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Sample records for abnormal lipid composition

  1. Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6.

  2. Lipid abnormalities in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erum, Uzma; Ahsan, Tasnim; Khowaja, Danish

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dyslipidemia in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from November 2013 to May 2014. A total of 200 patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), diagnosed according to the ACR/EULAR criteria 2010, were included in the study. Laboratory investigations including creatinine, ALT, CBC, TSH and fasting lipid profile (LDL, HDL, and Total cholesterol) were done for all patients. Results: Out of 200 patients, 23 (11.5%) were male and 177 (88.5%) were female. The mean age was 36.31±10.46 years and the mean duration of disease was 3.82±3.03 years. A total of 107 (53.5%) patients had dyslipidemia, and the commonest abnormality was a low HDL, seen in 83 (41.5 %) patients. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was frequently observed in Rheumatoid Arthritis. This may be considered as a secondary impact of chronic inflammatory state, seen in RA. Lipid abnormalities should be sought at regular intervals, and corrective actions taken to mitigate increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28367205

  3. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipid Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karkinski, Dimitar; Georgievski, Oliver; Dzekova-Vidimliski, Pavlina; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Dokic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a great interest in the interaction between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic dysfunction, but there is no consistent data suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients suspected of OSA, referred to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients referred to our hospital with suspected OSA, and all of them underwent for standard polysomnography. All patients with respiratory disturbance index (RDI) above 15 were diagnosed with OSA. In the morning after 12 hours fasting, the blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were determined in all study patients. In the study, both OSA positive and OSA negative patients were divided according to the body mass index (BMI) in two groups. The first group with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 and the second group with BMI > 30 kg/m^2. RESULTS: OSA positive patients with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and statistically significant lower level of HDL compared to OSA negative patients with BMI ≤ 30. There were no statistically significant differences in age and LDL levels between these groups. OSA positive patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2 had higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and lower levels of HDL versus OSA negative patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2, but without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients. PMID

  5. Lipid composition of cyanidium.

    PubMed

    Allen, C F; Good, P; Holton, R W

    1970-11-01

    The major lipids in Cyanidium caldarium Geitler are monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, plant sulfolipid, lecithin, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fatty acid composition varies appreciably among the lipids, but the major ones are palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and moderate amounts of stearic acid. Trace amounts of other acids in the C(14) to C(20) range were also present. Moderate amounts of linolenic acid were found in two strains, but not in a third. The proportion of saturated acid is relatively high in all lipids ranging from about a third in monogalactosyl diglyceride to three-fourths in sulfolipid. This may be a result of the high growth temperature. Lipases forming lysosulfolipid, and lysophosphatidyl glycerol are active in ruptured cells; galactolipid is degraded with loss of both acyl residues. Thus the lipid and fatty acid composition of Cyanidium more closely resembles that of green algae than that of the blue-green algae, although there are differences of possible phylogenetic interest.

  6. Abnormal single or composite dissipative solitons generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xianqiong; Liu, Dingyao; Cheng, Ke; Sheng, Jianan

    2016-12-01

    The evolution dynamics of the initial finite energy Airy pulses and Airy pulse pairs are numerically investigated in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzberg-Laudau equation governed dissipative system. Depending on different initial excitations and system parameters, abnormal double, triple, and quadruple composite dissipative solitons as well as single dissipative solitons can be observed. The composite dissipative solitons may consist of identical or different types of pulsating solitons. Moreover, the creeping solitons and the single ordinary pulsating solitons can even appear in the parameter regions where originally the other types of pulsating solitons exist. Besides, before evolving into each abnormal dissipative soliton, the initial finite energy Airy pulse or pulse pairs generally exhibit very interesting and unique early evolution behavior.

  7. Polar lipid composition of a new halobacterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindall, B. J.; Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations of the polar lipid composition of a new aerobic, extremely halophilic aracheabacterium capable of nitrate reduction have shown that this organism contains two previously unknown phospholycolipids derived from diphytanyl glycerol diethers. Comparison of the lipid pattern from this new isolate with other known strains indicate that this organism is novel. On the basis of the unique polar lipid pattern it can be concluded that this organism represents a new taxon, at least at the species level.

  8. Pasting characteristics of starch-lipid composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-lipid composites (SLC) have been used as fat replacers and stabilizers in beef patties, dairy products, and baked goods. The SLC are produced by mixing aqueous starch slurry with a lipid source, and steam jet-cooking. The SLC may be dried using a drum drier and then milled in a Retch mill. ...

  9. Severe alterations in lipid composition of frontal cortex lipid rafts from Parkinson's disease and incidental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson's disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Lipid composition of lees from Sherry wine.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Maria Ester; Igartuburu, José M; Pando, Enrique; Luis, Francisco Rodríguez; Mourente, Gabriel

    2004-07-28

    In this paper, we describe the study and characterization of the lipids from lees of Sherry wine, one of the main byproducts from the wine-making industry in the Jerez/Xeres/Sherry denomination of the origin zone in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain. The lipid content, extractability, classification, fatty acid composition, and its main chemical characteristics have been determined in order to evaluate their potential use as a food or food additive.

  11. Lipids of Sarcina lutea III. Composition of the Complex Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Charles K.; Albro, Phillip W.; Grindey, Gerald B.

    1965-01-01

    Huston, Charles K. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Phillip W. Albro, and Gerald B. Grindey. Lipids of Sarcina lutea. III. Composition of the complex lipids. J. Bacteriol. 89:768–775. 1965.—The complex lipids from a strain of Sarcina lutea were isolated and separated into fractions on diethylaminoethyl cellulose acetate and silicic acid columns. These fractions were monitored in several thin-layer chromatography systems. The various lipid types were characterized by their behavior in thin-layer systems and by an analysis of their hydrolysis products. The fatty acid composition of the column fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. A number of components (13) were separated by thin-layer chromatography and characterized. The major components were polyglycerol phosphatide (17.0%), lipoamino acids (15.1%), phosphatidyl glycerol (13.8%), and an incompletely characterized substance (15.0%). Minor constituents included phosphatidyl inositol (5.5%), phosphatidic acid (4.2%), phosphatidyl serine (2.0%), and phosphatidyl choline (1.0%). No phosphatidyl ethanolamine was observed. PMID:14273659

  12. Insufficient Lymph Drainage Causes Abnormal Lipid Accumulation and Vein Wall Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Suzuki, Minoru; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previously, we analyzed human varicose veins (VV) using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and detected the abnormal accumulation of lipid molecules in the walls of VV, possibly due to insufficient lipid drainage by the lymphatic vessels. In this study, we created an animal model of lymphatic insufficiency to investigate the effects of insufficient lymph drainage on vein walls. Methods: In rats, the lymphatic collecting vessels surrounding the femoral vein were ligated on one side (the model tissue), which caused the local retention of lymphatic fluid in the perivascular tissue. The equivalent contralateral tissue was used as a control. A histological study of the femoral vein and the surrounding perivascular tissue was conducted. IMS was used to analyze the distribution of lipid molecules in the perivascular tissue. Results: Fourteen days after the procedure, the lymphatic vessels in the model tissue were significantly dilated. Furthermore, IMS revealed that the composition of the lipid molecules in the perivascular regions of the model tissue had altered. Compared with the control tissue, the model tissue exhibited marked perivascular accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine (1-acyl 16:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4), and triglycerides (52:2). Interestingly, the walls of the femoral veins running through the model tissue were 3.4-fold thicker than those of the femoral veins running through the control tissue. The number of tumor necrosis factor α-positive adipocytes was increased in the perivascular regions of the model tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the accumulation of lymphatic fluid due to insufficient lymph drainage changes the structure of vein walls, and such changes might be associated with chronic venous insufficiency. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 227–235.) PMID:28018498

  13. Composite S-layer lipid structures

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    2010-01-01

    Designing and utilization of biomimetic membrane systems generated by bottom-up processes is a rapidly growing scientific and engineering field. Elucidation of the supramolecular construction principle of archaeal cell envelopes composed of S-layer stabilized lipid membranes led to new strategies for generating highly stable functional lipid membranes at meso- and macroscopic scale. In this review, we provide a state of the art survey how S-layer proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides may be used as basic building blocks for the assembly of S-layer supported lipid membranes. These biomimetic membrane systems are distinguished by a nanopatterned fluidity, enhanced stability and longevity and thus, provide a dedicated reconstitution matrix for membrane-active peptides and transmembrane proteins. Exciting areas for application of composite S-layer membrane systems concern sensor systems involving specific membrane functions. PMID:19303933

  14. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  15. Starch-lipid composites containing cimmamaldehyde

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formulation of a starch-lipid composite containing cinnamaldehyde as antimicrobial agent has been studied. Cinnamaldehyde was incorporated as an emulsion using Acetem 90-50K as a carrier and Tween 60 as the emulsifier. Oil in water emulsions were prepared by direct emulsification using a high sh...

  16. Abnormal serum lipid profile in Brazilian police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Metzler, Thomas; Nóbrega, Augusta; Peres, Mhara C; Coutinho, Evandro S; Volchan, Eliane; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background To measure the serum lipid composition of a sample of Brazilian police officers with and without PTSD regularly exposed to potentially traumatic situations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 118 active duty male police officers. Serum concentrations for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were enzymatically determined. Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for each participant. Results Officers with PTSD exhibited significantly higher serum total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides levels than those without PTSD. Total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-C, remained associated with PTSD diagnosis after controlling for confounding influences (i.e. socio-demographics, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol and medication use). Limitations The sample size was small. A nutritional interview was employed instead of established scales to assess alimentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption. A self-report screening tool was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions The association between PTSD and abnormal serum lipid profile and a tendency to exhibit higher BMI suggests that individuals with PTSD may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, a condition that by itself could account for many of the most serious PTSD-related physical health problems. PMID:17888517

  17. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodt, A. J.; Venable, R. M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  18. Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN.

  19. Human milk in disease: lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Hamosh, M; Bitman, J

    1992-11-01

    Differences in the lipid composition of human milk have been described in maternal diseases known to affect fat metabolism. Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia and Type I hyperlipoproteinemia affect the quantity and quality of human milk fat. Increased fatty acid chain elongation and changes in desaturation (especially delta 6 desaturase), as well as changes in lipid class composition, have been shown in diabetes and cystic fibrosis, whereas compensatory increases in medium-chain fatty acids have been described in hypobetalipoproteinemia and Type I hyperlipoproteinemia. It is important to realize that these observations were made either on single women or on very small groups of women. In infant diseases, such as breast milk jaundice and ectopic eczema, changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal milk have been described.

  20. Lipid composition of human serum lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Skipski, V. P.; Barclay, Marion; Barclay, R. K.; Fetzer, Valentina A.; Good, J. J.; Archibald, F. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The lipid compositions of the low-density lipoproteins, the high-density lipoproteins and the ultracentrifugal residue of human serum are presented, with emphasis on certain lipoprotein classes and lipid components not previously described. 2. Except for the lipoproteins with the lowest and highest densities, there is a trend for stepwise successive increase or, respectively, decrease in the relative amounts of the main constituents of lipoproteins. 3. High-density lipoprotein-2 and high-density lipoprotein-3 have different amounts of certain lipids; high-density lipoprotein-2 has relatively more free cholesterol and sphingomyelin; high-density lipoprotein-3 has more free fatty acids, diglycerides and ceramide monohexosides. 4. All the lipoproteins contain hydrocarbons of the alkane series. The greatest amount, which averages 4·4% of total lipid extracted, is in the ultracentrifugal residue; n-alkanes comprise 18–50% of the hydrocarbons. 5. All the lipoproteins contain ceramide monohexosides. The highest relative contents of these glycolipids are in high-density lipoprotein-3 and in the ultracentrifugal residue. 6. The ultracentrifugal residue contains 55% of the total quantity of free fatty acids present in serum. The remaining free fatty acids are distributed among the other lipoprotein classes. 7. The choline-containing phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) comprise about 90% of the phospholipids in all the lipoprotein classes except the low-density lipoprotein-2, which contains about 80% of these phospholipids. 8. The presence of a large amount of lysophosphatidylcholine in the ultracentrifugal residue and the successive decrease of sphingomyelin from the low-density lipoprotein-1 to the ultracentrifugal residue was confirmed. 9. The low-density lipoprotein-2 and the ultracentrifugal residue are characterized by relatively high contents of the lower glycerides. PMID:6048776

  1. Severe Alterations in Lipid Composition of Frontal Cortex Lipid Rafts from Parkinson’s Disease and Incidental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  2. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by vitamin therapy in women using oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Heidari, Afrooz; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have some adverse effects on the serum lipid profile. Because hyperlipidemia is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in women consuming COCs. Vitamins E and C are known to have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamins E and C on serum lipids in women using COCs. Methods The study compared changes in lipid parameters with and without vitamin therapy in women consuming COCs compared to those of a control group (40 non-contraceptive users or NCU) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels along with HDL/LDL ratios were measured for all participants. Results COC users experienced significantly higher increases in the levels of triglycerides and LDL than non-users (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were noted in the total cholesterol and HDL levels. In the treated COC group receiving vitamins E and C, the HDL level and the HDL/LDL ratio increased and the LDL and triglycerides levels decreased significantly compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C restores a normal lipid profile in COC users. PMID:24693493

  3. Tissue lipid composition in fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C C

    1975-01-01

    The lipid composition of the liver, kidneys, heart and adipose tissue of chicks affected by the fatty liver and kidney syndrome were analysed. Livers and kidneys showed 400 to 500 per cent increases in heart lipid levels. Liver and kidney triglycerides contained increased proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, mainly palmitoleic acid, at the expense of the saturated fatty acids, mainly stearic acid. Phospholipid and adipose tissue fatty acid composition were not markedly altered. The abnormalities were regressing in birds recovering from the syndrome.

  4. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W.; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L.; Patterson, Tucker A.; Paule, Merle G.; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. PMID:26206149

  5. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  6. Impact of lipid content and composition on lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in experimental fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia

    2014-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid content (∼4%, ∼10% and ∼15%) and composition (different lipid sources; animal fat and sunflower oil) on the oxidative stability of proteins and lipids in experimental fermented sausages. Increasing the lipid content of sausages enhanced the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation whereas the effect on the formation of specific carbonyls from protein oxidation was not so evident. Sausages manufactured with different lipid sources affected the susceptibility of lipids and proteins to oxidation as a likely result of the modifications in the fatty acid profile, as well as to the presence of antioxidant compounds. While the fatty acid profile had a major effect on the occurrence and extent of lipid oxidation, the presence of compounds with potential antioxidant activity may be more influential on the extent of protein carbonylation.

  7. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  8. Adhesion and hemifusion of cytoplasmic myelin lipid membranes are highly dependent on the lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Banquy, Xavier; Kristiansen, Kai; Lee, Dong Woog; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of calcium ions on the adhesion and hemifusion mechanisms of model supported myelin lipid bilayer membranes of differing lipid composition. As in our previous studies [1, 2], the lipid compositions used mimic “healthy” and “diseased-like” (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE) membranes. Our results show that the interaction forces as a function of membrane separation distance are well described by a generic model that also (and in particular) includes the hydrophobic interaction arising from the hydrophobically exposed (interior) parts of the bilayers. The model is able to capture the mechanical instability that triggers the onset of the hemifusion event, and highlights the primary role of the hydrophobic interaction in membrane fusion. The effects of lipid composition on the fusion mechanism, and the adhesion forces between myelin lipid bilayers, can be summarized as follow: in calcium-free buffer, healthy membranes do not present any signs of adhesion or hemifusion, while diseased membranes hemifuse easily. Addition of 2 mM calcium favors adhesion and hemifusion of the membranes independently of their composition, but the mechanisms involved in the two processes were different: healthy bilayers systematically presented stronger adhesion forces and lower energy barriers to fusion compared to diseased bilayers. These results are of particular relevance for understanding lesion development (demyelination, swelling, vacuolization and/or vesiculation) in myelin associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and its relationship to lipid domain formation in myelin membranes. PMID:22047743

  9. Visualization of lipid droplet composition by direct organelle mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick J; Ledbetter, Nicole R; James, Christopher N; Hoffman, William D; Case, Charlene R; Verbeck, Guido F; Chapman, Kent D

    2011-02-04

    An expanding appreciation for the varied functions of neutral lipids in cellular organisms relies on a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of lipid production and packaging into cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs). Conventional lipid profiling procedures involve the analysis of tissue extracts and consequently lack cellular or subcellular resolution. Here, we report an approach that combines the visualization of individual LDs, microphase extraction of lipid components from droplets, and the direct identification of lipid composition by nanospray mass spectrometry, even to the level of a single LD. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of LDs from several plant sources (mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) embryos, roots of cotton seedlings, and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and leaves) were examined by direct organelle mass spectrometry and revealed the heterogeneity of LDs derived from different plant tissue sources. The analysis of individual LDs makes possible organellar resolution of molecular compositions and will facilitate new studies of LD biogenesis and functions, especially in combination with analysis of morphological and metabolic mutants. Furthermore, direct organelle mass spectrometry could be applied to the molecular analysis of other subcellular compartments and macromolecules.

  10. Abnormal barrier function in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis: Therapeutic implications for lipid metabolic disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyoses, including inherited disorders of lipid metabolism, display a permeability barrier abnormality in which the severity of the clinical phenotype parallels the prominence of the barrier defect. The pathogenesis of the cutaneous phenotype represents the consequences of the mutation for epidermal function, coupled with a “best attempt” by affected epidermis to generate a competent barrier in a terrestrial environment. A compromised barrier in normal epidermis triggers a vigorous set of metabolic responses that rapidly normalizes function, but ichthyotic epidermis, which is inherently compromised, only partially succeeds in this effort. Unraveling mechanisms that account for barrier dysfunction in the ichthyoses has identified multiple, subcellular, and biochemical processes that contribute to the clinical phenotype. Current treatment of the ichthyoses remains largely symptomatic: directed toward reducing scale or corrective gene therapy. Reducing scale is often minimally effective. Gene therapy is impeded by multiple pitfalls, including difficulties in transcutaneous drug delivery, high costs, and discomfort of injections. We have begun to use information about disease pathogenesis to identify novel, pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategies for the ichthyoses. The clinical phenotype often reflects not only a deficiency of pathway end product due to reduced-function mutations in key synthetic enzymes but often also accumulation of proximal, potentially toxic metabolites. As a result, depending upon the identified pathomechanism(s) for each disorder, the accompanying ichthyosis can be treated by topical provision of pathway product (eg, cholesterol), with or without a proximal enzyme inhibitor (eg, simvastatin), to block metabolite production. Among the disorders of distal cholesterol metabolism, the cutaneous phenotype in Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform Erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD syndrome) and X-linked ichthyosis reflect metabolite

  11. Stabilization of composition fluctuations in mixed membranes by hybrid lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, Samuel; Palmieri, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    A ternary mixture model is proposed to describe composition fluctuations in mixed membranes composed of saturated, unsaturated and hybrid lipids. The asymmetric hybrid lipid has one saturated and one unsaturated hydrocarbon chain and it can reduce the packing incompatibility between saturated and unsaturated lipids. A methodology to recast the free-energy of the lattice in terms of a continuous isotropic field theory is proposed and used to analyze composition fluctuations above the critical temperature. The effect of hybrid lipids on fluctuations domains rich in saturated/unsaturated lipids is predicted. The correlation length of such fluctuations decreases significantly with increasing amounts of hybrids even if the temperature is maintained close to the critical temperature. This provides an upper bound for the domain sizes expected in rafts stabilized by hybrids, above the critical temperature. When the hybrid composition of the membrane is increased further, a crossover value is found above which ``stripe-like'' fluctuations are observed. The wavelength of these fluctuations decreases with increasing hybrid fraction and tends toward a molecular size in a membrane that contains only hybrids.

  12. Yogurt Fermentation in the Presence of Starch-Lipid Composite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of Starch-lipid composites (SLC) on the fermentation of set-style yogurt was investigated by incorporating 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of SLC into the yogurt mix. The fermentation was performed at 40 deg C and its process was monitored with an optical microscope. It was found that SLC acce...

  13. Composition and occurrence of lipid droplets in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Peramuna, Anantha; Summers, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophyllic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not increase LD numbers. LD accumulation increased when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source during exponential growth as compared to added ammonia or nitrogen–fixing conditions. Analysis of isolated LDs revealed enrichment of triacylglycerol (TAG), - tochopherol, and C17 alkanes. LD TAG from exponential phase growth contained mainly saturated C16 and C18 fatty acids whereas stationary phase LD TAG had additional unsaturated fatty acids characteristic of whole cells. This is the first characterization of cyanobacterial LD composition and conditions leading to their production. Based upon their abnormally large size and atypical location these structures represent a novel sub-organelle in cyanobacteria. PMID:25135835

  14. Non-additive compositional curvature energetics of lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sodt, A.J.; Venable, R.M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface in turn govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and will thus underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. The letter describes observations from simulations of unexpected non-additive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature. PMID:27715135

  15. Leptin replacement therapy does not improve the abnormal lipid kinetics of hypoleptinemic patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Rajagopal V; Jahoor, Farook; Iyer, Dinakar; Guthikonda, Anuradha; Paranilam, Jaya; Elhaj, Fareed; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2012-10-01

    Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of (13)C(1)-palmitate and (2)H(5)-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P<.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P<.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptin's effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL.

  16. Isolation and Compositional Analysis of Plant Cuticle Lipid Polyester Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Jenkin, Seamus; Molina, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plants produce extracellular aliphatic biopolyesters that modify cell walls of specific tissues. Epidermal cells synthesize cutin, a polyester of glycerol and modified fatty acids that constitutes the framework of the cuticle that covers aerial plant surfaces. Suberin is a related lipid polyester that is deposited on the cell walls of certain tissues, including the root endodermis and the periderm of tubers, tree bark and roots. These lipid polymers are highly variable in composition among plant species, and often differ among tissues within a single species. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to study the monomer composition of cutin in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves by sodium methoxide (NaOMe)-catalyzed depolymerisation, derivatization, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. This method can be used to investigate the monomers of insoluble polyesters isolated from whole delipidated plant tissues bearing either cutin or suberin. The method can by applied not only to characterize the composition of lipid polymers in species not previously analyzed, but also as an analytical tool in forward and reverse genetic approaches to assess candidate gene function. PMID:26650846

  17. Isolation and Compositional Analysis of Plant Cuticle Lipid Polyester Monomers.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, Seamus; Molina, Isabel

    2015-11-22

    Terrestrial plants produce extracellular aliphatic biopolyesters that modify cell walls of specific tissues. Epidermal cells synthesize cutin, a polyester of glycerol and modified fatty acids that constitutes the framework of the cuticle that covers aerial plant surfaces. Suberin is a related lipid polyester that is deposited on the cell walls of certain tissues, including the root endodermis and the periderm of tubers, tree bark and roots. These lipid polymers are highly variable in composition among plant species, and often differ among tissues within a single species. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to study the monomer composition of cutin in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves by sodium methoxide (NaOMe)-catalyzed depolymerisation, derivatization, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. This method can be used to investigate the monomers of insoluble polyesters isolated from whole delipidated plant tissues bearing either cutin or suberin. The method can by applied not only to characterize the composition of lipid polymers in species not previously analyzed, but also as an analytical tool in forward and reverse genetic approaches to assess candidate gene function.

  18. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  19. Fruit cuticle lipid composition during development in tomato ripening mutants.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Parsons, Eugene P; Isaacson, Tal; Lü, Shiyou; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Jenks, Matthew A

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that fruit cuticle is an important contributing factor to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit shelf life and storability. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that variation in fruit cuticle composition may underlie differences in traits such as fruit resistance to desiccation and microbial infection. To gain a better understanding of cuticle lipid composition diversity during fruit ontogeny and to assess if there are common features that correlate with ripening, we examined developmental changes in fruit cuticle wax and cutin monomer composition of delayed-ripening tomato fruit mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin) and non-ripening (nor) and delayed-ripening landrace Alcobaça. Previous reports show that fruit ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production, cell wall degradation and color change are significantly delayed, or do not occur, in these lines. In the study presented here, however, we show that fruits from rin, nor and Alcobaça have cuticle lipid compositions that differ significantly from normal fruits of Ailsa Craig (AC) even at very early stages in fruit development, with continuing impacts throughout ripening. Moreover, rin, nor and the Alcobaça lines show quite different wax profiles from AC and each other throughout fruit development. Although cutin monomer composition differed much less than wax composition among the genotypes, all delayed-ripening lines possessed higher relative amounts of C(18) monomers than AC. Together, these results reveal new genetic associations between cuticle and fruit development processes and define valuable genetic resources to further explore the importance of cuticle in fruit shelf life.

  20. Proatherogenic Abnormalities Of Lipid Metabolism In SirT1 Transgenic Mice Are Mediated Through Creb Deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Li; Lin, Hua V.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Welch, Carrie L.; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but the mechanism is unclear. Gain-of-function of the gene encoding deacetylase SirT1 improves insulin sensitivity, and could be expected to protect against lipid abnormalities. Surprisingly, when transgenic mice overexpressing SirT1 (SirBACO) are placed on atherogenic diet, they maintain better glucose homeostasis, but develop worse lipid profiles and larger atherosclerotic lesions than controls. We show that transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (Creb) is deacetylated in SirBACO mice. We identify Lys136 is a substrate for SirT1-dependent deacetylation that affects Creb activity by preventing its cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, leading to reduced expression of glucogenic genes, and promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and secretion. Expression of constitutively acetylated Creb (K136Q) in SirBACO mice mimics Creb activation and abolishes the dyslipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of SirT1 gain-of-function. We propose that SirT1-dependent Creb deacetylation regulates the balance between glucose and lipid metabolism, integrating fasting signals. PMID:22078933

  1. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future.

  2. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-01-01

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells.

  3. In vitro performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system: lipid composition matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun; Ehrich, Marion; Fuhrman, Kristel; Zhang, Chenming

    2014-08-01

    Due to the many beneficial properties combined from both poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and liposomes, lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems, bio-imaging agent carriers, as well as antigen delivery vehicles. However, the impact of lipid composition on the performance of lipid-PLGA hybrid NPs as a delivery system has not been well investigated. In this study, the influence of lipid composition on the stability of the hybrid NPs and in vitro antigen release from NPs under different conditions was examined. The uptake of hybrid NPs with various surface charges by dendritic cells (DCs) was carefully studied. The results showed that PLGA NPs enveloped by a lipid shell with more positive surface charges could improve the stability of the hybrid NPs, enable better controlled release of antigens encapsulated in PLGA NPs, as well as enhance uptake of NPs by DC.

  4. Choroideremia Is a Systemic Disease With Lymphocyte Crystals and Plasma Lipid and RBC Membrane Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Yang; Mysore, Naveen; Vali, Hojatollah; Koenekoop, Jamie; Cao, Sang Ni; Li, Shen; Ren, Huanan; Keser, Vafa; Lopez-Solache, Irma; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Khan, Ayesha; Mui, Jeannie; Sears, Kelly; Dixon, Jim; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Majewski, Jacek; Braverman, Nancy; Koenekoop, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor neuronal degenerations are common, incurable causes of human blindness affecting 1 in 2000 patients worldwide. Only half of all patients are associated with known mutations in over 250 disease genes, prompting our research program to identify the remaining new genes. Most retinal degenerations are restricted to the retina, but photoreceptor degenerations can also be found in a wide variety of systemic diseases. We identified an X-linked family from Sri Lanka with a severe choroidal degeneration and postulated a new disease entity. Because of phenotypic overlaps with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, which was recently found to have systemic features, we hypothesized that a systemic disease may be present in this new disease as well. Methods For phenotyping, we performed detailed eye exams with in vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography. For genotyping, we performed whole exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmations and cosegregation. Systemic investigations included electron microscopy studies of peripheral blood cells in patients and in normal controls and detailed fatty acid profiles (both plasma and red blood cell [RBC] membranes). Fatty acid levels were compared to normal controls, and only values two standard deviations above or below normal controls were further evaluated. Results The family segregated a REP1 mutation, suggesting choroideremia (CHM). We then found crystals in peripheral blood lymphocytes and discovered significant plasma fatty acid abnormalities and RBC membrane abnormalities (i.e., elevated plasmalogens). To replicate our discoveries, we expanded the cohort to nine CHM patients, genotyped them for REP1 mutations, and found the same abnormalities (crystals and fatty acid abnormalities) in all patients. Conclusions Previously, CHM was thought to be restricted to the retina. We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that CHM is a systemic condition with prominent crystals in lymphocytes and

  5. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc−/− hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Otero, P. Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M.; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J.; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E.; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Kershaw, Erin E.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Yates, Nathan A.; Goetzman, Eric P.; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc−/− (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc−/− livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27105497

  6. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  7. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions.

  8. Alterations of erythrocyte morphology and lipid composition by hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Brito, M A; Silva, R M; Matos, D C; da Silva, A T; Brites, D T

    1996-05-30

    Morphology and membrane lipid composition of erythrocytes from neonates (jaundiced and healthy) and adults (before and after incubation with bilirubin) were studied. The morphological index, expressing the relative proportions of the different stages of cell distortion, and the membrane cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio, were determined. In jaundiced neonates a significant increase in the morphological index (P < 0.01) was found. After incubation with bilirubin, adult erythrocytes also showed an increase in the morphological index (P < 0.01). Hemolysis occurred under these conditions, and the red cell ghosts obtained (vesicles) showed a rounded morphology. Higher cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and lower phospholipid content were found in jaundiced neonates compared with healthy babies (P < 0.05) and adults (P < 0.01), as well as in the cells (P < 0.05) and vesicles (P < 0.01) obtained after bilirubin incubation. Bilirubin cytotoxicity may occur in a stepwise manner: deposition of bilirubin in membrane produces echinocytosis, which is followed by disintegration of the lipid bilayer with loss of phospholipids from the membrane.

  9. Yogurt fermentation in the presence of starch-lipid composite.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Kim, S

    2009-03-01

    The fermentation of yogurt in the presence of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% starch-lipid composite (SLC) was investigated. The pH, viscosity, and morphology of the mix were monitored during the fermentation process. The rate of drop in pH with time during incubation was not affected by the addition of SLC. However, it was found that the presence of SLC caused faster aggregation, which was clearly evidenced by the viscosity variation during the process of fermentation. An examination of the morphologies confirmed that aggregation occurred earlier in the presence of SLC and SLC did not form phase-separated domains. This study concludes that SLC would serve as a good additive (fat replacer and stabilizer) for the production of yogurt.

  10. Relationships between dairy powder surface composition and wetting properties during storage: importance of residual lipids.

    PubMed

    Gaiani, Claire; Scher, Joel; Ehrhardt, Jean Jacques; Linder, Michel; Schuck, Pierre; Desobry, Stephane; Banon, Sylvie

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between powder surface composition and powder rehydration properties under variable conditions of storage are investigated in this paper. A rheological approach was used to evaluate the modifications induced by storage on the rehydration properties of native phosphocaseinate powder. Concurrently, the powder surface composition (i.e., lactose, proteins, and lipids) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A strong correlation was found between the powder wetting time lengthening and the migration of lipids on the powder surface during storage. XPS studies indicated also an over-representation of lipids on the powder surface (6%) in comparison with total lipids (0.4%) even on fresh powder before storage. Detailed investigation of powder lipids revealed the presence of high levels of polar lipids (66% compared with <1% in milk lipids). Their amphiphilic nature and their melting points could explain the extensive enrichment of lipids observed at the powder surface during processing and storage.

  11. Lipid exchange between membranes: effects of membrane surface charge, composition, and curvature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Zhongying; Ma, Yuqiang

    2012-09-01

    Intermembrane lipid exchange is critical to membrane functions and pharmaceutical applications. The exchange process is not fully understood and it is explored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitor method in this research. It is found that intermembrane lipid exchange is accelerated with the decrease of vesicle size and the increase of charge and liquid crystalline lipid composition ratio. Vesicle adsorption rate, membrane lateral pressure gradient, and lipid lateral diffusion coefficient are inferred to be critical in deciding the lipid exchange kinetics between membranes. Besides that, the membrane contact situation during lipid exchange is also studied. The maximum total membrane contact area is found to increase with the decrease of vesicle size, charged and liquid crystalline lipid composition ratio. A competition mechanism between the vesicle adsorption rate and the intermembrane lipid exchange rate was proposed to control the maximum total membrane contact area.

  12. Intercellular skin barrier lipid composition and organization in Netherton syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Janssens, Michelle; Boiten, Walter A; van Drongelen, Vincent; Furio, Laetitia; Vreeken, Rob J; Hovnanian, Alain; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-05-01

    Netherton syndrome (NTS) is a rare genetic skin disease caused by mutations in the serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 gene, which encodes the lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor. NTS patients have profoundly impaired skin barrier function. As stratum corneum (SC) lipids have a crucial role in the skin barrier function, we investigated the SC lipid composition and organization in NTS patients. We studied the SC lipid composition by means of mass spectrometry, and the lipid organization was examined by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Decreased free fatty acid (FFA) chain length and increased levels of monounsaturated FFAs were observed in the SC of NTS patients compared with controls. Furthermore, the level of short-chain ceramides (CERs) was enhanced in NTS patients and a strong reduction in long-chain CER levels was seen in several patients. The changes in lipid composition modified the lipid organization leading to an increased disordering of the lipids compared with the controls. In addition, in a subgroup of patients the organization of the lipid layers changed dramatically. The altered FFA and CER profiles in NTS patients corresponded to changes in the expression of enzymes involved in SC lipid processing. The observed changes in lipid composition, lipid organization, and enzyme expression are likely to contribute to the barrier dysfunction in NTS.

  13. High-T c superconductor/polymer composites. Modeling of abnormal electrical properties at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlhachemi, A.; Gavarri, J. R.; Musso, J.; Alfred-Duplan, C.; Marfaing, J.

    1994-09-01

    High- Tc 2223-bismuth superconducting pigments have been inserted in a matrix of Fe 3+-doped polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) to obtain new composites with variable properties. The fabrication and the characterization of the various components are briefly described. The electrical resistivity at a low temperature of the composites is reported. In the case of multiphase super-conducting pigments presenting various Tc's and semiconducting fabrication residues inserted in the polymeric matrix, the composites are characterized by abnormal resistivity evolutions between 20 K and 300 K. A new electrical model is proposed to interpret the behavior of such composites in the full 5 K to 300 K temperature range. Percolation features are taken into account through an empirical description of the electrical complex impedances. The computer calculations allow one to characterize fabrication residues and interfaces between insulating, conducting and superconducting areas in the composites.

  14. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  15. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  16. Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Langworthy, T A

    1977-06-01

    Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions.

  17. Comparative lipid composition of heterotrophically and autotrophically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed Central

    Langworthy, T A

    1977-01-01

    Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions. Images PMID:863856

  18. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes. [Avena sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-07-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole % phospholipid, 25 mole % glycolipid, and 25 mole % free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole %, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  19. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  20. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  1. Effects of solvents and alcohols on the polar lipid composition of Clostridium butyricum under conditions of controlled lipid chain composition

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.L.; Goldfine, H. )

    1991-12-01

    Clostridium butyricum has been grown in media devoid of biotin, to which long-chain fatty acids have been added to promote growth. The authors have shown previously that, under these conditions, exogenous fatty acids are extensively incorporated into the cellular phospholipids. Cells grown with elaidic acid, trans-9-18:1, have normal ratios of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine (GaPlaE) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plus plasmenylethanolamine (PlaE) compared with cells grown with biotin. When ethanol, cyclohexane, or n-octanol was added to elaidate-containing media, the ratio of GAPlaE to Pe plus PlaE was significantly increased. Addition of dodecane and n-butanol did not affect this ratio. When cells were grown with oleic acid in the absence of biotin, the GAPlaE to PE plus PlaE ratio was increased 5.4-fold compared with elaidate-grown cells. In oleate-supplemented media, the addition of solvents or n-alcohols produced no further increase in this ratio. They conclude that these changes in lipid composition represent cellular responses to perturbation of the equilibria between the lamellar and nonlamellar liquid crystalline phases in the cell membrane.

  2. Association between Indices of Body Composition and Abnormal Metabolic Phenotype in Normal-Weight Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lili; Dong, Fen; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fen; Pan, Li; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Yuxiang; Gaisano, Herbert; He, Yan; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-07

    We aimed to determine the association of indices of body composition with abnormal metabolic phenotype, and to examine whether the strength of association was differentially distributed in different age groups in normal-weight Chinese adults. A total of 3015 normal-weight adults from a survey of Chinese people encompassing health and basic physiological parameters was included in this cross-sectional study. We investigated the association of body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional body indices with metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUHNW) adults, divided by age groups and gender. Associations were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found abnormal metabolism in lean Chinese adults to be associated with higher adiposity indices (body mass index, BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat), lower skeletal muscle %, and body water %. Body composition was differentially distributed in age groups within the metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW)/MUHNW groups. The impact of factors related to MUHNW shows a decreasing trend with advancing age in females and disparities of factors (BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water %) associated with the MUHNW phenotype in the elderly was noticed. Those factors remained unchanged in males throughout the age range, while the association of BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water % to MUHNW attenuated and grip strength emerged as a protective factor in elderly females. These results suggest that increased adiposity and decreased skeletal muscle mass are associated with unfavorable metabolic traits in normal-weight Chinese adults, and that MUHNW is independent of BMI, while increased waist circumference appears to be indicative of an abnormal metabolic phenotype in elderly females.

  3. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1) collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2) collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3) compare the results with the international norms, 4) and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI). Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat) were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance. PMID:21992447

  4. Lipid composition of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis and lipid changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Mills, G L; Taylor, D C; Williams, J F

    1981-09-01

    A lipid analysis was performed on developing metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis removed from the livers of rats at times varying from 3 to 35 weeks post infection. Lipid accounted for 7-21% of the dry weight of the parasites. The highest proportions were found at the earlier stages. The distribution was as follows; neutral lipid 27-45%; glycolipid 5-11%; and phospholipid 50-61%. The major neutral lipid was cholesterol, and minor neutral lipids were sterol esters, triglycerides, diglycerides and monoglycerides. Hydrocarbons were present throughout development, but in the highest amounts at the earlier stages. Five different glycolipids were found, all of which were identified as glycosphingolipids. An increase in the proportion of more complex glycolipids was noted as parasites grew older. Ten different phospholipids were identified, with the major components being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Other phospholipids were: lysophosphatides, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, diphosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyelin, and an unknown phospholipid component. Changes in the relative amounts of the two major phospholipids were found when the early and late stages were compared. Two lipids found throughout development were identified as glycosylated dolichol phosphates, and they comprised between 1 and 3% of the total phospholipid fraction. Nineteen fatty acids were detected, and the fatty acid distribution for each lipid class at each stage was determined. Seven major fatty acids were common to each. These were: hexadecanoic, octadecanoic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, docosanoic, and docosahexaenoic.

