignancy (e.g. Rhabdomyosarcoma) to the abnormal embryological development (Splenogonadal fusion). Though abdominal tuberculosis is common, abdominal tuberculosis presenting as an inguinal hernia is exceedingly uncommon. We report an unusual case of abdominal tuberculosis presenting as inguinal hernia. PMID:27190886

  3. Angiographic findings in homocystinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Wicherink-Bol, H.F.; Boers, G.H.J.; Drayer, J.I.M.; Rosenbusch, G.

    1983-08-01

    Homocystinuria (HC) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism characterized by ectopia lentis, mental retardation, and skeletal abnormalities. Vascular disorders may also occur in HC, although they are less common. Arteriographic studies of two sisters with HC are described. The younger woman's renal arteries showed wall irregularities and aneurysms, narrowing of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries, and some aneurysmatic changes. In the older patient, irregular right carotid and splenic arteries were seen and a splenic aneurysm was present.

  4. The character of abnormalities found in eye development of quail embruos exposed under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, E.; Dadheva, O.; Polinskaya, V.; Guryeva, T.

    The avian embryonic eye is used as a model system for studies on the environmental effects on central nervous system development. Here we present results of qualitative investigation of the eye development in quail embryos incubated in micro-"g" environment. In this study we used eyes of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) embryos "flown" onboard biosatellite Kosmos-1129 and on Mir station within the framework of Mir-NASA Program. Eyes obtained from embryos ranging in age from 3-12 days (E3-E12) were prepared histologically and compared with those of the synchronous and laboratory gound controls. Ther most careful consideration was given to finding and analysis of eye developmental abnormalities. Then they were compared with those already described by experimental teratology for birds and mammals. At the stage of the "eye cup" (E3) we found the case of invalid formation of the inner retina. The latter was represented by disorganized neuroblasts occupying whole posterior chamber of the eye. On the 7th day of quail eye development, at the period of cellular growth activation some cases of small eyes with many folds of overgrowing neural and pigmented retinal layers were detected. In retinal folds of these eyes the normal layering was disturbed as well as the formation of aqueous body and pecten oculi. At this time point the changes were also found in the anterior part of the eye. The peculiarities came out of the bigger width of the cornea and separation of its layers, but were found in synchronous control as well. Few embryos of E10 had also eyes with the abnormities described for E7 but this time they were more vivid because of the completion of eye tissue differentiation. At the stage E12 we found the case evaluated as microphthalmia attending by overgrowth of anterior pigmented tissues - iris and ciliary body attached with the cornea. Most, but not all, of abnormalities we found in eye morphogeneses belonged to the birds "flown" aboard Kosmos- 1129 and

  5. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Lischinsky, Julieta E; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10-12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both severity and timing of maternal TH insufficiency.

  6. 76 FR 22925 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Abnormal Behavior Detection Finds Malicious Actors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... card. Fraud detection algorithms (based on user behavior models) and procedures immediately set off... unusual behavior on the part of authorized users. The fraud detection algorithms use the financial... sets of values to be analyzed with well understood algorithms. For example, credit card purchases...

  7. Central nervous system cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients: clinical relevance of abnormal neuroimaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Lortholary, Olivier; Dromer, Françoise; Alexander, Barbara D.; Gupta, Krishan L.; John, George T.; del Busto, Ramon; Klintmalm, Goran B.; Somani, Jyoti; Lyon, G. Marshall; Prusell, Kenneth; Stosor, Valentina; Muňoz, Patricia; Limaye, Ajit P.; Kalil, Andre C.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Humar, Atul; Houston, Sally; House, Andrew A.; Wray, Dannah; Orloff, Susan; Dowdy, Lorraine A.; Fisher, Robert A.; Heitman, Joseph; Wagener, Marilyn M.; Husain, Shahid

    2009-01-01

    Background Prognostic implications of cryptococcal antigen and outcomes associated with CNS cryptococcal lesions in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients have not been fully defined. Methods Patients were derived form a cohort of 122 SOT recipients with cryptococcosis in a multicenter study from 1999–2006. Results CNS cryptococcosis was documented in 61 patients. Serum or CSF antigen titers did not correlate with mortality at 90 days or CSF sterilization at 2 weeks. CNS lesions were identified in 16 patients and included leptomeningeal lesions in 8, parenchymal lesions in 6 and hydrocephalus in 2. Overall, 13/16 CNS lesions were present at the time of diagnosis. One parenchymal and 2 hydrocephalus lesions however, developed after diagnosis and fulfilled the criteria for immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS). CSF antigen titers were higher with meningeal vs. parenchymal lesions, and hydrocephalus (p=0.015). Mortality was 50% (3/6) for patients with parenchymal, 12.5% (1/8) for those with leptomeningeal, and 0/3 for patients with hydrocephalus. Mortality was 31% (4/13) for patients with CNS lesions at baseline and 0/3 in those with new onset lesions. Conclusions Despite a greater antigen titer with meningeal lesions, outcomes tended to be worse with parenchymal compared to meningeal lesions or hydrocephalus. New onset CNS lesions may represent IRS and appeared to be associated with better outcome. PMID:18791444

  8. Why is placentation abnormal in preeclampsia?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    derivatives use to adhere to one another, becomes nearly undetectable, replaced by vascular-endothelial cadherin, which serves the same purpose in blood vessels. Invading cytotrophoblasts also modulate vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors, at some point in the differentiation process expressing every (mammalian) family member. Molecules in this family play crucial roles in vascular and trophoblast biology, including prevention of apoptosis. In preeclampsia, this process of vascular mimicry is incomplete, which we theorize hinders the cells interactions with spiral arterioles. What causes these aberrations? Given what is known from animal models and human risk factors, reduced placental perfusion and/or certain disease states (metabolic, immune and cardiovascular) lie upstream. Recent evidence suggests the surprising conclusion that isolation and culture of cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia enables normalization of their gene expression. The affected molecules include SEMA3B, which downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor signaling through the PI3K/AKT and GSK3 pathways. Thus, some aspects of the aberrant differentiation of cytotrophoblasts within the uterine wall that is observed in situ may be reversible. The next challenge is asking what the instigating causes are. There is added urgency to finding the answers, as these pathways could be valuable therapeutic targets for reversing abnormal placental function in patients. PMID:26428489

  9. Striatal Abnormalities and Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica; Gupta, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals experiencing non-clinical psychosis (NCP) represent a critical group for improving understanding of etiological factors underlying the broader psychosis continuum. Although a wealth of evidence supports widespread neural dysfunction in formal psychosis, there has been little empirical evidence to support our understanding of putative vulnerability markers or brain structure in NCP. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of spontaneous movement abnormalities, a neural biomarker previously detected in NCP that is linked to abnormalities in the striatal dopamine. Methods We screened a total of 1,285 adolescents/young adults, and those scoring in the upper 15 percentile on a NCP scale were invited to participate; 20 of those invited agreed and these individuals were matched with healthy controls. Participants were administered a structural scan, clinical interviews, and an instrumental motor assessment. Results The NCP group showed elevated force variability, smaller putamen (but not caudate), and there was a significant relationship between motor dysfunction and striatal abnormalities for the sample. Elevated force variability was associated with both higher positive and negative symptoms, and there was a strong trend (p=.06) to suggest that smaller left putamen volumes were associated with elevated positive symptoms. Conclusions The results are among the first to suggest an association between neural structure and a risk marker in NCP. Findings indicate that vulnerabilities seen in schizophrenia also characterize the lower end of the psychosis spectrum. PMID:24156901

  10. Abnormal binaural spectral integration in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Lina A J; Ito, Rindy A; Eggleston, Jessica L; Wozny, David R

    2014-04-01

    Bimodal stimulation, or stimulation of a cochlear implant (CI) together with a contralateral hearing aid (HA), can improve speech perception in noise However, this benefit is variable, and some individuals even experience interference with bimodal stimulation. One contributing factor to this variability may be differences in binaural spectral integration (BSI) due to abnormal auditory experience. CI programming introduces interaural pitch mismatches, in which the frequencies allocated to the electrodes (and contralateral HA) differ from the electrically stimulated cochlear frequencies. Previous studies have shown that some, but not all, CI users adapt pitch perception to reduce this mismatch. The purpose of this study was to determine whether broadened BSI may also reduce the perception of mismatch. Interaural pitch mismatches and dichotic pitch fusion ranges were measured in 21 bimodal CI users. Seventeen subjects with wide fusion ranges also conducted a task to pitch match various fused electrode-tone pairs. All subjects showed abnormally wide dichotic fusion frequency ranges of 1-4 octaves. The fusion range size was weakly correlated with the interaural pitch mismatch, suggesting a link between broad binaural pitch fusion and large interaural pitch mismatch. Dichotic pitch averaging was also observed, in which a new binaural pitch resulted from the fusion of the original monaural pitches, even when the pitches differed by as much as 3-4 octaves. These findings suggest that abnormal BSI, indicated by broadened fusion ranges and spectral averaging between ears, may account for speech perception interference and nonoptimal integration observed with bimodal compared with monaural hearing device use.

  11. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects.

  12. The pattern of sensory processing abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Garver, Carolyn R; Grannemann, Bruce D; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Johnson, Danny G; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2006-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nature of sensory dysfunction in persons with autism. The cross-sectional study examined auditory, visual, oral, and touch sensory processing, as measured by the Sensory Profile, in 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3-56 years of age, gender-and age-matched to community controls. Persons with autism had abnormal auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory processing that was significantly different from controls. This finding was also apparent when the high and low thresholds of these modalities were examined separately. At later ages for the group with autism, lower levels of abnormal sensory processing were found, except for low threshold touch, which did not improve significantly. There was a significant interaction in low threshold auditory and low threshold visual, suggesting that the two groups change differently over time on these variables. These results suggest that sensory abnormalities in autism are global in nature (involving several modalities) but have the potential to improve with age.

  13. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shenton, Martha E.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Frumin, Melissa; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    After more than 100 years of research, the neuropathology of schizophrenia remains unknown and this is despite the fact that both Kraepelin (1919/1971: Kraepelin,E., 1919/1971. Dementia praecox. Churchill Livingston Inc., New York) and Bleuler (1911/1950: Bleuler, E., 1911/1950. Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. International Universities Press, New York), who first described ‘dementia praecox’ and the ‘ schizophrenias’, were convinced that schizophrenia would ultimately be linked to an organic brain disorder. Alzheimer (1897: Alzheimer, A., 1897. Beitrage zur pathologischen anatomie der hirnrinde und zur anatomischen grundlage einiger psychosen. Monatsschrift fur Psychiarie und Neurologie. 2, 82–120) was the first to investigate the neuropathology of schizophrenia, though he went on to study more tractable brain diseases. The results of subsequent neuropathological studies were disappointing because of conflicting findings. Research interest thus waned and did not flourish again until 1976, following the pivotal computer assisted tomography (CT) finding of lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia by Johnstone and colleagues. Since that time significant progress has been made in brain imaging, particularly with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), beginning with the first MRI study of schizophrenia by Smith and coworkers in 1984 (Smith, R.C., Calderon, M., Ravichandran, G.K., et al. (1984). Nuclear magnetic resonance in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Psychiatry Res. 12, 137–147). MR in vivo imaging of the brain now confirms brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. The 193 peer reviewed MRI studies reported in the current review span the period from 1988 to August, 2000. This 12 year period has witnessed a burgeoning of MRI studies and has led to more definitive findings of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia than any other time period in the history of schizophrenia research. Such progress in defining the

  14. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare

  15. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  16. Iniencephaly Clausus: A New Case With Clinical and Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Hasanzadeh, Mohsen; Norouzi, Hedayat; Esfandiari, Ehasn; Mehrafarin, Mastooreh

    2015-01-01

    Iniencephaly is a rare kind of neural tube defect that is classified into two types of iniencephaly apertus and iniencephaly clausus. This anomaly could be diagnosed prenatally by obstetric ultrasonography and terminated by therapeutic abortion; however, it could be undiagnosed until birth similar to our case due to the abnormal position of the fetus or lack of experience of the sonographer. Due to abnormality of the neural tube, which causes abnormal head and neck position, all these cases will die shortly after birth. We hereby introduce the photos and imaging findings of a case of an alive neonate with iniencephaly clausus. PMID:26528385

  17. Iniencephaly Clausus: A New Case With Clinical and Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Alireza; Hasanzadeh, Mohsen; Norouzi, Hedayat; Esfandiari, Ehasn; Mehrafarin, Mastooreh

    2015-07-01

    Iniencephaly is a rare kind of neural tube defect that is classified into two types of iniencephaly apertus and iniencephaly clausus. This anomaly could be diagnosed prenatally by obstetric ultrasonography and terminated by therapeutic abortion; however, it could be undiagnosed until birth similar to our case due to the abnormal position of the fetus or lack of experience of the sonographer. Due to abnormality of the neural tube, which causes abnormal head and neck position, all these cases will die shortly after birth. We hereby introduce the photos and imaging findings of a case of an alive neonate with iniencephaly clausus.

  18. Good laboratory practice and laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; McQuaker, N

    1993-12-01

    Principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and laboratory accreditation programs, particularly as they pertain to the environmental sector, are reviewed. The multitude of programs is proving costly for many laboratories and there is mounting pressure to develop reciprocity agreements between programs and to consolidate nationally and internationally. Inclusion of GLP and laboratory accreditation requirements in government regulations is resulting in a significantly increased number of laboratories participating in these programs.

  19. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  20. Synergistic combination of clinical and imaging features predicts abnormal imaging patterns of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Jaster-Miller, Kirsten; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We designed and tested a novel hybrid statistical model that accepts radiologic image features and clinical variables, and integrates this information in order to automatically predict abnormalities in chest computed-tomography (CT) scans and identify potentially important infectious disease biomarkers. In 200 patients, 160 with various pulmonary infections and 40 healthy controls, we extracted 34 clinical variables from laboratory tests and 25 textural features from CT images. From the CT scans, pleural effusion (PE), linear opacity (or thickening) (LT), tree-in-bud (TIB), pulmonary nodules, ground glass opacity (GGO), and consolidation abnormality patterns were analyzed and predicted through clinical, textural (imaging), or combined attributes. The presence and severity of each abnormality pattern was validated by visual analysis of the CT scans. The proposed biomarker identification system included two important steps: (i) a coarse identification of an abnormal imaging pattern by adaptively selected features (AmRMR), and (ii) a fine selection of the most important features from the previous step, and assigning them as biomarkers, depending on the prediction accuracy. Selected biomarkers were used to classify normal and abnormal patterns by using a boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier. For all abnormal imaging patterns, an average prediction accuracy of 76.15% was obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed biomarker identification approach is promising and may advance the data processing in clinical pulmonary infection research and diagnostic techniques. PMID:23930819

  1. Ocular abnormalities in multi-transfused beta-thalassemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Reza; Heydarian, Samira; Karami, Hosein; Shektaei, Mohammad Momeni; Dailami, Kiumars Noruzpour; Amiri, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Rezaee, Majid Reza Sheikh; Far, Asad Allah Farrokh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess ocular changes in thalassemia patients who have received multiple transfusions and chelate binding therapy in order to avoid iron accumulation. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 54 thalassemia major patients were selected as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as a control group. Ocular examination included visual acuity, refraction testing, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, tonometry, perimetry, tear break-up time test, and color vision testing were performed for all the participants. We computed the frequency and duration of blood transfusion, the mean serum ferritin level, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and type, duration, and daily dose of chelation therapy for thalassemia patients based on their records. Statistical Analysis Used: All data analysis was performed using SPSS, version 19. Results: All the thalassemic patients were asymptomatic, but abnormal ocular findings (dry eye (33.3%), cataract (10.2%), retinal pigment epithelium degeneration (16.7%), color vision deficiency (3.7%), and visual field defects (33.7%)) were seen in 68.5% of thalassemic group. The prevalence of ocular abnormalities in normal group was 19.4%, which was significantly lower than that in thalassemia patients (P = 0.000). No significant correlation was found between ocular abnormalities and mean serum ferritin level (P = 0.627) and mean hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.143). Correlation of number of blood transfusion with the presence of ocular abnormalities was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.005). Conclusions: As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients extends, regular ophthalmological evaluation to detect early changes in their ocular system is recommended. PMID:26632126

  2. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O

    1997-12-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans increased abnormal sperm morphology without alterations in aneuploidy: The Yucheng study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-Chi; Li, Ming-Chieh; Lee, Yeu-Chin; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2016-12-01

    In 1979, more than 2000 persons ingested rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans; this event was called the "Yucheng accident." An increased percentage of oligospermia, reduced ability of sperm to penetrate oocytes, and reduced percentage of male offspring were reported in Yucheng men. This study examined whether the sperm sex ratio and chromosome aneuploidy are responsible for our observed findings in Yucheng men. In 1999-2000, Yucheng men and their neighborhood referents aged 37-50 years were recruited for physical examination, followed by semen analysis. The semen samples were analyzed for chromosomal aneuploidy through fluorescent in situ hybridization according to an established procedure in our laboratory. A total of 50 Yucheng men and 34 neighborhood referents volunteered to participate in the study. Although abnormal morphology was mildly increased, no differences were observed in sperm percentages, with normal numbers of chromosomes X, Y, and 8 in the two groups. The percentage of sperm with aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes or chromosome 8 and of that with diploidy did not vary between both groups. The normal X/Y sperm ratio was not different between the groups. However, among Yucheng men, 8% had a normal X/Y sperm ratio of >1.4, and no neighborhood referent showed such an elevated X/Y ratio. Chromosomal aneuploidy was not elevated in Yucheng men. The mechanisms underlying the reduced sperm capability of oocyte penetration and changed offspring sex ratio in Yucheng men remain undetermined.

  5. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  6. The correction of biochemical abnormalities in fibroblasts of a Zellweger patient by gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shimozawa, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Oril, T.

    1994-09-01

    Zellweger syndrome is a prototype of peroxisome-deficient disorders and a fatal autosomal recessive disease with no effective therapy. We identified nine genetic complementation groups of these disorders among several laboratories, and mutations in peroxisome assembly factor-1 (PAF-1) and the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) genes have been described in Zellweger patients from our group F and Roscher`s group 1, respectively. We now succeed the permanent recovery of generalized peroxisomal abnormalities in fibroblasts of a Zellweger patient from the group F by the stable transfection of human cDNA encoding PAF-1. In the transfectants, a number of peroxisomal dysfunctions such as lignocelic acid oxidation, dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity and biogenesis of peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation enzymes were restored, as well as morphological absence of peroxisomes. These findings are useful for basic studies on gene therapy of peroxisomal disorders in the cultured cellular system. Further study on expression of human PMP70 cDNA in fibroblasts from Roscher`s group 1 will be also necessary to confirm whether the PMP70 is responsible for Zellweger syndrome.

  7. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  8. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  9. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  10. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  11. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  12. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  13. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  14. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  15. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  16. Neuropsychological abnormalities in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I

    1993-01-01

    Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104

  17. Evaluation and Management of Adolescents with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Miller, Rachel J; Mullins, Eric S

    2015-09-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists support the use of new terminology for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) to consistently categorize AUB by etiology. The term AUB can be further classified as AUB/heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) (replacing the term "menorrhagia") or AUB/intermenstrual bleeding (replacing the term "metrorrhagia"). Although many cases of AUB in adolescent women are attributable to immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, underlying bleeding disorders should be considered in women with AUB/HMB. This article reviews the new terminology for AUB, discusses important relevant features of history and examination, presents the laboratory evaluation of HMB, and describes hormonal (oral contraceptive pills, progestin-only methods, long-acting reversible contraceptives including intrauterine systems), hematologic (tranexamic acid and desmopressin), and surgical management options for AUB/HMB.