  5. Altered composition of epidermal lipids correlates with Staphylococcus aureus colonization status in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Villarreal, M; Stewart, S; Choi, J; Indra, G; Babineau, D C; Philpot, C; David, G; Yoshida, T; Boguniewicz, M; Hanifin, J; Beck, L A; Leung, D; Simpson, E; Indra, A K

    2017-02-28

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by disrupted epidermal barrier functions.(1) Stratum corneum (SC) consists of corneocytes and a lipid-rich extracellular matrix, which plays a key role in epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) functions.(2,3) Major lipid constituents of the SC are ceramides (CERs), free fatty acids (FFAs), cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs).(2,3) Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) colonization is an important trigger of AD.(4) Comprehensive profiling of SC lipids using S.aureus colonization status, and association between S.aureus colonization and skin lipid composition, has never been documented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid growth requirement and influence of lipid supplement on fatty acid and aldehyde composition of Syntrophococcus sucromutans.

    PubMed Central

    Doré, J; Bryant, M P

    1989-01-01

    Results concerning the ruminal fluid growth requirement of the ruminal acetogen, Syntrophococcus sucromutans, indicate that octadecenoic acid isomers satisfy this essential requirement. Complex lipids, such as triglycerides and phospholipids, can also support growth. The cellular fatty acid and aldehyde composition closely reflects that of the lipid supplement provided to the cells. Up to 98% of the fatty acids and 80% of the fatty aldehydes are identical in chain length and degree of unsaturation to the octadecenoic acid supplement provided in the medium. S. sucromutans shows a tendency to have a greater proportion of the aldehyde form among its 18 carbon chains than it does with the shorter-chain simple lipids, which may be interpreted as a strategy to maintain membrane fluidity. 14C labeling showed that most of the oleic acid taken up from the medium was incorporated into the membrane fraction of the cells. PMID:2729991

  7. Investigating the barrier function of skin lipid models with varying compositions.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniël; Poole, Dana S; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2011-10-01

    The lipids in the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), play an important role in the barrier function. The main lipid classes in stratum corneum are ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. In previous publications, a lipid model was presented, referred to as the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), that closely mimics the SC lipid organization and SC barrier function. In the present study, we use the SCS to study the effect of changes in lipid organization on the lipid barrier function using benzoic acid as permeation compound. First, in the SCS, we increased the level of one of the three major lipid classes keeping the ratio between the other lipid classes constant. An increased cholesterol level resulted in an increase in phase-separated cholesterol and a reduction in the permeability. An increase in ceramide or free fatty acid level resulted in the formation of additional phases, but had no significant influence on the permeability. We also examined models that mimic selected changes in lipid composition reported for dry or diseased skin. The SCS that mimics the composition in recessive X-linked ichthyosis skin displayed a twofold increase in permeability. This increase is possibly related to the formation of an additional, less ordered phase in this model.

  8. Milk fat content and DGAT1 genotype determine lipid composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows.

  9. Season-induced variation in lipid composition is associated with semen quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, N; Mahgrefthe, K; Zeron, Y; Roth, Z

    2013-05-01

    Season-induced variation in fatty acid and cholesterol composition in bovine semen has been associated with semen quality. Given the specific roles of the various semen compartments (seminal fluids, sperm head, and sperm tail) in fertilization, we hypothesized that environmental-stress-induced alterations in the lipid composition of a specific compartment might impair semen quality and sperm function. Semen samples were collected from five mature Holstein-Friesian bulls during the summer (August to September) and winter (December to January). Semen was evaluated by computerized sperm-quality analyzer, calibrated for bulls' semen, and centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa from the seminal fluids. The spermatozoal fraction was sonicated to separate the sperm head and tail compartments. Cold lipid extraction was performed with chloroform:methanol (2:1, vol/vol). Lipids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Seasonal variation was found in both physiological and structural parameters. The proportion of spermatozoa defined as morphologically normal was higher in the winter, with higher motility, progressive motility, and velocity relative to summer samples. Lipid composition within fractions varied between seasons with prominent impairment in the tail compartment, characterized by high saturated fatty acid, low polyunsaturated fatty acid, and low cholesterol concentrations during the summer. Given the association between alterations in lipid composition and reduced sperm motility and velocity during the summer, it is suggested that lipid composition might serve to predict sperm quality.

  10. Lipid Composition of Organelles from Germinating Castor Bean Endosperm 1

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Robert P.; Beevers, Harry

    1977-01-01

    Glyoxysome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and proplastid fractions were isolated from endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis) germinated for 5 days at 30 C. Samples from sucrose density gradients were diluted with 0.15 m KCI and the membranes pelleted. Lipid extracts of these membranes were analyzed for phosphoglyceride, acyl lipid, and sterol content. The endoplasmic reticulum contains 1.24 μmol of phosphoglyceride per mg of protein; the mitochondria, 0.65 μmol/mg; and the glyoxysome membranes, 0.55 μmol/mg. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the most abundant lipids in all membranes studied, accounting for 70% or more of the lipid phosphorus and 50% or more of the fatty acid. Glyoxysome membranes and endoplasmic reticulum also contain phosphatidyl inositol (respectively, 9 and 17% of the lipid phosphorus) and free fatty acids (13% of the total fatty acid in each). Compared with other organelles, mitochondrial membranes have more phosphatidyl ethanolamine relative to phosphatidyl choline and are characterized by the presence of cardiolipin, in which 80% of the fatty acid is linoleate. The relative amounts of linoleate, palmitate, oleate, stearate, and linolenate in each of the phosphotoglycerides are constant regardless of the membrane source. Stimasgasterol and β-sitosterol are present in the membranes (1-9 nmol each/mg protein). The data provide further evidence that glyoxysome membranes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum but at the same time indicate some differentiation. PMID:16659829

  11. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, Eric L.; Chen, Ying; Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N.; Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W.; Shertzer, Howard G.

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  12. Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J; Tovar, Armando R; Ordáz, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 +/- 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 +/- 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 +/- 0.1 vs. R = 7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 +/- 0.3 vs. R = 2 +/- 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism.

  13. Nitrogen-Deprivation Elevates Lipid Levels in Symbiodinium spp. by Lipid Droplet Accumulation: Morphological and Compositional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  14. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  15. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  16. Altered lipid composition in cortical lipid rafts occurs at early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and facilitates APP/BACE1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Marín, Raquel; Moreno, Dolores; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2014-08-01

    The presence of lipid alterations in lipid rafts from the frontal cortex in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we have isolated and analyzed the lipid composition of lipid rafts from different brain areas from control and AD subjects at initial neuropathologic stages. We have observed that frontal cortex lipid rafts are profoundly altered in AD brains from the earliest stages of AD, namely AD I/II. These changes in the lipid matrix of lipid rafts affected both lipid classes and fatty acids and were also detected in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the cerebellum from the same subjects. Paralleling these changes, lipid rafts from AD frontal and entorhinal cortices displayed higher anisotropy for environment-sensitive probes, indicating that lipid changes in AD lipid rafts increased membrane order and viscosity in these domains. The pathophysiological consequences of these alterations in the development and progression of AD were strengthened by the significant, and specific, accumulation of β-secretase within the lipid rafts of AD subjects even at the earliest stages. Our results provide a mechanistic connection between lipid alterations in these microdomains and amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein.

  17. The effect of lipid content on the elemental composition and energy capacity of yeast biomass.

    PubMed

    Minkevich, Igor G; Dedyukhina, Emiliya G; Chistyakova, Tat'yana I

    2010-10-01

    Oleaginous yeasts (18 strains) were grown in ethanol media under various cultivation conditions (33 biomass samples). It was found that lipid and lipid-free fractions of dry biomass have elemental composition and biomass reductivity very close to values which can be considered as biological constants. The energy content of dry biomass strongly depended on the total lipid content. When the lipid content was 64%, the energy value of dry biomass reached 73% of diesel oil; therefore, oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising source of biodiesel fuel. The approach used in this work makes it possible to determine the energy value of biomass by its elemental composition without application of laborious and expensive calorimetric measurements of combustion heats.

  18. Composition of the silk lipids of the spider Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S

    2001-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the lipids of spider silk is given for the first time. Extracts of the silk from the golden orb weaver, Nephila clavipes, were studied by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical derivatizations. The major group of the lipids consisted of methyl-branched 1-methoxyalkanes (methyl ethers) with up to four methyl groups in the chain (chain length between C28 and C34), which are unique to spiders. The position of the methyl branches was determined by conversion into cyanides, which allowed easy location of methyl branches. The second-largest group included alkanes with a wide structural variety; 2-methyl-branched, even-numbered hydrocarbons predominated. A general numerical method for the estimation of retention indices of alkanes and their derivatives is presented. Further components of the web included alkanols and alkanediols, fatty acids, and glyceryl ethers. Some comments on the biosynthesis of these compounds are also given.

  19. The effect of copper ions on the lipid composition of subcellular membranes in Hydrilla verticillata.

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, Olga A; Nesterov, Viktor N; Sinyutina, Natalia F

    2012-09-01

    The paper studies changes in the content and composition of lipids in the membranes of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microsomes of the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata exposed to copper ions (100 μM; 1, 3, 6 and 24 h). The rate of copper accumulation and the coefficient of its extraction by the plant were also determined. The presence of copper in the incubation medium and its accumulation in the plant tissues decreased the content of photosynthetic pigments, stimulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced membrane permeability. The gradual accumulation of copper in the plant tissues was accompanied by specific changes in the composition of lipids: the content of sulfolipids (SQDG) in chloroplasts declined; the content of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG) and phosphatidyl glycerols (PG) in chloroplasts and mitochondria grew after an hour of copper exposure; and the content of all the lipids except phosphatidic acids (PA) decreased after 3 h of exposure. The decline in the content of phosphatidyl cholines (PC) was first observed in the membranes of microsomes (after an hour of exposure) and later in the membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria (after 3-6 h of exposure). The experiments with incorporation of [2-(14)C]sodium acetate into fatty acids of polar lipids showed that in parallel with lipid destruction, there took place an intensive and specific renewal of the lipid pool of subcellular membrane fractions.

  20. Lateral diffusion of membrane proteins: consequences of hydrophobic mismatch and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V; Poolman, Bert

    2010-09-08

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14-22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model.

  1. Lipids of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described.

  2. Effects of silicon deficiency on lipid composition and metabolism in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica

    SciTech Connect

    Roessler, P.G. )

    1988-09-01

    The effects of silicon deficiency on the metabolism and composition of lipids in Cyclotella cryptica T13L Reimann, Lewin, and Guillard were examined Silicon-deficient cells had higher levels of neutral lipids (primarily triacylglycerols) and higher proportions of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids than silicon-replete cells. After 4 h of silicon deficiency, the percentage of newly assimilated NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} partitioned into lipids increased from 27.6% to 54.1%, whereas the percentage partitioned into chrysolaminarin decreased from 21.6% to 54.1%, whereas the percentage partitioned into chrysolaminarin decreased from 21.6% to 10.6%. In addition, pulse-chase experiments with NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} indicated that the amount of {sup 14}C in the total cellular lipid fraction increased by 32% after 12 h of silicon deficiency despite the absence of additional photoassimilable {sup 14}C. Therefore, the accumulation of lipids in response to silicon deficiency appears to be due to two distinct processes: (1) an increase in the proportion of newly assimilated carbon partitioned into lipids, and (2) a slow conversion of previously assimilated carbon from non-lipid compounds into lipids.

  3. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  4. Lipid composition and structure of commercial parenteral emulsions.

    PubMed

    Férézou, J; Nguyen, T L; Leray, C; Hajri, T; Frey, A; Cabaret, Y; Courtieu, J; Lutton, C; Bach, A C

    1994-07-14

    In order to study the influence of the phospholipid/triacylglycerol (PL/TG) ratio of parenteral emulsions on the distribution and the physico-chemical properties of their fat particles, commercial 10, 20 or 30% fat formulas were fractionated by centrifugation into an upper lipid cake (resuspended in aqueous glycerol) and a subnatant or mesophase, from which a PL-rich subfraction (d = 1.010-1.030 g/l) was purified by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Chemical and 31P-NMR analyses of these fractions indicated that at least two types of fat particles coexist in parenteral emulsions: (i) TG-rich particles (mean diameter: 330, 400, 470 nm in the 10, 20, 30% emulsion) which contain practically all the TG and esterified phytosterols of native emulsions, but only a fraction of their PL, unesterified cholesterol and phytosterols, and other minor lipids; (ii) PL-bilayer particles or liposomes (mean diameter: 80-100 nm) which are constituted with the remaining PL and relatively very small amounts of TG and other lipids. The higher the oil content of the emulsion, the lower the amount of these PL-rich particles, which represent the major particle population of the mesophase. Indeed, minute amounts of TG-rich particles (probably the smallest ones) are also present in the mesophase, even in the PL-rich subfraction which contains the bulk of liposomal PL. Since the PL-rich particles of the infused emulsion generate lipoprotein X-like particles, only the large TG-rich particles can be considered as true chylomicron counterparts.

  5. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  6. Salivary composition in obese vs normal-weight subjects: towards a role in postprandial lipid metabolism?

    PubMed

    Vors, C; Drai, J; Gabert, L; Pineau, G; Laville, M; Vidal, H; Guichard, E; Michalski, M-C; Feron, G

    2015-09-01

    In the pathophysiological context of obesity, oral exposure to dietary fat can modulate lipid digestion and absorption, but underlying in-mouth mechanisms have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that salivary components related to dietary fat sensitivity would differ according to body mass index (BMI) and postprandial lipid metabolism in young men. Saliva was collected from nine normal-weight (BMI=22.3±0.5 kg m(-2)) and nine non-morbid obese (BMI=31.7±0.3 kg m(-2)) men before an 8-h postprandial metabolic exploration test involving the consumption of a 40-g fat meal, in which obese subjects revealed a delayed postprandial lipid metabolism. Nine salivary characteristics (flow, protein content, lipolysis, amylase, proteolysis, total antioxidant status, lysozyme, lipocalin 1 and carbonic anhydrase-VI) were investigated. We show that, under fasting conditions, salivary lipolysis was lower in obese vs normal-weight subjects, whereas proteolysis and carbonic anhydrase VI were higher. We reveal through multivariate and Mann-Whitney analysis that differences in fasting salivary lipolysis and proteolysis between both groups are related to differences in postprandial lipid metabolism including exogenous fatty-acid absorption and β-oxidation. These results suggest a potential role of salivary composition on postprandial lipid metabolism and bring novel causal hypotheses on the links between salivary composition, sensitivity to dietary fat oral income and postprandial lipid metabolism according to BMI.

  7. Lipid Composition of Multilamellar Bodies Secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum Reveals Their Amoebal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Valérie E.; Lessire, René; Domergue, Frédéric; Fouillen, Laetitia; Filion, Geneviève; Sedighi, Ahmadreza

    2013-01-01

    When they are fed with bacteria, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae produce and secrete multilamellar bodies (MLBs), which are composed of membranous material. It has been proposed that MLBs are a waste disposal system that allows D. discoideum to eliminate undigested bacterial remains. However, the real function of MLBs remains unknown. Determination of the biochemical composition of MLBs, especially lipids, represents a way to gain information about the role of these structures. To allow these analyses, a protocol involving various centrifugation procedures has been developed to purify secreted MLBs from amoeba-bacterium cocultures. The purity of the MLB preparation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and by immunofluorescence using H36, an antibody that binds to MLBs. The lipid and fatty acid compositions of pure MLBs were then analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively, and compared to those of amoebae as well as bacteria used as a food source. While the bacteria were devoid of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), these two polar lipid species were major classes of lipids in MLBs and amoebae. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of MLBs and amoebae was characterized by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while cyclic fatty acids were found only in bacteria. These results strongly suggest that the lipids constituting the MLBs originate from the amoebal metabolism rather than from undigested bacterial membranes. This opens the possibility that MLBs, instead of being a waste disposal system, have unsuspected roles in D. discoideum physiology. PMID:23748431

  8. Changes in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Age Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Human tear film stability decreases with increasing age. In this study, the changes in meibum composition were measured in search of markers of tear film instability. Methods. 1H NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 43 normal donors aged 1 to 88 years were acquired. Results. Compared with meibum from adolescents and adults, meibum from infants and children contains less CH3 and C═C groups and an increased aldehyde-to-lipid hydroperoxide ratio. Conclusions. It is reasonable that tear film stability is higher in infants than in adults. Their meibum contains less CH3 and C═C groups and higher levels of protein, and as a result, the lipid is more ordered because of the tighter and stronger lipid–lipid interactions. For water to evaporate, it must first pass through the tight lipid–lipid barrier. For tears to break up, lipid–lipid interactions must be broken. It is reasonable that because the lipid–lipid interactions are stronger in infants' and children's tears compared with those of adolescents and adults, the tear film in the younger groups is more stable and provides a better barrier to evaporation than does the tear film of adults. Lipid saturation could be the critical feature in meibum that stabilizes tears in infants. PMID:22169100

  9. Enhancement effect of ethanol on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengchen; Wang, Wei; Yue, Long; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Qiuguo; Ye, Qingfu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of ethanol concentration gradients along with varied cultivation times on lipid and fatty acid accumulation and composition of Scenedesmus sp. were studied. The maximum increment of algal density, lipid productivity, lipid content and fatty acid content were 6.61, 11.75, 1.34 and 3.14 times higher than the control group under 12h photoperiod. Algal light deprivation inhibited ethanol positive effects on algal growth and lipid biomass. The cumulative quantity of C16:0 and C18:0 decreased correspondingly with the increase of ethanol concentrations and cultivation times. Besides, unsaturated fatty acids appeared early in algal cells and increased 57.02% in maximum. However, only 2.27% (14)C was transferred from ethanol to fatty acids. The results indicated that adding proper amount of ethanol in algal culture medium was beneficial to biodiesel feedstock production and biodiesel properties.

  10. Ca(2+) adsorption to lipid membranes and the effect of cholesterol in their composition.

    PubMed

    Iraolagoitia, Ximena L Raffo; Martini, M Florencia

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the binding of ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) to lipid membranes in which the availability of the phosphate groups to the aqueous phase is modified by the degree of saturation of the lipids and the inclusion of cholesterol. The shifts in the phosphate bands observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra are direct evidence of the interaction of Ca(2+) with phosphate groups. The binding analysis was done by determining the changes in the zeta potential of liposomes suspended in buffer at controlled temperature. The changes produced by the ion on the zeta potential of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC); dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC); distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC); dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) and their mixers with cholesterol were measured, showing a Langmuir isotherm behavior in all the lipid composition assayed. The results show that the interaction of Ca(2+) to lipid membranes depends on the exposure and the density of phosphate groups at the membrane interphase.

  11. Physical activity-induced alterations on tissue lipid composition and lipid metabolism in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Daza, A; Rey, A I; Olivares, A; Cordero, G; Toldrá, F; López-Bote, C J

    2009-04-01

    In a first experiment one group of pigs was maintained in free-range conditions according to the traditional way in a Mediterranean forest (exercised-1) and another group was housed individually and received acorns (sedentary-1). In a second experiment two groups of pigs were fed a mixed diet for the whole experimental period. One of these groups was housed individually in 8m(2) pens (sedentary-2). The other group was housed in a corridor and forced to walk daily (exercised-2). The subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids of muscle from the exercised pigs fed acorns had higher C18:1n-9, MUFA, C18:1/C18:0, MUFA/SAT and lower C16:0 and SAT when compared with the fat from the pigs fed acorns in confinement. Those exercised animals fed the mixed diet had also lower C16:0 and SAT in subcutaneous fat and lower SAT and higher C18:2, C18:3, PUFA and MUFA/SAT in neutral lipids when compared with the sedentary pigs, which may indicate that delta-9-desaturase activity was higher in exercised than in sedentary pigs. Exercised pigs had higher acid and neutral esterases and lower neutral lipase activity than sedentary pigs. No differences in the α-tocopherol concentration and TBARS values of meat samples among the pigs that received a mixed diet either exercised or sedentary were observed. The moderate exercise reduced the postprandrial concentrations of triglycerides in plasma, but did not reduce other plasma levels.

  12. Gut microbiota affects lens and retinal lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yetukuri, Laxman; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hänninen, Virve

    2009-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects host lipid metabolism and is considered an environmental factor that contributes to development of obesity. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects the eye lipidome, we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of lens and retina from conventionally raised and germ-free mice. Conventionally raised mice had diminished phosphatidylcholines in the lens and elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens in the retina. Diminishment of lens phosphatidylcholines in the presence of gut microbiota suggests that the conventionally raised mice are exposed over time to more oxidative stress than germ-free mice. Consistent with this, their lifespan is also shorter. Our findings may open a new area of investigation how modulation of gut microbiota affects the eye health.

  13. Longitudinal evaluation of hepatic lipid deposition and composition in ob/ob and ob/+ control mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiong; Danzer, Carsten Friedrich; Fuchs, Alexander; Vats, Divya; Wolfrum, Christian; Rudin, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and hepatosteatosis. Understanding the link between IR and hepatosteatosis could be relevant to chronic clinical outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess lipid deposition (fractional lipid mass, fLM) and composition (fraction of polyunsaturated lipids, fPUL and mean chain length, MCL) in livers of ob/ob mice, a genetic model of obesity and mild diabetes, and ob/+ heterozygous control animals in a noninvasive manner using (1) H-MRS at 9.4T. For accurate quantification, intensity values were corrected for differences in T2 values while T1 effects were considered minimal due to the long TR values used. Values of fLM, fPUL and MCL were derived from T2 -corrected signal intensities of lipids and water resonance. Hepatic lipid signals were compared with fasted plasma insulin, glucose and lipid levels. Statistically significant correlations between fPUL and fasting plasma insulin/glucose levels were found in adolescent ob/ob mice. A similar correlation was found between fLM and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, the correlation between fLM and fasting plasma glucose levels was less obvious in adolescent ob/ob mice. These correlations were lost in adult ob/ob mice. The study showed that in adolescent ob/ob mice, there was an obvious link between lipid deposition/composition in the liver and plasma insulin/glucose levels. This correlation was lost in adult animals, probably due to the limited lipid storage capacity of the liver.

  14. Effects of sewage discharges on lipid and fatty acid composition of the Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rocchetta, Iara; Pasquevich, María Y; Heras, Horacio; Ríos de Molina, María del Carmen; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-02-15

    Lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition and selected oxidative stress parameters of freshwater clams (Dipolodon chilensis), from a sewage-polluted (SMA) and a clean site, were compared. Trophic markers FA were analyzed in clams and sediment. Saturated FA (SAFA), and bacteria and sewage markers were abundant in SMA sediments, while diatom markers were 50% lower. Proportions of SAFA, branched FA, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were higher in SMA clams. Chronic exposure of D. chilensis to increasing eutrophication affected its lipid and FA composition. The increase in EPA and DHA proportions could be an adaptive response, which increases stress resistance but could also lead to higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation TBARS, lipofuscins (20-fold) and GSH concentrations were higher in SMA clams. FA markers indicated terrestrial plant detritus and bacteria are important items in D. chilensis diet. Anthropogenic input in their food could be traced using specific FA as trophic markers.

  15. Effect of cell rupturing methods on the drying characteristics and lipid compositions of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, T; Mani, S; Das, K C; Chinnasamy, S; Bhatnagar, A; Singh, R K; Singh, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigated the effect of cell rupturing methods on the drying characteristics and the lipid compositions of a green algae consortium grown in an open raceway pond. The ruptured microalgae samples obtained from French press, autoclave and sonication methods were used for conducting thin layer drying experiment at four drying temperatures (30, 50, 70 and 90 °C). The rate of moisture removal at each drying condition was recorded until no change in moisture loss. A typical drying curve for a microalgae consortium indicated that the rate of drying was limited by diffusion. Among three drying models (Newton, Page and Henderson-Pabis) used to fit the drying data, Page model fitted well on the experimental drying data with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.99. Solvent extraction of French press ruptured cells produced the highest total lipid yield with no significant change in lipid compositions.

  16. Effects of crude rapeseed oil on lipid composition in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Pickova, J; Brännäs, E

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of crude rapeseed oil (RO) on lipid content and composition in muscle and liver of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Triplicate groups were fed diets containing fish oil (FO):RO ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 until two-fold mass increase. Total lipid content increased significantly in the liver with higher proportion of RO in the diet. Profound effects were seen in the fatty acid composition in the analysed tissues with a reduction in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and an increase in 18:2n-6 with higher RO content in the diets. A drop in cholesterol content was seen at 25% inclusion of RO in both tissues. Wild-caught fish contained a considerably higher amount of 20:4n-6 in both storage and membrane lipids of white muscle compared with the experimental fish.

  17. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  18. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  19. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  20. Dietary lipids modify the fatty acid composition of cartilage, isolated chondrocytes and matrix vesicles.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Watkins, B A; Adkisson, H D

    1994-09-01

    The effects of dietary lipids on the fatty acid composition of hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal chondrocytes (EC) and matrix vesicles (MV) were evaluated in chicks. A basal semipurified diet was fed to chicks containing one of the following lipid sources at 70 g/kg: soybean oil, butter+corn oil, margarine+corn oil or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC). Articular and epiphyseal growth cartilage were isolated from the proximal tibiotarsus; EC and MV were subsequently released by trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) digestion followed by ultracentrifugation. The fatty acid composition of polar lipids in chick epiphyseal cartilage at three and six weeks, as well as articular cartilage, EC and MV at eight weeks of age revealed the presence of high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (up to 85.5%) but low levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (2.6-10.2%). Mead acid (20:3n-9, > 3%) was also present in cartilage, EC and MV lipids, and was unaffected by the dietary lipid treatments. Total n-3 PUFA concentrations were the highest in cartilage, EC and MV of chicks consuming MEC. Feeding MEC lowered the levels of 20:4n-6 in cartilage, but increased 20:5n-3 levels. The data are consistent with those reported previously which showed that cartilage tissues are low in n-6 PUFA and that they contain 20:3n-9. We furthermore demonstrated that the PUFA composition of cartilage can be modified by dietary lipids.

  1. Measuring the composition-curvature coupling in binary lipid membranes by computer simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Barragán Vidal, I. A. Müller, M.; Rosetti, C. M.; Pastorino, C.

    2014-11-21

    The coupling between local composition fluctuations in binary lipid membranes and curvature affects the lateral membrane structure. We propose an efficient method to compute the composition-curvature coupling in molecular simulations and apply it to two coarse-grained membrane models—a minimal, implicit-solvent model and the MARTINI model. Both the weak-curvature behavior that is typical for thermal fluctuations of planar bilayer membranes as well as the strong-curvature regime corresponding to narrow cylindrical membrane tubes are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results are analyzed by using a phenomenological model of the thermodynamics of curved, mixed bilayer membranes that accounts for the change of the monolayer area upon bending. Additionally the role of thermodynamic characteristics such as the incompatibility between the two lipid species and asymmetry of composition are investigated.

  2. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p < 0.05) observed in fructose-fed rats were completely prevented with TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  3. Changes in membrane lipid composition during saline growth of the fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huflejt, M. E.; Tremolieres, A.; Pineau, B.; Lang, J. K.; Hatheway, J.; Packer, L.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Synechococcus 6311 in the presence of 0.5 molar NaCl is accompanied by significant changes in membrane lipid composition. Upon transfer of the cells from a low salt' (0.015 molar NaCl) to high salt' (0.5 molar NaCl) growth medium at different stages of growth, a rapid decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 delta 9) content was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the amount of the two C18:1 acids (C18:1 delta 9, C18:1 delta 11), with the higher increase in oleic acid C18:1 delta 9 content. These changes began to occur within the first hour after the sudden elevation of NaCl and progressed for about 72 hours. The percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) remained almost unchanged in the same conditions. High salt-dependent changes within ratios of polar lipid classes also occurred within the first 72 hours of growth. The amount of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-destabilizing lipid) decreased and that of the digalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-stabilizing lipid) increased. Consequently, in the three day old cells, the ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol in the membranes of high salt-grown cells was about half of that in the membranes of low salt-grown cells. The total content of anionic lipids (phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) was always higher in the isolated membranes and the whole cells from high salt-grown cultures compared to that in the cells and membranes from low salt-grown cultures. All the observed rearrangements in the lipid environment occurred in both thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Similar lipid composition changes, however, to a much lesser extent, were also observed in the aging, low salt-grown cultures. The observed changes in membrane fatty acids and lipids composition correlate with the alterations in electron and ion transport activities, and it is concluded that the rearrangement of the membrane lipid environment is an essential part of the

  4. Changes in Membrane Lipid Composition during Saline Growth of the Fresh Water Cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 1

    PubMed Central

    Huflejt, Margaret E.; Tremolieres, Antoine; Pineau, Bernard; Lang, Johanna K.; Hatheway, John; Packer, Lester

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Synechococcus 6311 in the presence of 0.5 molar NaCl is accompanied by significant changes in membrane lipid composition. Upon transfer of the cells from a `low salt' (0.015 molar NaCl) to `high salt' (0.5 molar NaCl) growth medium at different stages of growth, a rapid decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ9) content was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the amount of the two C18:1 acids (C18:1Δ9, C18:1Δ11), with the higher increase in oleic acid C18:1Δ9 content. These changes began to occur within the first hour after the sudden elevation of NaCl and progressed for about 72 hours. The percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) remained almost unchanged in the same conditions. High salt-dependent changes within ratios of polar lipid classes also occurred within the first 72 hours of growth. The amount of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-destabilizing lipid) decreased and that of the digalactosyl diacylglycerol (bilayer-stabilizing lipid) increased. Consequently, in the three day old cells, the ratio of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol to digalactosyl diacylglycerol in the membranes of high salt-grown cells was about half of that in the membranes of low salt-grown cells. The total content of anionic lipids (phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) was always higher in the isolated membranes and the whole cells from high salt-grown cultures compared to that in the cells and membranes from low salt-grown cultures. All the observed rearrangements in the lipid environment occurred in both thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Similar lipid composition changes, however, to a much lesser extent, were also observed in the aging, low salt-grown cultures. The observed changes in membrane fatty acids and lipids composition correlate with the alterations in electron and ion transport activities, and it is concluded that the rearrangement of the membrane lipid environment is an essential part of the process by which cells

  5. Distribution of Fullerene Nanoparticles between Water and Solid Supported Lipid Membranes: Thermodynamics and Effects of Membrane Composition on Distribution.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2015-12-15

    The distribution coefficient (Klipw) of fullerene between solid supported lipid membranes (SSLMs) and water was examined using different lipid membrane compositions. Klipw of fullerene was significantly higher with a cationic lipid membrane compared to that with a zwitterionic or anionic lipid membrane, potentially due to the strong interactions between negative fullerene dispersions and positive lipid head groups. The higher Klipw for fullerene distribution to ternary lipid mixture membranes was attributed to an increase in the interfacial surface area of the lipid membrane resulting from phase separation. These results imply that lipid composition can be a critical factor that affects bioconcentration of fullerene. Distribution of fullerene into zwitterionic unsaturated lipid membranes was dominated by the entropy contribution (ΔS) and the process was endothermic (ΔH > 0). This result contrasts the partitioning thermodynamics of highly and moderately hydrophobic chemicals indicating that the lipid-water distribution mechanism of fullerene may be different from that of molecular level chemicals. Potential mechanisms for the distribution of fullerene that may explain these differences include adsorption on the lipid membrane surfaces and partitioning into the center of lipid membranes (i.e., absorption).

  6. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  7. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  8. Molecular Paleohydrology: Interpreting the Hydrogen-Isotopic Composition of Lipid Biomarkers from Photosynthesizing Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachse, Dirk; Billault, Isabelle; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Dawson, Todd E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Magill, Clayton R.; McInerney, Francesca A.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Polissar, Pratigya; Robins, Richard J.; Sachs, Julian P.; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig; Sessions, Alex L.; White, James W. C.; West, Jason B.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen-isotopic abundances of lipid biomarkers are emerging as important proxies in the study of ancient environments and ecosystems. A decade ago, pioneering studies made use of new analytical methods and demonstrated that the hydrogen-isotopic composition of individual lipids from aquatic and terrestrial organisms can be related to the composition of their growth (i.e., environmental) water. Subsequently, compound-specific deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios of sedimentary biomarkers have been increasingly used as paleohydrological proxies over a range of geological timescales. Isotopic fractionation observed between hydrogen in environmental water and hydrogen in lipids, however, is sensitive to biochemical, physiological, and environmental influences on the composition of hydrogen available for biosynthesis in cells. Here we review the factors and processes that are known to influence the hydrogen-isotopic compositions of lipids—especially n-alkanes—from photosynthesizing organisms, and we provide a framework for interpreting their D/H ratios from ancient sediments and identify future research opportunities.

  9. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    PubMed

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  10. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints.

  11. Polar and neutral lipid composition in the pelagic tunicate Pyrosoma atlanticum.

    PubMed

    Mayzaud, Patrick; Boutoute, Marc; Perissinotto, Renzo; Nichols, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Structure and functioning of colonial pyrosomes are largely undescribed and their lipid characteristics have received limited attention. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap on one of the dominant species Pyrosoma atlanticum. Lipid content is tightly coupled to size and weight. Lipid composition shows a large dominance of structural polar lipids. Neutral lipids were dominated by sterols with low levels of acylglycerols and free fatty acids. Phospholipids show a dominance of PC with intermediate percentages of PE and DPG. Other constituents (PS, PI, LPC, sphingolipids) were present at lower levels. Fatty acid composition of DAG and TAG showed a dominance of saturated acids (16:0, 14:0), DHA and intermediate levels of MUFA. Phospholipids were dominated by DHA with values exceeding 30% of total FA in all categories except for PI, where lower percentages occurred. Saturated acids were second in abundance with MUFA showing intermediate concentrations. Sterols were dominated by 24-methylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol with more than 22% of the total sterol. Cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3beta-ol) represented only 12 % of the total while 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)E-dien-3beta-ol accounted for 11% of the total sterols. The low levels of triacylglycerols and free fatty acids, coupled with high concentrations of glycolipids and phytoplankton-derived degraded chloropigments, is evidence of a direct link with the digestive activity and substantiate the idea of a high physiological turnover as an alternative to large lipid accumulation. The fatty acid and sterol profiles are consistent with a diverse phytoplankton diet, and a strong contribution of phospholipid classes to energy needs, including locomotion.

  12. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms. PMID:26731720

  13. Factors Controlling the Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Composition (δ15N) of Lipids in Marine Animals.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C; Middelburg, Jack J; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid extraction of biomass prior to stable isotope analysis is known to cause variable changes in the stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of residual biomass. However, the underlying factors causing these changes are not yet clear. Here we address this issue by comparing the δ15N of bulk and residual biomass of several marine animal tissues (fish, crab, cockle, oyster, and polychaete), as well as the δ15N of the extracted lipids. As observed previously, lipid extraction led to a variable offset in δ15N of biomass (differences ranging from -2.3 to +1.8 ‰). Importantly, the total lipid extract (TLE) was highly depleted in 15N compared to bulk biomass, and also highly variable (differences ranging from -14 to +0.7 ‰). The TLE consisted mainly of phosphatidylcholines, a group of lipids with one nitrogen atom in the headgroup. To elucidate the cause for the 15N-depletion in the TLE, the δ15N of amino acids was determined, including serine because it is one of the main sources of nitrogen to N-containing lipids. Serine δ15N values differed by -7 to +2 ‰ from bulk biomass δ15N, and correlated well with the 15N depletion in TLEs. On average, serine was less depleted (-3‰) than the TLE (-7 ‰), possibly due to fractionation during biosynthesis of N-containing headgroups, or that other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and choline, or recycled nitrogen contribute to the nitrogen isotopic composition of the TLE. The depletion in 15N of the TLE relative to biomass increased with the trophic level of the organisms.

  14. Lipid composition of the Antarctic fish Pleuragramma antarcticum. Influence of age class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayzaud, P.; Chevallier, J.; Tavernier, E.; Moteki, M.; Koubbi, P.

    2011-08-01

    Larvae and juvenile stages of Pleuragramma antarcticum have been collected in the Dumont D’Urville Sea (East Antarctica) during summer 2008 on board the TRV Umitaka Maru during the CEAMARC survey. Detailed analyses of their lipid class and fatty acid compositions were carried out. P. antarcticum showed a pronounced ontogenic lipid accumulation with increasing size. Larvae displayed a dominance of polar lipids (83% of total lipids) and low percentage of triglycerides (7%). Conversely juveniles showed an increasing accumulation of triglycerides (up to 72.4%). The fatty acid composition of polar lipids remained rather stable between stages with 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 as dominant contributors. The relatively minor ontogenic changes, e.g. increase of monounsaturated and decrease of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may reflect the influence of differences in diet. Triglycerides showed that all three age classes are well segregated in term of fatty acid composition. Larvae triglycerides are characterized by significant percentages of 16:0, 20:5n-3, 20:6n-3 and to a minor extent 18:4n-3, which suggest a prymnesiophyte based diet. Juveniles are characterized by larger percentages of C20:1 and C22:1 acids, considered as markers of Calanus type copepods. The increasing contribution of 18:1n-9 in the triglycerides of the older juveniles suggests a gradual and increasing shift from a copepod dominant diet to an euphausiid dominant diet. Fatty acid trophic markers pattern suggests a shift from a phytophagous and omnivorous diet for larvae to a carnivorous diet for juveniles.

  15. Effect of exposure to chlorpyrifos on the cuticular and internal lipid composition of Blattella germanica males.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, Monika; Sikora, Agata; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Włóka, Emilia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The results of our research on the cuticular and internal lipids of Blattella germanica males provide new information on variation in the composition of the cuticular and internal lipids of B. germanica males after exposure to the presence of the insecticide. gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and quantify the cuticular and internal lipid composition in males and males exposed to insecticide. There were significantly more acids having an even number of carbon atoms in the molecule, and these were also generally in higher concentrations. The following acids were in a higher concentration: C16:0 and C18:1, C18:2, C18:0. In both males and males exposed to insecticide, 24 fatty acids ranging from C6 to C22 were determined. However, there was a significantly higher content of fatty acids in the surface lipids of B. germanica males after exposure to insecticide. Our results indicate a higher content of n-alkanes, sterols, particularly cholesterol, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters in the B. germanica surface after exposure to chlorpyrifos than in males that were not exposed.