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Less information is available on the cytogenetic abnormalities in marrow cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than on abnormalities in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL); nonetheless, some patterns of karyotypic change in ALL are evident. Even with banding, about 50% of patients appear to have a normal karyotype. The modal chromosome number tends to be higher in ALL than in ANLL. Every patient with B-cell ALL has had an abnormality of one chromosome No. 14 that involved the translocation of material to the end of the long arm. Among seven reported cases, the translocation was from 8q in three patients and 11q in one. Cells with a haploid or near-haploid (24 to 35) chromosome number have been reported in five patients with ALL and in four patients in a lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia. The karyotype in the four ALL patients whose cells were analyzed with banding was remarkably consistent. All patients had the haploid number, usually with both sex chromosomes, plus an additional No. 10, 18, and 21. Evolution of the karyotype, which occurs in the leukemic cells of about 50% of patients, involves cells of patients who had an initially normal or an initially abnormal karyotype. The evidence regarding a correlation between the presence of an abnormal clone prior to treatment and response to treatment is contradictory at present. Some chromosome abnormalities, such as the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph/sup 1/) chromosome, a 14q+chromosome, or a haploid clone, are associated with a relatively short survival.

  19. [Summary of pathophysiology and diagnosis of patients with platelet abnormality].

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideo; Asakura, Hidesaku

    2009-05-01

    In hematological disorders, thrombocytopenia is frequently observed, and it is sometimes difficult to diagnose the underlying disease. In this symposium, laboratory tests for platelet abnormality were reviewed. Tests for platelet aggregation were reported to be important for the diagnosis of platelet dysfunction. Thrombocytopenia is caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), etc. As DIC is classified according to the degree of fibrinolysis, it was stated that the measurement of hemostatic molecular markers was further required. TMA is caused by abnormality of ADAMTS13, verotoxin, DIC, etc. HIT is diagnosed by anti-PF4 antibody, but its specificity is not high. Further investigation of TMA and HIT is required. APS is one of the most important diseases which cause thrombosis or abortion, suggesting that a differential diagnosis of APS is important. It was reported that diagnostic criteria of ITP have been established using a new antibody assay for platelets, immature platelet fractions, thrombopoietin, etc. In myeloproliferative disorders such as polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, the mutation of JAK2 V617F was reported to be an important risk factor for thrombosis.

  20. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  1. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  2. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  3. Roentgenographic abnormalities in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E

    1982-02-01

    Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.

  4. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  5. Neurological and neuropathological findings in ring chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R S; Zalneraitis, E L

    1980-01-01

    Despite the fact that mental retardation, microcephaly, seizures, and hyperactivity are common in patients with ring chromosome 4, little has been written about the underlying neuropathology. We describe a 6-year-old girl whose neuropathological findings included low brain weight, abnormal gyral development, and heterotopic neurons. The significance of these findings in regard to other retardation syndromes is discussed. Images PMID:7205435

  6. Audiologic findings in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Urmen; Rosen, Heather; Mulliken, John B; Gopen, Quinton; Meara, John G; Rogers, Gary F

    2010-09-01

    Hearing loss has been described in patients with certain craniosynostotic syndromes but is poorly defined in Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). Our objective was to characterize the otologic and audiologic findings in PS. The records of PS patients evaluated at our craniofacial center over a 30-year period were culled. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis and formal audiologic examination were included. Diagnostic criteria were characteristic mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 or 2 (FGFR1, FGFR2) or, in the absence of genetic testing, typical clinical findings of PS as determined by a clinical geneticist or the most senior author. Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had hearing loss. Twenty patients had traditional audiologic testing: 14 (70%) had pure conductive loss (minor to severe), and 3 (15%) had a mixed conductive/sensorineural loss (minor to severe). Two additional patients had hearing loss by Behavioral Observational Audiometry (sound fields method). One patient with early conductive hearing loss was subsequently determined to have a pure sensorineural deficit. Nine patients (45%) had permanent hearing loss significant enough to require audiologic amplification. All patients with PS demonstrated hearing loss, although the severity and the anatomic basis (ie., neural vs conductive) were variable. Conductive hearing loss, possibly caused by structural abnormalities, was most common. Sensorineural hearing loss was less common and may be related to the effect of FGFR mutations on cranial nerve and/or inner-ear development.

  7. Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that

  8. Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Colibazzi, Tiziano; Wexler, Bruce E.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Corcoran, Cheryl; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness. PMID:23418459

  9. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants caused by late-onset sepsis

    PubMed Central

    van den Dungen, F. A. M.; Vermeulen, R. J.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study describes cerebral ultrasound abnormalities caused by late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants with a gestational age of < 32 weeks and/or birthweight < 1500 grams. Methods The prospective study (“INFANT study”) included 117 preterm infants with suspected LOS. Proven LOS was defined as a positive blood culture after 72 hours of life. In case of coagulase-negative staphylococci an elevated C-reactive protein was additionally required to establish proven LOS. Patients were identified as proven LOS and patients with only clinical symptoms of LOS. Cerebral ultrasound images were obtained in the first week after birth, during/after LOS and before discharge. Cerebral findings were divided in no/minor and major abnormalities. Results Eighty-six preterm infants had proven LOS and 31 preterm infants had only clinical signs of LOS. Four infants were excluded because pre-existing major brain abnormalities. No significant differences (p = 0.624) for incidence of major brain abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound were found. Conclusion No differences were revealed in prevalence of major brain abnormalities between the groups with proven LOS and with clinical signs of LOS. Both infants with a gram negative sepsis developed major brain abnormalities, whereas only two of 66 preterm infants coagulase-negative staphylococci sepsis developed major brain abnormalities. PMID:28301503

  10. Routine radiographer screening for fetal abnormalities by ultrasound in an unselected low risk population.

    PubMed

    Shirley, I M; Bottomley, F; Robinson, V P

    1992-07-01

    A screening programme for fetal abnormalities began at The Hillingdon Hospital in July 1986. Second trimester ultrasound scans are performed by radiographers. A combined prospective and retrospective study of the ultrasound findings and outcome in all pregnancies delivered in 1989-1990 was undertaken. 6412 babies were born during this period, of whom 6183 (96%) were examined by ultrasound in the second trimester; 29 pregnancies were terminated for fetal abnormality. Of the 89 fetuses who were abnormal at birth or at induced termination of the pregnancy (1.4%), 84 were scanned in the second trimester. In 51 cases the abnormality was detected before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 60.7%). 56 of these 84 abnormal fetuses scanned had potentially lethal or major handicapping abnormalities of which 41 were detected by ultrasound before 22 weeks gestation (sensitivity, 73%). There was one false positive diagnosis of abnormality which did not affect outcome. 6352 babies were normal at delivery or on discharge from hospital (specificity, 99.98%).

  11. Characterizing the range of simulated prostate abnormalities palpable by digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Leigh A.; Gerling, Gregory J.; Bass, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the digital rectal exam (DRE) is a common method of screening for prostate cancer and other abnormalities, the limits of ability to perform this hands-on exam are unknown. Perceptible limits are a function of the size, depth, and hardness of abnormalities within a given prostate stiffness. Methods To better understand the perceptible limits of the DRE, we conducted a psychophysical study with 18 participants using a custom-built apparatus to simulate prostate tissue and abnormalities of varying size, depth, and hardness. Utilizing a modified version of the psychophysical method of constant stimuli, we uncovered thresholds of absolute detection and variance in ability between examiners. Results Within silicone-elastomers that mimic normal prostate tissue (21 kPa), abnormalities of 4 mm diameter (20 mm3 volume) and greater were consistently detectable (above 75% of the time) but only at a depth of 5 mm. Abnormalities located in simulated tissue of greater stiffness (82 kPa) had to be twice that volume (5 mm diameter,40 mm3 volume) to be detectable at the same rate. Conclusions This study finds that the size and depth of abnormalities most influence detectability, while the relative stiffness between abnormalities and substrate also affects detectability for some size/depth combinations. While limits identified here are obtained for idealized substrates, this work is useful for informing the development of training and allowing clinicians to set expectations on performance. PMID:20061202

  12. Laboratory Tests in the Rheumatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Because the pathophysiologic relationship between laboratory and clinical abnormalities in many of the rheumatologic diseases is still not clearly understood, the use of the investigations dealt with in this article is based only upon statistics. The interpretation of these tests is therefore highly dependent on the result of the initial clinical assessment. Having accepted this limitation, however, the rheumatologist has available a number of powerful tools which may be used to diagnose, classify, or prognosticate. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21253052

  13. Achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex and abnormal pulmonary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bober, Michael B; Taylor, Megan; Heinle, Robert; Mackenzie, William

    2012-09-01

    Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are two of the most common forms of skeletal dysplasia. They are both caused by activating mutations in FGFR3 and are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Our patient was born to parents with presumed achondroplasia, and found on prenatal testing to have p.G380R and p.N540K FGFR3 mutations. In addition to having typical problems associated with both achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia, our patient had several atypical findings including: abnormal lobulation of the lungs with respiratory insufficiency, C1 stenosis, and hypoglycemia following a Nissen fundoplication. After his reflux and aspiration were treated, the persistence of the tachypnea and increased respiratory effort indicated this was not the primary source of the respiratory distress. Our subsequent hypothesis was that primary restrictive lung disease was the cause of his respiratory distress. A closer examination of his chest circumference did not support this conclusion either. Following his death, an autopsy found the right lung had 2 lobes while the left lung had 3 lobes. A literature review demonstrates that other children with achondroplasia-hypochondroplasia complex have been described with abnormal pulmonary function and infants with thanatophoric dysplasia have similar abnormal pulmonary anatomy. We hypothesize that there may be a primary pulmonary phenotype associated with FGFR3-opathies, unrelated to chest size which leads to the consistent finding of increased respiratory signs and symptoms in these children. Further observation of respiratory status, combined with the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of pulmonary branching anatomy and alveolar structure in this patient population will be important to explore this hypothesis.