  16. Specific Membrane Lipid Composition Is Important for Plasmodesmata Function in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Grison, Magali S.; Brocard, Lysiane; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nicolas, William; Wewer, Vera; Dörmann, Peter; Nacir, Houda; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Claverol, Stéphane; Germain, Véronique; Boutté, Yohann; Mongrand, Sébastien; Bayer, Emmanuelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are nano-sized membrane-lined channels controlling intercellular communication in plants. Although progress has been made in identifying PD proteins, the role played by major membrane constituents, such as the lipids, in defining specialized membrane domains in PD remains unknown. Through a rigorous isolation of “native” PD membrane fractions and comparative mass spectrometry-based analysis, we demonstrate that lipids are laterally segregated along the plasma membrane (PM) at the PD cell-to-cell junction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Remarkably, our results show that PD membranes display enrichment in sterols and sphingolipids with very long chain saturated fatty acids when compared with the bulk of the PM. Intriguingly, this lipid profile is reminiscent of detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains, although our approach is valuably detergent-free. Modulation of the overall sterol composition of young dividing cells reversibly impaired the PD localization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Plasmodesmata Callose Binding 1 and the β-1,3-glucanase PdBG2 and altered callose-mediated PD permeability. Altogether, this study not only provides a comprehensive analysis of the lipid constituents of PD but also identifies a role for sterols in modulating cell-to-cell connectivity, possibly by establishing and maintaining the positional specificity of callose-modifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol proteins at PD. Our work emphasizes the importance of lipids in defining PD membranes. PMID:25818623

  17. Lamellar Gel (Lβ) Phases of Ternary Lipid Composition Containing Ceramide and Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Jon V.; García-Arribas, Aritz B.; Sot, Jesús; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Lipid lateral segregation into specific domains in cellular membranes is associated with cell signaling and metabolic regulation. This phenomenon partially arises as a consequence of the very distinct bilayer-associated lipid physico-chemical properties that give rise to defined phase states at a given temperature. Until now lamellar gel (Lβ) phases have been described in detail in single or two-lipid systems. Using x-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we have characterized phases of ternary lipid compositions in the presence of saturated phospholipids, cholesterol, and palmitoyl ceramide mixtures. These phases stabilized by direct cholesterol-ceramide interaction can exist either with palmitoyl sphingomyelin or with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and present intermediate properties between raft-associated phospholipid-cholesterol liquid-ordered and phospholipid-ceramide Lβ phases. The present data provide novel, to our knowledge, evidence of a chemically defined, multicomponent lipid system that could cooperate in building heterogeneous segregated platforms in cell membranes. PMID:24507602

  18. Ontogenetic change in the lipid and fatty acid composition of scleractinian coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, J.; Baird, A. H.; Cohen, M. F.; Flot, J.-F.; Kamiki, T.; Meziane, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yamasaki, H.

    2012-06-01

    Some scleractinian coral larvae have an extraordinary capacity to delay metamorphosis, and this is reflected in the large geographic range of many species. Coral eggs typically contain a high proportion of wax esters, which have been hypothesized to provide a source of energy for long-distance dispersal. To better understand the role of lipids in the dispersal of broadcast spawning coral larvae, ontogenetic changes in the lipid and fatty acid composition of Goniastrea retiformis were measured from the eggs until larvae were 30 days old. Egg biomass was 78.8 ± 0.5% lipids, 86.3 ± 0.2% of which were wax esters, 9.3 ± 0.0% polar lipids, 4.1 ± 0.2% sterols, and 0.3 ± 0.1% triacylglycerols. The biomass of wax esters declined significantly through time, while polar lipids, sterols and triacylglycerols remained relatively constant, suggesting that wax esters are the prime source of energy for development. The most prevalent fatty acid in the eggs was palmitic acid, a marker of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in coral reproductive ecology. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined through time, suggesting that they are essential for larval development. Interestingly, triacylglycerols are only abundant in the propagules that contain Symbiodinium, suggesting important differences in the energetic of dispersal among species with vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts.

  19. Specific membrane lipid composition is important for plasmodesmata function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Grison, Magali S; Brocard, Lysiane; Fouillen, Laetitia; Nicolas, William; Wewer, Vera; Dörmann, Peter; Nacir, Houda; Benitez-Alfonso, Yoselin; Claverol, Stéphane; Germain, Véronique; Boutté, Yohann; Mongrand, Sébastien; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are nano-sized membrane-lined channels controlling intercellular communication in plants. Although progress has been made in identifying PD proteins, the role played by major membrane constituents, such as the lipids, in defining specialized membrane domains in PD remains unknown. Through a rigorous isolation of "native" PD membrane fractions and comparative mass spectrometry-based analysis, we demonstrate that lipids are laterally segregated along the plasma membrane (PM) at the PD cell-to-cell junction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Remarkably, our results show that PD membranes display enrichment in sterols and sphingolipids with very long chain saturated fatty acids when compared with the bulk of the PM. Intriguingly, this lipid profile is reminiscent of detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains, although our approach is valuably detergent-free. Modulation of the overall sterol composition of young dividing cells reversibly impaired the PD localization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Plasmodesmata Callose Binding 1 and the β-1,3-glucanase PdBG2 and altered callose-mediated PD permeability. Altogether, this study not only provides a comprehensive analysis of the lipid constituents of PD but also identifies a role for sterols in modulating cell-to-cell connectivity, possibly by establishing and maintaining the positional specificity of callose-modifying glycosylphosphatidylinositol proteins at PD. Our work emphasizes the importance of lipids in defining PD membranes.

  20. Lamellar gel (lβ) phases of ternary lipid composition containing ceramide and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Busto, Jon V; García-Arribas, Aritz B; Sot, Jesús; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C; Goñi, Félix M; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-02-04

    Lipid lateral segregation into specific domains in cellular membranes is associated with cell signaling and metabolic regulation. This phenomenon partially arises as a consequence of the very distinct bilayer-associated lipid physico-chemical properties that give rise to defined phase states at a given temperature. Until now lamellar gel (Lβ) phases have been described in detail in single or two-lipid systems. Using x-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we have characterized phases of ternary lipid compositions in the presence of saturated phospholipids, cholesterol, and palmitoyl ceramide mixtures. These phases stabilized by direct cholesterol-ceramide interaction can exist either with palmitoyl sphingomyelin or with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and present intermediate properties between raft-associated phospholipid-cholesterol liquid-ordered and phospholipid-ceramide Lβ phases. The present data provide novel, to our knowledge, evidence of a chemically defined, multicomponent lipid system that could cooperate in building heterogeneous segregated platforms in cell membranes.

  1. The effect of lipid composition on the permeability of fluorescent markers from photosensitized membranes.

    PubMed

    Ytzhak, Shany; Weitman, Hana; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence indicating that the cellular locus of PDT action by amphiphilic sensitizers are the cellular membranes. The photosensitization process causes oxidative damage to membrane components that can result in the cell's death. However, it was not yet established whether lipid oxidation can cause free passage of molecules through the membrane and, as a result, be the primary cause of the cell's death. In this work, we studied the effect of liposomes' lipid composition on the kinetics of the leakage of three fluorescent dyes, calcein, carboxyfluorescein and DTAF, which were trapped in the intraliposomal aqueous phase, after photosensitization with the photosensitizer deuteroporphyrin. We found that as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation increased, the photosensitized passage of these molecules through the lipid bilayer increased. We also found that the rate of leakage of these molecules was affected by their size and bulkiness as well as by their net electric charge. In liposomes that are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes, the observed passage of molecules through the membrane is slow. Thus, the photodynamic damage to lipids does not appear to be severe enough to be an immediate, primary cause of cell death in biological photosensitization.

  2. The Comparison of Lipid Compositional Uniformity of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Synthesized From the Rapid Solvent Exchange liposomes with That From Dry Lipid Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal-Caglar, Eda; Huang, Juyang

    2011-03-01

    Lipid bilayer, which is an important constituent of cell membranes, has been extensively studied. Cell membranes perform many vital cell functions such as signal transduction and transportation of materials needed for the functioning of the cell organelles. Understanding the dynamics of lipid bilayers is important for understanding the processes taking place in cell membranes. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) are cell-sized model systems that allow direct visualization of membrane-related phenomena using fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we synthesized DOPC/DSPC/cholesterol GUVs and diPhyPC/DPPC/cholesterol GUVs by the standard electroformation method using dry lipid film as well as by a modified method using liposomes made from Rapid Solvent Exchange (RSE) method. Second method has a potential of incorporating more varieties of membrane proteins to GUVs. We compare the uniformity of lipid composition of GUVs synthesized by the two methods by measuring the variation of phase transition temperature of individual GUVs through fluorescence microscopy; since a narrower distribution of transition temperature should correspond to a more uniform distribution in GUV lipid composition. We will present the results at several bulk lipid compositions and buffer ionic strengths.

  3. High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bobjer, J; Naumovska, M; Giwercman, Y L; Giwercman, A

    2012-10-01

    In men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), the risk of hypogonadism is often overlooked. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) may increase this risk. The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hypogonadism in NOA-patients, the impact of TESE on hormone balance and the association between testosterone deficiency and dyslipidaemia. Men with NOA who had undergone TESE during the period 2004-2009 were eligible. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone <10 nmol/L and/or LH >10 IU/L and/or ongoing androgen replacement therapy. Sixty-five consecutive men who had undergone TESE owing to NOA and from whom post-TESE serum testosterone levels measured before 1100 h were available. Furthermore, 141 fertile men served as controls. Serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and lipids were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) for biochemical hypogonadism were calculated. Pre- and post-TESE hormone levels were compared. Lipid profile was related to testosterone levels. Hypogonadism was found in 47% (95% CI, 0.36, 0.59) of the NOA-men. As compared with fertile controls, the OR for hypogonadism post-TESE was 17 (95% CI 6.6-45). Serum LH (p = 0.03), but not testosterone (p = 0.43), differed significantly pre- and post-TESE. Compared with eugonadal NOA-men, the OR for having deviations in lipid profile was 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.8) for the hypogonadal NOA-men. NOA-men are at very high risk of androgen deficiency, which even in young subjects is associated with dyslipidaemia. Medical management of these men should therefore include endocrinological evaluation and follow-up after completion of infertility treatment.

  4. Diet macronutrient composition reported before treatment predicts BMI change in obese children: the role of lipids.

    PubMed

    Maffeis, C; Maschio, M; Costanzi, S; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Morandi, A

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that diet composition reported by children before the beginning of an obesity treatment program could be a predicting factor of the clinical outcome. A sample of 138 obese 6-16-year-old children and adolescents were recruited. Anthropometry and dietary habits were recorded. Each patient participated in a multidimensional treatment program in an outpatient obesity public service clinic. Therapy was based on a 6-month educational program on nutrition, lifestyle and physical activity. Children with a lipid intake above 34.7% of total energy had a 2.5 times higher chance of reducing at least 1.5 units of BMI with treatment than children with lower lipid intake. These results suggest that the assessment of habitual diet, in particular diet composition before starting treatment, may help to identify obese children who are more sensitive to intervention and those who need more specific nutritional assistance.

  5. Structure and stability of crustacean lipovitellin: influence of lipid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C F; Cunningham, M; Soulages, J L; Heras, H; Garda, H A

    2010-02-01

    Lipovitellin (LV) is essential in crustacean eggs for embryo viability and development. Two LV were isolated from eggs of Macrobrachium borellii. corresponding to early (LVe ) and late (LVl) embryo developing stages. They differ in lipid composition but not in lipid/protein ratio or apoprotein composition. Structural information was obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, far-UV circular dichroism, partial trypsinolysis and electron microscopy applied to LVe and LVl and two partially delipidated forms of LVe generated by phospholipase A2 (LVp) or Triton X-100 (LVt) treatment. All LV forms contained two apoprotein subunits of 94 and 112 kDa, being the 112k Da subunit more accessible to trypsinolysis in all. Only in LVp, different cleavage sites appeared. Secondary structure was similar in LVe and LVl, but LVp and LVt showed a small increase in beta-sheet at expense of alpha-helix. Electron microscopy revealed a spheroidal morphology in all LV and a decreased size in LVp. Delipidated LVs were more resistant to denaturation with guanidinium-HCl. Acrylamide quenching of tryptophan fluorescence was more efficient in delipidated LVs, probably due to apolipoprotein rearrangement, as reinforced by fluorescence anisotropy. It is concluded that LV stability, shape, and apoprotein conformation is not largely affected by the changes in lipid composition that take place during embryogenesis.

  6. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan E-mail: madan@ncbs.res.in

    2014-08-14

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (l{sub o})-liquid disordered (l{sub d}) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed l{sub d} phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the l{sub o} domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the l{sub o} domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (l{sub d}) phase.

  7. Changes in lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane induced by overfeeding in duck.

    PubMed

    Molee, W; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Auvergne, A; Babilé, R

    2005-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to examine the influence of overfeeding ducks with corn on the lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane. Seventy-day-old male Mule ducks (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos) were overfed with corn for 12.5 days in order to induce fatty livers. The cholesterol and phospholipid contents were approximately 50% higher in hepatocyte plasma membranes from fatty livers compared to those of lean livers obtained from non-overfed ducks. However, the cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio did not differ between both groups. Overfeeding induced a significant change in phospholipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane with a decrease in phosphatidylcholine proportion and conversely an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid profile of phospholipids was also altered. In fatty hepatocyte plasma membrane, the overall proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was decreased and this was due to the decrease of some of, but not all, the PUFA. In addition, the proportions of oleic acid and n-9 series unsaturated fatty acids were higher in fatty than in lean liver membranes. This study provides evidence that overfeeding with a carbohydrate-rich corn-based diet induces a de novo hepatic lipogenesis in Mule duck which predominates over dietary lipid intake to change the lipid composition of the hepatocyte plasma membrane.

  8. Mitochondrial modulators improve lipid composition and attenuate memory deficits in experimental model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sood, Abhilasha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days. The levels of conjugated dienes, cholesterol and glycolipids were significantly increased, whereas the levels of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine) including cardiolipin were significantly decreased in the mitochondria isolated from the striatum of 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, the difference in molecular composition of each phospholipid class was also evaluated using mass spectrometry. Mitochondria lipid from 3-NP-treated animals showed increased cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, suggesting decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity. 3-NP administration also resulted in ultra-structural changes in mitochondria, accompanied by swelling as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The 3-NP administered animals had impaired spatial memory evaluated using elevated plus maze test. However, combined supplementation with ALA + ALCAR for 21 days normalized mitochondrial lipid composition, improved mitochondrial structure and ameliorated memory impairments in 3-NP-treated animals, suggesting an imperative role of these two modulators in combination in the management of HD.

  9. Composition and role of tapetal lipid bodies in the biogenesis of the pollen coat of Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pinzón, I; Ross, J H; Barnes, K A; Damant, A P; Murphy, D J

    1999-06-01

    The composition of the two major lipidic organelles of the tapetum of Brassica napus L. has been determined. Elaioplasts contained numerous small (0.2-0.6 micron) lipid bodies that were largely made up of sterol esters and triacylglycerols, with monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as the major polar lipid. This is the first report in any species of the presence of non-cytosolic, sterol ester-rich, lipid bodies. The elaioplast lipid bodies also contained 34- and 36-kDa proteins which were shown by N-terminal sequencing to be homologous to fibrillin and other plastid lipid-associated proteins. Tapetosomes contained mainly polyunsaturated triacylglycerols and associated phospholipids plus a diverse class of oleosin-like proteins. The pollen coat, which is derived from tapetosomes and elaioplasts, was largely made up of sterol esters and the C-terminal domains of the oleosin-like proteins, but contained virtually no galactolipids, triacylglycerols or plastid lipid-associated proteins. The sterol compositions of the elaioplast and pollen coat were almost identical, consisting of stigmasterol > campestdienol > campesterol > sitosterol > cholesterol, which is consistent with the majority of the pollen coat lipids being derived from elaioplasts. These data demonstrate that there is substantial remodelling of both the lipid and protein components of elaioplasts and tapetosomes following their release into the anther locule from lysed tapetal cells, and that components of both organelles contribute to the formation of the lipidic coating of mature pollen grains.

  10. Creation and Relaxation of Phospholipid Compositional Asymmetry in Lipid Bilayers Examined by Sum-Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglin, Timothy C.; Brown, Krystal; Conboy, John C.

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the two leaflets of the lipid bilayer which is known to contribute to cellular function. In the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, the aminophospholipids with phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroups are predominately located on the cytosolic leaflet while sphingolipids with phosphatidylcholine (PC) headgroups and sphingomeylin are on the extra-cellular leaflet. There have been a number of theories about the mechanism of transbilayer movement of lipids in cellular systems and the physical process by which lipid compositional asymmetry in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is maintained. It is generally accepted that a significant barrier to native lipid translocation (movement between leaflets of the bilayer) exists which is related to the energetic penalty of moving the hydrophilic headgroup of a phospholipid through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Overcoming this energetic barrier represents the rate limiting step in the spontaneous flip-flop of phospholipids in biological membranes, yet, while numerous kinetic studies of phospholipid flip-flop have been conducted, few researchers have reported thermodynamic parameters for the process. Using methods of classical surface chemistry coupled with nonlinear optical methods, we have developed a novel analytical approach, using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS), to selectively probe lipid compositional asymmetry in a planar supported lipid bilayer. This new method allows for the detection of lipid flip-flop kinetics and compositional asymmetry without the need for a fluorescent or spin-labeled lipid species by exploiting the coherent nature of SFVS. The SFVS intensity arising from the terminal methyl groups of the lipid fatty acid chains is used as an internal probe to directly monitor the compositional asymmetry in planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs(. By selectively deuterating a sub

  11. The Lipid Composition and Physical Properties of the Yeast Vacuole Affect the Hemifusion-Fusion Transition

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Surya; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the formation of SNARE bundles between membranes. Although the function of vacuolar SNAREs is controlled in part by regulatory lipids, the exact role of the membrane in regulating fusion remains unclear. Because SNAREs are membrane-anchored and transmit the force required for fusion to the bilayer, we hypothesized that the lipid composition and curvature of the membrane aid in controlling fusion. Here, we examined the effect of altering membrane fluidity and curvature on the functionality of fusion-incompetent SNARE mutants that are thought to generate insufficient force to trigger the hemifusion-fusion transition. The hemifusion-fusion transition was inhibited by disrupting the 3Q:1R stoichiometry of SNARE bundles with the mutant SNARE Vam7pQ283R. Similarly, replacing the transmembrane domain of the syntaxin homolog Vam3p with a lipid anchor allowed hemifusion, but not content mixing. Hemifusion-stalled reactions containing either of the SNARE mutants were stimulated to fuse with chlorpromazine, an amphipathic molecule that alters membrane fluidity and curvature. The activity of mutant SNAREs was also rescued by the overexpression of SNAREs, thus multiplying the force transferred to the membrane. Thus, we conclude that either increasing membrane fluidity, or multiplying SNARE-generated energy restored the fusogenicity of mutant SNAREs that are stalled at hemifusion. We also found that regulatory lipids differentially modulated the complex formation of wild-type SNAREs. Together, these data indicate that the physical properties and the lipid composition of the membrane affect the function of SNAREs in promoting the hemifusion-fusion transition. PMID:23438067

  12. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  13. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Eder, W.; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, K-U.; Hayes, J. M.; DesMarais, D. J.; Cady, S. L.; Hope, J. M.; Summons, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a study of lipid biomarker composition and carbon isotopic fractionation in cultured Aquificales and natural analogues from Yellowstone National Park. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. N-stearoylethanolamine restores pancreas lipid composition in obesity-induced insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Onopchenko, Oleksandra V; Kosiakova, Galina V; Oz, Murat; Klimashevsky, Vitaliy M; Gula, Nadiya M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE), a bioactive N-acylethanolamine , on the lipid profile distribution in the pancreas of obesity-induced insulin resistant (IR) rats fed with prolonged high fat diet (58% of fat for 6 months). The phospholipid composition was determined using 2D thin-layer chromatography. The level of individual phospholipids was estimated by measuring inorganic phosphorus content. The fatty acid (FA) composition and cholesterol level were investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Compared to controls, plasma levels of triglycerides and insulin were significantly increased in IR rats. The pancreas lipid composition indicated a significant reduction of the free cholesterol level and some phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) compared to controls. Moreover, the FA composition of pancreas showed a significant redistribution of the main FA (18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6) levels between phospholipid, free FA, triglyceride fractions under IR conditions that was accompanied by a change in the estimated activities of Δ9-, Δ6-, Δ5-desaturase. Administration of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE, 50 mg/kg daily per os for 2 weeks) IR rats triggered an increase in the content of free cholesterol, PtdCho and normalization of PtdEtn, PtdSer level. Furthermore, the NSE modulated the activity of desaturases, thus influenced FA composition and restored the FA ratios in the lipid fractions. These NSE-induced changes were associated with a normalization of plasma triglyceride content, considerable decrease of insulin and index HOMA-IR level in rats under IR conditions.

  15. A moderate change in temperature induces changes in fatty acid composition of storage and membrane lipids in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Ellers, Jacintha

    2010-02-01

    A moderate change in ambient temperature can lead to vital physiological and biochemical adjustments in ectotherms, one of which is a change in fatty acid composition. When temperature decreases, the composition of membrane lipids (phospholipid fatty acids) is expected to become more unsaturated to be able to maintain homeoviscosity. Although different in function, storage lipids (triacylglycerol fatty acids) are expected to respond to temperature changes in a similar way. Age-specific differences, however, could influence this temperature response between different life stages. Here, we investigate if fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids responds similarly to temperature changes for two different life stages of Orchesella cincta. Juveniles and adults were cold acclimated (15 degrees C-->5 degrees C) for 28 days and then re-acclimated (5 degrees C-->15 degrees C) for another 28 days. We found adult membranes had a more unsaturated fatty acid composition than juveniles. Membrane lipids became more unsaturated during cold acclimation, and a reversed response occurred during warm acclimation. Membrane lipids, however, showed no warm acclimation, possibly due to the moderate temperature change. The ability to adjust storage lipid composition to moderate changes in ambient temperature may be an underestimated fitness component of temperature adaptation because fluidity of storage lipids permits accessibility of enzymes to energy reserves.

  16. Comparative study on reduction of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovariectomized rats by soy isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, T; Toda, T; Tsuji, K; Ishida, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of the soy isoflavone glycoside, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin on bone loss and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (ovx) rats were compared with those of estrone. Thirty-six 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups, sham-operated, ovx, ovx+glycitin, ovx+daidzin, ovx+genistin, and ovx+estrone and fed matched amounts of a commercial calcium-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Throughout this period, daidzin, genistin or glycitin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/d) was given orally using a stomach tube, or estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) was administered subcutaneously. Daidzin, genistin and glycitin significantly prevented bone loss in ovx rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, like estrone. At this dose glycitin and daidzin also prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy and increases in body weight gain, abdominal fat, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, and urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline with statistical significance, like estrone. On the other hand, genistin prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy only at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but did not block any other change of ovx rats at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. These findings indicate that daidzin, glycitin, and genistin are effective in preventing bone loss and the former two compounds are effective in reversing the unfavorable changes of lipid metabolism in this model. It is suggested that the preventive effect of daidzin or glycitin on bone loss in ovx rats is due to suppression of bone turnover, as in the case of estrone, but genistin has a different mechanism of action from the other compounds. Soy isoflavone glycosides may represent a potential alternative therapy in the treatment of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovarian hormone-deficient women.

  17. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2010-01-18

    A viewpoint now emerging is that a critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection (lipofection) is the structural evolution of lipoplexes upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids. Here we report our finding that lipid mixtures mimicking biomembrane lipid compositions are superior to pure anionic liposomes in their ability to release DNA from lipoplexes (cationic lipid/DNA complexes), even though they have a much lower negative charge density (and thus lower capacity to neutralize the positive charge of the lipoplex lipids). Flow fluorometry revealed that the portion of DNA released after a 30-min incubation of the cationic O-ethylphosphatidylcholine lipoplexes with the anionic phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol was 19% and 37%, respectively, whereas a mixture mimicking biomembranes (MM: phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine /cholesterol 45:20:20:15 w/w) and polar lipid extract from bovine liver released 62% and 74%, respectively, of the DNA content. A possible reason for this superior power in releasing DNA by the natural lipid mixtures was suggested by structural experiments: while pure anionic lipids typically form lamellae, the natural lipid mixtures exhibited a surprising predilection to form nonlamellar phases. Thus, the MM mixture arranged into lamellar arrays at physiological temperature, but began to convert to the hexagonal phase at a slightly higher temperature, {approx} 40-45 C. A propensity to form nonlamellar phases (hexagonal, cubic, micellar) at close to physiological temperatures was also found with the lipid extracts from natural tissues (from bovine liver, brain, and heart). This result reveals that electrostatic interactions are only one of the factors involved in lipid-mediated DNA delivery. The tendency of lipid bilayers to form nonlamellar phases has been described in terms of bilayer 'frustration' which imposes a nonzero intrinsic curvature of the two opposing monolayers. Because the stored curvature

  18. Lipid composition is important for highly efficient target binding and retention of immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Huang, L. ); Kennel, S.J. )

    1990-08-01

    By taking advantage of a monoclonal IgG antibody, 34A, which is highly specific to pulmonary endothelial cells, the authors have prepared liposomes containing various amounts of antibody molecules (immunoliposomes). These immunoliposomes accumulate specifically in the lung when injected i.v. Two lipid compositions were used: phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/phosphatidylserine (PS), 10:5:1 (mol/mol), a composition that allows liposomes to be readily taken up by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (liver and spleen), and phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/ganglioside GM{sub 1}, 10:5:1 (mol/mol), a composition that allows liposomes to avoid or delay the RES uptake (the so-called stealth liposomes). Although an increase in the number of antibody molecules per liposome was accompanied by an increased level of lung binding of the immunoliposomes, differences due to the lipid composition were more profound. Conjugation of antibody to the stealth liposome did not increase the rate of liposome uptake by liver; this rate was approximately 10-fold lower than that of the PS-containing liposomes without antibody. Stealth immunoliposomes with high antibody content also showed long retention in the lung. These results can be understood on the basis of two competing kinetic processes: lung binding whose rate is directly proportional to the antibody content of the immunoliposomes and uptake by RES whose rate is significantly reduced in the case of the stealth liposomes.

  19. High saturated fat diet alters the lipid composition of triacylglycerol and polar lipids in the femur of dam and offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has shown that dietary lipids alter femur lipid composition. Specifically, we have shown that exposure to high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets in utero, during suckling, or post-weaning alters femur total lipid composition, resulting in higher percent bone mass in males and females and bone mineral density (BMD) in female offspring with no effect on bone mineral outcomes in dams. Comparatively, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diets increase femur polar (PL) lipid n-3 content, which has been associated with increased bone mineral content and strength. However, the extent that PL or triacylglycerol (TAG) lipids change with high SFA diets is unknown. The current investigation examined the influence of a high SFA diet (20 % lard by weight) on femur PL and TAG lipid composition in 5-month old female Wistar rats (fed high SFA diet from age 28 days onwards; dams) and their 19-day old offspring (exposed to high SFA in utero and during suckling; pups). High SFA exposure resulted in increased monounsaturates and decreased n-3 and n-6 PUFA in the TAG fraction in both dams and pups, and higher SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio in dams only. The PL fraction showed decreased n-6 PUFA in both dams and pups. The magnitude of the diet-mediated responses, specifically TAG 18:1 and PL n-6 PUFA, may have contributed to the previously reported altered BMD, which was supported with correlation analysis. Future research should investigate the relationship of diet-induced changes in bone lipids on bone structure, as quantified through micro-computed tomography.

  20. Effect of fermentation temperature and culture media on the yeast lipid composition and wine volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gemma; Novo, Maite; Guillamón, José M; Mas, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

    2008-01-31

    The temperature of a wine fermentation strongly affects lipid metabolism and thus, aromatic profiles. Most of the metabolic studies are done in well-controlled laboratory conditions, yet wine is produced in less-reproducible industrial conditions. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of fermentation temperature (13 degrees C and 25 degrees C) and culture media (synthetic media and grape must) on yeast lipid composition and volatile compounds in wine. Our results show that yeast viability was better at 13 degrees C than at 25 degrees C whichever growth medium is used, but that the complexity of the grape must enabled cells to reach higher viable population size. Viability was also related to the incorporation of linoleic acid and beta-sitosterol, which were present in the grape must. A lower temperature modified the cellular lipid composition of yeast, increasing the degree of unsaturation at the beginning of fermentation and decreasing the chain length as fermentation progressed. We also found that medium-chain fatty acids, mainly dodecanoic acid, were present in the cell phospholipids. Wines produced from grape must were more aromatic and had a lower volatile acidity content than those derived from a synthetic medium. Fermentations that were performed at the lower temperature also emphasized this feature.

  1. Clinorotation Effect on Coupling Level and Lipid Composition of Barley Thylakoid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhaylenko, N.; Podorvano, V.; Zolotareva, O.

    Microgravity can induce structural perturbation of plant photosynthetic apparatus. It was shown that space flight conditions caused both pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure changes in a number of various plant species. The transformations of photosynthetic membrane lipid composition were observed in wheat plants under microgravity as well as in chloroplasts of pea under clinorotation. The photosynthetic apparatus is located in thylakoid membranes of chloroplast and provides plant cell by macroerg compounds (ATP and NADPH) necessary for inorganic carbon fixation and metabolism. ATP is formed in the process of photophosphorylation, the rate of which is determined by a coupling level of thylakoid membranes. The aim of the work was to study the coupling level and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes isolated from barley plants grown under clinorotation. Plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown for 7 days at 22-24°C, at low illumination (143 μ mol m-2 s-1) with a light period of 16 h, on a horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control. Photochemical activity of isolated chloroplasts (class II) was estimated by the following reactions: cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, coupled and uncoupled electron transfer from water to K3Fe(CN)6. Total lipids were extracted from isolated chloroplasts and individual lipid classes were separated by thin-layer chromatography. Phospholipids were determined in the form of inorganic phosphate after mineralization with perchloric acid. Glycolipids were assayed by monosaccharide content after acidic hydrolysis. Gas chromatography was applied to analyse the fatty acid composition of membrane glycerolipids. The rates of both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation in chloroplasts isolated from clinorotated plants were lower than those in control samples. At the same time the rate of electron transfer in thylakoid membranes from clinorotated plants was higher. In the presence of protonophoric channel

  2. Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome: not an N-linked oligosaccharide processing defect, but an abnormality in lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Powell, L D; Paneerselvam, K; Vij, R; Diaz, S; Manzi, A; Buist, N; Freeze, H; Varki, A

    1994-01-01

    The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS) is a developmental disease associated with an abnormally high isoelectric point of serum transferrin. Carbohydrate analyses of this glycoprotein initially suggested a defect in N-linked oligosaccharide processing, although more recent studies indicate a defect in the attachment of these sugar chains to the protein. We studied both serum glycoproteins and fibroblast-derived [2-3H]mannose-labeled oligosaccharides from CDGS patients and normal controls. While there was a decrease in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins of affected individuals, differences were not seen in either monosaccharide composition or oligosaccharide structures. The lectin-binding profiles of glycopeptides from [2-3H]-mannose-labeled fibroblasts were likewise indistinguishable. However, the incorporation of [2-3H]mannose into both glycoproteins and the dolichol-linked oligosaccharide precursor was significantly reduced. Thus, at least in some patients, CDGS is not due to a defect in processing of N-linked oligosaccharides, but rather to defective synthesis and transfer of nascent dolichol-linked oligosaccharide precursors. This abnormality could result in both a failure to glycosylate some sites on some proteins, as well as secondary abnormalities in overall glycoprotein processing and/or function. PMID:7962535

  3. Suppression of aflatoxin B1-induced lipid abnormalities and macromolecule-adduct formation by L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Sachan, D S; Yatim, A M

    1992-01-01

    The fatty liver and hypolipidemia caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed Purina Rat Chow with or without L-carnitine supplement for 6 weeks. In Experiment 1, the rats (n = 20) were divided into four groups, i.e., nonsupplemented control (NSC), nonsupplemented AFB1 (NSA), carnitine supplemented control (CSC), and carnitine supplemented AFB1 (CSA). The NSA and CSA groups were given an oral dose of [3H]AFB1 (1 mg/kg) 6 hr before kill. In Experiment 2 (n = 10) there were only NSA and CSA groups and they were killed 24 hr post-AFB1 administration. Hepatic and plasma concentrations of total lipid, triglycerides, AFB1-macromolecules adducts and urinary excretion of AFB1 were determined. Carnitine supplementation ameliorated AFB1-induced hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia. Supplementary carnitine reduced covalent binding of AFB1 to hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein. The carnitine effect was more pronounced after 24 hr than after 6 hr of AFB1 treatment. We conclude that supplementary carnitine suppressed AFB1-induced fatty liver and AFB1-macromolecule adduct formation in the rat.

  4. Responses in growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition of four oleaginous microalgae to different nitrogen sources and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is an effective strategy for enhancing lipid production in microalgae. Close relationships exist among lipid production, microalgal species, and nitrogen sources. We report growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition in four microalgae ( Chlorococcum ellipsoideum UTEX972, Chlorococcum nivale LB2225, Chlorococcum tatrense UTEX2227, and Scenedesmus deserticola JNU19) under nitrate- and urea-nitrogen deficiencies. We found three patterns of response to nitrogen deficiency: Type-A (decrease in biomass and increase in lipid content), Type-B (reduction in both biomass and lipid content), and Type-C (enhancement of both biomass and lipid content). Type-C microalgae are potential candidates for large-scale oil production. Chlorococcum ellipsoideum, for example, exhibited a neutral lipid production of up to 239.6 mg/(L·d) under urea-nitrogen deficiency. In addition, nitrogen deficiency showed only a slight influence on lipid fractions and fatty acid composition. Our study provides useful information for further screening hyper-lipid microalgal strains for biofuel production.

  5. Lipid dynamics in blended wheat and non-wheat flours breadmaking matrices: Impact on fresh and aged composite breads.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The use of pseudocereals, legumes and ancient grains for breadmaking applications is receiving particular attention since they involve nutrient dense grains with proven health-promoting attributes. Dilution up to 45% of the basic wheat flour matrix by accumulative ternary addition of teff, green pea and buckwheat flours did significantly impact both the extractability and distribution of lipid subfractions in composite flours, doughs and breads, and induced differentiated dynamics in lipid binding along breadmaking. During mixing, a preferential covalent lipid binding to the inside part of the starch granules takes place at the expenses of both accessible free lipids and lipids initially bound non-covalently to the gluten/non-gluten proteins and to the outside part of the starch granules. During fermentation and later baking a preferential lipid binding to the gluten/non-gluten proteins and to the outside and inside starch granules takes place at the expenses of both a free lipid displacement and a bound lipid translocation to new protein and starch active sites. It can be noticed that the larger the accumulation of both protein- and starch-bound lipids over fermentation and baking, the higher physic-chemical and sensory profiles, and the slower starch hydrolysis, firming and retrogradation kinetics of composite breads were obtained.

  6. Molecular and isotopic composition of lipids in modern and fossil bivalve shells: Records of paleoenvironmental change?

    SciTech Connect

    CoBabe, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    Suites of lipids residing in situ in modern and fossil bivalve shells offer new possibilities for the study of paleoecology and paleoclimatology. Distributions of carbon isotopic compositions of modem shell lipids suggests that many of these compounds, including alkanes, sterols, fatty acids, ketones and phytadienes, are derived from the bivalves and not directly from the surrounding environment. The occurrence of fatty acids in modem and fossil shell material opens up the possibility that saturation levels of these compounds may be used as paleothermometers. To date, the utility of fatty acids in paleoclimate studies has been limited because of the swift breakdown of these compounds in sediment. However, initial results indicate that fatty acids in bivalve shells retain their original structure for at least several million years. Comparison of modem bivalve shell fatty acids from tropical, temperate and polar nearshore marine systems will be presented, along with analogous fossil data.

  7. Effect of salinity on moisture content, pigment system, and lipid composition in Ephedra alata Decne.

    PubMed

    Alqarawi, A A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alshahrani, T S; Huqail, Asma A

    2014-03-01

    The present work was carried out to uncover the effect of salinity stress on shoot moisture percentage, pigment content and lipid composition of Ephedra alata Decne. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in plant moisture content. The chl. a, b and carotenoids showed significant decrease with increasing concentration of salt. Total pigment content also showed decline at all salt stress levels. Salt stress caused significant decrease in total lipids (TL), triacylglycerol (TG) and sterol (S) accompanied with an increase in diacylglycerol (DG), sterol ester (SE), and non-esterified fatty acids (FAA) of E. alata. Moreover, saline stress caused significant decrease in all phospholipid fractions except phosphatidic acid which increases during salt stress. Salinity stress resulted in increase of saturated fatty acids and decreases the percentage of un-saturated fatty acids in E. alalta.