  14. Thrombotic and nonthrombotic pulmonary arterial embolism: spectrum of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehee; Lee, Kyung Soo; Franquet, Tomas; Müller, Nestor L; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2003-01-01

    Along with clinical examination and laboratory tests, imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Multi-detector row helical computed tomography (CT) is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) owing to its capacity to directly show emboli as intravascular filling defects. Although parenchymal abnormalities at CT are nonspecific for acute PTE, they may contribute to a correct diagnosis of chronic PTE, the characteristic helical CT features of which are similar to its angiographic features and include webs or bands, intimal irregularities, abrupt narrowing or complete obstruction of the pulmonary arteries, and "pouching defect." Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon condition but is sometimes associated with specific imaging findings, including discrete nodules with cavitation (septic embolism), widespread homogeneous and heterogeneous areas of increased opacity or attenuation that typically appear 12-24 hours after trauma (fat embolism), and fine miliary nodules that subsequently coalesce into large areas of increased opacity or attenuation (talcosis). Knowledge of appropriate imaging methods and familiarity with the specific imaging features of pulmonary embolism should facilitate prompt, effective diagnosis.

  15. When viewing natural scenes, do abnormal colors impact on spatial or temporal parameters of eye movements?

    PubMed

    Ho-Phuoc, Tien; Guyader, Nathalie; Landragin, Frédéric; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2012-02-03

    Since Treisman's theory, it has been generally accepted that color is an elementary feature that guides eye movements when looking at natural scenes. Hence, most computational models of visual attention predict eye movements using color as an important visual feature. In this paper, using experimental data, we show that color does not affect where observers look when viewing natural scene images. Neither colors nor abnormal colors modify observers' fixation locations when compared to the same scenes in grayscale. In the same way, we did not find any significant difference between the scanpaths under grayscale, color, or abnormal color viewing conditions. However, we observed a decrease in fixation duration for color and abnormal color, and this was particularly true at the beginning of scene exploration. Finally, we found that abnormal color modifies saccade amplitude distribution.

  16. Clinical characterization of cardiovascular abnormalities associated with feline mucopolysaccharidosis I and VI

    PubMed Central

    Sleeper, Meg M.; Kusiak, Catherine M.; Shofer, Frances S.; O’Donnell, Patricia; Bryan, Caroline; Ponder, Katherine P.; Haskins, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The purpose of this study was to define the cardiovascular abnormalities present in young and adult cats affected with the lysosomal storage diseases mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I and MPS VI. Method Eighteen cats affected with MPS I and fifteen cats affected with MPS VI were evaluated by physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Electrocardiograms were performed on all MPS I and all but 7 of the MPS VI cats. Ten unaffected cats underwent complete examinations for comparison purposes. Results No cardiovascular physical examination abnormalities were noted. ECG intervals were normal in affected cats; however, changes consistent with aberrant conduction were noted more frequently than in unaffected cats. Significant echocardiographic abnormalities included valve thickening and regurgitation (aortic and mitral) and aortic root dilation, particularly in the older cats. Conclusion As affected animals increased in age, more cardiac abnormalities were found with increasing severity. MPS I and MPS VI cats have similar cardiovascular findings to those seen in children and MPS VII dogs. PMID:18509743

  17. Factors affecting abnormal Pap smear follow-up among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D

    2003-01-01

    Women with HIV infection are at least 10 times more likely to have an abnormal Pap smear than women who are HIV negative. Unfortunately, many women with HIV do not return for care after an abnormal Pap smear. Through the use of focus groups and individual interviews, HIV-positive women's experiences with abnormal Pap smears and the factors that affected whether they returned for care were explored. Two thirds of the 18 participants were minority women, and the average age was 40. Using techniques of constant comparative analysis, five factors were identified that affected whether women came back for care. These factors included fear, the asymptomatic nature of the problem, life circumstances, the participant's perspectives on health, and the health care provider. The findings from this study have implications for clinical practice and future research regarding adherence and abnormal Pap smear follow-up among women with HIV.

  18. Abnormal Nocturnal Behavior due to Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kwang Ik; Kim, Hyung Ki; Baek, Jeehun; Kim, Doh-Eui; Park, Hyung Kook

    2016-04-15

    Abnormal nocturnal behavior can have many causes, including primary sleep disorder, nocturnal seizures, and underlying medical or neurological disorders. A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was admitted for evaluation of abnormal nocturnal behavior. Every night at around 04:30 she was observed displaying abnormal behavior including leg shaking, fumbling with bedclothes, crawling around the room with her eyes closed, and non-responsiveness to verbal communication. Polysomnography with 20-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was performed. EEG showed that the posterior dominant rhythm was slower than that observed in the initial EEG, with diffuse theta and delta activities intermixed, and no epileptiform activity. The serum glucose level was 35 mg/dL at that time, and both the EEG findings and clinical symptoms were resolved after an intravenous injection of 50 mL of 50% glucose. These results indicate that nocturnal hypoglycemia should be considered as one of the possible etiologies in patients presenting with abnormal nocturnal behavior.

  19. Left globus pallidus abnormality in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Early, T.S.; Reiman, E.M.; Raichle, M.E.; Spitznagel, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by onset in young adulthood, the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, and the development of enduring psychosocial disability. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. Studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism designed to identify brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been limited by inadequate methods of anatomical localization and the possibility of persistent medication effects. The authors have now used positron emission tomography and a validated method of anatomical localization in an attempt to identify abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in newly diagnosed never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory study of 5 patients and 10 normal control subjects identified abnormally high blood flow in the left globus pallidus of patients with schizophrenia. A replication study of 5 additional patients and 10 additional control subjects confirmed this finding. No other abnormalities were found.

  20. A survey of malformed aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates for abnormal karyotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Schmutz, S M; Rousseaux, C G

    1988-01-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 30 morphologically abnormal aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates. Fibroblasts from the pericardium were cultured for chromosome analysis. Karyotypes were successfully completed on 18 animals, of which three were trisomic, one was mosaic monosomic and one was chimeric. All aneuploid calves had multisystemic anomalies. Using chromosomal banding techniques, the abnormal karyotypes were determined to be: 61,XY,+27; 61,XX,+21; 61,XY,+?; 59,XY,-?/60,XY; and 60,XX/60,XY. Bacterial contamination or nonviability of tissues prevented the growth of fibroblasts in culture and cytogenetic analysis of the other 12 animals. It was estimated that 2.0% of all late gestation abortuses and stillbirths may have chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy. The findings of this study suggest chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy are a significant cause of multisystemic anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses and nonviable neonates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3370561

  1. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  2. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  3. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  4. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  5. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  6. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  7. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  8. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  9. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    PubMed

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  10. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  11. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  12. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness.

  13. Meiotic chromosome abnormalities in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Renée H

    2006-08-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in the information about chromosome abnormalities in human sperm and the meiotic events that predispose to these abnormalities. We have determined that all chromosomes are susceptible to nondisjunction, but chromosomes 21 and 22 and, especially, the sex chromosomes have an increased frequency of aneuploidy. Studies are just beginning on the effects of potential mutagens on the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. The effects of pesticides and cancer therapeutic agents have been reviewed. In the last decade, there has been a great impetus to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men because the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) made it possible for these men to father pregnancies. A large number of studies have demonstrated that infertile men have an increased frequency of chromosomally abnormal sperm and children, even when they have a normal somatic karyotype. Meiotic studies on the pachytene stage of spermatogenesis have demonstrated that infertile men have impaired chromosome synapsis, a significantly decreased frequency of recombination, and an increased frequency of chromosomes completely lacking a recombination site. Such errors make these cells susceptible to meiotic arrest and the production of aneuploid gametes.

  14. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  15. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring.

  16. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  17. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  18. [Ageing society and laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Okabe, H

    2000-09-01

    An interest in the ageing process has increased greatly with increasing the population of the aged. The goal of this interest is to improve the quality of life(QOL) in the aged. In this paper, the presidential address "Ageing Society and Laboratory Medicine" at the 46th annual meeting of JSCP in Kumamoto'99 was summarized on the important research for ageing in the past decades. The paper presented was age- and gene-related changes, the latent variation of serum constituents and lipids abnormality in the ageing process. Concerning to the definition of reference value of healthy populations and the subjects who had no combined ailments, the reference interval of individuals(intra-personal), followed 5 years categorized by age, sex, and social conditions, gave a narrow range of variation than did a larger mixed populations(inter-personal). The reference intervals set would be a more sensitive reference than is the customary "normal range" for values occurring in inter-personal. Concerning to the study of the relationship between laboratory test and activity of daily living(ADL), the higher serum levels for TP, Alb, Hb, Glu, TC were observed in the higher ADL. The basic research techniques were also evaluated in the paper. The serum lipoperoxides were correlated with serum lipoprotein free radicals which caused atherosclerosis. The higher frequency of cerebral- and myocardial-infarction in the aged were observed in the higher serum LDL-C and lower serum level of arachidonic acid(AA), eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), and AA/EPA ratio were observed in AMI patients with lower HDL-C groups than the healthy aged. Although Alzheimer(AD)'s disease had a progressive memory loss and immobile dementia and was reported the decrease of acetyltransferase activity in the brain, decrease of serum level of free choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine(PC) and sphingomyelin(SM)/PC ratio were observed in spite of keeping normal serum level of SM. The decreased serum levels of

  19. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  20. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals’ capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects. PMID:27375536

  1. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia.

  2. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  3. Scrotal inflammatory disease: color Doppler US findings.

    PubMed

    Horstman, W G; Middleton, W D; Melson, G L

    1991-04-01

    A study of 45 patients with 51 cases of hemiscrotal inflammatory disease was done to determine the color Doppler ultrasonographic appearance of scrotal inflammatory disorders. The diagnosis was ultimately established by means of appropriate response to antibiotic treatment (47 cases) or surgery (four cases). In all cases, there was evidence of hyperemia: an increased number and concentration of detectable vessels in the affected portion of the scrotum. In 17 cases, the gray scale images were normal, and the only evidence of inflammation was the presence of hypervascularity. Abnormally decreased epididymal vascular resistance was detected in 14 cases of epididymitis; abnormally decreased testicular vascular resistance was detected in six cases of orchitis. Spontaneous venous flow was present in 18 patients. The authors conclude that color Doppler can demonstrate the hyperemic response to scrotal inflammatory disease and that, in the proper clinical setting, it can supplement the gray scale findings and increase diagnostic confidence.