  8. Molecular Composition of Plant Vacuoles: Important but Less Understood Regulations and Roles of Tonoplast Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2015-01-01

    The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is of great importance in understanding basic plant development and cell biology and for crop quality improvement. Proteins play important roles in vacuolar trafficking; such proteins include Rab GTPase signaling proteins; cargo recognition receptors; and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors) that are involved in membrane fusion. Some vacuole membrane proteins also serve as the transporters or channels for transport across the tonoplast. Less understood but critical are the roles of lipids in vacuolar trafficking. In this review, we will first summarize molecular composition of plant vacuoles and we will then discuss our latest understanding on the role of lipids in plant vacuolar trafficking and a surprising connection to ribosome function through the study of ribosomal mutants. PMID:27135331

  9. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  10. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces. PMID:23867843

  11. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Harati, Hadi; Saadat, Navid; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years. Methods The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4). Conclusion In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient. PMID:18501007

  12. The influence of bacteria-dominated diets on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Sami J; Brett, Michael T; Pulkkinen, Katja; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    We explored how dietary bacteria affect the life history traits and biochemical composition of Daphnia magna, using three bacteria taxa with very different lipid composition. Our objectives were to (1) examine whether and how bacteria-dominated diets affect Daphnia survival, growth, and fecundity, (2) see whether bacteria-specific fatty acid (FA) biomarkers accrued in Daphnia lipids, and (3) explore the quantitative relationship between bacteria availability in Daphnia diets and the amounts of bacterial FA in their lipids. Daphnia were fed monospecific and mixed diets of heterotrophic (Micrococcus luteus) or methanotrophic bacteria (Methylomonas methanica and Methylosinus trichosporium) and two phytoplankton species (Cryptomonas ozolinii and Scenedesmus obliquus). Daphnia neonates fed pure bacteria diets died after 6-12 days and produced no viable offspring, whereas those fed pure phytoplankton diets had high survival, growth, and reproduction success. Daphnia fed a mixed diet with 80% M. luteus and 20% of either phytoplankton had high somatic growth, but low reproduction. Conversely, Daphnia fed mixed diets including 80% of either methane-oxidizing bacteria and 20% Cryptomonas had high reproduction rates, but low somatic growth. All Daphnia fed mixed bacteria and phytoplankton diets had strong evidence of both bacteria- and phytoplankton-specific FA biomarkers in their lipids. FA mixing model calculations indicated that Daphnia that received 80% of their carbon from bacteria assimilated 46 ± 25% of their FA from this source. A bacteria-phytoplankton gradient experiment showed a strong positive correlation between the proportions of the bacterial FA in the Daphnia and their diet, indicating that bacterial utilization can be traced in this keystone consumer using FA biomarkers.

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Four-component Lipid Mixtures: Domain Composition, Size, Alignment and Properties of the Phase Interface

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, David G.; Feigenson, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    Simplified lipid mixtures are often used to model the complex behavior of the cell plasma membrane. Indeed, as few as four components — a high-melting lipid, a nandomain-inducing low-melting lipid, a macrodomain-inducing low-melting lipid and cholesterol (chol) — can give rise to a wide range of domain sizes and patterns that are highly sensitive to lipid compositions. Though these systems are studied extensively with experiments, the molecular-level details governing their phase behavior are not yet known. We address this issue by using molecular dynamics simulations to analyze how phase separation evolves in a four-component system as it transitions from small domains to large domains. To do so, we fix concentrations of the high-melting lipid 16:0,16:0-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chol, and incrementally replace the nanodomain-inducing low-melting lipid 16:0,18:2-PC (PUPC) by the macrodomain-inducing low-melting lipid 18:2,18:2-PC (DUPC). Coarse-grained simulations of this four-component system reveal that lipid demixing increases as the amount of DUPC increases. Additionally, we find that domain size and interleaflet alignment change sharply over a narrow range of replacement of PUPC by DUPC, indicating that intraleaflet and interleaflet behaviors are coupled. Corresponding united atom simulations show that only lipids within ~ 2 nm of the phase interface are significantly perturbed regardless of domain composition or size. Thus, whereas the fraction of interface-perturbed lipids is negligible for large domains, it is significant for smaller ones. Together, these results reveal characteristic traits of bilayer thermodynamic behavior in four-component mixtures, and provide a baseline for investigation of the effects of proteins and other lipids on membrane phase properties. PMID:25564922

  14. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments. PMID:18838693

  15. Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilia; Nanda, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    -bounded protein lattice that recruits genomic RNA into the virus and forms the shell of a budding immature viral capsid. In binding studies of HIV-1 Gag MA to model membranes with well-controlled lipid composition, we dissect the multiple interactions of the MA domain with its target membrane. This results in a detailed understanding of the thermodynamic aspects that determine membrane association, preferential lipid recruitment to the viral shell, and those aspects of Gag assembly into the membrane-bound protein lattice that are determined by MA. PMID:26912608

  16. Optimization of bicelle lipid composition and temperature for EPR spectroscopy of aligned membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Jesse E.; James, Zachary M.; Thomas, David D.

    2015-01-01

    We have optimized the magnetic alignment of phospholipid bilayered micelles (bicelles) for EPR spectroscopy, by varying lipid composition and temperature. Bicelles have been extensively used in NMR spectroscopy for several decades, in order to obtain aligned samples in a near-native membrane environment and take advantage of the intrinsic sensitivity of magnetic resonance to molecular orientation. Recently, bicelles have also seen increasing use in EPR, which offers superior sensitivity and orientational resolution. However, the low magnetic field strength (less than 1 T) of most conventional EPR spectrometers results in homogeneously oriented bicelles only at a temperature well above physiological. To optimize bicelle composition for magnetic alignment at reduced temperature, we prepared bicelles containing varying ratios of saturated (DMPC) and unsaturated (POPC) phospholipids, using EPR spectra of a spin-labeled fatty acid to assess alignment as a function of lipid composition and temperature. Spectral analysis showed that bicelles containing an equimolar mixture of DMPC and POPC homogeneously align at 298 K, 20 K lower than conventional DMPC-only bicelles. It is now possible to perform EPR studies of membrane protein structure and dynamics in well-aligned bicelles at physiological temperatures and below.

  17. Asymmetric lipid-polymer particles (LIPOMER) by modified nanoprecipitation: role of non-solvent composition.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Anil B; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-07-15

    Asymmetric lipid polymer nanostructures (LIPOMER) comprising glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as lipid and Gantrez AN 119 (Gantrez) as polymer, revealed enhanced splenic accumulation. In the present paper, we attempt to explain the formation of asymmetric GMS LIPOMER using real time imaging. Particles were prepared by precipitation under static conditions using different non-solvent phase compositions. The process was video recorded and the videos converted to time elapsed images using the FFmpeg 0.10.2 software at 25 frames/sec. Non-solvent compositions comprising >30% of IPA/Acetone revealed significant stranding of the solvent phase and slower onset of precipitation(2-6s). At lower concentrations of IPA and acetone, and in non-solvent compositions comprising ethanol/water the stranding phenomenon was not evident. Further, rapid precipitation(<1 s) was evident. Nanoprecipitation based on the Marangoni effect is a result of diffusion stranding, interfacial turbulence, and mass transfer of solvent and non-solvent resulting in solute precipitation. Enhanced diffusion stranding favored by high interaction of GMS and Gantrez(low ΔPol), and the low solubility parameter(Δδtotal) and high mixing enthalpy(ΔHM) of GMS in IPA resulted in droplets with random shapes analogous to an amoeba with pseudopodia, which on precipitation formed asymmetric particles. Asymmetric particles could be readily designed through appropriate selection of solutes and non-solvent phase by modified nanoprecipitation.

  18. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  19. Differences in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using NMR and Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify lipid wax, cholesterol ester terpenoid and glyceride composition, saturation, oxidation, and CH2 and CH3 moiety distribution. This tool was used to measure changes in human meibum composition with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods. 1H-NMR spectra of meibum from 39 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) were compared to meibum from 33 normal donors (Mn). Results. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the CH2/CH3 regions of a set of training NMR spectra of human meibum. PCA discriminated between Mn and Md with an accuracy of 86%. There was a bias toward more accurately predicting normal samples (92%) compared with predicting MGD samples (78%). When the NMR spectra of Md were compared with those of Mn, three statistically significant decreases were observed in the relative amounts of CH3 moieties at 1.26 ppm, the products of lipid oxidation above 7 ppm, and the ═CH moieties at 5.2 ppm associated with terpenoids. Conclusions. Loss of the terpenoids could be deleterious to meibum since they exhibit a plethora of mostly positive biological functions and could account for the lower level of cholesterol esters observed in Md compared with Mn. All three changes could account for the higher degree of lipid order of Md compared with age-matched Mn. In addition to the power of NMR spectroscopy to detect differences in the composition of meibum, it is promising that NMR can be used as a diagnostic tool. PMID:22131391

  20. Lipids and lipoproteins in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J L; Chamberlain, S; Robinson, N

    1980-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessively inherited disease affecting the nervous system with a high incidence of heart involvement. Abnormalities of lipid metabolism are known to be associated with several progressive ataxic conditions. In this study of 46 Friedreich's ataxia patients, serum lipids, fatty acids and lipoproteins were assayed and compared with some earlier findings on Friedreich's ataxia and related disorders. Abnormalities of low and high density lipoproteins suggestive of a major defect have been reported; in the present study the level and chemical composition of high density lipoprotein has been assessed in 20 Friedreich's ataxia patients but previous abnormalities could not be substantiated. Lipid compositional analysis of Friedreich's ataxia central nervous tissue and heart, which has not been previously reported, did not markedly differ from control tissue. PMID:7359148

  1. The Effect of Growth Environment and Salinity on Lipid Production and Composition of Salicornia virginica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomani, Bilal Mark McDowell; Link, Dirk; Kail, Brian; Morreale, Bryan; Lee, Eric S.; Gigante, Bethany M.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Finding a viable and sustainable source of renewable energy is a global task. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can potentially be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs. Biodiesel from halophytes shows great promise due to their ability to serve not only as a fuel source, but a food source as well. Halophytes are one of the few biomass plant species that can tolerate a wide range of saline conditions. We investigate the feasibility of using the halophyte, Salicornia virginica as a biofuel source by conducting a series of experiments utilizing various growth and salinity conditions. The goal is to determine if the saline content of Salicornia virginica in our indoor growth vs outdoor growth conditions has an influence on lipid recovery and total biomass composition. We focused on using standard lipid extraction protocols and characterization methods to evaluate twelve Salicornia virginica samples under six saline values ranging from freshwater to seawater and two growth conditions. The overall goal is to develop an optimal lipid extraction protocol for Salicornia virginica and potentially apply this protocol to halophytes in general.

  2. Lipid Composition and Protein Dynamics in Thylakoids of Two Wheat Cultivars Differently Sensitive to Drought.

    PubMed Central

    Quartacci, M. F.; Pinzino, C.; Sgherri, CLM.; Navari-Izzo, F.

    1995-01-01

    Two wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars with different sensitivities to drought were either grown under regular irrigation or subjected to water deficit by withholding water for 14 d. Water-stressed plants of both cultivars underwent similar decreases in leaf water potential, but the drought-tolerant cultivar showed higher relative water content and turgor. Neither osmotic nor elastic adjustment mechanisms appeared to be active under the conditions described here. Thylakoids isolated from the stressed, drought-tolerant wheat showed an increase in lipid-to-protein ratio, in comparison with the control, whereas this ratio remained unchanged in the sensitive wheat. In both cultivars, water deficit determined different rearrangements in the composition of the thylakoid individual polar lipids, but their unsaturation level remained unaffected with the exception of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. In the drought-sensitive cultivar, an accumulation of free fatty acids together with a reduction in polar lipid amount was observed. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of spin-labeled proteins of stressed plants from the sensitive cv Adamello showed a higher spin label rotational correlation time together with lower sulphydryl group and mobile proteic portion levels, in comparison with the control. In the tolerant cv Ofanto, the first two parameters changed to a lesser extent following water depletion, and the mobile proteic portion was not altered. PMID:12228463

  3. Altered lipid composition and enhanced lipid production in green microalga by introduction of brassica diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Irshad; Sharma, Anil K.; Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Higher lipid biosynthesis and accumulation are important to achieve economic viability of biofuel production via microalgae. To enhance lipid content, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was genetically engineered with a key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (BnDGAT2) from Brassica napus, responsible for neutral lipid biosynthesis. The transformed colonies harbouring aph7 gene, screened on hygromycin-supplemented medium, achieved transformation frequency of ~120 ± 10 colonies/1 × 106 cells. Transgene integration and expression were confirmed by PCR, Southern blots, staining lipid droplets, proteins and spectro-fluorometric analysis of Nile red-stained cells. The neutral lipid is a major class (over 80% of total lipids) and most significant requirement for biodiesel production; this was remarkably higher in the transformed alga than the untransformed control. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the transformed alga decreased to about 7% while unsaturated fatty acids increased proportionately when compared to wild type cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were enhanced up to 12% in the transformed line. Nile red staining confirmed formation of a large number of lipid globules in the transformed alga. Evaluation of long-term stability and vitality of the transgenic alga revealed that cryopreservation produced significantly higher quantity of lipid than those maintained continuously over 128 generations on solid medium. The overexpression of BnDGAT2 significantly altered the fatty acids profile in the transformed alga. Results of this study offer a valuable strategy of genetic manipulation for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acids and neutral lipids for biofuel production in algae. PMID:25403771

  4. Altered lipid composition and enhanced lipid production in green microalga by introduction of brassica diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irshad; Sharma, Anil K; Daniell, Henry; Kumar, Shashi

    2015-05-01

    Higher lipid biosynthesis and accumulation are important to achieve economic viability of biofuel production via microalgae. To enhance lipid content, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was genetically engineered with a key enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (BnDGAT2) from Brassica napus, responsible for neutral lipid biosynthesis. The transformed colonies harbouring aph7 gene, screened on hygromycin-supplemented medium, achieved transformation frequency of ~120 ± 10 colonies/1 × 10(6) cells. Transgene integration and expression were confirmed by PCR, Southern blots, staining lipid droplets, proteins and spectro-fluorometric analysis of Nile red-stained cells. The neutral lipid is a major class (over 80% of total lipids) and most significant requirement for biodiesel production; this was remarkably higher in the transformed alga than the untransformed control. The levels of saturated fatty acids in the transformed alga decreased to about 7% while unsaturated fatty acids increased proportionately when compared to wild type cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 fatty acid, were enhanced up to 12% in the transformed line. Nile red staining confirmed formation of a large number of lipid globules in the transformed alga. Evaluation of long-term stability and vitality of the transgenic alga revealed that cryopreservation produced significantly higher quantity of lipid than those maintained continuously over 128 generations on solid medium. The overexpression of BnDGAT2 significantly altered the fatty acids profile in the transformed alga. Results of this study offer a valuable strategy of genetic manipulation for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acids and neutral lipids for biofuel production in algae.

  5. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  6. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  7. Using micropatterned lipid bilayer arrays to measure the effect of membrane composition on merocyanine 540 binding.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn A; Conboy, John C

    2011-06-01

    The lipophilic dye merocyanine 540 (MC540) was used to model small molecule-membrane interactions using micropatterned lipid bilayer arrays (MLBAs) prepared using a 3D Continuous Flow Microspotter (CFM). Fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor MC540 binding to fifteen different bilayer compositions simultaneously. MC540 fluorescence was two times greater for bilayers composed of liquid-crystalline (l.c.) phase lipids (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC),1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)) compared to bilayers in the gel phase (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)). The effect cholesterol (CHO) had on MC540 binding to the membrane was found to be dependent on the lipid component; cholesterol decreased MC540 binding in DMPC, DPPC and DSPC bilayers while having little to no effect on the remaining l.c. phase lipids. MC540 fluorescence was also lowered when 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (sodium salt) (DOPS) was incorporated into DOPC bilayers. The increase in the surface charge density appears to decrease the occurrence of highly fluorescent monomers and increase the formation of weakly fluorescent dimers via electrostatic repulsion. This paper demonstrates that MLBAs are a useful tool for preparing high density reproducible bilayer arrays to study small molecule-membrane interactions in a high-throughput manner.

  8. Myopathy, muscle atrophy and tongue lipid composition in MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Ana V; Bačić, Goran G; Daković, Marko Ž; Lavrnić, Slobodan Đ; Rakočević Stojanović, Vidosava M; Basta, Ivana Z; Lavrnić, Dragana V

    2015-09-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies differs in many aspects from typical presentation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-positive MG. Myopathy and muscle atrophy are observed in MuSK-positive MG patients, unlike AChR-positive patients with MG. That is why the aim of this study was to assess the presence of myopathy and muscle atrophy as well as the tongue lipid composition in our cohort of MuSK-positive MG patients. Clinical examination, electromyography (EMG) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed in 31 MuSK-positive and 28 AChR-positive MG patients. Myopathic EMG was more frequent in MuSK compared to AChR MG patients. In AChR MG patients, myopathic EMG in facial muscles was more frequent after long-term corticosteroid treatment, which was not the case with MuSK-positive MG patients. Facial and/or tongue muscle atrophy was registered in 23 % of MuSK MG patients. Longer disease duration was observed in patients with clinical signs of tongue and/or facial muscle atrophy compared to those with normal tongue muscle. Intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue was present in 85.2 % of MuSK and 20 % of AChR MG patients. Female MuSK MG patients had more frequently electrophysiological signs of myopathy on the facial muscles and signs of intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue, compared to male patients with MuSK-positive MG. Myopathy, muscle atrophy and intramyocellular lipid deposition in the tongue are more frequent in MuSK-positive compared to AChR-positive MG patients.

  9. Abnormalities in apolipoprotein and lipid levels in an HIV-infected Brazilian population under different treatment profiles: the relevance of apolipoprotein E genotypes and immunological status.

    PubMed

    Malavazi, Iran; Abrão, Emiliana P; Mikawa, Angela Y; Landgraf, Viviane O; da Costa, Paulo I

    2004-05-01

    HIV infection is associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism due to a host's response mechanism and the current antiretroviral therapy. The pathological appearance and progression of atherosclerosis is dependent on the presence of injurious agents in the vascular endothelium and variations in different subsets of candidate genes. Therefore, the Hha I polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E gene was evaluated in addition to triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein (apo) Al, B and E levels in 86 Brazilian HIV-infected patients and 29 healthy controls. The allele frequency for apoE in the HIV-infected group and controls was in agreement with data on the Brazilian population. Dyslipidemia was observed in the HIV group and verified by increased levels of triglycerides, VLDL and apoE, and decreased levels of HDL and apoAl. The greatest abnormalities in these biochemical variables were shown in the HIV-infected individuals whose immune function was more compromised. The effect of the genetic variation at the APOE gene on biochemical variables was more pronounced in the HIV-infected individuals who carried the apoE2/3 genotype. The highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-receiving group presented increased levels of total cholesterol and apoE. Dyslipidemia was a predictable consequence of HIV infection and the protease inhibitors intensified the increase in apoE values.

  10. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Viloria-Bernal, María; Vicente, Francisca; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ruiz-Larrea, Maria Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera). Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte) contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin). By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity. PMID:22754307

  11. Plasma zinc status and membrane lipid composition in genetically diabetic mice (db/db)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    Sex and age matched diabetic C57BL/Ks-db+/db+ mice (db/db) were sacrificed at eight weeks of age. Plasma samples were collected and zinc levels determined. Livers were excised and mitochondrial and microsomal membranes prepared. Aliquots of membrane fractions were subjected to lipid extraction and cholesterol (Cl), phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid analysis (FA) performed. Plasma zinc levels in db/db mice were elevated 25% compared to m/m controls (148.8+/-8.1 ..mu..g/dl vs. 118.9+/-14.9 ..mu..g/dl). Cholesterol and PL levels remained unchanged in both mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. Analysis of PL composition from db/db mitochondria by two dimensional thin layer chromatography revealed no change in the percentage of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but a 40% decrease in cardiolipin. Slight increases were observed in the percentage of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (PS+PI) in microsomes isolated from db/db mice. Fatty acid analysis of microsomal PC and PE showed a decrease of 28% in the 18:1/18:0 ratio as well as a 21% decrease in the ratio of 20:4/18:2 in db/db animals. Analysis of succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial) and glucose-6-phosphatase (microsomal) revealed significant decreases in activity in livers of db/db mice. The altered zinc metabolism as well as the changes in membrane lipid composition suggest that this may be a model to study the role of zinc in membrane structure.

  12. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lam, Sin Man; Xin, Jingxue; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Shui, Guanghou; Huang, Xun

    2017-03-01

    The general transcription factor TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and its associated factors (TAFs) together form the TFIID complex, which directs transcription initiation. Through RNAi and mutant analysis, we identified a specific TBP family protein, TRF2, and a set of TAFs that regulate lipid droplet (LD) size in the Drosophila larval fat body. Among the three Drosophila TBP genes, trf2, tbp and trf1, only loss of function of trf2 results in increased LD size. Moreover, TRF2 and TAF9 regulate fatty acid composition of several classes of phospholipids. Through RNA profiling, we found that TRF2 and TAF9 affects the transcription of a common set of genes, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes that affect phospholipid fatty acid composition. We also found that knockdown of several TRF2 and TAF9 target genes results in large LDs, a phenotype which is similar to that of trf2 mutants. Together, these findings provide new insights into the specific role of the general transcription machinery in lipid homeostasis.

  13. Drosophila TRF2 and TAF9 regulate lipid droplet size and phospholipid fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Lam, Sin Man; Xin, Jingxue; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Shui, Guanghou

    2017-01-01

    The general transcription factor TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and its associated factors (TAFs) together form the TFIID complex, which directs transcription initiation. Through RNAi and mutant analysis, we identified a specific TBP family protein, TRF2, and a set of TAFs that regulate lipid droplet (LD) size in the Drosophila larval fat body. Among the three Drosophila TBP genes, trf2, tbp and trf1, only loss of function of trf2 results in increased LD size. Moreover, TRF2 and TAF9 regulate fatty acid composition of several classes of phospholipids. Through RNA profiling, we found that TRF2 and TAF9 affects the transcription of a common set of genes, including peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes that affect phospholipid fatty acid composition. We also found that knockdown of several TRF2 and TAF9 target genes results in large LDs, a phenotype which is similar to that of trf2 mutants. Together, these findings provide new insights into the specific role of the general transcription machinery in lipid homeostasis. PMID:28273089

  14. [Lipid composition of marine shellfish berbigão Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) raw and cooked].

    PubMed

    Aveiro, Mariana Vincenzi; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Tramonte, Vera Lúcia Cardoso Garcia

    2009-09-01

    The berbigão Anomalocardia brasiliana is a marine shellfish which is commoning consumed in the coastal region of Santa Catarina. However, there are limited available data on the composition of their fatty acids and sterols. The objetive of this study was to determine the lipid composition of the berbigão from Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Pirajubaé (REMAPI), Florianópolis/SC, Brasil, during the autumn and spring. The total lipid content was 1.21g% and 0.72g% in the autumn and spring, respectively. Several fatty acids were identified and quantified, including 20 fatty acids, 6 saturated (14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 20:0), 4 monounsaturated (16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 20:1) and 10 polyunsaturated (18:2, 18:3, 18:4, 20:2, 20:3, 20:4, 20:5, 22:4, 22:5, 22:6). There was a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total than saturated and monounsaturated, regardless of season: 40.7% of polyunsaturated, 30.8% of saturated, 17.2% of monounsaturated in the autumn and 39.7% of polyunsaturated, 27.7% of saturated, 13.7% of monounsaturated in the spring. The cholesterol corresponded to a value of 94.38 mg% in the autumn and 76.75 mg% in the spring. Among the sterols were found campesterol, estigmasterol and beta-sitosterol, but in lower quantities than cholesterol. These results showed that the berbigão was not a significant source of lipids, revealing low levels of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Berbigão is recommended for daily consumption as part of a healthy diet due to it is safe levels of fats and cholesterol.

  15. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  16. Insulin Receptor Processing and Lipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membrane in Patients with Hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Masella, R.; Cantafora, A.; Maffì, D.; Volpe, R.; Ginnetti, M.G.; Ricci, G.; Mace, N.L.; Buxton, G.M.; Peterson, S.W.

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the common forms of dyslipidemia could affect either the lipid composition or insulin receptor processing (down-regulation) of erythrocytes. The study included 22 patients with type IIa hypercholesterolemia, 15 patients with type IV hypertriglyceridemia and 12 patients with type IIb hyperlipidemia. Ten normolipidemic subjects were used as controls. Their erythrocyte membranes were analyzed for lipid composition and insulin receptor down-regulation. The results show that all the hyperlipidemias investigated were characterized by significant increases in the cholesterol to phospholipid molar ratio (0.56 +/- 0.08 in controls and 1.11 +/- 0.13, 1.09 +/- 0.14, 1.04 +/- 0.15, p < 0.001, in types IIa, IIb and IV, respectively). Surface insulin receptors of type IIa and IIb patients did not appear to down-regulate when compared to normal subjects, but rather up-regulated (+65.2% in controls, -1.0% and -8.7%, p < 0.001, in type IIa and IIb patients, respectively). Patients with type IV hypertriglyceridemia showed a residual capacity for insulin receptor internalization (10.7% down-regulation). Membranes of all the patients contained a higher proportion of phosphatidylethanolamine; the molar ratio of sphingomyelin to phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in types IIb than in controls (1.22 +/- 0.11 and 1.12 +/- 0.10, p < 0.05, respectively); all the patients showed a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the major glycerophospholipid classes. However, type IV hypertriglyceridemics showed less variations, especially in the phosphatidylserine fraction. These results indicate that the alterations in lipoprotein pattern may affect both the lipid membrane equilibria and the processing ability of surface insulin receptors. Copyright 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Chronic administration of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid changes microsomal membrane lipid content and fatty acid compositions in rats.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Chao, Y C; Ferretti, I; Panini, R; Tiribelli, C

    1996-03-27

    We studied the effect of oral supplementation with ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) or tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat hepatic microsomes. UDCA and TUDCA significantly increased the total amount of lipids with the exception of cholesteryl-esters. UDCA significantly increased the triglycerides and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) microsomal content, and decreased the cholesterol/phospholipids and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PE ratio. Both treatments increased the percentage oleic acid and of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in each class of lipids. UDCA and TUDCA had a different action on PUFA microsomal molar percentage of phospholipids: UDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PE fraction, while TUDCA increased the relative percentage of PUFA in the PC fraction. These changes in the hepatic lipid content and composition might in part explain both cytoprotective action of these hydrophillic bile acids and their effect on membrane fluidity.

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition and lipid profile during koji fermentation and their relationships with soy sauce flavour.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunzi; Chen, Zhiyao; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Haifeng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-09-01

    Evolution of lipids during koji fermentation and the effect of lipase supplementation on the sensory properties of soy sauce were investigated. Results showed that total lipids of the koji samples were in the range of 16-21%. The extracted lipid of initial koji consisted mainly of triacylglycerols (TAGs, >98%), followed by phospholipids (PLs), diglycerides (DAGs), monoacylglycerols (MAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). As the fermentation proceeded, peroxide value of the lipids decreased while carbonyl value increased (p<0.05). Linoleic acid was utilised fastest according to the fatty acid composition of total lipids, and preferential degradation of PLs to liberate FFAs was also observed. Moreover, phospholipase supplementation had significant influence on the sensory characteristics of soy sauce, especially enhanced (p<0.05) scores for the umami and kokumi taste attributes. All these results indicated that the control of PLs utilisation during fermentation was a potential method to improve soy sauce's characteristic taste.

  19. The true stone composition and abnormality of urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaoming; Gu, Xiaojian; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xizhao; Shen, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the toxicity of melamine to humans, the stone composition and urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine including the infant's melamine-induced stone composition were studied. Sixty 4-week-old male rats divided into three groups were, respectively, fed diets containing no melamine (control), 0.1% melamine, and 1% melamine for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the collected stones and 24-h urines from rats were, respectively, measured with compositions and metabolic lithogenic parameters. The stone from an infant who ingested melamine-adulterated formula was also included in compositional analysis. Across three groups, the stone was only detected in 1% melamine group, with composition of almost melamine different from the affected infant's stone composed of melamine and uric acid with a ratio of 1:2. Compared with control group, urine calcium and phosphate excretions were significantly increased in 1% melamine group. Urine uric acid excretion was significantly increased but citrate excretion was significantly decreased in 0.1% and 1% melamine groups. Urine oxalate excretion and pH were indicated without any significant difference. In addition based on urine physicochemical characters, melamine-uric acid stone seems difficult to be formed in the rats due to their characters of urine high-pH and low-uric acid. These results demonstrated that (1) the stone composition of rats fed melamine was not and could not be as that of infants fed melamine-adulterated formula, two species had a different mechanism of melamine-induced stone formation; (2) the exposure of melamine could result in abnormalities of urine metabolic lithogenic factors to rats, perhaps as well as human beings.

  20. Changes in the Total Lipid, Neutral Lipid, Phospholipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid Fractions during Pastırma Processing, a Dry-Cured Meat Product

    PubMed Central

    Aksu, Muhammet Irfan; Dogan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Pastırma is a dry-cured meat product, produced from whole beef or water buffalo muscles. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of production stages (raw meat, after curing, after 2nd drying and pastırma) on the total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipid and fatty acid composition of phospholipid fraction of pastırma produced from beef M. Longissimus dorsi muscles. The pH and colour (L*, a* and b*) analyses were also performed in raw meat and pastırma. It was found that pastırma production stages had significant effects (p<0.01) on the total amounts of lipid, neutral lipid and phospholipid, and the highest amounts of lipid, neutral lipid and phospholipid were detected in pastırma. In pastırma, neutral lipid ratio was determined as 79.33±2.06% and phospholipid ratio as 20.67±2.06%. Phospholipids was proportionately lower in pastırma than raw meat. Pastırma production stages affected pentadecanoic acid (15:1) (p<0.01), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (p<0.05), γ-linoleic acid (18:3n-6) (p<0.05), erucic acid (22:1n-9) (p<0.05), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) (p<0.05), total unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUSFA) (p<0.05) and total saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) (p<0.05) ratios of phospholipid fraction and also the moisture content (p<0.01). Pastırma process also affected pH and colour (L*, a* and b*) values (p<0.01), and these values were higher in pastırma than raw meat. PMID:28316467

  1. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  2. Dynamics of lipid and fatty acid composition of shallow-water corals under thermal stress: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbs, A. B.; Yakovleva, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching induces changes in lipid and fatty acid composition that result in low lipid content, reducing the likelihood of coral survival. Species-specific differences in the metabolism of lipid reserves may contribute to the differential resistance of corals under acute heat exposures. Here, we examined the dynamics of lipids and fatty acid abundance in corals subjected to short-term heat stress. The stony corals Acropora intermedia, Montipora digitata, and the soft coral Sinularia capitalis all showed a 60-75% decline in both storage and structural lipids. However, S. capitalis and M. digitata exhibited no significant change in the percentages of structural lipids (i.e., polar lipids and sterols) until they had lost 90-95% of their endosymbionts, whereas A. intermedia showed a rapid decline in structural lipids after a 50% loss of symbionts. After a 90-95% loss of symbionts under heat stress, all three corals showed a relative depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids that had symbiont biomarkers, suggesting that polyunsaturated fatty acids were translocated from the symbiont to the coral host tissue.

  3. The adrenal specific toxicant mitotane directly interacts with lipid membranes and alters membrane properties depending on lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Holger A; Haralampiev, Ivan; Theisgen, Stephan; Schirbel, Andreas; Sbiera, Silviu; Huster, Daniel; Kroiss, Matthias; Müller, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Mitotane (o,p'.-DDD) is an orphan drug approved for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. The mechanisms, which are responsible for this activity of the drug, are not completely understood. It can be hypothesized that an impact of mitotane is mediated by the interaction with cellular membranes. However, an interaction of mitotane with (lipid) membranes has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we characterized the interaction of mitotane and its main metabolite o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroacetic acid (o,p'-DDA) with lipid membranes by applying a variety of biophysical approaches of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that mitotane and o,p'-DDA bind to lipid membranes by inserting into the lipid-water interface of the bilayer. Mitotane but not o,p'-DDA directly causes a disturbance of bilayer structure leading to an increased permeability of the membrane for polar molecules. Mitotane induced alterations of the membrane integrity required the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine and/or cholesterol. Collectively, our data for the first time characterize the impact of mitotane on the lipid membrane structure and dynamics, which may contribute to a better understanding of specific mitotane effects and side effects.

  4. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a

  5. Comprehensive analysis of lipid dynamics variation with lipid composition and hydration of bicelles using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Soong, Ronald; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-06-16

    Bicelles of various lipid/detergent ratios are commonly used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of membrane-associated molecules without the need to freeze the sample. While a decrease in the size (defined at a low temperature or by the q value) of a bicelle decreases its overall order parameter, the variation of lipid dynamics with a change in the lipid/detergent ratio is unknown. In this study, we report a thorough atomistic level analysis on the variation of lipid dynamics with the size and hydration level of bicelles composed of a phospholipid, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and a detergent, 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC). Two-dimensional (2D) separated-local-field NMR experiments were performed on magnetically aligned bicelles to measure (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings, which were used to determine order parameters at various (head-group, glycerol, and acyl chain) regions of lipids in the bilayer. From our analysis, we uncover the extreme sensitivity of the glycerol region to the motion of the bicelle, which can be attributed to the effect of viscosity because of an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. As such, the water-membrane interface region exhibits the highest order parameter values among all three regions of a lipid molecule. Our experimental results demonstrate that the laboratory-frame 2D proton-detected-local-field pulse sequence is well-suited for the accurate measurement of motionally averaged (or long-range) weak and multiple (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings associated with a single carbon site at the natural abundance of (13)C nuclei.

  6. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  7. Wildfire effects on soil lipid composition in burnt eucalypt stands, in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Sílvia; De la Rosa, José Maria; Knicker, Heike; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires can induce profound changes in the quality and quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) pools. Early detection of fire impacts on SOM pools is relevant for taking decision and planning of post-fire restoration actions, since SOM plays a key role in post-fire erosion risk and the recovery of fire-affected ecosystems. This work focuses on wildfire effects on the composition of lipids in the topsoil of eucalypt plantations, one of the prevailing and, at the same time, most fire-prone forest types in north-central Portugal. To this end, two neighbouring eucalypt plantations were sampled at 5 occasions with roughly 6-monthly intervals, starting immediately after a wildfire in August 2010 till August 2012. One of the study sites was located within the 2010-bunrt area and the other just outside it. The air-dry soil samples were treated with a dichloromethane-methanol (3:1) mixture for Soxhlet extraction of the SOM's labile lipid fraction, as this fraction is particularly prone to undergo rapid and significant alterations by fire-induced heating. In turn, these alterations have elevated potential to be used as markers of direct fire effects on soil properties in general and, at the same time, as indicators of the recovery process during the so-called window-of-disturbance. The lipid compositions of the samples were determined by GC-MS. The preliminary results of this study indicated that the soil lipid fraction of the upper soil layer (0-2 cm depth) decreased sharply due to the wildfire, and that this effect lasted for more than 24 months. Its contents in the different sampling periods varied between 2.4 and 5.7 % at the long-unburnt site as compared to 0.9 - 1.1 % at the burnt site. The main differences between the burnt and unburnt samples were found in the distribution patterns of alkyl compounds. Without exception, an accumulation of low molecular weight homologues was observed in the burnt samples, suggesting that fire led to thermal breakdown and cracking of

  8. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  9. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  10. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  11. Influence of glucogenic dietary supplementation and reproductive state of dairy cows on the composition of lipids in milk.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, R; Malka, H; Argov-Argaman, N

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of the frequently used glucogenic dietary supplementation in dairy herds and the hormonal changes occurring during the normal estrous cycle on the composition and concentration of milk lipid components. Holstein dairy cows were synchronized with two injections of prostaglandin F2α (estrus=day 0). Animals were held as controls or drenched for 11 days (day -3 to day 8 of the cycle) with 850 ml/day liquid propylene glycol (treatment, n=13 per group). Blood and milk samples were collected on day 1 and 8 of the cycle. In both groups, plasma progesterone concentration increased ∼10-fold between 1 and 8 days post-estrus. Milk fatty acid composition was associated primarily with estrous-cycle day: polyunsaturated fatty acids increased by 16%, n-6 by 15% and n-3 by 1% from day 1 to 8 post-estrus. Polar lipid composition was also altered by cycle day: phosphatidylethanolamine concentration was 2-fold and 1.5-fold higher on day 1 v. day 8 post-estrus in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Phosphatidylserine concentration in milk was also affected by cycle day by treatment interaction (P=0.04). A progesterone level by treatment interaction influenced the triglyceride-to-phospholipid ratio in the milk (P=0.02). The results suggest that progesterone plays a role in modulating milk lipid composition and structure. Therefore, strategies designed to alter milk lipid composition should consider the cow's reproductive status.

  12. Chemical composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil from Cynomorium coccineum L.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Rescigno, Antonio; Piras, Alessandra; Atzeri, Angela; Scano, Paola; Porcedda, Silvia; Zucca, Paolo; Assunta Dessì, M

    2012-10-01

    Cynomorium coccineum L. is a non-photosynthetic plant, spread over Mediterranean countries, amply used in traditional medicine. We investigated the composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil obtained from dried stems of the plant. Oil isolation has been performed by supercritical fractioned extraction with CO2. 13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to study the molecular composition of oil lipids; fatty acid composition was identified using GC and HPLC techniques. The fixed oil was composed mainly by triacylglycerols and derivates. The main fatty acids were 18:1 n-9 (38%), 18:2 n-6 (20%), 16:0 (15%), and 18:3 n-3 (10.8%). The oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of colon cancer undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, cell viability, lipid composition, and lipid peroxidation were measured in intestinal epithelial cells (differentiated Caco-2 cells) after 24 h incubation with fixed oil. The oil did not show a toxic effect on colon epithelial cell viability but induced a significant change in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the essential fatty acids 18:3 n-3 and 18:2 n-6. The results showed remarkable biological activity of Maltese mushroom oil, and qualify it as a potential resource for food/pharmaceutical applications.

  13. The influence of dietary lipid composition on skeletal muscle mitochondria from mice following eight months of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Hagopian, K; Bibus, D; Villalba, J M; López-Lluch, G; Navas, P; Kim, K; Ramsey, J J

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and retard aging in a variety of species. It has been proposed that alterations in membrane saturation are central to these actions of CR. As a step towards testing this theory, mice were assigned to 4 dietary groups (control and 3 CR groups) and fed AIN-93G diets at 95 % (control) or 60 % (CR) of ad libitum for 8 months. To manipulate membrane composition, the primary dietary fats for the CR groups were soybean oil (also used in the control diet), fish oil or lard. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial lipid composition, proton leak, and H(2)O(2) production were measured. Phospholipid fatty acid composition in CR mice was altered in a manner that reflected the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid profiles of their respective dietary lipid sources. Dietary lipid composition did not alter proton leak kinetics between the CR groups. However, the capacity of mitochondrial complex III to produce ROS was decreased in the CR lard compared to the other CR groups. The results of this study indicate that dietary lipid composition can influence ROS production in muscle mitochondria of CR mice. It remains to be determined if lard or other dietary oils can maximize the CR-induced decreases in ROS production.