  4. Ciguatera fish poisoning with elevated muscle enzymes and abnormal spinal MRI.

    PubMed

    Wasay, Mohammad; Sarangzai, Amanullah; Siddiqi, Ather; Nizami, Qamaruddin

    2008-03-01

    We report three cases of ciguatera fish poisoning. One patient died secondary to respiratory failure. Two patients showed elevated muscle enzymes and one patients had an abnormal cervical spinal MRI. MRI findings have not been previously described. MRI findings explain the mechanism of the L'hermitte phenomenon (a common complaint) among these patients. Respiratory failure is rare in ciguatera fish poisoning. Our findings suggest this could be related to respiratory muscles involvement.

  5. Identification of neural circuits underlying P300 abnormalities in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Brian F.; McCarley, Robert W.; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Nestor, Paul G.; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Barnard, John; Shen, Zi Jen; Weinstein, David M.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide a noninvasive method to evaluate neural activation and cognitive processes in schizophrenia. The pathophysiological significance of these findings would be greatly enhanced if scalp-recorded ERP abnormalities could be related to specific neural circuits and/or regions of the brain. Using quantitative approaches in which scalp-recorded ERP components are correlated with underlying neuroanatomy in schizophrenia, we focused on biophysical and statistical procedures (partial least squares) to relate the auditory P300 component to anatomic measures obtained from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. These findings are consistent with other evidence that temporal lobe structures contribute to the generation of the scalp-recorded P300 component and that P300 amplitude asymmetry over temporal recording sites on the scalp may reflect anatomic asymmetries in the volume of the superior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia. PMID:10352563

  6. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-06-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this Letter determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments.

  7. Abnormal Superfluid Fraction of Harmonically Trapped Few-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2014-05-01

    Superfluidity is a fascinating phenomenon that, at the macroscopic scale, leads to dissipationless flow and the emergence of vortices. While these macroscopic manifestations of superfluidity are well described by theories that have their origin in Landau's two-fluid model, our microscopic understanding of superfluidity is far from complete. Using analytical and numerical ab initio approaches, this paper determines the superfluid fraction and local superfluid density of small harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases as a function of the interaction strength and temperature. At low temperature, we find that the superfluid fraction is, in certain regions of the parameter space, negative. This counterintuitive finding is traced back to the symmetry of the system's ground state wave function, which gives rise to a diverging quantum moment of inertia Iq. Analogous abnormal behavior of Iq has been observed in even-odd nuclei at low temperature. Our predictions can be tested in modern cold atom experiments. Support by the NSF is acknowledged.

  8. Abnormal Eye Movements in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael P.; Cohen, Mark; Petersen, Robert B.; Halmagyi, G. Michael; McDougall, Alan; Tusa, Ronald J.; Leigh, R. John

    1993-01-01

    We report 3 patients with autopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease who, early in their course, developed abnormal eye movements that included periodic alternating nystagmus and slow vertical saccades. These findings suggested involvement of the cerebellar nodulus and uvula, and the brainstem reticular formation, respectively. Cerebellar ataxia was also an early manifestation and, in one patient, a frontal lobe brain biopsy was normal at a time when ocular motor and cerebellar signs were conspicuous. As the disease progressed, all saccades and quick phases of nystagmus were lost, but periodic alternating gaze deviation persisted. At autopsy, 2 of the 3 patients had pronounced involvement of the cerebellum, especially of the midline structures. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease should be considered in patients with subacute progressive neurological disease when cognitive changes are overshadowed by ocular motor findings or ataxia.

  9. Fragile X syndrome and cerebral perfusion abnormalities: single-photon emission computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Kabakus, Nimet; Aydin, Mustafa; Akin, Haluk; Balci, Tansel Ansal; Kurt, Abdullah; Kekilli, Ersoy

    2006-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a defective gene on the X chromosome. It is associated with developmental or behavioral symptoms and various degrees of mental retardation. Morphologic abnormalities and altered perfusion of various brain areas can underlie these functional disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral perfusion state in patients with fragile X syndrome using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Structural and functional assessment was also performed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Eight boys with cytogenetically confirmed fragile X syndrome (mean age 8.8 +/- 4.4 years, range 5-18 years), were included. All patients had mental retardation, with a mean IQ of 58.9 +/- 8.8 (range 40-68), and additional neurobehavioral symptoms. SPECT revealed cerebral perfusion abnormalities in six patients (75%), most commonly in the frontoparietotemporal area and prominent in the right hemisphere. The SPECT and EEG findings were concordant: hypoperfused areas in SPECT corresponded to regions of persistent slow-wave paroxysms on EEG. On the other hand, cranial MRI was abnormal qualitatively only in two patients (25%) showing cerebellar and vermal hypoplasia and cerebral hemispheric asymmetry. Our results indicate that cerebral perfusion abnormalities, which are correlated with electrophysiologic findings but not necessarily with anatomic abnormalities, can underlie the pathogenesis of the clinical findings observed in fragile X syndrome.

  10. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

    2014-05-01

    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse.

  11. Prenatal findings of holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Sugiura, Tokio; Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a rare brain abnormality characterized by an incomplete cleavage of the primitive prosencephalon of forebrain during early embryogenesis. To determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of fetuses with HPE, we retrospectively analyzed nine patients who were prenatally diagnosed as fetal HPE by ultrasounds. The mean diagnostic weeks were 20 weeks of gestation. Two cases died within one day after birth. The chromosomal examinations were performed in seven cases (trisomy 18: n = 2; trisomy 13: n = 2; 45,XX,der(18)t(18;21)(p10;p10)mat: n = 1; normal karyotype: n = 2). In our HPE cases, most cases had serious facial anomalies and poor prognosis. Our data suggested that the early prenatal diagnosis of HPE allowed time for parental counseling and delivery planning.

  12. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  13. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk.

  14. Abnormal single or composite dissipative solitons generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xianqiong; Liu, Dingyao; Cheng, Ke; Sheng, Jianan

    2016-12-01

    The evolution dynamics of the initial finite energy Airy pulses and Airy pulse pairs are numerically investigated in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzberg-Laudau equation governed dissipative system. Depending on different initial excitations and system parameters, abnormal double, triple, and quadruple composite dissipative solitons as well as single dissipative solitons can be observed. The composite dissipative solitons may consist of identical or different types of pulsating solitons. Moreover, the creeping solitons and the single ordinary pulsating solitons can even appear in the parameter regions where originally the other types of pulsating solitons exist. Besides, before evolving into each abnormal dissipative soliton, the initial finite energy Airy pulse or pulse pairs generally exhibit very interesting and unique early evolution behavior.

  15. [Abnormal hemoglobins in Negroid Ecuadorian populations].

    PubMed

    Jara, N O; Guevara Espinoza, A; Guderian, R H

    1989-02-01

    The prevalence of hemoglobinopathies was determined in the black race located in two distinct geographical areas in Ecuador; in the coastal province of Esmeraldas, particularly the Santiago basin (Rio Cayapas and Rio Onzoles) and in the province of Imbabura, particularly in the intermoutain valley, Valle de Chota. A total of 2038 blood samples were analyzed, 1734 in Esmeraldas and 304 in Inbabura, of which 23.2% (473 individuals) were found to be carriers of abnormal hemoglobins, 25.4% (441) in Esmeraldas and 10.5% (32) in Imbabura. The abnormal hemoglobins found in Esmeraldas were Hb AS (19.2%), Hb AC (5.0%), Hb SS (0.6%) and Hb SC (0.5%) while in Imbabura only Hb AS (9.5%) and Hb AC (0.9%) were found. The factors that could influence the difference in prevalence found in the two geographical areas are discussed.

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role.

  18. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  19. Incidental vesicoureteral reflux in neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and other renal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zerin, J M; Ritchey, M L; Chang, A C

    1993-04-01

    Postnatal imaging findings were reviewed in 130 neonates and young infants referred for imaging evaluation of antenatally detected renal abnormalities. All children underwent voiding cystourethrography and upper urinary tract imaging with sonography and/or renal scintigraphy. Vesicoureteral reflux was present in 49 patients (38%) and was bilateral in 24. All grades of reflux were observed. Reflux occurred in 41 of 98 neonates (42%) in whom postnatal imaging revealed persistent upper tract abnormalities (eg, hydronephrosis, cysts, renal agenesis) and in eight of 32 (25%) with normal findings at postnatal sonography and/or renal scintigraphy. Reflux was the single most common urologic diagnosis and was the only postnatal abnormality in 12 patients (9%). The authors conclude that neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis should be routinely screened for reflux with voiding cystography. Detection and aggressive management of reflux in the asymptomatic neonate in whom renal growth and function are unimpaired theoretically offer the best opportunity for preventing renal injury later in childhood.

  20. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  1. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  2. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  3. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning.

  4. Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  5. Echocardiographic assessment of abnormal left ventricular relaxation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, M T; Gibson, D G; Brown, D J

    1976-01-01

    In 64 patients requiring cardiac catheterization for chest pain, echocardiograms showing anterior mitral leaflet and left ventricular cavity simultaneously were recorded. These were digitized and their first derivatives computed in order to study time relations between mitral valve and left ventricular wall movement in early distole. In 10 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms and coronary arteriograms, mitral valve opening began 1-1 +/- 9-3 ms (mean +/- SD) before the onset of outward wall movement, and reached peak opening velocity 2-0 +/- 13 ms after maximum rate of change of dimension. Virtually identical time relations were seen in 15 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms but with obstructive coronary artery disease (3-6 +/- 9-3 ms and 0-7 +/- 7-3 ms, respectively). These close relations were lost in patients with segmental abnormalities of contraction on left ventricular angiogram. In 19 such patients with normal septal motion, outward wall movement began 53 +/- 31 ms before the onset of anterior movement of the mitral valve leaflet, and this isovolumic wall movement accounted for 31 per cent of the total diastolic excursion. In 9 patients with reversed septal movement, these abnormalities were greater, 92 +/- 39 ms and 33 per cent, respectively, while in 11 patients with diffuse left ventricular involvement they were small, 5-5 +/- 13 ms and 3 per cent. Frame-by-frame digitization of cineangiograms was used to confirm these findings which appear to reflect an abnormal change in left ventricular cavity shape during isovolumic relaxation. Images PMID:973873

  6. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  7. Abnormal parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fen; Wang, Jun-Yuan; Xu, Yi; Huang, Man-Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia. The patient had poor nutrition and frequently had upper respiratory infections during childhood and adolescence. She showed severe schizophrenic symptoms such as visual hallucinations for 2 years. After examining all her possible medical conditions, we found that the patient had a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of encephalomalacia in her right parietal lobe and slight brain atrophy. Interventions: The patient was prescribed olanzapine (10 mg per day). Outcomes: Her symptoms significantly improved after antipsychotic treatment and were still well controlled 1 year later. Lessons: This case suggested that parietal encephalomalacia, which might be caused by inflammatory and infectious conditions in early life and be aggravated by undernutrition, might be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:28272261

  8. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.

  9. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-06-03

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  10. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  11. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  12. Abnormal asymmetry of brain connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia.

  13. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  14. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  15. Fryns syndrome with atypical findings--with large midline cleft on forehead but normal cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Oguz, S S; Celik, I H; Yilmaz, Y; Uras, N; Erdeve, O; Dilmen, U

    2010-01-01

    We report a newborn with Fryns syndrome and atypical findings like a large midline cleft on forehead. Abnormal findings included congenital left diaphragmatic hernia, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, cleft palate, low set ears, tapered fingers, macrocephaly, congenital heart defect, midline defects and renal anomalies. This is the first case that has a midline cleft on forehead with normal cranial MRI findings.

  16. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Folio, Les R; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy-guided, and (e) machine learning-based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed.

  17. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images.

  18. The patient portal and abnormal test results: An exploratory study of patient experiences

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Traber Davis; Modi, Varsha; Parrish, Danielle E.; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Many health care institutions are implementing patient portals that allow patients to track and maintain their personal health information, mostly in response to the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act requirements. Test results review is an area of high interest to patients and provides an opportunity to foster their involvement in preventing abnormal test results from being overlooked, a common patient safety concern. However, little is known about how patients engage with portals to review abnormal results and which strategies could facilitate that interaction in order to ensure safe follow-up on abnormalities. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore patients’ experiences related to abnormal test result notifications through patient portals. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 13 participants, patients and primary caregivers, between February 2014 and October 2014. Using content analysis, the authors explored patient experiences accessing abnormal test results through their portals. Respondents strongly favored access to all types of abnormal test results, but they raised several concerns including need for more timely notification and not being able to interpret the exact relevance of the result. Respondents’ personal experiences with physicians, test result notification, and the portal heavily influenced respondents’ notification preferences. Patient experiences with portals could be improved by development of strategies to help patients understand and manage the information received. These findings suggest important considerations for health professionals and institutions aiming to better engage patients in follow-up of their test results.

  19. Brain white matter abnormality in a newborn infant with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of isolated abducent nerve palsy induced by vascular compression of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    If the origin of isolated abducent nerve palsy cannot be found on neuroradiological examinations, diabetes mellitus is known as a probable cause; however, some cases show no potential causes of isolated abducent nerve palsy. Here, we report a 74-year-old male who suffered from diplopia due to isolated left abducent nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance angiography and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition imaging clearly showed a dolichoectasic vertebrobasilar artery compressing the left abducent nerve upward and outward. There were no abnormal lesions in the brain stem, cavernous sinus, or orbital cavity. Laboratory data showed no abnormal findings. We concluded that neurovascular compression of the left abducent nerve might cause isolated left abducent nerve palsy. We observed him without surgical treatment considering his general condition with angina pectoris and old age. His symptom due to the left abducent nerve palsy persisted. From previous reports, conservative treatment could not improve abducent nerve palsy. Microvascular decompression should be considered for abducent nerve palsy due to vascular compression if patients are young, and their general condition is good. We also discuss interesting characteristics with a review of the literature. PMID:28149097

  1. Find a Midwife

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Find a Midwife practice locator is a web-based service that allows you to find midwifery practices in your area. It also supplies you with basic contact information like practice name, address, phone number, e-mail address, web site and a map of the area. If ...

  2. Neuro-otological findings in Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luxon, L M; Cohen, M; Coffey, R A; Phelps, P D; Britton, K E; Jan, H; Trembath, R C; Reardon, W

    2003-03-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by profound hearing impairment and inappropriate iodine release by the thyroid on perchlorate challenge. Thirty-three cases comprising members of 13 families and eight isolated cases were studied, with detailed audiological and vestibular investigation and computerized tomography. A uniform, profound, symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss was identified in all cases. Approximately one-third of the group reported progressive hearing impairment, in childhood or adolescence, associated with head injury, infection, or delayed secondary hydrops. Ninety per cent of the cases scanned showed dilated vestibular aqueducts, and all cases with progression of the hearing impairment demonstrated this structural abnormality. Approximately one-third of the cases had normal vestibular function, but a further third demonstrated a unilateral peripheral deficit, while the remaining third showed bilateral vestibular hypofunction. There was no intra-familial concordance of vestibular findings, and no correlation between vestibular abnormality and presence or absence of a dilated vestibular aqueduct, with or without a Mondini malformation. In older children and adults, Pendred syndrome was associated with a profound, symmetrical, sensorineural auditory impairment, and a variety of vestibular abnormalities, which are not uniform within families, or correlated with structural labyrinthine deformities.

  3. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., former Director of the Laboratory of Glycoimmunotheraphy, JWCI, engaged in research misconduct in... CA107316 and R03 CA107831. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by...

  4. Independent Study Looks beyond Rhetoric, Finds Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1991-01-01

    Last July, the New Initiatives Division of Sandia National Laboratory, a nuclear research center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, presented its findings on U.S. education to the U.S. Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education. Current dropout rates, test scores, college attendance, educational expenditures, educator status, work…

  5. Computed Tomography Findings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Arumugam; Jakanani, George; Mayer, Nick; Mulcahy, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGN) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. Purpose: To review the computed tomography (CT) findings of patients diagnosed with XGN. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of CT findings in patients with histologically proven XGN was carried out. Results: Thirteen CT examinations of 11 patients were analyzed. Renal enlargement was demonstrable on the affected side in all patients. Nine patients (82%) had multiple dilated calyces and abnormal parenchyma. Six patients (55%) had a renal pelvis or upper ureteric calculus causing obstruction. Three patients (27%) had focal fat deposits identifiable within the inflamed renal parenchyma. Two patients had renal abscesses. Ten patients (91%) had extrarenal extension of the inflammatory changes. Three patients (27%) demonstrated extensive retroperitoneal inflammation. Conclusion: Unilateral renal enlargement and inflammation were the most consistent findings of XGN on CT. Perinephric inflammation and collections or abscess should also alert the radiologist to the possibility of this diagnosis. PMID:22315712

  6. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  7. Latent and Abnormal Functional Connectivity Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuo; Xing, Yishi; Kang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disrupted brain networks. Neuroimaging techniques provide noninvasive methods of investigating abnormal connectivity patterns in ASD. In the present study, we compare functional connectivity networks in people with ASD with those in typical controls, using neuroimaging data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) project. Specifically, we focus on the characteristics of intrinsic functional connectivity based on data collected by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Our aim was to identify disrupted brain connectivity patterns across all networks, instead of in individual edges, by using advanced statistical methods. Unlike many brain connectome studies, in which networks are prespecified before the edge connectivity in each network is compared between clinical groups, we detected the latent differentially expressed networks automatically. Our network-level analysis identified abnormal connectome networks that (i) included a high proportion of edges that were differentially expressed between people with ASD and typical controls; and (ii) showed highly-organized graph topology. These findings provide new insight into the study of the underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism of ASD. PMID:28377688

  8. Early blood gas abnormalities and the preterm brain.

    PubMed

    Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth; Kuban, Karl C K; Dammann, Olaf; O'Shea, T Michael; Hirtz, Deborah; Schreiber, Michael D; Paneth, Nigel

    2010-10-15

    The authors explored associations between blood gas abnormalities in more than 1,000 preterm infants during the first postnatal days and indicators of neonatal brain damage. During 2002-2004, women delivering infants before 28 weeks' gestation at one of 14 participating institutions in 5 US states were asked to enroll in the study. The authors compared infants with blood gas values in the highest or lowest quintile for gestational age and postnatal day (extreme value) on at least 1 of the first 3 postnatal days with the remainder of the subjects, with separate analyses for blood gas abnormalities on multiple days and for partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar gas of <35. Outcomes analyzed were ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion on an ultrasound scan in the neonatal intensive care unit, and cerebral palsy, microcephaly, and a low score on a Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 24 months. Every blood gas derangement (hypoxemia, hyperoxemia, hypocapnia, hypercapnia, and acidosis) was associated with multiple indicators of brain damage. However, for some, the associations were seen with only 1 day of exposure; others were evident with 2 or more days' exposure. Findings suggest that individual blood gas derangements do not increase brain damage risk. Rather, the multiple derangements associated with indicators of brain damage might be indicators of immaturity/vulnerability and illness severity.

  9. T2 relaxation time abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ongür, Dost; Prescot, Andrew P; Jensen, J Eric; Rouse, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Bruce M; Renshaw, Perry F; Olson, David P

    2010-01-01

    There are substantial abnormalities in the number, density, and size of cortical neurons and glial cells in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Because molecule-microenvironment interactions modulate metabolite signals characteristics, these cellular abnormalities may impact transverse (T2) relaxation times. We measured T2 relaxation times for three intracellular metabolites (N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate, creatine+phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds) in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex from 20 healthy subjects, 15 patients with bipolar disorder, and 15 patients with schizophrenia at 4 T. Spectra used in T2 quantification were collected from 8-cc voxels with varying echo times (30 to 500 ms, in 10-ms steps). Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia groups had numerically shorter T2 relaxation times than the healthy subjects group in both regions; these differences reached statistical significance for creatine+phosphocreatine and choline-containing compounds in bipolar disorder and for choline-containing compounds in schizophrenia. Metabolite T2 relaxation time shortening is consistent with reduced cell volumes and altered macromolecule structures, and with prolonged water T2 relaxation times reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. These findings suggest that metabolite concentrations reported in magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of psychiatric conditions may be confounded by T2 relaxation and highlight the importance of measuring and correcting for this variable.