  14. Gramicidin Alters the Lipid Compositions of Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Membrane Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Huang, Juyang

    2012-10-01

    The effects of adding 1 mol % of gramicidin A to the well-known DOPC/DSPC/cholesterol lipid mixtures were investigated. 4-component giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) were prepared using our recently developed Wet-Film method. The phase boundary of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered (Lo-Ld) coexisting region was determined using video fluorescence microscopy. We found that if cares were not taken, light-induced domain artifacts could significantly distort the measured phase boundary. After testing several fluorescence dyes, we found that the emission spectrum of Nile Red is quite sensitive to membrane composition. By fitting the Nile Red emission spectra at the phase boundary to the spectra in the Lo-Ld coexisting region, the thermodynamic tie-lines were determined. As an active component of lipid membranes, gramicidin not only partitions favorably into the liquid-disordered (Ld) phase, it also alters the phase boundary and thermodynamic tie-lines. Even at as low as 1 mol %, gramicidin decreases the cholesterol mole fraction of Ld phase and increases the area of Lo phase.

  15. Influence of membrane lipid composition on flavonoid-membrane interactions: Implications on their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Stalin; Krishnaswamy, Sridharan; Devashya, Venkappayya; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2015-04-01

    The membrane interactions and localization of flavonoids play a vital role in altering membrane-mediated cell signaling cascades as well as influence the pharmacological activities such as anti-tumour, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties of flavonoids. Various techniques have been used to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids. These include partition coefficient, fluorescence anisotropy, differential scanning calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, electrophysiological methods and molecular dynamics simulations. Each technique will provide specific information about either alteration of membrane fluidity or localization of flavonoids within the lipid bilayer. Apart from the diverse techniques employed, the concentrations of flavonoids and lipid membrane composition employed in various studies reported in literature also are different and together these variables contribute to diverse findings that sometimes contradict each other. This review highlights different techniques employed to investigate the membrane interaction of flavonoids with special emphasis on erythrocyte model membrane systems and their significance in understanding the nature and extent of flavonoid-membrane interactions. We also attempt to correlate the membrane localization and alteration in membrane fluidity with the biological activities of flavonoids such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties.

  16. A New Method for Measuring Edge Tensions and Stability of Lipid Bilayers: Effect of Membrane Composition

    PubMed Central

    Portet, Thomas; Dimova, Rumiana

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel and facile method for measuring edge tensions of lipid membranes. The approach is based on electroporation of giant unilamellar vesicles and analysis of the pore closure dynamics. We applied this method to evaluate the edge tension in membranes with four different compositions: egg phosphatidylcholine (eggPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and mixtures of DOPC with cholesterol and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Our data confirm previous results for eggPC and DOPC. The addition of 17 mol % cholesterol to the DOPC membrane causes an increase in the membrane edge tension. On the contrary, when the same fraction of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine is added to the membrane, a decrease in the edge tension is observed, which is an unexpected result considering the inverted-cone shape geometry of the molecule. It is presumed that interlipid hydrogen bonding is the origin of this behavior. Furthermore, cholesterol was found to lower the lysis tension of DOPC bilayers. This behavior differs from that observed on bilayers made of stearoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, suggesting that cholesterol influences the membrane mechanical stability in a lipid-specific manner. PMID:21081074

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chromatographic methods identify altered lipid composition in human renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Poerio, A; Trinchero, A; Reggiani, A; Tugnoli, V

    2004-07-01

    We report on the characterization of the lipid obtained from cortical and medullary normal human kidney tissue, benign renal neoplasms (oncocytoma) and 2 different types of malignant renal neoplasms (chromophobic cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma). The total lipid fractions were analyzed by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, whereas the composition of the total fatty acids and the content of total cholesterol were determined by gas chromatography. alpha-Tocopherol was detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis revealed significant differences in the renal tissues examined. It was confirmed that cholesteryl esters (mainly oleate) are typical of clear cell renal carcinomas. Their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic factors is discussed, with particular emphasis on its capability to indicate the tumor diffusion in healthy renal parenchyma. alpha-Tocopherol is prevalent in clear cell carcinoma and it is present in nearly the same low amounts in cortex, medulla and chromophobic cell renal carcinoma. Q10 coenzyme and dolichols were detected by thin-layer chromatography and they are present in significant amounts in the cortex and the benign oncocytoma. Great variations were found in the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, especially in the docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and the corresponding omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio.

  18. Lipid Bilayer Composition Can Influence the Orientation of Proteorhodopsin in Artificial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Tunuguntla, Ramya; Bangar, Mangesh; Kim, Kyunghoon; Stroeve, Pieter; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.; Noy, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Artificial membrane systems allow researchers to study the structure and function of membrane proteins in a matrix that approximates their natural environment and to integrate these proteins in ex vivo devices such as electronic biosensors, thin-film protein arrays, or biofuel cells. Given that most membrane proteins have vectorial functions, both functional studies and applications require effective control over protein orientation within a lipid bilayer. In this work, we explored the role of the bilayer surface charge in determining transmembrane protein orientation and functionality during formation of proteoliposomes. We reconstituted a model vectorial ion pump, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes of opposite charges and varying charge densities and determined the resultant protein orientation. Antibody-binding assay and proteolysis of proteoliposomes showed physical evidence of preferential orientation, and functional assays verified the vectorial nature of ion transport in this system. Our results indicate that the manipulation of lipid composition can indeed control orientation of an asymmetrically charged membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes. PMID:24047990

  19. Octopus lipid and vitamin E composition: interspecies, interorigin, and nutritional variability.

    PubMed

    Torrinha, Alvaro; Cruz, Rebeca; Gomes, Filipa; Mendes, Eulália; Casal, Susana; Morais, Simone

    2014-08-20

    Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa from distinct marine environments [Northeast Atlantic (NEA), Northwest Atlantic (NWA), Eastern Central Atlantic, Western Central Atlantic (WCA), Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea] were characterized regarding their lipid and vitamin E composition. These species are those commercially more relevant worldwide. Significant interspecies and interorigin differences were observed. Unsaturated fatty acids account for more than 65% of total fatty acids, mostly ω-3 PUFA due to docosahexaenoic (18.4-29.3%) and eicosapentanoic acid (11.4-23.9%) contributions. The highest ω-3 PUFA amounts and ω-3/ω-6 ratios were quantified in the heaviest specimens, O. vulgaris from NWA, with high market price, and simultaneously in the lowest graded samples, E. cirrhosa from NEA, of reduced dimensions. Although having the highest cholesterol contents, E. cirrhosa from NEA and O. maya from WCA have also higher protective fatty acid indexes. Chemometric discrimination allowed clustering the selected species and several origins based on lipid and vitamin E profiles.

  20. Chronic cigarette smoking alters erythrocyte membrane lipid composition and properties in male human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Kavitha, Godugu; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2010-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle factor influencing the health of human beings. The present study investigates smoking induced alterations on the erythrocyte membrane lipid composition, fluidity and the role of nitric oxide. Thirty experimental and control subjects (age 35+/-8) were selected for the study. Experimental subjects smoke 12+/-2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years. In smokers elevated nitrite/nitrate levels in plasma and red cell lysates were observed. Smokers showed increased hemolysis, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, C/P ratio (cholesterol and phospholipid ratio), anisotropic (gamma) value with decreased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and sulfhydryl groups. Alterations in smokers erythrocyte membrane individual phospholipids were also evident from the study. Red cell lysate nitric oxide positively correlated with C/P ratio (r=0.565) and fluorescent anisotropic (gamma) value (r=0.386) in smokers. Smoking induced generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species might have altered erythrocyte membrane physico-chemical properties.

  1. Impact of implant composition of twin-screw extruded lipid implants on the release behavior.

    PubMed

    Even, Marie-Paule; Bobbala, Sharan; Kooi, Kok Liang; Hook, Sarah; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-30

    The development of vaccine delivery systems that will remove or reduce the need for repeated dosing has led to the investigation of sustained release systems. In this context, the duration of antigen release is of great importance as is the requirement for concomitant adjuvant release. In this work, lipid implants consisting of cholesterol (CHOL), soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114 (D114), the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the adjuvant Quil-A (QA) were produced by twin-screw extrusion. The release of antigen and adjuvant was investigated in vitro and we observed complete OVA release over a period of 7 days while QA was released in a linear fashion over a period of up to 12 days. In order to extend OVA release, lipid implants were subjected to post-extrusion curing at 45-55°C. The OVA release could be extended to up to 14 days. Furthermore the influence of the implant composition on the release of the model antigen was investigated. It was shown that the percentage of cholesterol in particular plays an important role in modulating release.

  2. Circadian regulation of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-11-01

    The circadian system temporally coordinates daily rhythms in feeding behaviour and energy metabolism. The objective of the present paper is to review the mechanisms that underlie circadian regulation of lipid metabolic pathways. Circadian rhythms in behaviour and physiology are generated by master clock neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and its efferent targets in the hypothalamus integrate light and feeding signals to entrain behavioural rhythms as well as clock cells located in peripheral tissues, including the liver, adipose tissue and muscle. Circadian rhythms in gene expression are regulated at the cellular level by a molecular clock comprising a core set of clock genes/proteins. In peripheral tissues, hundreds of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid oxidation are rhythmically activated and repressed by clock proteins, hence providing a direct mechanism for circadian regulation of lipids. Disruption of clock gene function results in abnormal metabolic phenotypes and impaired lipid absorption, demonstrating that the circadian system is essential for normal energy metabolism. The composition and timing of meals influence diurnal regulation of metabolic pathways, with food intake during the usual rest phase associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies using metabolomics and lipidomics platforms have shown that hundreds of lipid species are circadian-regulated in human plasma, including but not limited to fatty acids, TAG, glycerophospholipids, sterol lipids and sphingolipids. In future work, these lipid profiling approaches can be used to understand better the interaction between diet, mealtimes and circadian rhythms on lipid metabolism and risk for obesity and metabolic diseases.

  3. Effects of cultivation conditions and media composition on cell growth and lipid productivity of indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-02-01

    The growth and lipid productivity of an isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 were investigated under different media and cultivation conditions, including phototrophic growth (NaHCO(3) or CO(2), with light), heterotrophic growth (glucose, without light), photoheterotrophic growth (glucose, with light) and mixotrophic growth (glucose and CO(2), with light). C. vulgaris ESP-31 preferred to grow under phototrophic (CO(2)), photoheterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions on nitrogen-rich medium (i.e., Basal medium and Modified Bristol's medium), reaching a biomass concentration of 2-5 g/l. The growth on nitrogen-limiting MBL medium resulted in higher lipid accumulation (20-53%) but slower growth rate. Higher lipid content (40-53%) and higher lipid productivity (67-144 mg/l/d) were obtained under mixotrophic cultivation with all the culture media used. The fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid comprises over 60-68% of saturated fatty acids (i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0)) and monounsaturated acids (i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)). This lipid composition is suitable for biodiesel production.

  4. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  5. Novel polar lipid composition of Clostridium innocuum as the basis for an assessment of its taxonomic status.

    PubMed

    Johnston, N C; Goldfine, H; Fischer, W

    1994-01-01

    The extractable polar lipids of Clostridium innocuum have been shown to consist of glycosyldiradylglycerols, phospholipids and phosphoglycolipids. The major glycosyldiradylglycerols are D-Glcp(alpha 1-3)radyl2Gro and D-Galp(alpha 1-2)D-Glcp(alpha 1-3)radyl2Gro. Both glycolipids have some 1-O-(alk-1-enyl)-2-O-acyl species, in addition to diacyl species. The phospholipids include bisphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin), lysocardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). In addition, several novel lipids have been found, including a PG acetal of cardiolipin plasmalogen, smaller amounts of a lyso form of this lipid, a PG acetal of PG plasmalogen, and two phosphoglycolipids, which represent 65% of total polar lipids. The latter have been identified as 2'-amino-1',3'- dihydroxypropane-3'-P-6-D-Galp(alpha 1-2)D-Glcp(alpha 1-3)radyl2Gro and a derivative of this lipid containing an acyl chain esterified to O-6 of the glucopyranosyl ring. Based on rRNA sequence data, C. innocuum is considered to be a relative of the mycoplasmas. Its unique lipid composition permits an assessment of the taxonomic status of C. innocuum, since the lipid amphiphiles display marked differences from those of Acholeplasma laidlawii.

  6. Lipid composition analysis of milk fats from different mammalian species: potential for use as human milk fat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Yuanfa; Cheong, Lingzhi; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2013-07-24

    The lipid compositions of commercial milks from cow, buffalo, donkey, sheep, and camel were compared with that of human milk fat (HMF) based on total and sn-2 fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid, and phospholipid fatty acid compositions and melting and crystallization profiles, and their degrees of similarity were digitized and differentiated by an evaluation model. The results showed that these milk fats had high degrees of similarity to HMF in total fatty acid composition. However, the degrees of similarity in other chemical aspects were low, indicating that these milk fats did not meet the requirements of human milk fat substitutes (HMFSs). However, an economically feasible solution to make these milks useful as raw materials for infant formula production could be to modify these fats, and a possible method is blending of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) enriched fats and minor lipids based on the corresponding chemical compositions of HMF.

  7. The relationship between size and lipid composition of the bovine milk fat globule is modulated by lactation stage.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, Ronit; Argov-Argaman, Nurit

    2014-02-15

    The effect of lactation stage and size on the lipid composition of bovine milk fat globules (MFG) and their membranes (MFGM) was investigated. MFG were separated into six size groups (1-3 μm) from samples collected in early, mid and late lactation stages (10-250 days postpartum). Fatty acid and polar lipid composition was determined in each size group, at each lactation stage. PUFA concentration was affected by lactation stage but not MFG size. Saturated fatty acid concentration at 60 days postpartum was 10% higher in small vs. large globules. Phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol followed the same concentration pattern throughout lactation in all MFG size groups. From day 100 postpartum on, phosphatidylethanolamine concentration was constant in the large MFG, but dropped twofold in the small MFG. Results suggest distinct compositional regulation for large and small MFG at different lactation stages. Such interactions between structure, composition and lactation stage may be exploited for human milk and dairy product consumption.

  8. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Crz1p regulates pH homeostasis in Candida glabrata by altering membrane lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongni; Lin, Xiaobao; Qi, Yanli; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2016-09-23

    The asexual facultative aerobic haploid yeast Candida glabrata is widely used in the industrial production of various organic acids. To elucidate the physiological function of the transcription factor CgCrz1p and its role in tolerance to acid stress we deleted or overexpressed the corresponding gene CgCRZ1 Deletion of CgCRZ1 resulted in a 60% decrease in dry cell weight (DCW) and a 50% drop in cell viability compared to the wild type at pH 2.0. Expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes was also significantly down-regulated. Consequently, the proportion of C18:1 fatty acids, ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and ergosterol content decreased by 30%, 46%, and 30%, respectively. Additionally, membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity were reduced by 45%, 9%, and 50%, respectively. In contrast, overexpression of CgCrz1p increased C18:1 and ergosterol content by 16% and 40%, respectively. Overexpression also enhanced membrane integrity, fluidity, and H(+)-ATPase activity by 31%, 6%, and 20%, respectively. Moreover, in the absence of pH buffering, DCW and pyruvate titer increased by 48% and 60%, respectively, compared to the wild type. Together, these results suggest that CgCrz1p regulates tolerance to acidic conditions by altering membrane lipid composition in C. glabrata IMPORTANCE: The present study provides an insight into the metabolism of Candida glabrata under acidic conditions, such as those encountered during industrial production of organic acids. We found that overexpression of the transcription factor CgCrz1p improved viability, biomass, and pyruvate yields at low pH. Analysis of plasma membrane lipid composition indicated that CgCrz1p might play an important role in its integrity and fluidity, and enhanced the pumping of protons in acidic environments. We propose that altering the structure of the cell membrane may provide a successful strategy for increasing C glabrata productivity at low pH.

  10. Abnormalities in body composition and nutritional status in HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, L C de Barros; Gonçalves, E M; de Carvalho, W R G; Guerra-Junior, G; Centeville, M; Aoki, F H; Morcillo, A M; dos Santos Vilela, M M; da Silva, M T N

    2011-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare growth, nutritional status and body composition outcomes between a group of 94 HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 364 healthy controls, and to evaluate their association with clinical and lifestyle variables within the HIV-infected group. When compared with the control group, HIV patients had higher risk of stunting (odds ratio [OR] 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83-10.04) and thinness (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 2.44-9.06), higher waist-to-hip ratios (medians 0.89 versus 0.82 for boys and 0.90 versus 0.77 for girls, P < 0.001), and lower prevalence of overweight or obesity (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.78). Protease inhibitor usage was associated with thinness (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.07-11.44) and lipoatrophy (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.37-8.95). HIV-infected children on ART showed significant nutritional status and body composition abnormalities, consistent with the severity of vertical HIV infection and the consequences of prolonged ART.

  11. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    PubMed

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  12. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160).

    The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  13. Disruption of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Lipid Transfer Protein Gene Altered Cuticular Lipid Composition, Increased Plastoglobules, and Enhanced Susceptibility to Infection by the Fungal Pathogen Alternaria brassicicola1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Go, Young Sam; Bae, Hyun-Jong; Park, Jong Ho; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Hong Joo; Lee, Dong Sook; Park, Ohkmae K.; Hwang, Inhwan; Suh, Mi Chung

    2009-01-01

    All aerial parts of vascular plants are covered with cuticular waxes, which are synthesized by extensive export of intracellular lipids from epidermal cells to the surface. Although it has been suggested that plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are involved in cuticular lipid transport, the in planta evidence is still not clear. In this study, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored LTP (LTPG1) showing higher expression in epidermal peels of stems than in stems was identified from an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome-wide microarray analysis. The expression of LTPG1 was observed in various tissues, including the epidermis, stem cortex, vascular bundles, mesophyll cells, root tips, pollen, and early-developing seeds. LTPG1 was found to be localized in the plasma membrane. Disruption of the LTPG1 gene caused alterations of cuticular lipid composition, but no significant changes on total wax and cutin monomer loads were seen. The largest reduction (10 mass %) in the ltpg1 mutant was observed in the C29 alkane, which is the major component of cuticular waxes in the stems and siliques. The reduced content was overcome by increases of the C29 secondary alcohols and C29 ketone wax loads. The ultrastructure analysis of ltpg1 showed a more diffuse cuticular layer structure, protrusions of the cytoplasm into the vacuole in the epidermis, and an increase of plastoglobules in the stem cortex and leaf mesophyll cells. Furthermore, the ltpg1 mutant was more susceptible to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola than the wild type. Taken together, these results indicated that LTPG1 contributed either directly or indirectly to cuticular lipid accumulation. PMID:19321705

  14. [Lipid composition of novel Shewanella species isolated from far Eastern seas].

    PubMed

    Frolova, G M; Pavel', K G; Shparteeva, A A; Nedashkovskaia, O I; Gorshkova, N M; Ivanova, E P; Mikhaĭlov, V V

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of the lipid composition of 26 strains (including type strains) of marine Gammaproteobacteria belonging to the genera Shewanella, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinobacterium, Microbulbifer, and Marinobacter was carried out. The bacteria exhibited genus-specific profiles of ubiquinones, phospholipids, and fatty acids, which can serve as reliable chemotaxonomic markers for tentative identification of new isolates. The studied species of the genus Shewanella were distinguished by the presence of two types of isoprenoid quinones, namely, ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8 and menaquinones MK-7 and MMK-7; five phospholipids typical of this genus, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), lyso-PE, and acyl-PG; and the fatty acids 15:0, 16:0, 16:1 (n-7), 17:1 (n-8), i-13:0, and i-15:0. The high level of branched fatty acids (38-45%) and the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (4%) may serve as criteria for the identification of this genus. Unlike Shewanella spp., bacteria of the other genera contained a single type of isoprenoid quinone: Q-8 (Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinobacterium, and Microbulbifer) or Q-9 (Marinobacter). The phospholipid compositions of these bacteria were restricted to three components: two major phospholipids (PE and PG) and a minor phospholipid, bisphosphatidic acid (Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas) or DPG (Marinobacterium, Microbulbifer, and Marinobacter). The bacteria exhibited genus-specific profiles of fatty acids.

  15. Effect of dietary fat source on lipoprotein composition and plasma lipid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Faidley, T D; Luhman, C M; Galloway, S T; Foley, M K; Beitz, D C

    1990-10-01

    Most studies of the effects of dietary fat sources on plasma lipid components have used diets with extreme fat compositions; the current study was designed to more nearly mimic human dietary fat intake. Young growing pigs were fed diets containing either 20 or 40% of energy as soy oil, beef tallow or a 50/50 blend of soy oil and tallow. Different dietary fats did not affect concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol or protein in plasma or major lipoprotein fractions. The concentration of phospholipid was less in plasma and in very low density lipoproteins with soy oil feeding than with tallow feeding. The weight percentage of cholesteryl ester in the low density lipoprotein fraction tended to be greater with 40% than with 20% tallow and tended to be less with 40% than with 20% soy oil. Phospholipid as a weight percentage of low density lipoprotein was least in pigs fed soy oil. Tallow feeding increased the percentage of myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids in plasma, relative to both other groups. Soy oil feeding increased the percentage of linoleic and linolenic acids. These moderate diets were not hypercholesterolemic, but they did alter plasma fatty acid composition and phospholipid concentrations in plasma and very low density lipoprotein.

  16. Influence of ammonia oxidation rate on thaumarchaeal lipid composition and the TEX86 temperature proxy

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Sarah J.; Elling, Felix J.; Könneke, Martin; Buchwald, Carolyn; Wankel, Scott D.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Lipp, Julius Sebastian; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Pearson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal membrane lipids known as glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the basis of the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy. Because GDGTs preserved in marine sediments are thought to originate mainly from planktonic, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, the basis of the correlation between TEX86 and sea surface temperature (SST) remains unresolved: How does TEX86 predict surface temperatures, when maximum thaumarchaeal activity occurs below the surface mixed layer and TEX86 does not covary with in situ growth temperatures? Here we used isothermal studies of the model thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to investigate how GDGT composition changes in response to ammonia oxidation rate. We used continuous culture methods to avoid potential confounding variables that can be associated with experiments in batch cultures. The results show that the ring index scales inversely (R2 = 0.82) with ammonia oxidation rate (ϕ), indicating that GDGT cyclization depends on available reducing power. Correspondingly, the TEX86 ratio decreases by an equivalent of 5.4 °C of calculated temperature over a 5.5 fmol·cell−1·d−1 increase in ϕ. This finding reconciles other recent experiments that have identified growth stage and oxygen availability as variables affecting TEX86. Depth profiles from the marine water column show minimum TEX86 values at the depth of maximum nitrification rates, consistent with our chemostat results. Our findings suggest that the TEX86 signal exported from the water column is influenced by the dynamics of ammonia oxidation. Thus, the global TEX86–SST calibration potentially represents a composite of regional correlations based on nutrient dynamics and global correlations based on archaeal community composition and temperature. PMID:27357675

  17. Influence of ammonia oxidation rate on thaumarchaeal lipid composition and the TEX86 temperature proxy.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Sarah J; Elling, Felix J; Könneke, Martin; Buchwald, Carolyn; Wankel, Scott D; Santoro, Alyson E; Lipp, Julius Sebastian; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Pearson, Ann

    2016-07-12

    Archaeal membrane lipids known as glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the basis of the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy. Because GDGTs preserved in marine sediments are thought to originate mainly from planktonic, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, the basis of the correlation between TEX86 and sea surface temperature (SST) remains unresolved: How does TEX86 predict surface temperatures, when maximum thaumarchaeal activity occurs below the surface mixed layer and TEX86 does not covary with in situ growth temperatures? Here we used isothermal studies of the model thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to investigate how GDGT composition changes in response to ammonia oxidation rate. We used continuous culture methods to avoid potential confounding variables that can be associated with experiments in batch cultures. The results show that the ring index scales inversely (R(2) = 0.82) with ammonia oxidation rate (ϕ), indicating that GDGT cyclization depends on available reducing power. Correspondingly, the TEX86 ratio decreases by an equivalent of 5.4 °C of calculated temperature over a 5.5 fmol·cell(-1)·d(-1) increase in ϕ. This finding reconciles other recent experiments that have identified growth stage and oxygen availability as variables affecting TEX86 Depth profiles from the marine water column show minimum TEX86 values at the depth of maximum nitrification rates, consistent with our chemostat results. Our findings suggest that the TEX86 signal exported from the water column is influenced by the dynamics of ammonia oxidation. Thus, the global TEX86-SST calibration potentially represents a composite of regional correlations based on nutrient dynamics and global correlations based on archaeal community composition and temperature.

  18. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (Capsicum).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Bosland, Paul; Bebeli, Penelope J; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2013-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of postharvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. To shed light on the chemical-compositional diversity of cuticles in pepper, the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world collection were screened for both wax and cutin monomer amount and composition. These same genotypes were also screened for fruit water loss rate and this was tested for associations with cuticle composition. Our results revealed an unexpectedly large amount of variation for the fruit cuticle lipids, with a more than 14-fold range for total wax amounts and a more than 16-fold range for cutin monomer amounts between the most extreme accessions. Within the major wax constituents fatty acids varied from 1 to 46%, primary alcohols from 2 to 19%, n-alkanes from 13 to 74% and triterpenoids and sterols from 10 to 77%. Within the cutin monomers, total hexadecanoic acids ranged from 54 to 87%, total octadecanoic acids ranged from 10 to 38% and coumaric acids ranged from 0.2 to 8% of the total. We also observed considerable differences in water loss among the accessions, and unique correlations between water loss and cuticle constituents. The resources described here will be valuable for future studies of the physiological function of fruit cuticle, for the identification of genes and QTLs associated with fruit cuticle synthesis in pepper fruit, and as a starting point for breeding improved fruit quality in pepper.

  19. Distinctive lipid composition of the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus with a high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Minna; Strandberg, Ursula; Keinänen, Markku; Taipale, Sami; Kankaala, Paula

    2014-09-01

    We studied the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus for seasonal variation in the composition of fatty acids, wax esters and sterols in large boreal lakes, where it occurs as a glacial-relict. Vast wax ester reserves of Limnocalanus were accumulated in a period of only two months, and comprised mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty alcohols. In winter, the mobilization of wax esters was selective, and the proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated wax esters declined first. PUFA accounted for >50% of all fatty acids throughout the year reaching up to ca. 65% during late summer and fall. Long-chain PUFA 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 together comprised 17-40% of all fatty acids. The rarely reported C24 and C26 very-long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA) comprised 6.2 ± 3.4 % of all fatty acids in August and 2.1 ± 1.7% in September. The VLC-PUFA are presumably synthesized by Limnocalanus from shorter chain-length precursors because they were not found in the potential food sources. We hypothesize that these VLC-PUFA help Limnocalanus to maximize lipid reserves when food is abundant. Sterol content of Limnocalanus, consisting ca. 90% of cholesterol, did not show great seasonal variation. As a lipid-rich copepod with high abundance of PUFA, Limnocalanus is excellent quality food for fish. The VLC-PUFA were also detected in planktivorous fish, suggesting that these compounds can be used as a trophic marker indicating feeding on Limnocalanus.

  20. Nitrogen solubility in odontocete blubber and mandibular fats in relation to lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Gina L; Westgate, Andrew J; Pabst, D Ann; Koopman, Heather N

    2015-08-01

    Understanding toothed whale (odontocete) diving gas dynamics is important given the recent atypical mass strandings of odontocetes (particularly beaked whales) associated with mid-frequency naval sonar. Some stranded whales have exhibited gas emboli (pathologies resembling decompression sickness) in their specialized intramandibular and extramandibular fat bodies used for echolocation and hearing. These tissues have phylogenetically unique, endogenous lipid profiles with poorly understood biochemical properties. Current diving gas dynamics models assume an Ostwald nitrogen (N2) solubility of 0.07 ml N2 ml(-1) oil in odontocete fats, although solubility in blubber from many odontocetes exceeds this value. The present study examined N2 solubility in the blubber and mandibular fats of seven species across five families, relating it to lipid composition. Across all species, N2 solubility increased with wax ester content and was generally higher in mandibular fats (0.083 ± 0.002 ml N2 ml(-1) oil) than in blubber (0.069 ± 0.007 ml N2 ml(-1) oil). This effect was more pronounced in mandibular fats with higher concentrations of shorter, branched fatty acids/alcohols. Mandibular fats of short-finned pilot whales, Atlantic spotted dolphins and Mesoplodon beaked whales had the highest N2 solubility values (0.097 ± 0.005, 0.081 ± 0.007 and 0.080 ± 0.003 ml N2 ml(-1) oil, respectively). Pilot and beaked whales may experience high N2 loads during their relatively deeper dives, although more information is needed about in vivo blood circulation to mandibular fats. Future diving models should incorporate empirically measured N2 solubility of odontocete mandibular fats to better understand N2 dynamics and potential pathologies from gas/fat embolism.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands regulate lipid content, metabolism, and composition in fetal lungs of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Careaga, V; Martinez, N; Mazzucco, M B; Maier, M; Jawerbaum, A

    2014-03-01

    Maternal diabetes impairs fetal lung development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors relevant in lipid homeostasis and lung development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of in vivo activation of PPARs on lipid homeostasis in fetal lungs of diabetic rats. To this end, we studied lipid concentrations, expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid composition in fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats i) after injections of the fetuses with Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, PPARα ligand) or 15deoxyΔ(12,14)prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, PPARγ ligand) and ii) fed during pregnancy with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched with PPAR ligands were studied. Maternal diabetes increased triglyceride concentrations and decreased expression of lipid-oxidizing enzymes in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, an expression further decreased by LTB4 and partially restored by 15dPGJ2 in lungs of male fetuses in the diabetic group. In lungs of female fetuses in the diabetic group, maternal diets enriched with olive oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid synthase expression, while those enriched with safflower oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid transporter expression. Both olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets decreased cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations and increased the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in fetal lungs of female fetuses of diabetic rats. In fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the maternal diets enriched with olive and safflower oils. Our results revealed important changes in lipid metabolism in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, and in the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate the composition of lipid species relevant in the lung during the perinatal period.

  2. Lipid composition of membrane rafts, isolated with and without detergent, from the spleen of a mouse model of Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, Kathryn J; Hein, Leanne K; Fuller, Maria

    2013-12-06

    Biological membranes are composed of functionally relevant liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains that coexist. Within the liquid-ordered domains are low-density microdomains known as rafts with a unique lipid composition that is crucial for their structure and function. Lipid raft composition is altered in sphingolipid storage disorders, and here we determined the lipid composition using a detergent and detergent-free method in spleen tissue, the primary site of pathology, in a mouse model of the sphingolipid storage disorder, Gaucher disease. The accumulating lipid, glucosylceramide, was 30- and 50-fold elevated in the rafts with the detergent and detergent-free method, respectively. Secondary accumulation of di- and trihexosylceramide resided primarily in the rafts with both methods. The phospholipids distributed differently with more than half residing in the rafts with the detergent-free method and less than 10% with the detergent method, with the exception of the fully saturated species that were primarily in the rafts. Individual isoforms of sphingomyelin correlated with detergent-free extraction and more than half resided in the raft fractions. However, this correlation was not seen with the detergent extraction method as sphingomyelin species were spread across both the raft and non-raft domains. Therefore caution must be exercised when interpreting phospholipid distribution in raft domains as it differs considerably depending on the method of isolation. Importantly, both methods revealed the same lipid alterations in the raft domains in the spleen of the Gaucher disease mouse model highlighting that either method is appropriate to determine membrane lipid changes in the diseased state.

  3. Proteomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Nanoparticle Corona upon Contact with Lung Surfactant Reveals Differences in Protein, but Not Lipid Composition.

    PubMed

    Raesch, Simon Sebastian; Tenzer, Stefan; Storck, Wiebke; Rurainski, Alexander; Selzer, Dominik; Ruge, Christian Arnold; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Schaefer, Ulrich Friedrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2015-12-22

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) constitutes the first line of host defense in the deep lung. Because of its high content of phospholipids and surfactant specific proteins, the interaction of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) with the pulmonary surfactant layer is likely to form a corona that is different to the one formed in plasma. Here we present a detailed lipidomic and proteomic analysis of NP corona formation using native porcine surfactant as a model. We analyzed the adsorbed biomolecules in the corona of three NP with different surface properties (PEG-, PLGA-, and Lipid-NP) after incubation with native porcine surfactant. Using label-free shotgun analysis for protein and LC-MS for lipid analysis, we quantitatively determined the corona composition. Our results show a conserved lipid composition in the coronas of all investigated NPs regardless of their surface properties, with only hydrophilic PEG-NPs adsorbing fewer lipids in total. In contrast, the analyzed NP displayed a marked difference in the protein corona, consisting of up to 417 different proteins. Among the proteins showing significant differences between the NP coronas, there was a striking prevalence of molecules with a notoriously high lipid and surface binding, such as, e.g., SP-A, SP-D, DMBT1. Our data indicate that the selective adsorption of proteins mediates the relatively similar lipid pattern in the coronas of different NPs. On the basis of our lipidomic and proteomic analysis, we provide a detailed set of quantitative data on the composition of the surfactant corona formed upon NP inhalation, which is unique and markedly different to the plasma corona.

  4. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  5. Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

    2003-01-01

    Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

  6. Composition, structure and absorption of milk lipids: a source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2006-01-01

    Milkfat is a remarkable source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients and bioactive lipids for mammals. The composition and content of lipids in milkfat vary widely among mammalian species. Milkfat is not only a source of bioactive lipid components, it also serves as an important delivery medium for nutrients, including the fat-soluble vitamins. Bioactive lipids in milk include triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phospholipids. Beneficial activities of milk lipids include anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppression properties. The major mammalian milk that is consumed by humans as a food commodity is that from bovine whose milkfat composition is distinct due to their diet and the presence of a rumen. As a result of these factors bovine milkfat is lower in polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher in saturated fatty acids than human milk, and the consequences of these differences are still being researched. The physical properties of bovine milkfat that result from its composition including its plasticity, make it a highly desirable commodity (butter) and food ingredient. Among the 12 major milk fatty acids, only three (lauric, myristic, and palmitic) have been associated with raising total cholesterol levels in plasma, but their individual effects are variable-both towards raising low-density lipoproteins and raising the level of beneficial high-density lipoproteins. The cholesterol-modifying response of individuals to consuming saturated fats is also variable, and therefore the composition, functions and biological properties of milkfat will need to be re-evaluated as the food marketplace moves increasingly towards more personalized diets.

  7. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  8. Parenteral lipid fatty acid composition directly determines the fatty acid composition of red blood cell and brain lipids in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in enterally-fed infants have shown a positive effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementatin on neurodevelopment. The effect of n-3 LCPUFA in fish oil-based parenteral (PN) lipid emulsions on neuronal tissues of PN-fed preterm infants is unknown. The objective ...

  9. Influence of chemical reactivities of lipids bound in different pools on their isotopic compositions during degradation in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Pan, H.; Culp, R.

    2013-05-01

    Lipid biomarkers and associated compound specific stable carbon isotope compositions have been widely applied to study biogeochemical cycling of organic matter in natural environments. This experimental study was specifically designed to examine the influence of chemical reactivities of lipid compounds bound in different pools on their isotopic composition during microbial degradation in marine sediments. 13C-labeled (labeling at different carbon positions of fatty acid chains) and unlabeled tripalmitins were spiked and incubated in natural oxic (top 1 cm) and anoxic (> 10 cm) marine sediments. In anoxic sediments, neither naturally-occurred fatty acids nor tripalmitin-derived 16:0 fatty acid were apparently degraded within two months and hence no significant variation in stable carbon isotopic composition of 16:0 fatty acid was observed. However, in oxic sediments, both naturally-occurred fatty acids and spiked tripalmitin-derived 16:0 fatty acid were degraded by 26% - 95% during incubation. For natural fatty acids such as 14:0, 16:1, 18:1, 20:5/20:4, and >C20:0, degradation rates varied according to the following order: polyunsaturated > monounsaturated > short chain saturated > long chain saturated fatty acids, which reflects variable reactivities of natural lipid compounds from different sources. Tripalmitin-derived 16:0 fatty acid degraded at an at least 2-3× faster rate compared to naturally-occurred 16:0 in sediments. Meanwhile, isotopic compositions of 16:0 fatty acid in the oxic sediments shifted negatively during incubation. It appears that the isotopic shifts are dependent on the amount of 13C-labeled compound spiked into the sediments but not related to the labeling position of 13C in the molecular structure. The results from this study provide direct evidence that the relative reactivities of lipid compounds from different sources (or different pools) can cause alterations in molecular isotopic composition during microbial degradation in natural

  10. [Lipid and lipoprotein profile in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Deiana, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Tidore, M; Cherchi, G M

    1992-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common relapsing dermatosis characterized by an increased epidermal cell proliferation. In this work we studied the lipid and lipoprotein pattern in 17 patients affected by long-standing psoriasis and in 20 normal controls. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein AI and B levels were measured; VLDL, LDL and HDL chemical composition was assessed by preparative ultracentrifugation. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the patient group; chemical analysis of the main lipoprotein classes showed compositional abnormalities consistent with an accelerated turnover of these particles. We believe that epidermal cell proliferation can play a role in determining these changes.

  11. The stereoisomeric composition of phytanyl chains in lipids of Dead Sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R.; Kates, M.; Baedecker, M. J.; Kaplan, I. R.; Ackman, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid extracts from five recent Dead Sea sediments were analyzed for isoprenoid compounds and the following were isolated: free and phospholipid-bound di-O-phytanylglycerol, free phytanol and free and esterified phytanic acid. The phytanyl groups of the diether and the free phytanol were oxidized to the corresponding phytanic acid; the stereoisomeric composition of the derived phytanic acids as well as of the ester-bound phytanic acid was determined by open-tubular gas-liquid chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters on butanediolsuccinate polyester. Only the 3R, 7R, 11R-isomer of phytanic acid was detected in each of the phytanate samples, indicating that these phytanyl chains in the Dead Sea sediments are most likely derived from extremely halophilic bacteria rather than from phytol of chlorophyll origin. These findings also provide further evidence that the mixtures of RRR and SRR-phytanic acids previously isolated from organic-rich shales were most likely derived from the phytyl chain in chlorophyll.