  10. Abnormal glutamate release in aged BTBR mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongen; Ding, Caiyun; Jin, Guorong; Yin, Haizhen; Liu, Jianrong; Hu, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Most of the available research on autism is focused on children and young adults and little is known about the pathological alternation of autism in older adults. In order to investigate the neurobiological alternation of autism in old age stage, we compared the morphology and synaptic function of excitatory synapses between the BTBR mice with low level sociability and B6 mice with high level sociability. The results revealed that the number of excitatory synapse colocalized with pre- and post-synaptic marker was not different between aged BTBR and B6 mice. The aged BTBR mice had a normal structure of dendritic spine and the expression of Shank3 protein in the brain as well as that in B6 mice. The baseline and KCl-evoked glutamate release from the cortical synaptoneurosome in aged BTBR mice was lower than that in aged B6 mice. Overall, the data indicate that there is a link between disturbances of the glutamate transmission and autism. These findings provide new evidences for the hypothesis of excitation/inhibition imbalance in autism. Further work is required to determine the cause of this putative abnormality.

  11. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  12. Extensive abnormality of brain white matter integrity in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Joutsa, Juho; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Niemelä, Solja; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2011-12-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in substance use disorders have shown brain white matter integrity abnormalities, but there are no studies in pathological gambling, a form of behavioral addiction. Our objective was to investigate possible changes in regional brain gray and white matter volumes, and axonal white matter integrity in pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. Twenty-four subjects (12 clinically diagnosed male pathological gamblers and 12 age-matched healthy male volunteers) underwent structural and diffusion weighted brain MRI scans, which were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics. In pathological gamblers, widespread lower white matter integrity (lower fractional anisotropy, higher mean diffusivity) was seen in multiple brain regions including the corpus callosum, the cingulum, the superior longitudinal fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, the anterior limb of internal capsule, the anterior thalamic radiation, the inferior longitudinal fascicle and the uncinate/inferior fronto-occipital fascicle. There were no volumetric differences in gray or white matter between pathological gamblers and controls. The results suggest that pathological gambling is associated with extensive lower integrity of several brain white matter tracts. The diffusion abnormality closely resembles previous findings in individuals with substance addictions.

  13. Neurofunctional Abnormalities during Sustained Attention in Severe Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse affective and cognitive consequences including impaired emotion processing, inhibition and attention. However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in childhood maltreatment have examined emotion processing, while very few studies have tested the neurofunctional substrates of cognitive functions and none of attention. This study investigated the association between severe childhood abuse and fMRI brain activation during a parametric sustained attention task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention in 21 medication-naïve, drug-free young people with a history of childhood abuse controlling for psychiatric comorbidities by including 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses, and 27 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the participants exposed to childhood abuse showed increased omission errors in the task which correlated positively trend-wise with the duration of their abuse. Neurofunctionally, the participants with a history of childhood abuse, but not the psychiatric controls, displayed significantly reduced activation relative to the healthy controls during the most challenging attention condition only in typical attention regions including left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula and temporal areas. We therefore show for the first time that severe childhood abuse is associated with neurofunctional abnormalities in key ventral frontal-temporal sustained attention regions. The findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional abnormalities in sustained attention, which may help in the development of effective treatments for victims of childhood abuse. PMID:27832090

  14. Mapping brain volumetric abnormalities in never-treated pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Daniel; Rzezak, Patricia; Pereira, Fabricio R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Santos, Luciana C; Duran, Fábio L S; Barreiros, Maria A; Castro, Cláudio C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Tavares, Hermano; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2015-06-30

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies to date have investigated brain abnormalities in association with the diagnosis of pathological gambling (PG), but very few of these have specifically searched for brain volume differences between PG patients and healthy volunteers (HV). To investigate brain volume differences between PG patients and HV, 30 male never-treated PG patients (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 30 closely matched HV without history of psychiatric disorders in the past 2 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging with a 1.5-T instrument. Using Freesurfer software, we performed an exploratory whole-brain voxelwise volume comparison between the PG group and the HV group, with false-discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Using a more flexible statistical threshold (p < 0.01, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), we also measured absolute and regional volumes of several brain structures separately. The voxelwise analysis showed no clusters of significant regional differences between the PG and HV groups. The additional analyses of absolute and regional brain volumes showed increased absolute global gray matter volumes in PG patients relative to the HV group, as well as relatively decreased volumes specifically in the left putamen, right thalamus and right hippocampus (corrected for total gray matter). Our findings indicate that structural brain abnormalities may contribute to the functional changes associated with the symptoms of PG, and they highlight the relevance of the brain reward system to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  15. Epileptic Seizures From Abnormal Networks: Why Some Seizures Defy Predictability

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Feraz; Kudela, Pawel; Bergey, Gregory K.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Seizure prediction has proven to be difficult in clinically realistic environments. Is it possible that fluctuations in cortical firing could influence the onset of seizures in an ictal zone? To test this, we have now used neural network simulations in a computational model of cortex having a total of 65,536 neurons with intercellular wiring patterned after histological data. A spatially distributed Poisson driven background input representing the activity of neighboring cortex affected 1% of the neurons. Gamma distributions were fit to the interbursting phase intervals, a non-parametric test for randomness was applied, and a dynamical systems analysis was performed to search for period-1 orbits in the intervals. The non-parametric analysis suggests that intervals are being drawn at random from their underlying joint distribution and the dynamical systems analysis is consistent with a nondeterministic dynamical interpretation of the generation of bursting phases. These results imply that in a region of cortex with abnormal connectivity analogous to a seizure focus, it is possible to initiate seizure activity with fluctuations of input from the surrounding cortical regions. These findings suggest one possibility for ictal generation from abnormal focal epileptic networks. This mechanism additionally could help explain the difficulty in predicting partial seizures in some patients. PMID:22169211

  16. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S.

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  17. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality. PMID:25560665

  18. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  19. Genetic abnormalities and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, P; de Juan, C; Caldés, T; Vega, F J; Massa, M J; Cerdán, F J; López, J A; Fernández, C; Sánchez, A; Torres, A J; Balibrea, J L; Benito, M

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate different genetic abnormalities, such as K-ras mutations, p53 alterations, and c-myc RNA overexpression, as well as microsatellite instability in 63 colorectal tumors obtained from patients that had undergone surgery. K-ras point mutations were analyzed by PCR-RFLP technique, followed by sequencing; p53 protein accumulation by immunohistochemistry; p53 gene mutations in exons 5-9 were studied by the SSCP and sequencing techniques, and c-myc overexpression by Northern blot. Microsatellite instability was performed at chromosomes 2p, 3p, and 11p by a PCR-based technique. Our data indicate a trend toward a poorer prognosis in patients who had K-ras transversions; besides, we have obtained a prevalence of c-myc RNA overexpression and p53 exon 7 mutations in the latest stages of tumor progression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the recognition of molecular abnormalities might be used in colorectal cancer as a prognostic indicator or to determine the metastatic potential of colorectal adenocarcinomas.

  20. Imaging findings in pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Eva; Alguersuari, Anna; Andreu, Marta; Gallardo, Xavier; Spinu, Cristina; Mata, Josep M

    2012-12-01

    Vasculitis is a destructive inflammatory process affecting blood vessels. Pulmonary vasculitis may develop secondary to other conditions or constitute a primary idiopathic disorder. Thoracic involvement is most common in primary idiopathic large-vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, Behçet disease) and primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitides (Wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Primary pulmonary vasculitides are rare, and their signs and symptoms are nonspecific, overlapping with those of infections, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. The radiologic findings in primary pulmonary vasculitis vary widely and can include vessel wall thickening, nodular or cavitary lesions, ground-glass opacities, and consolidations, among others. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage usually results from primary small-vessel vasculitis in the lungs. To diagnose vasculitis, medical teams must recognize characteristic combinations of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and histopathologic features.

  1. Directly transmitted unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and euchromatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Barber, J

    2005-01-01

    In total, 200 families were reviewed with directly transmitted, cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosome abnormalities (UBCAs) or euchromatic variants (EVs). Both the 130 UBCA and 70 EV families were divided into three groups depending on the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype in parents and offspring. No detectable phenotypic effect was evident in 23/130 (18%) UBCA families ascertained mostly through prenatal diagnosis (group 1). In 30/130 (23%) families, the affected proband had the same UBCA as other phenotypically normal family members (group 2). In the remaining 77/130 (59%) families, UBCAs had consistently mild consequences (group 3). In the 70 families with established EVs of 8p23.1, 9p12, 9q12, 15q11.2, and 16p11.2, no phenotypic effect was apparent in 38/70 (54%). The same EV was found in affected probands and phenotypically normal family members in 30/70 families (43%) (group 2), and an EV co-segregated with mild phenotypic anomalies in only 2/70 (3%) families (group 3). Recent evidence indicates that EVs involve copy number variation of common paralogous gene and pseudogene sequences that are polymorphic in the normal population and only become visible at the cytogenetic level when copy number is high. The average size of the deletions and duplications in all three groups of UBCAs was close to 10 Mb, and these UBCAs and EVs form the "Chromosome Anomaly Collection" at http://www.ngrl.org.uk/Wessex/collection. The continuum of severity associated with UBCAs and the variability of the genome at the sub-cytogenetic level make further close collaboration between medical and laboratory staff essential to distinguish clinically silent variation from pathogenic rearrangement. PMID:16061560

  2. Analysis of non-clonal chromosome abnormalities observed in hematologic malignancies among Southwest Oncology Group patients

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, T.S.; Dobin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    From 1987-1994, the Southwest Oncology Group Cytogenetics Committee reviewed 1571 studies in 590 adult patient cases with ALL, AML, CML or CLL. These were analyzed for the presence of clinically important non-clonal abnormalities (NCA). Abnormalities were defined as non-clonal if one metaphase had a structural abnormality or an extra chromosome. Chromosome loss was not analyzed due to the possibility of random loss. In 72 cases (12%) comprising 136 studies, at least one NCA was observed. In 21 of these cases (29%), NCAs consisted of obvious clonal evolution or instability, and thus were not included in the analysis. At least one structural NCA was observed in which the abnormality differed from the mainline in 36 (50%) patients. Seventeen of the 36 cases had a normal mode. Nineteen of the 36 patients had an abnormal or normal/abnormal mode. At least one numerical NCA was found in 15 cases (21%). Fifteen cases (21%) contained at least one marker chromosome. Several cases involved NCA in more than one of the above divisions. NCAs could be classified into several categories: (1){open_quotes}the clone to come{close_quotes}, (2) evolving clones which then disappeared, (3) NCAs with putative clinical importance that never became clonal, (4) NCAs during remission identical to the preceding clonal abnormality, (5) NCAs which indicated clonal evolution or instability. Examples include one metaphase with t(9;22) or del(20q) or inv(16) or +8 which either preceded or followed clonal findings of the same aberration. Such findings should be communicated to the clinician.