  12. Nanomechanical properties of composite protein networks of erythroid membranes at lipid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Encinar, Mario; Casado, Santiago; Calzado-Martín, Alicia; Natale, P; San Paulo, Álvaro; Calleja, Montserrat; Vélez, Marisela; Monroy, Francisco; López-Montero, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Erythrocyte membranes have been particularly useful as a model for studies of membrane structure and mechanics. Native erythroid membranes can be electroformed as giant unilamellar vesicles (eGUVs). In the presence of ATP, the erythroid membrane proteins of eGUVs rearrange into protein networks at the microscale. Here, we present a detailed nanomechanical study of individual protein microfilaments forming the protein networks of eGUVs when spread on supporting surfaces. Using Peak Force tapping Atomic Force Microscopy (PF-AFM) in liquid environment we have obtained the mechanical maps of the composite lipid-protein networks supported on solid surface. In the absence of ATP, the protein pool was characterized by a Young's Modulus Epool≈5-15MPa whereas the complex filaments were found softer after protein supramolecular rearrangement; Efil≈0.4MPa. The observed protein softening and reassembling could be relevant for understanding the mechanisms of cytoskeleton reorganization found in pathological erythrocytes or erythrocytes that are affected by biological agents.

  13. A keratin scaffold regulates epidermal barrier formation, mitochondrial lipid composition, and activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Bär, Janina; Rice, Robert H.; Hornig-Do, Hue-Tran; Roop, Dennis R.; Schwarz, Nicole; Brodesser, Susanne; Thiering, Sören; Leube, Rudolf E.; Wiesner, Rudolf J.; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Brazel, Christina B.; Heller, Sandra; Binder, Hans; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Seibel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (KIFs) protect the epidermis against mechanical force, support strong adhesion, help barrier formation, and regulate growth. The mechanisms by which type I and II keratins contribute to these functions remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that mice lacking all type I or type II keratins display severe barrier defects and fragile skin, leading to perinatal mortality with full penetrance. Comparative proteomics of cornified envelopes (CEs) from prenatal KtyI−/− and KtyII−/−K8 mice demonstrates that absence of KIF causes dysregulation of many CE constituents, including downregulation of desmoglein 1. Despite persistence of loricrin expression and upregulation of many Nrf2 targets, including CE components Sprr2d and Sprr2h, extensive barrier defects persist, identifying keratins as essential CE scaffolds. Furthermore, we show that KIFs control mitochondrial lipid composition and activity in a cell-intrinsic manner. Therefore, our study explains the complexity of keratinopathies accompanied by barrier disorders by linking keratin scaffolds to mitochondria, adhesion, and CE formation. PMID:26644517

  14. Influence of dietary calcium and cholecalciferol on composition of plasma lipids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Foley, M K; Galloway, S T; Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1990-01-01

    Young growing pigs were fed diets containing either 1 or 3 times the daily requirement of calcium and 1, 5 or 25 times the daily requirement of vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) in a completely randomized design with treatments in a 2 X 3 factorial arrangement. Excess dietary calcium increased the phospholipid concentration in the plasma, but not its partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. The level of dietary calcium had no effect on cholesterol, triacylglycerol or protein concentrations in plasma or their partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. Excess dietary calcium decreased body weight gains of pigs. The level of dietary cholecalciferol had no effect on body weight gain or on the concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipid, triacylglycerol or protein in plasma, or on their partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. Increased vitamin D intake resulted in increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, whereas high dietary calcium decreased concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. Increased dietary calcium also increased plasma calcium concentrations of only plasma phospholipids and decreased growth rate, whereas excess dietary vitamin D had no effect on growth or lipid composition of plasma in growing pigs.

  15. The stereoisomeric composition of phytanyl chains in lipids of Dead Sea sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.; Kates, M.; Baedecker, M.J.; Kaplan, I.R.; Ackman, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid extracts from five recent Dead Sea sediments were analyzed for isoprenoid compounds and the following were isolated: free and phospholipid-bound di-O-phytanylglycerol, free phytanol and free and esterifled phytanic acid. The phytanyl groups of the diether and the free phytanol were oxidized to the corresponding phytanic acid; the stereoisomeric composition of the derived phytanic acids as well as of the ester-bound phytanic acid was determined by open-tubular gas-liquid chromatography of the corresponding methyl esters on butanediolsuccinate polyester. Only the 3R,7R,11R-isomer of phytanic acid was detected in each of the phytanate samples, indicating that these phytanyl chains in the Dead Sea sediments are most likely derived from extremely halophilic bacteria rather than from phytol of chlorophyll origin. These findings also provide further evidence that the mixtures of RRR and SRR-phytanic acids previously isolated from organic-rich shales were most likely derived from the phytyl chain in chlorophyll. ?? 1977.

  16. Sodium pump molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in two disparate ectotherms, and comparison with endotherms.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel; Hulbert, A J; Else, Paul L

    2005-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the lower sodium pump molecular activity observed in tissues of ectotherms compared to endotherms, is largely related to the lower levels of polyunsaturates and higher levels of monounsaturates found in the cell membranes of ectotherms. Marine-based ectotherms, however, have very polyunsaturated membranes, and in the current study, we measured molecular activity and membrane lipid composition in tissues of two disparate ectothermic species, the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the bearded dragon lizard (Pogona vitticeps), to determine whether the high level of membrane polyunsaturation generally observed in marine-based ectotherms is associated with an increased sodium pump molecular activity relative to other ectotherms. Phospholipids from all tissues of the octopus were highly polyunsaturated and contained high concentrations of the omega-3 polyunsaturate, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 (n-3)). In contrast, phospholipids from bearded dragon tissues contained higher proportions of monounsaturates and lower proportions of polyunsaturates. Sodium pump molecular activity was only moderately elevated in tissues of the octopus compared to the bearded dragon, despite the much greater level of polyunsaturation in octopus membranes. When the current data were combined with data for the ectothermic cane toad, a significant (P = 0.003) correlation was observed between sodium pump molecular activity and the content of 22:6 (n-3) in the surrounding membrane. These results are discussed in relation to recent work which shows a similar relationship in endotherms.

  17. Zinc deficiency in the rat alters the lipid composition of the erythrocyte membrane Triton shell.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, E R; Bettger, W J

    1992-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the lipid composition of the erythrocyte membrane Triton shell was determined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing < 1.0 mg Zn/kg diet ad libitum. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg Zn/kg diet. A Zn refed group was fed the -Zn diet until day 18 and then pair-fed the +Zn diet until day 21. Dietary Zn deficiency caused an increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in Triton shells compared to those from pair-fed controls. Zn deficiency caused a decreased double bond index of fatty acids in phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC); there was a decreased proportion of 18:2n-6 and 22:4n-6 in PC and 20:4n-6 in PI as compared to that found in pair-fed controls. All glycerophospholipids that were retained in the shell had a lower double bond index and increased content of 16:0 and/or 18:0 relative to the phospholipid in the intact membrane.

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans PAQR-2 and IGLR-2 Protect against Glucose Toxicity by Modulating Membrane Lipid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Svensk, Emma; Devkota, Ranjan; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ranji, Parmida; Rauthan, Manish; Magnusson, Fredrik; Hammarsten, Sofia; Johansson, Maja; Borén, Jan; Pilon, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the worldwide impact of diabetes on human health, the mechanisms behind glucose toxicity remain elusive. Here we show that C. elegans mutants lacking paqr-2, the worm homolog of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1/2, or its newly identified functional partner iglr-2, are glucose intolerant and die in the presence of as little as 20 mM glucose. Using FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) on living worms, we found that cultivation in the presence of glucose causes a decrease in membrane fluidity in paqr-2 and iglr-2 mutants and that genetic suppressors of this sensitivity act to restore membrane fluidity by promoting fatty acid desaturation. The essential roles of paqr-2 and iglr-2 in the presence of glucose are completely independent from daf-2 and daf-16, the C. elegans homologs of the insulin receptor and its downstream target FoxO, respectively. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we also show that PAQR-2 and IGLR-2 interact on plasma membranes and thus may act together as a fluidity sensor that controls membrane lipid composition. PMID:27082444

  19. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food. PMID:26904625

  1. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla.

  2. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  3. Reduced miR-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation by stimulating JUN expression and activating the transcription of srebp1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libo; Lu, Yonggang; Dou, Lin; Huang, Xiuqing; Sun, Mingxiao; Pang, Cheng; Qu, Jing; Liu, Guanghui; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that miR-200s participated in IL-6-induced hepatic insulin resistance. However, the role of miR-200s in hepatic lipid accumulation has not been elucidated. Here we found that miR-200b and miR-200c were reduced in the steatotic livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the expression of lipogenic proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The suppression of miR-200b and miR-200c in Hep1-6 and NCTC1469 hepatocytes enhanced intracellular triglyceride levels, which were associated with increased SREBP-1 and FAS protein levels. In contrast, the over-expression of miR-200b and miR-200c suppressed lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of SREBP1 and FAS in Hep1-6 and NCTC1469 cells transfected with miR-200b or miR-200c mimics. Importantly, the up-regulation of miR-200b and miR-200c could reverse oleic acid/palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. A luciferase reporter assay identified that miR-200b and miR-200c could directly bind the 3′UTR of jun. JUN activated the transcription of srebp1 to increase lipid accumulation. The data also demonstrated that increased miR-200b and miR-200c expression might be associated with sitagliptin-reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice fed a HFD. These findings suggest, for the first time, that reduced miR-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation by stimulating JUN expression and activating the transcription of srebp1. PMID:27166182

  4. Membrane synthesis, specific lipid requirements, and localized lipid composition changes associated with a positive-strand RNA virus RNA replication protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wai-Ming; Ahlquist, Paul

    2003-12-01

    Multifunctional RNA replication protein 1a of brome mosaic virus (BMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, localizes to the cytoplasmic face of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and induces ER lumenal spherules in which viral RNA synthesis occurs. We previously showed that BMV RNA replication in yeast is severely inhibited prior to negative-strand RNA synthesis by a single-amino-acid substitution in the ole1w allele of yeast Delta9 fatty acid (FA) desaturase, which converts saturated FAs (SFAs) to unsaturated FAs (UFAs). Here we further define the relationships between 1a, membrane lipid composition, and RNA synthesis. We show that 1a expression increases total membrane lipids in wild-type (wt) yeast by 25 to 33%, consistent with recent results indicating that the numerous 1a-induced spherules are enveloped by invaginations of the outer ER membrane. 1a did not alter total membrane lipid composition in wt or ole1w yeast, but the ole1w mutation selectively depleted 18-carbon, monounsaturated (18:1) FA chains and increased 16:0 SFA chains, reducing the UFA-to-SFA ratio from approximately 2.5 to approximately 1.5. Thus, ole1w inhibition of RNA replication was correlated with decreased levels of UFA, membrane fluidity, and plasticity. The ole1w mutation did not alter 1a-induced membrane synthesis, 1a localization to the perinuclear ER, or colocalization of BMV 2a polymerase, nor did it block spherule formation. Moreover, BMV RNA replication templates were still recovered from cell lysates in a 1a-induced, 1a- and membrane-associated, and nuclease-resistant but detergent-susceptible state consistent with spherules. However, unlike nearby ER membranes, the membranes surrounding spherules in ole1w cells were not distinctively stained with osmium tetroxide, which interacts specifically with UFA double bonds. Thus, in ole1w cells, spherule-associated membranes were locally depleted in UFAs. This localized UFA depletion helps to explain why BMV RNA replication is more sensitive

  5. [Change in the lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membranes in rat organs during adaptation to heat].

    PubMed

    Zubareva, E V; Seferova, R I; Denisova, N A

    1991-01-01

    Under conditions of adaptation to heating lipid composition in mitochondrial membranes of rat inner tissues was altered as follows: an increase in relative concentration of plasmalogenous forms of phospholipids (kidney, heart) and in content of saturated fatty acids (liver tissue), a decrease in the index of fatty acids unsaturation and in the ratio of fatty acids omega-3/omega-6. The alterations observed enabled the membranes to keep sufficient amount of liquidity essential for functional activity of mitochondria in heating.

  6. [Application BAA "Glucorn" for the correction fatty-acid composition of pulmonary surfactant lipids in children-residents of radiation contaminated territories].

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, V M; Kolpakov, I Ie; Briuzhina, T S; Artemchuk, H P

    2011-01-01

    During application of BAA "Glucorn" for the correction of fatty-acid composition of pulmonary surfactant lipids in children-residents of radiation contaminated territories detected changes, evidence about increasing adaptation-compensatory processes in lipid membrane structures of pulmonary surfactant and respiratory tracts epithelium, activation of enzymatic pathway conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their derivations--eicosanoids in absence the changes lipid peroxydation.

  7. The interaction of eugenol with cell membrane models at the air-water interface is modulated by the lipid monolayer composition.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Giulia E G; de Souza, Fernanda S; Lago, João Henrique G; Caseli, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    Eugenol, a natural phenylpropanoid derivative with possible action in biological surfaces as microbicide, anesthetic and antioxidant, was incorporated in lipid monolayers of selected lipids at the air-water interface, representing cell membrane models. Interaction of eugenol with the lipids dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) could be inferred by means of surface pressure-area isotherms and Polarization-Modulation Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy. The interaction showed different effects on the different lipids. A higher monolayer expansion was observed for DPPS and DODAB, while more significant effects on the polar groups of the lipids were observed for DPPS and DPPC. These results pointed to the fact that the interaction of eugenol with lipid monolayers at the air-water interface is modulated by the lipid composition, which may be important to comprehend at the molecular level the interaction of this drug with biological surfaces.

  8. Reduced expression of CDP-DAG synthase changes lipid composition and leads to male sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Laurinyecz, Barbara; Péter, Mária; Vedelek, Viktor; Kovács, Attila L.; Juhász, Gábor; Maróy, Péter; Vígh, László; Balogh, Gábor; Sinka, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila spermatogenesis is an ideal system to study the effects of changes in lipid composition, because spermatid elongation and individualization requires extensive membrane biosynthesis and remodelling. The bulk of transcriptional activity is completed with the entry of cysts into meiotic division, which makes post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis very sensitive to even a small reduction in gene products. In this study, we describe the effect of changes in lipid composition during spermatogenesis using a hypomorphic male sterile allele of the Drosophila CDP-DAG synthase (CdsA) gene. We find that the CdsA mutant shows defects in spermatid individualization and enlargement of mitochondria and the axonemal sheath of the spermatids. Furthermore, we could genetically rescue the male sterile phenotype by overexpressing Phosphatidylinositol synthase (dPIS) in a CdsA mutant background. The results of lipidomic and genetic analyses of the CdsA mutant highlight the importance of correct lipid composition during sperm development and show that phosphatidic acid levels are crucial in late stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:26791243

  9. Temperature-induced plasticity in membrane and storage lipid composition: thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van Dooremalen, Coby; Koekkoek, Jacco; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-02-01

    Temperature is a key environmental factor inducing phenotypic plasticity in a wide range of behavioral, morphological, and life history traits in ectotherms. The strength of temperature-induced responses in fitness-related traits may be determined by plasticity of the underlying physiological or biochemical traits. Lipid composition may be an important trait underlying fitness response to temperature, because it affects membrane fluidity as well as availability of stored energy reserves. Here, we investigate the effect of temperature on lipid composition of the springtail Orchesella cincta by measuring thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures after four weeks of cold or warm acclimation. Fatty acid composition in storage and membrane lipids showed a highly plastic response to temperature, but the responses of single fatty acids revealed deviations from the expectations based on HVA theory. We found an accumulation of C(18:2n6) and C(18:3n3) at higher temperatures and the preservation of C(20:4n6) across temperatures, which is contrary to the expectation of decreased unsaturation at higher temperatures. The thermal response of these fatty acids in O. cincta differed from the findings in other species, and therefore shows there is interspecific variation in how single fatty acids contribute to HVA. Future research should determine the consequences of such variation in terms of costs and benefits for the thermal performance of species.

  10. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance.

  11. Normal lipid composition of fibroblasts from a case of type II achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Le Lous, M; Hors-Cayla, M C; Hendrickx, G F; Maroteaux, P

    1980-08-01

    Fibroblasts from a case of achondrogenesis type II and fibroblasts from a normal control donor were subcultivated in vitro in parallel. The lipid study on these cells showed similar total lipid content, free cholesterol level, phospholipid distribution and fatty acid patterns, while neutral glycerides were slightly more elevated in the control fibroblasts. The histological finding of Laxova et al. (1973) could not be confirmed.

  12. Lipid alterations in lipid rafts from Alzheimer's disease human brain cortex.

    PubMed

    Martín, Virginia; Fabelo, Noemí; Santpere, Gabriel; Puig, Berta; Marín, Raquel; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized their biochemical lipid composition. The results revealed that lipid rafts from AD brains exhibit aberrant lipid profiles compared to healthy brains. In particular, lipid rafts from AD brains displayed abnormally low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, mainly 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) and monoenes (mainly 18:1n-9, oleic acid), as well as reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes. Also, multiple relationships between phospholipids and fatty acids were altered in AD lipid rafts. Importantly, no changes were observed in the mole percentage of lipid classes and fatty acids in rafts from normal brains throughout the lifespan (24-85 years). These indications point to the existence of homeostatic mechanisms preserving lipid raft status in normal frontal cortex. The disruption of such mechanisms in AD brains leads to a considerable increase in lipid raft order and viscosity, which may explain the alterations in lipid raft signaling observed in AD.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).

    PubMed

    Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou

    2015-02-01

    Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty acid to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty acid profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty acid composition of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could

  14. [Effect of phenolic ketones on ethanol fermentation and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Cheng, Yichao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Junjun; Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Lignin degradation products are toxic to microorganisms, which is one of the bottlenecks for fuel ethanol production. We studied the effects of phenolic ketones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone) derived from lignin degradation on ethanol fermentation of xylose and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis NLP31. Ethanol and the cellular fatty acid of yeast were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicate that phenolic ketones negatively affected ethanol fermentation of yeast and the lower molecular weight phenolic ketone compound was more toxic. When the concentration of 4-hydroxyacetophenone was 1.5 g/L, at fermentation of 24 h, the xylose utilization ratio, ethanol yield and ethanol concentration decreased by 42.47%, 5.30% and 9.76 g/L, respectively, compared to the control. When phenolic ketones were in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of yeast cells was improved. When 1.5 g/L of three aforementioned phenolic ketones was added to the fermentation medium, the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast cells increased to 3.03, 3.06 and 3.61, respectively, compared to 2.58 of the control, which increased cell membrane fluidity and instability. Therefore, phenolic ketones can reduce the yeast growth, increase the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast and lower ethanol productivity. Effectively reduce or remove the content of lignin degradation products is the key to improve lignocellulose biorefinery.

  15. Ultrastructure and lipid composition of detergent-resistant membranes derived from mammalian sperm and two types of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Renske A; Brouwers, Jos F; Ultee, Anton; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are micro-domains of ordered lipids (Lo phase) in biological membranes. The Lo phase of cellular membranes can be isolated from disordered lipids (Ld phase) after treatment with 1 % Triton  X-100 at 4 °C in which the Lo phase forms the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction. The lipid composition of DRM derived from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, McArdle cells and porcine sperm is compared with that of the whole cell. Remarkably, the unsaturation and chain length degree of aliphatic chains attached to phospholipids is virtually the same between DRM and whole cells. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin were enriched in DRMs but to a cell-specific molar ratio. Sulfatides (sphingolipids from MDCK cells) were enriched in the DRM while a seminolipid (an alkylacylglycerolipid from sperm) was depleted from the DRM. Treatment with <5 mM methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MBCD) caused cholesterol removal from the DRM without affecting the composition and amount of the phospholipid while higher levels disrupted the DRM. The substantial amount of (poly)unsaturated phospholipids in DRMs as well as a low stoichiometric amount of cholesterol suggest that lipid rafts in biological membranes are more fluid and dynamic than previously anticipated. Using negative staining, ultrastructural features of DRM were monitored and in all three cell types the DRMs appeared as multi-lamellar vesicular structures with a similar morphology. The detergent resistance is a result of protein-cholesterol and sphingolipid interactions allowing a relatively passive attraction of phospholipids to maintain the Lo phase. For this special issue, the relevance of our findings is discussed in a sperm physiological context.

  16. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L−1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L−1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  17. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  18. Pressure effects on the composition and thermal behavior of lipids from the deep-sea thermophile Methanococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, S M; Clark, D S

    1995-01-01

    The deep-sea archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii was grown at 86 degrees C and under 8, 250, and 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) of hyperbaric pressure in a high-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor. The core lipid composition of cultures grown at 250 or 500 atm, as analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography, exhibited an increased proportion of macrocyclic archaeol and corresponding reductions in aracheol and caldarchaeol compared with the 8-atm cultures. Thermal analysis of a model core-lipid system (23% archaeol, 37% macrocyclic archaeol, and 40% caldarchaeol) using differential scanning calorimetry revealed no well-defined phase transition in the temperature range of 20 to 120 degrees C. Complementary studies of spin-labeled samples under 10 and 500 atm in a special high-pressure, high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy cell supported the differential scanning calorimetry phase transition data and established that pressure has a lipid-ordering effect over the full range of M. jannaschii's growth temperatures. Specifically, pressure shifted the temperature dependence of lipid fluidity by ca. 10 degrees C/500 atm. PMID:7601829

  19. A filter at the entrance of the Golgi that selects vesicles according to size and bulk lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Magdeleine, Maud; Gautier, Romain; Gounon, Pierre; Barelli, Hélène; Vanni, Stefano; Antonny, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    When small phosphatidylcholine liposomes are added to perforated cells, they bind preferentially to the Golgi suggesting an exceptional avidity of this organelle for curved membranes without stereospecific interactions. We show that the cis golgin GMAP-210 accounts for this property. First, the liposome tethering properties of the Golgi resembles that of the amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif of GMAP-210: both preferred small (radius < 40 nm) liposomes made of monounsaturated but not saturated lipids. Second, reducing GMAP-210 levels or redirecting its ALPS motif to mitochondria decreased liposome capture by the Golgi. Extensive mutagenesis analysis suggests that GMAP-210 tethers authentic transport vesicles via the same mechanism whereby the ALPS motif senses lipid-packing defects at the vesicle surface through its regularly spaced hydrophobic residues. We conclude that the Golgi uses GMAP-210 as a filter to select transport vesicles according to their size and bulk lipid composition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16988.001 PMID:27458799

  20. Effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth performance and tissue fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Wang, Jiteng; Hu, Shuixin; Li, Xinyu; Jiang, Yudong; Wang, Chunlin

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated to contain four separate lipid sources, including fish, soybean, rapeseed, and linseed oils (FO, SO, RO, and LO, respectively). With three replicates of 18 crabs each for each diet, crabs (initial body weight, 17.00±0.09 g) were fed twice daily for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences among these groups in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index. However, the RO groups' survival rate was significantly lower than FO groups. The feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios of RO groups were poorer than other groups. The proximate compositions of whole body and hepatopancreas were significantly affected by these dietary treatments. Tissue fatty acid composition mainly reflected dietary fatty acid compositions. Crabs fed FO diets exhibited significantly higher arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid contents in muscle and hepatopancreas compared with VO crabs. Linoleic, oleic, and linolenic acids in muscle and hepatopancreas were the highest in the SO, RO, and LO groups, respectively. The present study suggested that SO and LO could substitute for FO in fishmeal-based diets for swimming crabs, without affecting growth performance and survival.

  1. Alkali-aided protein extraction of chicken dark meat: composition and stability to lipid oxidation of the recovered proteins.

    PubMed

    Moayedi, V; Omana, D A; Chan, J; Xu, Y; Betti, M

    2010-04-01

    Chicken dark meat has been considered as a major underused commodity due to the increasing demand for further-processed breast meat products. One option to increase the utilization of chicken dark meat is to extract myofibrillar proteins and separate them from fat and pigments to enhance their application for the preparation of further-processed meat products. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pH, in the range of 10.5 to 12.0, on the alkaline solubilization process of chicken dark meat. Aspects studied were the effect of the alkali-aided process on protein content, lipid composition, lipid oxidation, and color characteristics of the extracted meat. Each experiment and each assay were done at least in triplicate. Lipid content of the extracted meat showed a 50% reduction compared with the chicken dark meat. Neutral lipids were reduced by 61.51%, whereas polar lipids were not affected by the alkali treatments. There was a higher amount of TBA reactive substances observed in the extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat, indicating that extracted meat was more susceptible to oxidation. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (22:4n-6, 20:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), which were detected only in the polar lipids, were responsible for increasing lipid oxidation susceptibility of extracted meat compared with chicken dark meat. Alkali-aided extraction of chicken dark meat lightened the color of the meat. The redness, yellowness, and total heme pigments in extracted meat significantly decreased by 83, 11, and 53%, respectively, compared with chicken dark meat. Even though this process did not remove polar lipids, based on our early findings, the extracted meat had considerable physicochemical and textural properties for product preparation compared with those of raw dark meat. Hence, alkali recovery of protein can be considered a potentially useful method to increase the utilization of dark chicken meat.

  2. Influence of lipid profile and fatty acid composition on the oxidation behavior of rat and guinea pig low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Merlos, M; Adzet, T; Laguna, J C

    1998-02-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is one of the first steps proposed for the development of atherosclerosis. Since lipid profile and fatty acid composition may affect this process, we studied the influence of these factors on the oxidation behavior of rat and guinea pig LDL. Marked compositional differences were observed. Thus, the main lipid carried by rat LDL was triglyceride (TG) (35.8 +/- 5.8%, w/w) whereas total cholesterol (TC) represented 23.8 +/- 3.0%. In contrast, guinea pig LDL contained 13.2 +/- 2% of TG and 44.8 +/- 4.5% of TC. Rat LDL contained higher 20:4(n-6) molar percentages than guinea pig LDL. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production (255 +/- 26 and 137 +/- 13 nmol malondialdehyde/mg prot. for rat and guinea pig LDL, respectively) and the maximum rate of conjugated dienes (CD) formation (485 +/- 93 and 77 +/- 11 nmol CD/min/mg protein for rat and guinea pig LDL, respectively) showed that rat LDL are less resistant to oxidation in vitro than guinea pig LDL. The higher oxidation rate of rat LDL seems to be related to its lipid profile, mainly to the high proportion of TG, and to the high content of 20:4(n-6), which is one of the fatty acids most prone to oxidation.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka.

  4. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  6. Gramicidin Peptides Alter Global Lipid Compositions and Bilayer Thicknesses of Coexisting Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Membrane Domains.

    PubMed

    Hassan-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2017-04-04

    Effects of adding 1 mol % of gramicidin-A on the biochemical properties of coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered (Lo + Ld) membrane domains were investigated. Quaternary giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) of di18:1PC(DOPC)/di18:0PC(DSPC)/cholesterol/gramicidin-A were prepared using our recently developed damp-film method. The phase boundary of Lo + Ld coexisting region was determined using video fluorescence microscopy. Through fitting Nile Red fluorescence emission spectra, the thermodynamic tie-lines in the Lo + Ld two-phase region were determined. We found that at 1 mol % (i.e., ∼7% of membrane area), gramicidin peptides alter the phase boundary and thermodynamic tie-lines. Gramicidin abolishes the coexisting phases at some lipid compositions but induces phase separation at others. Previous studies of gramicidin emphasize the local perturbation of bilayer thickness adjacent to the protein through the interaction of "hydrophobic mismatch". For the first time, it becomes clear that adding gramicidin produces significant long-range and global effects on the structure of membrane domains: it alters the overall lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of coexisting Lo and Ld domains. We also found that gramicidin partitions favorably into the Ld phase. Adding gramicidin decreases cholesterol in the Ld phase and increases cholesterol in the Lo phase. Those compositional changes broaden the bilayer thickness difference between Lo and Ld domains and facilitate preferential partition of gramicidin into thinner Ld domains. Our results demonstrate that membrane proteins play significant roles in determining lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of biomembrane domains.

  7. Changes of biomass, lipid content and fatty acids composition under a light-dark cyclic culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in response to different temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Wang, Weiliang; Li, Yuanguang; Shen, Guomin; Wan, Minxi; Wang, Jun

    2013-03-01

    For outdoor culture with light-dark cycle, the biomass and lipid losing at night resulted in lowering the biomass and lipid productivity. Previous studies focused on the contents of carbohydrate and protein in response to temperature for production of animal feed and nutritional supplements. In this study, the effects of temperature on the variations of biomass concentration, lipid content and fatty acids composition for production of biofuels were investigated under a light-dark cyclic culture. The results showed that 30 °C was the optimal daytime temperature for achieving high biomass and lipid; raising daytime temperature can lessen night biomass loss and stimulate lipid accumulation. Subsequently, outdoor culture strategy has been improved: keeping culture broth no less than 30 °C during the daytime. Consequently, the net biomass and lipid productivity were increased by 37.8% and 44.9% when compared to the former culture process in the same outdoor climatic conditions.

  8. [Combined effect of environmental temperature and trematodes on fatty acids composition of lipids of Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S; Chebotareva, M A; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2004-01-01

    An effect of environmental temperatures and invasion by helminthes larvae on fatty acids composition of digestive gland lipids of marine littoral gastropod Littorina saxatilis from White Sea and Barents Sea was investigated. We have compared gastropods from boreal and subarctic populations. It was found that gastropods from waters of lower temperature have increased omega3/omega6 fatty acids ratio. However, saturation index of individual membrane phospholipids was not affected. Also, content of eicosenoic acid (20:1) in individual phospholipids was not affected by temperature. Invasion increases the omega3/omega6 ratio of common lipids but not the omega3/omega6 ratio of common and individual phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidilcholine of cold water mollusks from Barents Sea that had this ratio doubled. In contrast to temperature, invasion affects the content of eicosenoic acid that was increased in the investigated organs. Adaptability of these effects is discussed regarding parasite-host system.

  9. Lipid and fatty acid composition of muga silkworm, Antheraea assama, host plants in relation to silkworm growth.

    PubMed

    Unni, B G; Kakoty, A C; Khanikor, D; Bhattacharya, P R; Pathak, M G; Pillai, K; Pillai, R; Choudhury, A; Saikia, P C; Ghosh, A C

    1996-05-01

    The lipid and fatty acid composition of the leaves (tender, medium and mature) of muga host plants, Machilus bombycina, Litsaea monopetala (primary food plants) and L. cubeba and L. salicifolia (family: Lauraceae) (secondary food plants) was investigated by standard procedures, gas chromatography after saponification and esterification. The total lipid content of M. bombycina and L. monopetala leaves was recorded to be higher (16 and 18 g%), respectively, than that of L. cubeba (10 g%) and L. salicifolia (12 g%). GC analysis identified the presence of eight fatty acids (C14 to C22) and the concentration varied from 0.0297 to 8.1572 g% dry leaf powder. Among the fatty acids, (C14 to C22), polyunsaturated fatty acids were recorded to be highest in concentration in mature leaves of the primary host plants. The concentrations of saturated and polyunsatuated fatty acids were found to be at a minimum level in all the types of leaves of secondary muga host plants.

  10. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge.

    PubMed

    Dadashzadeh, S; Mirahmadi, N; Babaei, M H; Vali, A M

    2010-12-01

    In the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, systemic chemotherapy is not quite effective due to the poor penetration of cytotoxic agents into the peritoneal cavity, whereas intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutic agents is generally accompanied by quick absorption of the free drug from the peritoneum. Local delivery of drugs with controlled-release delivery systems like liposomes could provide sustained, elevated drug levels and reduce local and systemic toxicity. In order to achieve an ameliorated liposomal formulation that results in higher peritoneal levels of the drug and retention, vesicles composed of different phospholipid compositions (distearoyl [DSPC]; dipalmitoyl [DPPC]; or dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine [DMPC]) and various charges (neutral; negative, containing distearoylphosphatidylglycerol [DSPG]; or positive, containing dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane [DOTAP]) were prepared at two sizes of 100 and 1000nm. The effect of surface hydrophilicity was also investigated by incorporating PEG into the DSPC-containing neutral and charged liposomes. Liposomes were labeled with (99m)Tc and injected into mouse peritoneum. Mice were then sacrificed at eight different time points, and the percentage of injected radiolabel in the peritoneal cavity and the tissue distribution in terms of the percent of the injected dose/gram of tissue (%ID/g) were obtained. The ratio of the peritoneal AUC to the free label ranged from a minimum of 4.95 for DMPC/CHOL (cholesterol) 100nm vesicles to a maximum of 24.99 for DSPC/CHOL/DOTAP 1000nm (DOTAP 1000) vesicles. These last positively charged vesicles had the greatest peritoneal level; moreover, their level remained constant at approximately 25% of the injected dose from 2 to 48h. Among the conventional (i.e., without PEG) 100nm liposomes, the positively charged vesicles again showed the greatest retention. Incorporation of PEG at this size into the lipid structures augmented the peritoneal level, particularly

  11. Effect of culture conditions on growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10.

    PubMed

    Chaung, Kai-Chuang; Chu, Chun-Yao; Su, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yi-Min

    2012-08-10

    This study explored the influence of various culture conditions on the biomass, lipid content, production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10. The variables examined in this study include the species and concentration of salt, the concentrations of the two substrates glucose and yeast extract, the level of dissolved oxygen, the cerulenin treatment, and the stages of BL10 growth. Our results demonstrate that BL10 culture produces maximum biomass when salinity levels are between 0.2 and 3.0%. Decreasing salinity to 0.1% resulted in a considerable decrease in the biomass, lipid content, DHA production, and DHA to palmitic acid (PA) (DHA/PA) ratio, signifying deterioration in the quality of the oil produced. The addition of 0.9% sodium sulfate to replenish salinity from 0.1% to 1.0% successfully recovered biomass, lipid content and DHA production levels; however, this also led to a decrease in DHA/PA ratio. An increase in oxygen and cerulenin levels resulted in a concomitant decrease in the DHA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (DHA/DPA) ratio in BL10 oil. Furthermore, the DHA/DPA and DHA/PA ratios varied considerably before and after the termination of cell division, which occurred around the 24 hour mark. These results could serve as a foundation for elucidating the biochemistry underlying the accumulation of lipids, and a definition of the extrinsic (environmental or nutritional) and intrinsic (cell growth stage) factors that influence lipid quality and the production of DHA by BL10.

  12. Lipid compositions modulate fluidity and stability of bilayers: characterization by surface pressure and sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhuguang; Fu, Li; Leblanc, Roger M; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2013-12-03

    Cell membranes are crucial to many biological processes. Because of their complexity, however, lipid bilayers are often used as model systems. Lipid structures influence the physical properties of bilayers, but their interplay, especially in multiple-component lipid bilayers, has not been fully explored. Here, we used the Langmuir-Blodgett method to make mono- and bilayers of 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG), and 1-hexadecanoyl-2-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS) as well as their 1:1 binary mixtures. We studied the fluidity, stability, and rigidity of these structures using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy combined with analyses of surface pressure-area isotherms, compression modulus, and stability. Our results show that single-component bilayers, both saturated and unsaturated, may not be ideal membrane mimics because of their low fluidity and/or stability. However, the binary saturated and unsaturated DPPG/POPG and DPPG/POPS systems show not only high stability and fluidity but also high resistance to changes in surface pressure, especially in the range of 25-35 mN/m, the range typical of cell membranes. Because the ratio of saturated to unsaturated lipids is highly regulated in cells, our results underline the possibility of modulating biological properties using lipid compositions. Also, our use of flat optical windows as solid substrates in SFG experiments should make the SFG method more compatible with other techniques, enabling more comprehensive future surface characterizations of bilayers.

  13. Influence of temperature, pH, and salinity on membrane lipid composition and TEX86 of marine planktonic thaumarchaeal isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elling, Felix J.; Könneke, Martin; Mußmann, Marc; Greve, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are a cosmopolitan group of microorganisms representing a major fraction of the picoplankton in the ocean. The cytoplasmic membranes of Thaumarchaeota consist predominantly of intact polar isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, which may be used as biomarkers for living Thaumarchaeota. Fossil thaumarchaeal GDGT core lipids accumulate in marine sediments and serve as the basis for geochemical proxies such as the TEX86 paleothermometer. Here, we demonstrate that the responses of membrane lipid compositions and resulting TEX86 values to growth temperature strongly diverge in three closely related thaumarchaeal pure cultures, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and two novel strains isolated from South Atlantic surface water, although the inventories of intact polar lipids and core lipids were overall similar in the three strains. N. maritimus and its closely related strain NAOA6 showed linear relationships of TEX86 and growth temperature but no correlation of TEX86 and temperature was observed in the more distantly related strain NAOA2. In contrast, the weighted average number of cycloalkyl moieties (ring index) was linearly correlated with growth temperature in all strains. This disparate relationship of TEX86 to growth temperature among closely related Thaumarchaeota suggests that the ring index but not the TEX86 ratio represents a universal response to growth temperature in marine planktonic Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, the distinct TEX86-temperature relationships in the cultivated strains indicate that environmental GDGT signals may include an ecological component, which has important implications for ocean temperature reconstructions using the TEX86 proxy. In contrast, different growth medium salinities in the range 27-51‰ tested for N. maritimus showed no systematic effect on intact polar GDGT composition and TEX86. Similarly, N. maritimus showed only small changes in intact

  14. Very low density lipoproteins in intestinal lymph: origin, composition, and role in lipid transport in the fasting state

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Hughes, Faith B.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1969-01-01

    The transport of endogenous lipids in the lipoproteins of mesenteric lymph was studied in fasting rats with mesenteric lymph fistulas. The lymph was found to contain, in addition to chylomicrons (Sf >400), a significant amount of another, more dense, triglyceride-rich fraction, the very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which showed a peak Sf of 102. The VLDL differed from chylomicrons not only in flotation, but also in per cent lipid composition and electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel. The VLDL fraction was found to contain 47% of the triglyceride and 54% of the cholesterol of fasting lymph and, in the fasting state, was the major lipoprotein species present. When cholestyramine resin was administered intraduodenally, or bile flow was acutely diverted from the intestine, it was demonstrated that the lipids in lymph VLDL, like those in chylomicrons, were derived from the intestine and bile. These data indicate that the VLDL in intestinal lymph are not derived from the plasma but are of intestinal origin. Because certain properties of lymph VLDL were similar to those reported for plasma VLDL (per cent lipid composition, flotation coefficient, and continuing entry into plasma in the fasting state), additional comparisons between these fractions were made. Although lymph VLDL moved to the α2 region in agarose gel, when they were mixed with VLDL-free serum immediately before electrophoresis they showed the α2 mobility of rat serum VLDL. Furthermore, immunoelectrophoretic comparison of partially delipidated lymph and serum VLDL revealed that these fractions shared in common their major apoprotein, and possibly others as well. The fatty acid composition of lymph and serum triglycerides, as determined by gas-liquid chromatography, revealed that although they were generally similar, differences existed which most likely reflected the presence in serum of triglycerides of hepatic origin. These experiments demonstrate the importance of intestinal VLDL in the transport

  15. A Biochemical GC-MS Application for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Determination of Fatty Acid Composition of Arabidopsis thaliana Lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Jared D.; Catino, Arthur J., III.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Lassman, Michael E.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Reinard, Michael D.; Strotman, Neil A.; Pike, Carl S.