  3. A role for maternal serum screening in detecting chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with isolated choroid plexus cysts: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Kliewer, M A; Hertzberg, B S; Ruiz, C; Stamper, T H; Rosnes, J; Lucas, A; Wright, L N; Chescheir, N C; Farmer, L; Jordan, S; Kay, H H

    1999-05-01

    A prospective multicentre study was performed to identify patients with fetal choroid plexus cysts and examine the association between choroid plexus cysts and chromosome abnormalities in the context of variables such as maternal age, serum triple-screen results, race, other prenatally-identified fetal anomalies and cyst characteristics. A total of 18 437 scans were performed in 5 centres and 257 fetuses were identified with choroid plexus cysts. Outcome was available on 250 patients, and of these, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in a total of 13 (5.2 per cent) fetuses. 26 patients in the group had additional ultrasound abnormalities, and 8 of these had fetal chromosome abnormalities. Among the 224 patients with isolated choroid plexus cysts, 5 (2.2 per cent) were found to have chromosomal abnormalities. All cases with identified chromosomal abnormalities were associated with an additional risk factor, such as other ultrasound findings, advanced maternal age or abnormal maternal serum triple-screen results.

  4. Homeostatic and Circadian Abnormalities in Sleep and Arousal in Gulf War Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    analysis of slow wave characteristics, origin and propagation. Circadian rhythm is also assessed, including temperature and salivary melatonin...with some increase in temperature over that time. Temperature and circadian rhythm are closely tied together. Alerting factors from the circadian ... circadian rhythm abnormalities. Overall these 2 findings contribute to an overall picture of potentially lower arousal mechanisms day and night, with

  5. Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-05-01

    The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555 kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement.

  6. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  7. Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  8. Atypical Fryns syndrome: clinical, radiological and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Aygün, Murat Serhat; Sekmenli, Tamer; Çiftçi, İlhan; Gökmen, Zeynel; Tolu, İsmet; Mutlu-Aygün, Fuldem

    2014-01-01

    Fryns syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, including abnormal facies, small thorax with widely spaced hypoplastic nipples, distal limb and nail hypoplasia, and diaphragmatic hernia with pulmonary hypoplasia. The aim of the present report is to increase awareness of Fryns syndrome and its association with rare abnormalities such as cecal duplication cyst, horseshoe kidney and butterfly vertebra. We report a male 20-day-old baby with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), horseshoe kidney, butterfly vertebra, cleft palate, distal finger hypoplasia, left inguinal hernia, typical facial appearance for Fryns syndrome, and cecal duplication cyst. Fryns syndrome is the one of the most common syndromes associated with congenital diaphragmatic defect (CDH), reported in up to 10% of patients with CDH. Although no eye abnormality was seen in our patient, other findings were similar to the other typical diagnostic findings, with the exception of cecal duplication cyst and some other defects not defined before.

  9. Metabolic abnormalities and hypoleptinemia in α-synuclein A53T mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Sarah M; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Spencer, Richard G; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Cong, Wei-Na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently display loss of body fat mass and increased energy expenditure, and several studies have outlined a relationship between these metabolic abnormalities and disease severity, yet energy metabolism is largely unstudied in mouse models of PD. Here we characterize metabolic and physiologic responses to a high calorie diet (HCD) in mice expressing in neurons a mutant form of human α-synuclein (A53T) that causes dominantly inherited familial forms of the disease. A53T (SNCA) and wild type (WT) littermate mice were placed on a HCD for 12 weeks and evaluated for weight gain, food intake, body fat, blood plasma leptin, hunger, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. Results were compared with both SNCA and WT mice on a control diet. Despite consuming similar amounts of food, WT mice gained up to 66% of their original body weight on a HCD, whereas SNCA mice gained only 17%. Further, after 12 weeks on a HCD, magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that WT mice had significantly greater total and visceral body fat compared with SNCA mice (p < 0.007). At the age of 24 weeks SNCA mice displayed significantly increased hunger compared with WT (p < 0.03). At the age of 36 weeks, SNCA mice displayed significant hypoleptinemia compared with WT, both on a normal diet and a HCD (p < 0.03). The HCD induced insulin insensitivity in WT, but not SNCA mice, as indicated by an oral glucose tolerance test. Finally, SNCA mice displayed greater energy expenditure compared with WT, as measured in a Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System, after 12 weeks on a HCD. Thus, SNCA mice are resistant to HCD-induced obesity and insulin resistance and display reduced body fat, increased hunger, hypoleptinemia and increased energy expenditure. Our findings reveal a profile of metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of PD that is similar to that of human PD patients, thus providing evidence that α-synuclein pathology is sufficient to drive such

  10. Uniting Kraepelin and Bleuler: the psychology of schizophrenia and the biology of temporal lobe abnormalities.

    PubMed

    McCarley, R W; Shenton, M E; O'Donnell, B F; Nestor, P G

    1993-01-01

    Bleuler and Kraepelin are described as icons of the aggressively psychological and aggressively biologic approaches to schizophrenia. We suggest that methodologic advances in studying the function and structure of the brain now allow a reconciliation of these seemingly dissimilar approaches, particularly in the temporal lobe. We begin with a brief historic overview of these different approaches to schizophrenia and then describe structural (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), functional (event-related potential [ERP]), and neuropsychological studies in this disorder, including a summary of work conducted in our own laboratory. Recent MRI investigations agree on the presence of volume reductions in schizophrenia in the medial temporal lobe structures of the hippocampus-amygdala complex and of the para-hippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, two recent studies also indicate volume reductions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). These volume reductions are most prominent in male patients and in the left hemisphere of right-handed patients with schizophrenia. Along with structural studies, there has been a burgeoning interest in MRI-clinical correlations, with volume reductions in the anterior STG being associated with hallucinations and those in the posterior STG being associated with thought disorder. Functional ERP studies also implicate the importance of the temporal lobe in schizophrenia; in addition, ERP abnormalities have been directly associated with a left greater than right MRI volume reduction of the posterior STG. Neuropsychological studies in nonpsychiatric patients are also consistent with a pattern of functional deficits shown to arise from temporal lobe abnormalities, whereas direct MRI-neuropsychological correlations in schizophrenic patients show that decreased performance on tests of verbal memory, abstraction, and categorization correlates with reduced MRI volume of left and right temporal lobe structures. Integration of these findings with those from basic

  11. Positional cloning of Kreisler, a mutation that causes deafness and segmentation abnormalities in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, S.P.; Barsh, G.S.

    1994-09-01

    The identification and analysis of mouse deafness mutations is of great interest to human geneticists, not only because deafness is a common problem in clinical genetics, but also because the molecular mechanisms leading to deafness can underly fundamental aspects of mammalian development. Approximately 10 to 20 genes when mutated can lead to deafness in mice or in humans, but none have yet been identified at the molecular level. In mice homozygous for the kreisler (kr) mutation, abnormal development of the hindbrain and otic vesicle leads to neurosensory deafness and loss of vestibular function. Using the techniques of positional cloning combined with ENU mutagenesis, we have now cloned the kr gene and find that it predicts a transcription factor whose absence leads to defects in Hox gene expression and hindbrain segmentation. We used a backcross between different strains of laboratory mice to sublocalize kr on the meiotic map close to the Src gene on mouse chromosome 2. A probe from the Src gene detected high molecular weight restriction fragments of altered size in kr/kr DNA, suggesting that kr was due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Based on the meiotic map location of kr{sup ENU}, a new kr allele that we generated by ENU mutagenesis, cDNAs were selected from 8.5 day mouse embryos using genomic clones that spanned the distal inversion breakpoint. One cDNA that predicted a basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor was found to be expressed in the caudal hindbrain, and was confirmed to encode the kr gene by analysis of the kr{sup ENU} allele, in which a Ser was substituted for an Asn residue conserved in the DNA binding domain of all known bZip family members. kr is not expressed in the otic vesicle, suggesting that abnormal otic development is a consequence of defects in hindbrain segmentation. kr is the first mammalian deafness gene to be isolated, and should provide insights into embryologic mechanisms that underly hindbrain and otic development.

  12. Find an Audiologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back | Close Find an Audiologist | Search Search By City/State City State/Territory: (Non U.S.) AA AB AE AK ... Heard and Mc Donald Islands Holy see (Vatican City State) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia ...

  13. Find a Massage Therapist

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    ... for Massage Therapists Ethics Research Business Master the Classroom for Massage Educators Career Guidance Career Guidance Make ... a Massage Therapist » Browse by location » Browse by technique » Find a massage therapy school Proprietary Information and ...

  14. Find a Doctor

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    ... Search Find a Periodontist - Advanced Search U.S. Zip Code Search The best way to locate periodontists in your area is to enter your zip code and select a maximum acceptable driving distance below. ...

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  19. Find a Dentist

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    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact Find an ... more. Disclaimer of Liabilities The Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) Web site provides a listing of members ...

  20. Engineering of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Video Gallery

    The biggest, "baddest," newest Mars rover is the Mars Science Laboratory. It's the size of a small sport-utility vehicle and has 10 instruments, the most ever, all to find clues of life on the Red ...