    2000-11-01

    A biochemical application of GC-MS in which students determine the qualitative and quantitative lipid composition of plant leaf samples is described. There are four facets of this project: (i) synthesis and characterization of individual fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as standards for GC-MS analysis, (ii) isolation of the fatty acids of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, both wild type and mutants, as FAMEs, (iii) GC-MS analysis of the Arabidopsis leaf extracts for fatty acid composition, and (iv) comparison of the class results with the literature data for both wild type and the four mutants and with a biochemical model of two pathways for lipid synthesis in Arabidopsis leaves. Because this experimental paradigm links organic synthesis and spectral characterization by IR and NMR, both 1H and 13C, with separation and identification via GC-MS analysis, all of the key areas of laboratory procedure are encompassed in this single project. The experimental design permits a myriad of hypothesis-testing variations. Plants can be grown at different temperatures and for different lengths of time to determine if and how fatty acid composition varies. Different types of plant leaves can be examined to ascertain if each has a unique fatty acid fingerprint.

  16. Lipid and fatty acid composition of Gluconobacter oxydans before and after intracytoplasmic membrane formation.

    PubMed Central

    Heefner, D L; Claus, G W

    1978-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans differentiates by forming quantities of intracytoplasmic membranes at the end of exponential growth, and this formation occurs concurrently with a 60% increase in cellular lipid. The present study was initiated to determine whether this newly synthesized lipid differed from that extracted before intracytoplasmic membrane synthesis. Undifferentiated exponential-phase cells were found to contain 30% phosphatidylcholine, 27.1% caridolipin, 25% phosphatidylethanolamine, 12.5% phosphatidylglycerol, 0.4% phosphatidic acid, 0.2% phosphatidylserine, and four additional unidentified lipids totaling less than 5%. The only change detected after formation of intracytoplasmic membranes was a slight decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine and a corresponding increase in phosphatidylcholine. An examination of lipid hydrolysates revealed 11 different fatty acids in the lipids from each cell type. Hexadecanoic acid and monounsaturated octadecenoic accounted for more than 75% of the total fatty acids for both cell types. Proportional changes were noted in all fatty acids except octadecenoate. Anteiso-pentadecanoate comprised less than 1% of the fatty acids from undifferentiated cells but more than 13% of the total fatty acids from cells containing intracytoplasmic membranes. These results suggest that anteiso-pentadecanoate formation closely parallels the formation of intracytoplasmic membranes. Increased concentrations of this fatty acid may contribute to the fluidity necessary for plasma membrane convolution during intracytoplasmic membrane development. PMID:649571

  17. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Gonçalo S; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-07-15

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013-2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%-0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%-3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%-33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%-29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%-16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%-54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA's, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA's in general compared to traditional vegetables.

  18. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  19. Lipids and Composition of Fatty Acids of Saccharina latissima Cultivated Year-Round in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Gonçalo S.; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    This study is evaluating the seasonal lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. Biomass was sampled throughout the year (bi-monthly) at the commercial cultivation site near a fish farm in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) and at a reference site in Denmark (2013–2014). Generally, there was no difference in the biomass composition between sites; however, significant seasonal changes were found. The lipid concentration varied from 0.62%–0.88% dry weight (DW) in July to 3.33%–3.35% DW in November (p < 0.05) in both sites. The fatty acid composition in January was significantly different from all the other sampling months. The dissimilarities were mainly explained by changes in the relative abundance of 20:5n-3 (13.12%–33.35%), 14:0 (11.07%–29.37%) and 18:1n-9 (10.15%–16.94%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) made up more than half of the fatty acids with a maximum in July (52.3%–54.0% fatty acid methyl esters; FAME). This including the most appreciated health beneficial PUFA’s, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), but also arachidonic (ARA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are not found in land vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce. Compared to fat (salmon) and lean fish (cod) this seaweed species contains higher proportions of ARA and SDA, but lower EPA (only cod) and DHA. Conclusively, the season of harvest is important for the choice of lipid quantity and quality, but the marine vegetables provide better sources of EPA, DHA and long-chain (LC)-PUFA’s in general compared to traditional vegetables. PMID:26184241

  20. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-06-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA > PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small inhibitory

  1. Effects of lipid composition on membrane permeabilization by sticholysin I and II, two cytolysins of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Valcarcel, C A; Dalla Serra, M; Potrich, C; Bernhart, I; Tejuca, M; Martinez, D; Pazos, F; Lanio, M E; Menestrina, G

    2001-01-01

    Sticholysin I and II (St I and St II), two basic cytolysins purified from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, efficiently permeabilize lipid vesicles by forming pores in their membranes. A general characteristic of these toxins is their preference for membranes containing sphingomyelin (SM). As a consequence, vesicles formed by equimolar mixtures of SM with phosphatidylcholine (PC) are very good targets for St I and II. To better characterize the lipid dependence of the cytolysin-membrane interaction, we have now evaluated the effect of including different lipids in the composition of the vesicles. We observed that at low doses of either St I or St II vesicles composed of SM and phosphatidic acid (PA) were permeabilized faster and to a higher extent than vesicles of PC and SM. As in the case of PC/SM mixtures, permeabilization was optimal when the molar ratio of PA/SM was ~1. The preference for membranes containing PA was confirmed by inhibition experiments in which the hemolytic activity of St I was diminished by pre-incubation with vesicles of different composition. The inclusion of even small proportions of PA into PC/SM LUVs led to a marked increase in calcein release caused by both St I and St II, reaching maximal effect at ~5 mol % of PA. Inclusion of other negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI), or cardiolipin (CL)), all at 5 mol %, also elicited an increase in calcein release, the potency being in the order CL approximately PA >> PG approximately PI approximately PS. However, some boosting effect was also obtained, including the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or even, albeit to a lesser extent, the positively charged lipid stearylamine (SA). This indicated that the effect was not mediated by electrostatic interactions between the cytolysin and the negative surface of the vesicles. In fact, increasing the ionic strength of the medium had only a small

  2. Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements.

  3. Influence of UV irradiation on the composition of human stratum corneum lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Wefers, H.; Melnik, B.C.; Fluer, M.B.; Bluhm, C.; Lehmann, P.; Plewig, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Irradiation with suberythemal doses of either UV-A or UV-B yielded an increase in the amount of stratum corneum lipids extracted from the lumbar skin area of 20 volunteers. These lipids were quantified after separation by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Ten subfractions in the ceramide region were separated; two of them (fractions 7a and 7b) were only detectable after UV-A or UV-B irradiation. Improvement of barrier function after UV irradiation of human skin with suberythemal doses may be related to an increase in the stratum corneum ceramides.

  4. [Effect of acetylsalicylic acid in complex with lipid nanostructures of various compositions on human platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Suslina, Z A; Prokhorov, D I; Shilova, A G; Kaplun, A P; Ionova, V G; Seĭfulla, R D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lipid nanocomplexes loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on platelet aggregation in vitro was investigated. The antithrombotic effect of aspirin in complex with liposomes prepared from pig brain glycosphingolipids is not only significantly higher compared to control, but also accompanied by leveling of the development of proaggregant effects. It was shown that ADP-induced platelet aggregation is reduced by the introduction of electrostatic charge in the structure of lipid bilayer of liposomes. The effect achieved for the liposomes possessing a negative charge was more pronounced in comparison to the effect of positively charged liposomes.

  5. The content and composition of lipids in the digital cushion of the bovine claw with respect to age and location--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Räber, M; Scheeder, M R L; Ossent, P; Lischer, Ch J; Geyer, H

    2006-07-01

    The pads of the bovine digital cushion, which serves as a shock absorber, have specific anatomical structures to cope with the substantial forces acting within the claw. To gain more information on the lipid composition and content of the pads, horn shoes from 12 slaughtered heifers and cows were removed and different samples of the pads excised with a scalpel. Pad lipids were extracted and the fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography. Fat from perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues served as a comparison. Overall, this fat contained a higher quantity of extracted lipids than that of the claw pads and did not differ between heifers and cows. In contrast, lipid content in the pads was significantly higher in the cows than in the heifers. In both groups, the lipid content of the middle and abaxial pads, which are situated directly under the distal phalanx, was lower than in the pads of the other locations. The lipids in all pads contained >77% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), differing sharply from the adipose tissue with values <51%. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) a significantly higher proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) was found in the heifer pads than in those of the cows, whereas the proportion of AA was similar in the adipose tissue of all animals. The proportion of AA in the pad lipids also varied between the defined locations with the highest proportion found in locations that showed the lowest lipid content and was related to the age of the animal.

  6. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best.

  7. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants.

  8. Cellular Lipid Composition Affects Sensitivity of Plant Pathogens to Fengycin, an Antifungal Compound Produced by Bacillus subtilis Strain CU12.

    PubMed

    Wise, Cody; Falardeau, Justin; Hagberg, Ingrid; Avis, Tyler J

    2014-10-01

    Fengycin is an antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptide produced by various Bacillus subtilis strains, including strain CU12. Direct effects of fengycin include membrane pore formation and efflux of cellular contents leading to cell death in sensitive microorganisms. In this study, four plant pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids in their relative sensitivity to fengycin. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these pathogens varied considerably. Analysis of membrane lipids in these microorganisms indicated that sensitivity correlated with low ergosterol content and shorter phospholipid fatty acyl chains. Sensitivity to fengycin also correlated with a lower anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio. Our data suggest that decreased fluidity buffering capacity, as a result of low ergosterol content, and higher intrinsic fluidity afforded by short fatty acyl chain length may increase the sensitivity of microbial membranes to fengycin. Our results also suggest that lower content in anionic phospholipids may increase fengycin insertion into the membrane through reduced electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged fengycin. The intrinsic membrane lipid composition may contribute, in part, to the observed level of antimicrobial activity of fengycin in various plant pathogens.

  9. Chemical composition, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of lipid classes in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Han; Lim, Sun Young

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated to compare lipid profiles in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel and to examine antiproliferative and antioxidative properties of lipid classes. The average levels of neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and phospholipids (PL) in ordinary muscle were 92.32±0.19%, 5.10±0.48%, and 2.58±0.46%; in dark muscle were 96.88±0.15%, 2.59±0.36%, and 0.54±0.29%, respectively. The fatty acid composition indicated that PL had a higher percentage of PUFA (especially 22:6n-3) with lower percentages of SFA and MUFA compared to NL and GL (p<0.05). The main ion peaks of GL in ordinary and dark muscles showed that monocharged and bischarged molecular ion were presented at m/z 876.9 and 438.8, respectively. In MTT assay, inhibition of AGS and HT-29 cell proliferation was greatest with the 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1) GL treatments. The GL of ordinary muscle with 0.05 mg mL(-1) concentrations markedly decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 compared to the control (p<0.05). From our results, GL might have antiproliferative and antioxidant properties based on protective effect against the production of intracellular ROS.

  10. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  11. Variation in polar lipid composition within near-isogenic wheat lines containing different puroindoline haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive amount of research has investigated kernel hardness. However, the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Puroindoline-A and puroindoline-B proteins must be present in their wild-type form to create soft textured wheat. Similar to puroindoline proteins, polar lipids are...

  12. Lipidomics reveals dramatic lipid compositional changes in the maturing postnatal lung

    PubMed Central

    Dautel, Sydney E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Clair, Geremy; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Nguyen, Son N.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Luders, Teresa; Frevert, Charles W.; Gharib, Sina A.; Laskin, Julia; Carson, James P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Corley, Richard A.; Ansong, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the murine lipidome during normal postnatal lung development. Lipidomics analysis of lungs from post-natal day 7, day 14 and 6–8 week mice (adult) identified 924 unique lipids across 21 lipid subclasses, with dramatic alterations in the lipidome across developmental stages. Our data confirmed previously recognized aspects of post-natal lung development and revealed several insights, including in sphingolipid-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and energy storage/usage. Complementary proteomics, metabolomics and chemical imaging corroborated these observations. This multi-omic view provides a unique resource and deeper insight into normal pulmonary development. PMID:28145528

  13. Lipid metabolism predicts changes in body composition during energy restriction in overweight humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this analysis of a subset from a multi-center 12 wk weight-loss trial was to determine if calcium supplementation or dairy food consumption during energy restriction changed circulating lipids compared with an energy-restricted placebo group. Overweight adults (n = 63) were randomiz...

  14. Linking Archaeal Molecular Diversity and Lipid Biomarker Composition in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Turk, Kendra; Embaye, Tsegereda; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers for discrete microbial groups are a valuable tool for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Lipid biomarkers can establish organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids) and by analogy, potential relevance to the fossilized carbon skeletons (geolipids) extracted from ancient sedimentary rock. The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided clear evidence for an early wet Mars and the presence of hypersaline evaporitic basins. Ongoing work on an early Earth analog, the hypersaline benthic mats in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, may provide clues to what may have evolved and flourished on an early wet Mars, if only for a short period. Cyanobacterial mats are a pertinent early Earth analog for consideration of evolutionary and microbial processes within the aerobic photosynthetic and adjacent anoxic layers. Fluctuations in physio-chemical parameters associated with spatial and temporal scales are expressed through vast microbial metabolic diversity. Our recent work hopes to establish the dynamic of archaeal diversity, particularly as it relates to methane production in this high sulfate environment, through the use of lipid biomarker and phylogenetic analyses. Archaeal 16s rRNA and mcrA gene assemblages, demonstrated distinct spatial separation over the 130 mm core of at least three distinct genera within the order Methanosarcinales, as well as an abundance of uncultured members of the Thermoplasmales and Crenarchaeota. Ether-bound lipid analysis identified abundant 0-alkyl and 0-isopranyl chains throughout the core, and the presence of sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol, a biomarker for methylotrophic methanogens. A unique ether isoprenoid chain, a C30:1 , possibly related to the geolipid squalane, a paleobiomarker associated with hypersaline environments, was most abundant within the oxic-anoxic transition zone.

  15. Distribution and Carbon-Isotope Composition of Lipid Biomarkers in Lake Sediments on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuo, J.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Jiang, H.; Dong, H.; Zhang, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the carbon source and microbial community structure in different lake environments on the Tibetan Plateau using carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers. Microbial mats and sediments were collected from Erhai-, Qinghai-, Gahai-, and Chaka-lakes, which have different pHs (7.4-9.5) and salinities (0.1-21%). Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) have different distribution patterns in algal mats, sandy mud, and salt deposits, which may reflect changes in microbial community structure in different environments. For example, terminally branched fatty acids reflect heterotrophic bacteria and varied from less than 1% in a brown algal mat in Lake Gahai to 23% in a salt deposit in Lake Chaka. The cyclopropyl fatty acids may reflect stress conditions under different salinities. These compounds varied from 0% in algal mats living on the bank of the lake, which received freshwater run off, to 12% in grey mud in the saline lake water. On the other hand, long-chain n-alkanes in these samples reflect contributions of a mixture of epicuticular waxes of higher plants and submerged or floating aquatic macrophytes. Carbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers indicate different sources of organic carbon in different lake sediments. For example, carbon isotopes of total organic carbon and lipid biomarkers averaged -23.9 ± 1.5‰ (n = 2) and -26.0 ± 3.1‰ (n = 18), respectively, in Lake Erhai, and averaged -30.0 ± 1.5‰ (n = 4) and -33.5 ± 3.3‰ (n = 92), respectively, in Lake Gahai. These results suggest that a relatively heavy carbon source is going into Lake Erhai compared to carbon sources going into Lake Gahai. This study indicates that the distribution patterns of the lipid biomarkers and theirs carbon-isotope compositions can be used to evaluate the community structure and the source of carbon that supports microbial growth in lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Influences of intraperitoneally and dietary administered vitamin E and selenium on the lipid composition in reproductive organs of male animals.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, O; Celik, S; Dilsiz, N

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the protective effect of intraperitoneally and dietary administered vitamin E and selenium (Se) on the total lipid, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition in rat and lamb testes. The level of total lipid in rat testes was significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the combination group as compared to the control group but slightly decreased in lamb testes (p < 0.05). In addition, the level of total lipid in lamb testes was significantly decreased (p < 0.001) by the Se alone. The content of total cholesterol in rats was higher in the Se group and its level in lamb testes was higher in the vitamin E groups than in the control group (p < 0.001). In rats testes, the amounts of palmitic, oleic, arachidonic acids, the total fatty acid, total unsaturated and total omega 6 acids were higher (p < 0.001) in the Se group. The proportions of palmitic and arachidonic acids were reduced in the vitamin E group and linoleic acid, total unsaturated, and total omega 6 fatty acids were high (p < 0.05) in the vitamin E and combination groups. In lamb testis tissues, the amounts of palmitic, arachidonic, total unsaturated and total omega 6 fatty acids were decreased in the vitamin E group in comparison to the control (p < 0.05). However, the amounts of arachidonic and total omega 6 fatty acids increased (p < 0.05) in the Se group. The proportions of arachidonic acid, total unsaturated fatty acid and total omega 6 fatty acids were high (p < 0.05) in the Se and combination groups. We concluded that the level of total lipid in testis tissues was reduced by dietary and intraperitoneally administered vitamin E and Se together. In contrast, it seems that the proportions of unsaturated and essential fatty acids in examined tissues are increased by vitamin E and Se.

  17. Influence of a hyperlipidic diet on the composition of the non-membrane lipid pool of red blood cells of male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Remesar, Xavier; Antelo, Arantxa; Llivina, Clàudia; Albà, Emma; Berdié, Lourdes; Agnelli, Silvia; Arriarán, Sofía; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives. Red blood cells (RBC) are continuously exposed to oxidative agents, affecting their membrane lipid function. However, the amount of lipid in RBCs is higher than the lipids of the cell membrane, and includes triacylglycerols, which are no membrane components. We assumed that the extra lipids originated from lipoproteins attached to the cell surface, and we intended to analyse whether the size and composition of this lipid pool were affected by sex or diet. Experimental design. Adult male and female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria diets. Packed blood cells and plasma lipids were extracted and analysed for fatty acids by methylation and GC-MS, taking care of not extracting membrane lipids. Results. The absence of ω3-PUFA in RBC extracts (but not in plasma) suggest that the lipids extracted were essentially those in the postulated lipid surface pool and not those in cell membrane. In cells’ extracts, there was a marked depletion of PUFA (and, in general, of insaturation). Fatty acid patterns were similar for all groups studied, with limited effects of sex and no effects of diet in RBC (but not in plasma) fatty acids. Presence of trans fatty acids was small but higher in RBC lipids, and could not be justified by dietary sources. Conclusions. The presence of a small layer of lipid on the RBC surface may limit oxidative damage to the cell outer structures, and help explain its role in the transport of lipophilic compounds. However, there may be other, so far uncovered, additional functions for this lipid pool. PMID:26213652

  18. The impact of membrane lipid composition on macrophage activation in the immune defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schoeniger, Axel; Adolph, Stephanie; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Schumann, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; (ii) the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii) the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.

  19. A comparative study on the possible cytotoxic effects of different nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) compositions in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Brugè, Francesca; Damiani, Elisabetta; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Offerta, Alessia; Puglia, Carmelo; Tiano, Luca

    2015-11-30

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are widely used for topical delivery of active ingredients into the skin for both local and systemic treatment. But concerns have been raised regarding their potential nanotoxicity. To understand the role of NLC composition in terms of cytotoxicity and pro-oxidant effects, we investigated cell viability and intracellular levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) incubated with five NLC formulations differing in their solid lipid composition. HDF and NLC were also exposed to UVA irradiation in order to evaluate the behavior of NLC under realistic environmental conditions which might promote their instability. Using the Guava via-count assay, all nanoparticles, except for those formulated with Compritol 888 ATO, showed a significant decrease in live cells and a parallel increase in apoptotic or dead cells compared to the control, either before and/or after UVA irradiation (18 J/cm(2)). NLC formulated with Geleol™ Mono Diglycerides resulted the most cytotoxic. A similar trend was also observed when intracellular ROS levels were measured in HDF incubated with NLC: there was increased ROS content compared to the control, further exacerbated following UVA. NLC formulated with Dynasan 118 were particularly susceptible to UVA exposure. The results indicate which could be the most suitable candidates for formulating NLC that are biocompatible and non-cytotoxic even when exposed to UVA and hence help direct future choices during the formulation strategies of these delivery systems. Of those tested, Compritol 888 ATO appears to be the best choice.

  20. Effects of supplemental copper on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Wang, Yong; Lin, Xi; Guo, Chunhua

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of copper (Cu) supplementation on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids, thirty-five 3-4-month-old Jian Yang big-eared goat kids (BW 20.3±0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary Cu treatments (n=5/treatment). The dietary Cu concentrations were: (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 20 mg, (3) 40 mg, (4) 80 mg, (5) 160 mg, (6) 320 mg, and (7) 640 mg of supplemental Cu/kg dry matter (DM). Copper was supplemented as CuSO4.5H2O (25.2 % Cu). The goats were fed a high-concentrate basal diet with the different concentrations of supplemental Cu/kg DM for 96 days. The serum lipid profile was determined on day 51 and day 96. Meat quality and carcass composition of longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after the goats were slaughtered at 96 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by treatment (P>0.18). No differences were observed in drip loss, cooking loss, a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values (P>0.17); however, the 24-h pH value (linear; P=0.0009) and L* (brightness) value (linear; P=0.0128) decreased, and shear force increased (linear; P=0.0005) as Cu supplementation increased. The intramuscular fat (%) increased (linear; P=0.001) as supplemental Cu increased. No differences (P>0.21) in the moisture, crude protein, and ash (%) were observed. Results of this study indicate that supplemental Cu does not modify the serum lipid profile; however, it can impact intramuscular fat content and the meat quality of goat kids.

  1. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies of hexane-extractable lipids from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants.

    PubMed

    Szajdak, Lech Wojciech; Maryganova, Victoria; Skakovskii, Eugene; Tychinskaya, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of the composition of lipids extracted with n-hexane from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants and adjoining cultivated fields in agrolandscape has been carried out with the application of (1)Н and (13)С NMR spectroscopy. The lipid content correlates with the organic carbon content in soils and is the highest in the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt. The data received indicate that hexane-extractable lipids from the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt have undergone the most significant biochemical and chemical transformations (oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization) with the accumulation of resistant compounds and destruction of esters of o-phthalic acid as anthropogenic contaminants compared to the lipids from the soil under the 14-years old shelterbelt and soils of adjoining arable fields.

  2. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of changes in lipid composition in breast and prostate cancer cells treated with MPA and R1881 hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Futia, Gregory L.; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel; Gibson, Emily A.

    2014-03-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation or resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells is therefore of great importance for research. Using Raman micro-spectroscopy we investigated whether the female hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the synthetic androgen R1881 affect the lipid expression in breast (T47D) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells. Differences were noted in the spectral regions at 830-1800 cm-1 and 2800-3000 cm-1 when comparing different drug treatments. Significant changes were noticed for saturated (1063 - 1125 cm-1, 1295 cm-1 and 1439 cm-1), unsaturated (1262 cm-1 and 1656 cm-1, and 1720 - 1748 cm-1) chemical bonds, suggesting that the composition of the lipid droplets was changed by the hormone treatments. Also, significant differences were observed in the high frequency regions of lipids and proteins at 2851 cm-1 and around 2890 cm-1. Principal component analysis with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881 or vehicle (P < 0.05). Future work includes analysis to determine exact lipid composition and concentrations as well as development of clinical techniques to characterize differences in patient tumor lipid profiles to determine response to drug treatment and prognosis.

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Lipid and protein composition of the surface tegument from larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis.

    PubMed

    Mills, G L; Coley, S C; Williams, J F

    1984-04-01

    A tegumental fraction from fully developed larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis was recovered by low speed centrifugation following incubation of the parasites in a 0.1% solution of digitonin. Scanning electron microscopy of the parasite carcass revealed no surface microtrichs, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the subtegumental layer was undamaged. The tegumental fraction, judging from the distribution of 3H-Concanavalin A, was enriched for surface components, exhibited low succinic dehydrogenase activity, and an electron microscopic examination of the pellet showed a slightly expanded but intact distal tegumental layer. The fraction, which made up 3.0% of the dry weight of the parasite, consisted of 52% protein and 32% lipid. Thirty-three proteins, ranging in Mr from 9,000 to 276,000 daltons, were detected after sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seven of these proteins were glycoproteins. Cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and glycosphingolipids were the major lipids.

  5. The lipid composition of Legionella dumoffii membrane modulates the interaction with Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III.

    PubMed

    Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Reszczyńska, Emilia; Luchowski, Rafał; Kania, Magdalena; Gisch, Nicolas; Waldow, Franziska; Mak, Paweł; Danikiewicz, Witold; Gruszecki, Wiesław I; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), an insect homologue of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), is a widely used model protein in studies on protein-lipid interactions, and anti-Legionella activity of Galleria mellonella apoLp-III has been documented. Interestingly, exogenous choline-cultured Legionella dumoffii cells are considerably more susceptible to apoLp-III than non-supplemented bacteria. In order to explain these differences, we performed, for the first time, a detailed analysis of L. dumoffii lipids and a comparative lipidomic analysis of membranes of bacteria grown without and in the presence of exogenous choline. (31)P NMR analysis of L. dumoffii phospholipids (PLs) revealed a considerable increase in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) content in bacteria cultured on choline medium and a decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content in approximately the same range. The interactions of G. mellonella apoLp-III with lipid bilayer membranes prepared from PLs extracted from non- and choline-supplemented L. dumoffii cells were examined in detail by means of attenuated total reflection- and linear dichroism-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, the kinetics of apoLp-III binding to liposomes formed from L. dumoffii PLs was analysed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using fluorescently labelled G. mellonella apoLp-III. Our results indicated enhanced binding of apoLp-III to and deeper penetration into lipid membranes formed from PLs extracted from the choline-supplemented bacteria, i.e. characterized by an increased PC/PE ratio. This could explain, at least in part, the higher susceptibility of choline-cultured L. dumoffii to G. mellonella apoLp-III.

  6. [The lipid composition of bloodserum in patients with salmonella infection and suffering of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Leventsova, A E

    2012-10-01

    The impact of bacterial salmonella infection manifested in higher level of common lipids, increase of relative content of common phospholipids, free cholesterol, free fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine and decrease of content of cholesterol esters and total lysophospholipids. The patients with salmonella infection, suffering of alcohol abuse as opposed to non-abusing patients characterized by higher content of triglycerides, free cholesterol, total lysophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and lower content of cholesterol esters and phosphatidylcholine.

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of the digital cushion of bulls offered different amounts of linseed.

    PubMed

    Baird, L G; Dawson, L E R; Young, I S; O'Connell, N E

    2010-07-01

    Previous research suggests that the digital cushion, a shock-absorbing structure in the claw, plays an important role in protecting cattle from lameness. This study aimed to assess the degree to which nutritional factors influence the composition of the digital cushion. This involved quantifying lipid content and fatty acid composition differences in digital cushion tissue from cattle offered diets with different amounts of linseed. Forty-six bulls were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, which were applied for an average of 140 +/- 27 d during the finishing period. The treatments consisted of a linseed supplement offered once daily on top of the basal diet (grass silage:concentrate) at 0, 400, 800, or 1,200 g of supplement/animal per day. For each treatment, the concentrate offered was adjusted to ensure that total estimated ME intake was constant across treatments. Target BW at slaughter was 540 kg. Legs were collected in 3 batches after 120, 147 and 185 d on experiment. Six samples of the digital cushion were dissected from the right lateral hind claw of each animal. Lipids were extracted and expressed as a proportion of fresh tissue, and fatty acid composition of the digital cushion was determined by gas chromatography. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, with diet, location within the digital cushion, and their interactions as fixed effects and fat content (grams per 100 g of tissue) as a covariate. Linear or quadratic contrasts were examined. The lipid content of digital cushion tissue differed between sampling locations (P < 0.001) but did not vary by treatment. There were quadratic responses to increasing linseed supplementation for several fatty acids. Although the overall proportion of C18:3n-3 (the most abundant fatty acid in linseed) did not differ (P < 0.33) by treatment, there was a quadratic influence of diet on total PUFA concentration (P = 0.003) and a linear increase in C18:3n-3 as a proportion of total PUFA (P = 0.01) in the digital cushion. This work

  8. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microbial communities associated with the siliceous vent walls and outflow channel of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, have been examined for lipid biomarkers and carbon isotopic signatures. These data were compared with that obtained from representatives of three Aquificales genera. Thermocrinis ruber. "Thermocrinis sp. HI", Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus and Aquifex aeolicus all contained phospholipids composed not only of the usual ester-linked fatty acids, but also ether-linked alkyls. The fatty acids of all cultured organisms were dominated by a very distinct pattern of n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21 compounds. The alkyl glycerol ethers were present primarily as CIS() monoethers with the expection of the Aquifex spp. in which dialkyl glycerol ethers with a boarder carbon-number distribution were also present. These Aquificales biomarker lipids were the major constituents in the lipid extracts of the Octopus Spring microbial samples. Two natural samples, a microbial biofilm growing in association with deposition of amorphous silica on the vent walls at 92 C, and the well-known 'pink-streamers community' (PSC), siliceous filaments of a microbial consortia growing in the upper outflow channel at 87 C were analyzed. Both the biofilm and PSC samples contained mono and dialkyl glycerol ethers with a prevalence of C-18 and C-20 alkyls. Phospholipid fatty acids were comprised of both the characteristic Aquificales n-C-20:1 and cy-C-21, and in addition, a series of iso-branched fatty acids from i-C-15:0 to i-C-21:0, With i-C-17:0 dominant in the PSC and i-C-19:0 in the biofilm, suggesting the presence of two major bacterial groups. Bacteriohopanepolyols were absent and the minute quantities of archaeol detected showed that Archaea were only minor constituents. Carbon isotopic compositions of the PSC yielded information about community structure and likely physiology. Biomass was C-13-depleted (10.9%) relative to available

  9. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Lü, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC(2)F(2) , was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC(2)F(2) fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C(16) monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss.

  10. Ethanol production and maximum cell growth are highly correlated with membrane lipid composition during fermentation as determined by lipidomic analysis of 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Clark M; Lozada-Contreras, Michelle; Jiranek, Vladimir; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing ethanol yield during fermentation is important for efficient production of fuel alcohol, as well as wine and other alcoholic beverages. However, increasing ethanol concentrations during fermentation can create problems that result in arrested or sluggish sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The fundamental cellular basis for these problem fermentations, however, is not well understood. Small-scale fermentations were performed in a synthetic grape must using 22 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (primarily wine strains) with various degrees of ethanol tolerance to assess the correlation between lipid composition and fermentation kinetic parameters. Lipids were extracted at several fermentation time points representing different growth phases of the yeast to quantitatively analyze phospholipids and ergosterol utilizing atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry methods. Lipid profiling of individual fermentations indicated that yeast lipid class profiles do not shift dramatically in composition over the course of fermentation. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using partial least-squares linear regression modeling to correlate lipid composition data with fermentation kinetic data. The results indicate a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.91) between the overall lipid composition and the final ethanol concentration (wt/wt), an indicator of strain ethanol tolerance. One potential component of ethanol tolerance, the maximum yeast cell concentration, was also found to be a strong function of lipid composition (R(2) = 0.97). Specifically, strains unable to complete fermentation were associated with high phosphatidylinositol levels early in fermentation. Yeast strains that achieved the highest cell densities and ethanol concentrations were positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine species similar to those known to decrease the perturbing effects of ethanol in model membrane systems.

  11. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  12. Dill seed extract improves abnormalities in lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in diabetic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yao, Lan; Kim, Minji; Sasako, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Shono, Jinji; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-07-01

    Dill, a small annual herb, is widely used as a flavoring agent in dishes including salads. It has been demonstrated that dill extract and its essential oil show hypolipidemic effects in rats. However, the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated yet. We found that dill seed extract (DSE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), an indispensable regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism, by luciferase assay. Thus, we performed DSE feeding experiments using diabetic obese model KK-Ay mice to examine the effects of DSE on PPAR-α activation in vivo. A 4-week feeding of DSE contained in a high-fat diet decreased plasma triacylglyceride and glucose levels and increased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. In addition, the DSE feeding as well as bezafibrate (a PPAR-α potent agonist) feeding increased oxygen consumption rate and rectal temperature. These results indicate that DSE suppresses high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia through hepatic PPAR-α activation.

  13. Influence of dietary manganese on performance, lipid metabolism, and carcass composition of growing and finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Legleiter, L R; Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E

    2005-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Mn on performance of growing and finishing steers, and to evaluate the effect of pharmacological concentrations of Mn on lipid metabolism and subsequent carcass quality in steers. One hundred twenty Angus cross steers were blocked by BW and origin and assigned randomly to one of six treatments (four replicate pens per treatment) providing 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 120, or 240 mg of supplemental Mn/kg of DM from MnSO4. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 84 d, and then switched to a corn-based finishing diet for an average of 112 d. The control growing diet analyzed 29 mg of Mn/kg of DM, whereas the control finishing diet analyzed 8 mg of Mn/kg of DM. Jugular blood samples were obtained on d 56 of the growing and finishing phase for plasma Mn and glucose analysis. Final BW, DMI, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P = 0.38 to P = 0.98) across treatments during growing and finishing phases. Plasma Mn concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, liver and LM Mn at slaughter increased linearly (P = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively) with increasing dietary Mn. Plasma glucose concentrations did not differ (P = 0.90) among treatments. Serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations tended (P = 0.10) to decrease linearly with increasing dietary Mn on d 56 of the finishing phase. Longissimus muscle lipid concentration was affected quadratically (P = 0.08) by dietary Mn. Muscle lipid seemed to increase slightly when steers were fed 30 or 120 mg of Mn/kg of DM, but decreased with the addition of 240 mg of Mn/kg of DM. Carcass characteristics were not affected by dietary Mn. Manganese concentrations of 29 and 8 mg/kg of DM in the growing and finishing diets, respectively, were adequate for maximizing performance of growing and finishing steers in this experiment. Supplementing physiological or pharmacological concentrations of Mn affected lipid metabolism; however, this did not result in altered carcass

  14. The relationship between the postprandial lipemic response and lipid composition in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Racine R.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; Bauman, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of lipid concentration, lipid particle size, and total abdominal fat (TAF) on postprandial lipemic response (PPLr) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Thirty-five persons with SCI (17 paraplegia, 18 tetraplegia) and 18 able-bodied (AB) individuals participated. Following a 10-hour fast, blood was drawn for lipids, apolipoprotein (apo) A1 and B concentrations, and low-density (LSP) and high-density (HSP) lipoprotein particle sizes. A high-fat milkshake was consumed (∼1.3 g fat/kg). Blood was drawn at 2, 4, and 6 hours to determine PPLr, (triglyceride (TG) area under the curve). TAF and visceral (VF) fat were measured by ultrasonography; total body fat (TBF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Differences between the groups were determined by independent sample t-tests. Pearson correlation coefficients determined the relationship among PPLr and lipids, and TAF. Results There were no significant differences in fasting TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apoB, TAF, or PPLr values between the groups. In SCI, PPLr significantly correlated with: apoB (r = 0.63, P < 0.01, LSP (r = 0.57, P < 0.01), and TAF (r = 0.36, P < 0.01). After controlling for age and duration of injury, PPLr significantly correlated with apoB (r = 0.66, P = 0.001), TBF (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), VF (r = 0.66, P = 0.02), and TAF (r = 0.56, P = 0.007). Conclusions Although concentrations of LDL cholesterol and apoB were not different between SCI and AB groups, LSP, apoB, and TAF correlated with PPLr in persons with SCI. ApoB was associated with a greater PPLr in those with motor complete SCI, after controlling for age and duration of injury. PMID:24961488

  15. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  16. Effects of UV radiation on hatching, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid composition in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yeonjung; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Un-Ki; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of UV radiation on the reproductive physiology and macromolecules in marine zooplankton, several doses of UV radiation were used to treat the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and we analyzed in vivo endpoints of their life cycle such as mortality and reproductive parameters with in vitro biochemical biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), the modulated enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the production of a byproduct of peroxidation (e.g. malonedialdehyde, MDA). After UV radiation, the survival rate of P. nana was significantly reduced. Also, egg sac damage and a reduction in the hatching rate of offspring were observed in UV-irradiated ovigerous females. According to the assessed biochemical parameters, we found dose-dependent increases in ROS levels and high levels of the lipid peroxidation decomposition product by 2 kJ m(-2), implying that P. nana was under off-balanced status by oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage. Antioxidant enzyme activities of GST and SOD increased over different doses of UV radiation. To measure UV-induced lipid peroxidation, we found a slight reduction in the composition of essential fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These findings indicate that UV radiation can induce oxidative stress-triggered lipid peroxidation with modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity, leading to a significant effect on mortality and reproductive physiology (e.g. fecundity). These results demonstrate the involvement of UV radiation on essential fatty acids and its susceptibility to UV radiation in the copepod P. nana compared to other species.

  17. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  18. Effect of Growth Temperature on the Lipid Composition of Cyanidium caldarium

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, M. G.; McMahon, Vern A.

    1970-01-01

    Cyanidium caldarium was grown at 20 and 55 C and harvested during exponential growth phase. Lipids were extracted and separated by silicic acid column and thin layer chromatography. The major glycolipids were identified as mono- and digalactosyl diglyceride and sulfolipid. Major phospholipids were identified as phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The cells grown at 20 C contained significantly larger quantities of these glycolipids and phospholipids than cells grown at 55 C. Fatty acid analysis showed that in all cases the cells grown at 20 C contained more unsaturated fatty acids than the cells grown at 55 C. Cells grown at 55 C were shown to lack linolenic acid, in contrast to cells grown at 20 C, which contained appreciable quantities in certain lipid components. For example, monogalactosyl diglyceride had 57% of its fatty acids in the form of linolenic acid. Cells grown at 55 C were 10 to 15 C more stable to disruption by heating than cells grown at 20 C. The greater thermostability of the latter was attributed to a higher degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids. PMID:16657452

  19. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  20. Metamorphosis of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms--RNA, lipid and protein composition in context with the spirochetes' shape.

    PubMed

    Al-Robaiy, Samiya; Dihazi, Hassan; Kacza, Johannes; Seeger, Johannes; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Knauer, Jens; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2010-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, has the ability to undergo morphological transformation from a motile spirochetal to non-motile spherical shape when it encounters unfavorable conditions. However, little information is available on the mechanism that enables the bacterium to change its shape and whether major components of the cells--nucleic acids, proteins, lipids--are possibly modified during the process. Deducing from investigations utilizing electron microscopy, it seems that shape alteration begins with membrane budding followed by folding of the protoplasmatic cylinder inside the outer surface membrane. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that a deficiency in producing functioning periplasmic flagella did not hinder sphere formation. Further, it was shown that the spirochetes' and spheres' lipid compositions were indistinguishable. Neither phosphatidylcholine nor phosphatidylglycerol were altered by the structural transformation. In addition, no changes in differential protein expression were detected during this process. However, minimal degradation of RNA and a reduced antigen-antibody binding activity were observed with advanced age of the spheres. The results of our comparisons and the failure to generate mutants lacking the ability to convert to spheres suggest that the metamorphosis of B. burgdorferi results in a conditional reconstruction of the outer membrane. The spheres, which appear to be more resistant to unfavorable conditions and exhibit reduced immune reactivity when compared to spirochetes, might allow the B. burgdorferi to escape complete clearance and possibly ensure long-term survival in the host.

  1. Effect of Tween 80 on the growth, lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition of Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304 was grown in the presence and absence of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80). The aim of this work was to obtain basic knowledge about the effect of Tween 80 on growth, lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition in T. aureum. The addition of Tween 80 to a culture medium significantly enhanced the growth of T. aureum, and the biomass increased with an increase of Tween 80 content. Total lipid content and total fatty acid content were significantly higher in 1.0% Tween 80 in comparison with the control (absence of Tween 80). The fatty acid profile showed that the content of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid) significantly increased as a result of the addition of Tween 80. These results indicated that part of the Tween 80 added to the medium was utilized as a carbon source or that the oleate included in Tween 80 was directly incorporated into T. aureum cells as a fatty acid. Neither the DHA content nor the percentage of DHA did not change in spite of the addition of Tween 80. However, the DHA yield significantly increased because the biomass increased due to the addition of Tween 80.

  2. Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

    2009-03-11

    Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material.

  3. Physical properties, lipid composition and enzyme activities of hepatic subcellular membranes from chick embryo after ethanol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amate, M.C.; Marco, C.; Segovia, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of chick embryos to ethanol resulted in significant alterations to the lipid composition of various different hepatic subcellular membranes. A marked decrease in cholesterol levels and an increase in the phospholipid content of microsomes and mitochondria was observed. Ethanol also affected the fatty acid profiles, mainly by decreasing the percentage of oleic acid in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the mitochondria and phosphatidylethanolamine in the microsomes. In spite of these changes ethanol only induced alterations in the fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes, which showed a more rigid core, in contrast to the phospholipid-head region, which was not affected. In accordance with the changes observed in the physical state of the membrane, the enzymes involved in the microsomal electron-transport systems were not modified by ethanol, while cytochrome oxidase activity decreased by 50% compared to the activity in the mitochondria from control chick embryos.

  4. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels.

  5. Effect of salinity stress on growth, lipid productivity, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties in Acutodesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Priti Raj; Fulekar, Madhusudan H; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi

    2017-04-07

    Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 49 and 43% in BG11 amended with 0.4 M NaCl. The microalgal strains C. vulgaris and A. obliquus grow better at 0.06 M NaCl concentration than control condition. At 0.06 M NaCl, improved dry biomass content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 0.92 and 0.68 gL(-1), respectively. Stress biomarkers like reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also lowest at 0.06 M NaCl concentration revealing that both the microalgal strains are well acclimatized at 0.06 M NaCl concentration. The fatty acid composition of the investigated microalgal strains was also improved by increased NaCl concentration. At 0.4 M NaCl, palmitic acid (37%), oleic acid (15.5%), and linoleic acid (20%) were the dominant fatty acids in C. vulgaris while palmitic acid (54%) and stearic acid (26.6%) were major fatty acids found in A. obliquus. Fatty acid profiling of C. vulgaris and A. obliquus significantly varied with salinity concentration. Therefore, the study showed that salt stress is an effective stress that could increase not only the lipid content but also improved the fatty acid composition which could make C. vulgaris and A. obliquus potential strains for biodiesel production.

  6. Tonoplast lipid composition and proton pump of pineapple fruit during low-temperature storage and blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-05-01

    Vacuole represents a major storage organelle playing vital roles in pH homoeostasis and cellular detoxification. The chemical and functional properties of tonoplast in response to chilling temperature and their roles in chilling injury are largely unknown. In the current study, lipid composition of tonoplast and the activities of two vacuolar proton pumps, H?-ATPase (V-ATPase) and H?-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase), were investigated in accordance with the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus). Chilling temperature at 10 °C for 1 week induced irreversible blackheart injury in concurrence with a substantial decrease in V-ATPase activity. By contrast, the activity was increased after 1 week at 25 °C. The activity of V-PPase was not changed under both temperatures. Level of total phospholipids of tonoplast decreased at 10 °C, but increased at 25 °C. There was no change at the level of total glycolipids under both temperatures. Thus, low temperature increased the ratio of total glycolipids vs. total phospholipids of tonoplast. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant phospholipids of tonoplast. Low temperature increased the relative level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the percentage of both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for over 60 % of the total tonoplast fatty acids, with C18:1 and C18:2 being predominant. Low temperature significantly decreased the percentage of C18:3. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of tonoplast at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in the development of chilling injury in pineapple fruit.

  7. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  8. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa; Dhaliwal, Satvinder

    2010-09-01

    The health benefits currently associated with increased dairy intake may be attributable to the whey component of dairy proteins. The present study evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in comparison to casein and glucose (control) supplementation in overweight/obese individuals for 12 weeks. The subjects were randomised to whey protein, casein or glucose supplementation for 12 weeks according to a parallel design. Fasting blood samples and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements were taken. Seventy men and women with a mean age of 48.4 (SEM 0.86) years and a mean BMI of 31.3 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2 completed the study. Subjects supplemented with whey protein had no significant change in body composition or serum glucose at 12 weeks compared with the control or casein group. Fasting TAG levels were significantly lowered in the whey group compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P = 0.025) and 12 weeks (P = 0.035). There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol at week 12 in the whey group compared with the casein (P = 0.026 and 0.045, respectively) and control groups (P < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores were also significantly decreased in the whey group compared with the control group (P = 0.049 and P = 0.034, respectively). The present study demonstrated that supplementation with whey proteins improves fasting lipids and insulin levels in overweight and obese individuals.

  9. Behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains during adaptation to unfavourable conditions of fermentation on synthetic medium: cell lipid composition, membrane integrity, viability and fermentative activity.

    PubMed

    Mannazzu, Ilaria; Angelozzi, Daniele; Belviso, Simona; Budroni, Marilena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Marzona, Mario; Bardi, Laura

    2008-01-15

    During must fermentation wine strains are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses which, when prevailing over the cellular defence systems, can affect cell viability with negative consequences on the progression of the fermentative process. To investigate the ability of wine strains to survive and adapt to unfavourable conditions of fermentation, the lipid composition, membrane integrity, cell viability and fermentative activity of three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed during hypoxic growth in a sugar-rich medium lacking lipid nutrients. These are stressful conditions, not unusual during must fermentation, which, by affecting lipid biosynthesis may exert a negative effect on yeast viability. The results obtained showed that the three strains were able to modulate cell lipid composition during fermentation. However, only two of them, which showed highest viability and membrane integrity at the end of the fermentation process, reached a fatty acid composition which seemed to be optimal for a successful adaptation. In particular, C16/TFA and UFA/TFA ratios, more than total lipid and ergosterol contents, seem to be involved in yeast adaptation.

  10. TCDD-Elicited Effects on Liver, Serum, and Adipose Lipid Composition in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewski, Timothy Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates alterations in hepatic lipid composition elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to further investigate the effects of TCDD, liver, serum, and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and lipids were examined in fasted 4-week-old female mice orally gavaged with 30 µg/kg TCDD at 24, 72, and 168h postdose. Mean hepatic FAME levels increased (236.7 µmol/g in controls compared with 392.2 µmol/g in TCDD treated) with minimal changes in gWAT and serum. In the liver, TCDD decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0) and increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs 16:1n7, 18:1n9, and 20:1n9). Hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 20:2n6, 20:3n6, 18:3n3, and 22:5n3 also increased, whereas 20:4n6 and 22:6n3 levels decreased. gWAT PUFAs 20:2n6 and 20:3n6 exhibited modest increases, whereas serum 18:0 decreased and 18:1n9 increased. Serum analyses also identified a ~25% decrease in total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein following TCDD treatment. The decrease in serum CHOL was consistent with the induction of hepatic reverse CHOL transport genes Lcat (2.0-fold), Apoa1 (1.7-fold), and Ldlr (3.6-fold), and the repression of CHOL biosynthesis genes Hmgcs1 (−2.1-fold) and Hmgcr (−2.3-fold). In addition, TCDD decreased serum Apob100 (4.4-fold) and Apob48 (2.2-fold) protein levels, suggesting serum lipid clearance and decreased hepatic efflux. Collectively, the TCDD-elicited decreases in serum lipid levels are consistent with AhR-mediated enhancement of dietary fat distribution to the liver. PMID:22977169

  11. The interaction of mefloquine hydrochloride with cell membrane models at the air-water interface is modulated by the monolayer lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Goto, Thiago Eichi; Caseli, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    The antiparasitic properties of antiparasitic drugs are believed to be associated with their interactions with the protozoan membrane, encouraging research on the identification of membrane sites capable of drug binding. In this study, we investigated the interaction of mefloquine hydrochloride, known to be effective against malaria, with cell membrane models represented by Langmuir monolayers of selected lipids. It is shown that even small amounts of the drug affect the surface pressure-area isotherms as well as surface vibrational spectra of some lipid monolayers, which points to a significant interaction. The effects on the latter depend on the electrical charge of the monolayer-forming molecules, with the drug activity being particularly distinctive for negatively charged lipids. Therefore, the lipid composition of the monolayer modulates the interaction with the lipophilic drug, which may have important implications in understanding how the drug acts on specific sites of the protozoan membrane.

  12. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea) by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Min; Li, Yi; Lu, You; Hou, Yingmei; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g) were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m). Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of lipoprotein

  13. Correlation of serum triglyceride and its reduction by omega-3 fatty acids with lipid transfer activity and the neutral lipid compositions of high-density and low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Brauchi, D; Kilinç, C; Osmundsen, K; Pao, Q; Payton-Ross, C; Gotto, A M; Ballantyne, C M

    1999-04-01

    Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are inversely correlated and mechanistically linked by means of lipid transfer activities. Phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) moves phospholipids among serum lipoproteins; cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA), which exchanges cholesteryl esters (CE) and TG among lipoproteins, is stimulated by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The aims of this study were (a) to develop a quantitative model that correlates the neutral lipid (NL = CE + TG) compositions of HDL and LDL with serum TG concentration; (b) identify the serum lipid determinants of CETA and PLTA, and; (c) identify the effects of serum TG reductions on the neutral lipid compositions of HDL and LDL, serum NEFA concentrations, and on PLTA and CETA. These aims were addressed in 40 hypertriglyceridemic subjects before and after treatment with an 85% concentrate of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) and in 16 untreated normolipidemic subjects. In vivo, the NL compositions of LDL and HDL were described by a mathematical model having the form of adsorption isotherms: HDL - (TG/NL) = (0.90 +/- 0.07) serum TG/(7.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l + serum TG) and LDL - (TG/NL) = (0.65 +/- 0.08) serum TG/(4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/l + serum TG). Reduction of serum TG was associated with reductions in HDL - (TG/NL), serum NEFA concentration, and serum CETA but not PLTA. These data suggest that both hypertriglyceridemia and the attendant elevated serum CETA but not PLTA are determinants of HDL and LDL composition and structure and that serum TG concentrations are good predictors of the NL compositions of HDL and LDL.

  14. A Contrast of the Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition of Oat and Rye Leaves in Relation to Freezing Tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, M.; Steponkus, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    The lipid composition of the plasma membrane isolated from leaves of spring oat (Avena sativa L. cv Ogle) was vastly different from that of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma). The plasma membrane of spring oat contained large proportions of phospholipids (28.8 mol% of the total lipids), cerebrosides (27.2 mol%), and acylated sterylglucosides (27.3 mol%) with lesser proportions of free sterols (8.4 mol%) and sterylglucosides (5.6 mol%). In contrast, the plasma membrane of winter rye contained a greater proportion of phospholipids (36.6 mol%), and there was a lower proportion of cerebrosides (16.4 mol%); free sterols (38.1 mol%) were the predominant sterols, with lesser proportions of sterylglucosides (5.6 mol%) and acylated sterylglucosides (2.9 mol%). Although the relative proportions of individual phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the molecular species of these two phospholipids were similar in oat and rye, the relative proportions of di-unsaturated species of these two phospholipids were substantially lower in oat than in rye. The relative proportions of sterol species in oat were different from those in rye; the molecular species of cerebrosides were similar in oat and rye, with only slight differences in the proportions of the individual species. After 4 weeks of cold acclimation, the proportion of phospholipids increased significantly in both oat (from 28.8 to 36.8 mol%) and rye (from 36.6 to 43.3 mol%) as a result of increases in the proportions of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. For both oat and rye, the relative proportions of di-unsaturated species increased after cold acclimation, but the increase was greater in rye than in oat. In both oat and rye, this increase occurred largely during the first week of cold acclimation. During the 4 weeks of cold acclimation, there was a progressive decrease in the proportion of cerebrosides in the plasma membrane of rye (from 16.4 to 10.5 mol%), but

  15. Understanding and manipulating plant lipid composition: Metabolic engineering leads the way

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Johnathan A; Haslam, Richard P; Beaudoin, Frederic; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of plant seed oil composition so as to deliver enhanced fatty acid compositions suitable for feed or fuel has long been a goal of metabolic engineers. Recent advances in our understanding of the flux of acyl-changes through different key metabolic pools such as phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol have allowed for more targeted interventions. When combined in iterative fashion with further lipidomic analyses, significant breakthroughs in our capacity to generate plants with novel oils have been achieved. Collectively these studies, working at the interface between metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, demonstrate the positive fundamental and applied outcomes derived from such research. PMID:24809765

  16. Dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid causes skeletal muscle metabolic abnormalities in Zucker fatty rats through specific modification of fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    Ohminami, Hirokazu; Amo, Kikuko; Taketani, Yutaka; Sato, Kazusa; Fukaya, Makiko; Uebanso, Takashi; Arai, Hidekazu; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid strongly contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in Zucker fatty rats. However, the underlying mechanisms of the metabolic disorders are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the metabolic disorders were triggered at a stage earlier than the 8 weeks we had previously reported. In this study, we investigated early molecular events induced by the sucrose and linoleic acid diet in Zucker fatty rats by comparison with other combinations of carbohydrate (sucrose or palatinose) and fat (linoleic acid or oleic acid). Skeletal muscle arachidonic acid levels were significantly increased in the sucrose and linoleic acid group compared to the other dietary groups at 4 weeks, while there were no obvious differences in the metabolic phenotype between the groups. Expression of genes related to arachidonic acid synthesis was induced in skeletal muscle but not in liver and adipose tissue in sucrose and linoleic acid group rats. In addition, the sucrose and linoleic acid group exhibited a rapid induction in endoplasmic reticulum stress and abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. We concluded that the dietary combination of sucrose and linoleic acid primarily induces metabolic disorders in skeletal muscle through increases in arachidonic acid and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in advance of systemic metabolic disorders. PMID:25147427

  17. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community.

  18. Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Torstensen, B E; Lie, O; Frøyland, L

    2000-06-01

    Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed four diets containing different oils as the sole lipid source, i.e., capelin oil, oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of capelin oil and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, and palm oil (PO). The beta-oxidation capacity, protein utilization, digestibility of dietary fatty acids and fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, plasma, liver, belly flap, red and white muscle were measured. Further, the lipid class and protein levels in the lipoproteins were analyzed. The different dietary fatty acid compositions did not significantly affect protein utilization or beta-oxidation capacity in red muscle. The levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and protein in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and plasma were not significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. VLDL, LDL, and HDL fatty acid compositions were decreasingly affected by dietary fatty acid composition. Dietary fatty acid composition significantly affected both the relative fatty acid composition and the amount of fatty acids (mg fatty acid per g tissue, wet weight) in belly flap, liver, red and white muscle. Apparent digestibility of the fatty acids, measured by adding yttrium oxide as inert marker, was significantly lower in fish fed the PO diet compared to the other three diets.

  19. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  20. Effect of Salinity on the Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Microbial Mats and Associated Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kubo, M. D.; Des Marais, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern microbial mats are commonly used as analogs for understanding early ecosystem evolution. A primary feature of benthic ecosystems is the fixation of CO2 in the photic zone and transfer and/or mineralization of organic carbon through a diverse tropic structure. Generally, the resulting δ13C values for organic matter relative to DIC is small which indicates that these mats are CO2-limited. Microcoleus mat flux measurements indicate that small amounts of CO2 fixed during the day are lost to the overlying water at night as C13-enriched DIC (Des Marais and Canfield 1994). This loss results in depletion in mat organic matter and is thought to occur as a result of remineralized DIC fixation by chemo- and/or photoautotrophs. We have examined the fate of fixed carbon in hypersaline mats by analysis of the stable C-isotopes of bulk organic carbon and lipid compounds in a laminated-Microcoleus mat (90 ‰, pH 8.6) and in a gypsum-endoevaporitic, Halothece mat (163‰, pH 7.4). In the surface photic zone of Microcoleus mat, the δ13C TOC was -10.0 ‰ with membrane fatty acids (i-15, n-16, n-18, cy-19) ranging from -17.2 to -18.0‰. Cyanobacterial alkanes were similarly depleted (n-17 = -19.5‰). Eurkaryotic sterols and bacterial hopanoids were somewhat enriched with δ13C values ~-15‰. For Microcoleus mat, little variation occurred over 70 mm of core depth. The TOC and FA values for surface, endoevaporitic Halothece mat were generally similar to those of Microcoleus. However, below the surface gypsum crust, discrimination increased. Mass balance calculations for surface FA = -18.5‰ while the FA from layers below the crust = -25.2‰. The δ13C values for cyanobacterial alkanes (~-20‰) were similar from all layers while hopanoids from below crust were slightly depleted relative to those from surface. An apparent increased discrimination during fixation of remineralized DIC presumably by anoxygenic phototrophs present below the surface gypsum crust (Jahnke et al

  1. Blood Bag Plasticizers Influence Red Blood Cell Vesiculation Rate without Altering the Lipid Composition of the Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Beatriz; Serrano, Katherine; dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; Devine, Dana V.; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticized with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used for blood collection and storage. DEHP has protective effects on RBC membranes, but is also a toxin. Methods A paired study was conducted to investigate the influence of DEHP and two alternative plasticizers, 1,2-cyclohexane-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) and n-butyryl-tri-n-hexyl citrate (BTHC), on the preservation of RBCs stored for 42 days in PVC pediatric bags. The RBC membrane was evaluated for supernatant hemoglobin (Hb), release of extracellular microvesicles (EVs), osmotic fragility, deformability, and lipid composition. Results In BTHC-plasticized bags, the supernatant Hb increase during storage was 2 times greater than in DINCH- and DEHP-plasticized bags. By day 21, EV concentrations had doubled from day-5 levels in DINCH- and DEHP-, and trebled in BTHC-plasticized bags. RBC mean cell volumes were greater in BTHC- than in DINCH- or DEHP-plasticized bags (p < 0.001). Osmotic fragility differed significantly among plasticizers (p < 0.01). After day 21, RBC deformability decreased in all, but to a greater extent in the bags with BTHC. Phospholipid composition of RBCs and EVs was not different among plasticizers. Conclusion Membrane stabilization capacity differed among the plasticizers. RBC in BTHC bags stored more poorly, while DEHP and DINCH bags offered better protection against vesiculation, osmotic stress, and Hb loss. PMID:27022319

  2. Modulation of rat testes lipid composition by hormones: Effect of PRL (prolactin) and hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

    SciTech Connect

    Sebokova, E.; Wierzbicki, A.; Clandinin, M.T. )

    1988-10-01

    The effect of prolactin (PRL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration for 7 days on the composition and function of rat testicular plasma membrane was investigated. Refractory state in Leydig cells desensitized by hCG decreased the binding capacity for {sup 125}I-labeled hCG and also luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and testosterone production. In testicular membranes of hCG-treated animals, a depletion of cholesterol and an increase in total phospholipid content was observed after gonadotropin injection, thereby decreasing the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio. Injection of high doses of PRL had no effect on the binding capacity or affinity of the LH-hCG receptor but decreased the response of Leydig cells to LH in terms of cAMP and testosterone synthesis. PRL also increased total and esterified cholesterol and decreased free cholesterol and membrane phospholipid content. The fatty acid composition of testicular lipids was significantly and selectively influenced by both hormonal treatments. These observations suggest that metabolism of cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in testicular tissue is affected by chorionic gonadotropin and PRL and may provide the mechanism for regulating steroidogenic functions.

  3. Role of plasma membrane lipid composition on cellular homeostasis: learning from cell line models expressing fatty acid desaturases

    PubMed Central

    Jaureguiberry, María S.; Tricerri, M. Alejandra; Sanchez, Susana A.; Finarelli, Gabriela S.; Montanaro, Mauro A.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Rimoldi, Omar J.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence has suggested that plasma membrane (PM)-associated signaling and hence cell metabolism and viability depend on lipid composition and organization. The aim of the present work is to develop a cell model to study the endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) effect on PM properties and analyze its influence on cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis. We have previously shown that by using a cell line over-expressing stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, membrane composition and organization coordinate cellular pathways involved in Chol efflux and cell viability by different mechanisms. Now, we expanded our studies to a cell model over-expressing both Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases, which resulted in a permanently higher PUFA content in PM. Furthermore, this cell line showed increased PM fluidity, Chol storage, and mitochondrial activity. In addition, human apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Chol removal was less efficient in these cells than in the corresponding control. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell functionality is preserved by regulating PM organization and Chol exportation and homeostasis. PMID:24473084

  4. Role of plasma membrane lipid composition on cellular homeostasis: learning from cell line models expressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, María S; Tricerri, M Alejandra; Sanchez, Susana A; Finarelli, Gabriela S; Montanaro, Mauro A; Prieto, Eduardo D; Rimoldi, Omar J

    2014-04-01

    Experimental evidence has suggested that plasma membrane (PM)-associated signaling and hence cell metabolism and viability depend on lipid composition and organization. The aim of the present work is to develop a cell model to study the endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) effect on PM properties and analyze its influence on cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis. We have previously shown that by using a cell line over-expressing stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, membrane composition and organization coordinate cellular pathways involved in Chol efflux and cell viability by different mechanisms. Now, we expanded our studies to a cell model over-expressing both Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases, which resulted in a permanently higher PUFA content in PM. Furthermore, this cell line showed increased PM fluidity, Chol storage, and mitochondrial activity. In addition, human apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Chol removal was less efficient in these cells than in the corresponding control. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell functionality is preserved by regulating PM organization and Chol exportation and homeostasis.

  5. Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.

    PubMed

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets.

  6. Evaluation of Antiradical Activity of Different Cocoa and Chocolate Products: Relation with Lipid and Protein Composition

    PubMed Central

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

  7. Heterogeneity in Lipid Composition of the Outer Membrane and Cytoplasmic Membrane of Pseudomonas BAL-31

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, D. L.; Cota-Robles, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The outer membranes and cytoplasmic membranes of the marine bacterium Pseudomonas BAL-31 were separated by washing the cells three times in 0.5 M NaCl and twice in 0.5 M sucrose. Electron microscopy during the removal of membranes revealed that the outer membranes fragmented in a regular manner to give rise to fairly uniform vesicles measuring approximately 140 nm in diameter. Isolated outer membranes had a buoyant density in sucrose of 1.230 g per cm3, whereas the cytoplasmic membranes had a density of 1.194 g per cm3. The removal of the outer membrane during the application of this procedure was monitored by measuring the release of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and phospholipid. The cells lost 85.5% of their 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and 47.3% of their phospholipid during this treatment. Complete recovery of outer membrane material could be achieved. The removal of 25.5% of the 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid and 0.9% of the phospholipid rendered the cells sensitive to lysis with Triton X-100. The phospholipid composition of the outer membrane was calculated to be 78.9% phosphatidylethanolamine and 16.1% phosphatidylglycerol. The phospholipid composition of the cytoplasmic membrane proved to be 71.5% phosphatidylethanolamine and 23.5% phosphatidylglycerol. The fatty acid composition was also found to be quantitatively heterogeneous between the two membranes. Images PMID:4852262

  8. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  9. Regional variation in shea butter lipid and triterpene composition in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Di Vincenzo, Daria; Maranz, Steve; Serraiocco, Arnaldo; Vito, Raffaella; Wiesman, Zeev; Bianchi, Giorgio

    2005-09-21

    The triacylglycerol, fatty acid, and polycyclic triterpene compositions of shea butter were determined for 150 samples from the sub-Saharan countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. The compositional profiles showed high variability in all three classes of compounds. Shea butter is made up mainly of four triglycerides (TAG) differing in carbon number (CN) by two, starting from CN 50 to CN 56. The greatest source of variation was in the CN 54 TAG. Shea butter is characterized by 16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in greatly varying proportion, the major ones being the even homologues in the range of C(16)-C(20). Oleic acid is dominant in Ugandan provenances, whereas stearic acid is dominant in West African shea butter. Acetyl and cinnamyl polycyclic triterpene means for countries ranged from 3.69 to 12.57%, with the highest values found in Nigerian provenances. Statistical comparisons of fat composition show that the geographic distance between shea populations is reflected in the degree of separation of their chemical profiles.

  10. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  11. The effect of a lipid composition and a surfactant on the characteristics of the solid lipid microspheres and nanospheres (SLM and SLN).

    PubMed

    Sznitowska, Malgorzata; Wolska, Eliza; Baranska, Helena; Cal, Krzysztof; Pietkiewicz, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    Solid lipid microparticles (SLM) were produced by a two-step process that, firstly, involved the emulsification of the molten lipid phase in a heated aqueous phase and, secondly, the system cooling. Compritol 888 ATO and Precirol ATO 5, including their mixtures with Miglyol 812 or Witepsol H15 were used as lipid components (10-30% w/w). The average size of the SLM prepared with Compritol and Tween 80 as an emulsifier was 3-7μm and the influence of lipid concentration and thermal sterilization was not large. Dispersions of SLM with Precirol (10-20% w/w) gellified upon storage. SLM stabilized with another surfactant, Tego Care 450, were larger in size and measured 40μm on average. The use of the sonication step (5-15min) in hot formulations containing 5% w/w of Compritol resulted in the formation of the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with average size 200-300nm. The smallest SLN size (below 100nm on average) was obtained in SLN that contained Tego Care and an antimicrobial agent Euxyl PE 9010; such combination evoked synergism between the surfactant and Euxyl components.

  12. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  13. Temperature and pH control on lipid composition of silica sinters from diverse hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Mountain, Bruce W; Stott, Matthew B; Hopmans, Ellen C; Pancost, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Microbial adaptations to environmental extremes, including high temperature and low pH conditions typical of geothermal settings, are of interest in astrobiology and origin of life investigations. The lipid biomarkers preserved in silica deposits associated with six geothermal areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone were investigated and variations in lipid composition as a function of temperature and pH were assessed. Lipid analyses reveal highly variable abundances and distributions, reflecting community composition as well as adaptations to extremes of pH and temperature. Biomarker profiles reveal three distinct microbial assemblages across the sites: the first in Champagne Pool and Loop Road, the second in Orakei Korako, Opaheke and Ngatamariki, and the third in Rotokawa. Similar lipid distributions are observed in sinters from physicochemically similar springs. Furthermore, correlation between lipid distributions and geothermal conditions is observed. The ratio of archaeol to bacterial diether abundance, bacterial diether average chain length, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices typically increase with temperature. At lower pH, the ratio of archaeol to bacterial diethers, degree of GDGT cyclisation and C31 and C32 hopanoic acid indices are typically higher. No trends in fatty acid distributions with temperature or pH are evident, likely reflecting overprinting due to population influences.

  14. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P < 0.01), palmitic (16:0, r = 0.80, P < 0.001), stearic (18:0, r = -0.58, P < 0.01), and oleic (18:1c-9, r = 0.79, P < 0.001) acids. For PCD, significant relationships were found between marbling and palmitic (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) and oleic (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) acids. Microsomal fractions prepared from PCD muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), total PAP (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), and PAP-1 (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) specific activities. The results on FA compositions of whole muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA.

  16. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  17. Reproductive cycle and seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition in gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica in relation to temperature and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2013-09-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005, seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions ( e.g., temperature and food availability). Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad. Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn, whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6°C). The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter. In both neutral and polar lipids, the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant, with series n-3 as the predominant component. Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle. The Σ(n-3) and Σ(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May, and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months. The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F. mutica.

  18. Effect of phosphorous concentrations on sedimentary distributions and isotopic composition of algal lipid biomarkers in lakes from central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, N.; Dubois, N.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes in the Swiss central plateau experienced increasing anthropogenic phosphorous loading throughout much of the 20th century. Since the 1980s concerted remediation efforts on the part of the Swiss government have significantly reduced P concentrations in most lakes and reversed previous eutrophication. However, P concentrations remain elevated above their preindustrial levels in many sites. High quality monitoring of lake nutrient levels since the 1950s, along with several lakes of wide-ranging P concentrations in close proximity, make central Switzerland an ideal location for studying the ways in which nutrient loading affects the organic composition of lacustrine sediments. Results of such studies can be used to develop proxies of eutrophication in sites where fewer historical data exist, and to reconstruct historical P concentrations in local lakes from the time before record keeping began. We analyzed the distributions of algal lipid biomarkers from surface sediment and sediment traps collected in the spring of 2015 from ten lakes with variable P concentrations in central Switzerland. Sedimentary lipid distributions from these lakes confirm that biomarkers associated with algal and cyanobacterial sources are more abundant in the sediment of lakes with greater P loading. The dry sedimentary concentrations of biomarkers such as brassicasterol (primarily diatom source) and diplopterol (cyanobacteria source), as well as the less source specific short-chain n-alkanols, linearly increase from 0.3 - 1.9 μg/g as total phosphorous in the upper water column increases by 1 μg/L over a range of 7 - 50 μg/L. We also present preliminary hydrogen isotope data from these biomarkers. Hydrogen isotopes of algal lipids primarily reflect the source water in which the algae grew, and this relationship has been developed as a paleohydrologic proxy. However, laboratory cultures of marine algae demonstrate that they discriminate more against 2H under nutrient replete conditions

  19. Influence of Growth Phase, pH, and Temperature on the Abundance and Composition of Tetraether Lipids in the Thermoacidophile Picrophilus torridus

    PubMed Central

    Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Chen, Yufei; Jia, Chengling; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Boyd, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and composition of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) and glycerol tribiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GTGT) lipids were determined as a function of growth phase as a proxy for nutrient availability, the pH of growth medium, and incubation temperature in cultures of the thermoacidophile Picrophilus torridus. Regardless of the cultivation condition, the abundance of GDGTs and GTGTs was greater in the polar than core fraction, with a marked decrease in core GDGTs in cultures harvested during log phase growth. These data are consistent with previous suggestions indicating that core GDGTs are re-functionalized during polar lipid synthesis. Under all conditions examined, polar lipids were enriched in a GDGT with 2 cyclopentyl rings (GDGT-2), indicating GDGT-2 is the preferred lipid in this taxon. However, lag or stationary phase grown cells or cells subjected to pH or thermal stress were enriched in GDGTs with 4, 5, or 6 rings and depleted in GDGTs with 1, 2, 3, rings relative to log phase cells grown under optimal conditions. Variation in the composition of polar GDGT lipids in cells harvested during various growth phases tended to be greater than in cells cultivated over a pH range of 0.3–1.1 and a temperature range of 53–63°C. These results suggest that the growth phase, the pH of growth medium, and incubation temperature are all important factors that shape the composition of tetraether lipids in Picrophilus. The similarity in enrichment of GDGTs with more rings in cultures undergoing nutrient, pH, and thermal stress points to GDGT cyclization as a generalized physiological response to stress in this taxon. PMID:27625636

  20. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  1. The β-subunit of cholera toxin has a high affinity for ganglioside GM1 embedded into solid supported lipid membranes with a lipid raft-like composition.

    PubMed

    Margheri, G; D'Agostino, R; Trigari, S; Sottini, S; Del Rosso, M

    2014-02-01

    In this communication, we report on the fabrication of GM1-rich solid-supported bilayer lipid membranes (ssBLM) made of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, the main components of lipid rafts,which are the physiological hosting microenvironment of GM1 on the cell membrane. The functionality of the ganglioside has been checked by measuring the apparent dissociation constant K(D) of the complex formed by the β-subunit of the cholera toxin and GM1. The value found deviates less than one order of magnitude from that measured for in vivo cells, indicating the potential of these ssBLM as optimized in vitro biomimetic platforms.

  2. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    PubMed

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  3. Effects of fermentatively recovered fish waste lipids on the growth and composition of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, M A; Domendra, D; Muthukumar, S P; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of feeding fermentatively recovered fish oil (FFO) from fish processing waste (FPW), on the performance and carcass composition of broilers. A total of 60 one-d-old VenCobb broiler chicks randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups were studied. 2. The birds were randomly assigned to treatment groups and fed with a normal commercial diet (control, T1), a diet with 2% groundnut oil (positive control, T2), a diet with 1% FFO (T3), a diet with 1.5% FFO (T4) and a diet with 2% FFO (T5). Performance and growth parameters (feed intake and body weight) and fatty acid composition of serum, liver and meat were determined. 3. The performance characteristics of broiler meat did not differ among treatments. Feeding FFO reduced total cholesterol concentration in serum, meat and liver of the FFO-fed groups (T3 to T5) as compared to both the controls (T1 and T2), but there was no significant difference in triglyceride concentration between treatments. Increased concentrations of EPA and DHA in serum, liver and meat of FFO-fed groups, as compared to both controls, were observed as the FFO concentration increased. 4. The study clearly demonstrates the value of oil recovered from FPW in addition to addressing the environmental issues related to disposal of such biological waste.

  4. Biliary lipid, bile acid composition, and dietary correlations in Micmac Indian women. A population study.

    PubMed

    Williams, C N; Johnston, J L; McCarthy, S; Field, C A

    1981-01-01

    The precursor state for cholesterol gallstone formation is cholesterol-saturated bile. We studied a high-risk group for cholesterol gallstones to determine whether dietary variables affect bile cholesterol. Bile samples were analyzed from 46 Micmac Indian women without gallstones and 13 with gallstones for molar percentage cholesterol (MPC) and bile acid composition. The data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis with MPC as the dependent variable and the dietary variables, obtained from four consecutive-day food records, and biliary bile acid composition as the independent variables. In the 46 women without gallstones, obesity, calorie range/calorie intake, and iron and calcium intake were, in their order of importance, significant factors. In normal weight subjects (ponderal index > 12.5) relative obesity was still a significant correlate. Obesity and iron intake were positive correlates while calorie range/calorie intake and calcium intake varied inversely. When the effect of obesity was controlled, these factors were still significant in this group, as they were in the gallstone group. In addition, the duration of overnight fast obtained by history, together with the proportions of deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in bile were correlates of the biliary molar percentage cholesterol.

  5. Effect of sterol esters on lipid composition and antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of coronary heart disease. Erythrocyte membrane is affected during hypercholesterolemia. The effect of EPA-DHA rich sterol ester and ALA rich sterol ester on erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and changes in antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane were studied. Erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility of the membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities was analyzed. Osmotic fragility data suggested that the erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemia was relatively more fragile than that of the normal rats' membrane which could be reversed with the addition of sterol esters in the diet. The increased plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats could also be lowered by the sterol ester administration. There was also marked changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocyte membrane. Antioxidant enzyme levels decreased in the membrane of the hypercholesterolemic subjects were increased with the treatment of the sterol esters. The antioxidative activity of ALA rich sterol ester was better in comparison to EPA-DHA rich sterol ester. In conclusion, rat erythrocytes appear to be deformed and became more fragile in cholesterol rich blood. This deformity and fragility was partially reversed by sterol esters by virtue of their ability to lower the extent of hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Impact of Lipid Composition and Receptor Conformation on the Spatio-temporal Organization of μ-Opioid Receptors in a Multi-component Plasma Membrane Model

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Kristen A.; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The lipid composition of cell membranes has increasingly been recognized as playing an important role in the function of various membrane proteins, including G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). For instance, experimental and computational evidence has pointed to lipids influencing receptor oligomerization directly, by physically interacting with the receptor, and/or indirectly, by altering the bulk properties of the membrane. While the exact role of oligomerization in the function of class A GPCRs such as the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is still unclear, insight as to how these receptors oligomerize and the relevance of the lipid environment to this phenomenon is crucial to our understanding of receptor function. To examine the effect of lipids and different MOR conformations on receptor oligomerization we carried out extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of crystal structures of inactive and/or activated MOR embedded in an idealized mammalian plasma membrane composed of 63 lipid types asymmetrically distributed across the two leaflets. The results of these simulations point, for the first time, to specific direct and indirect effects of the lipids, as well as the receptor conformation, on the spatio-temporal organization of MOR in the plasma membrane. While sphingomyelin-rich, high-order lipid regions near certain transmembrane (TM) helices of MOR induce an effective long-range attractive force on individual protomers, both long-range lipid order and interface formation are found to be conformation dependent, with a larger number of different interfaces formed by inactive MOR compared to active MOR. PMID:27959924

  7. Lipid and fatty acid composition of cytoplasmic membranes from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and its stable protoplast-type L form.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Gura, K; Luge, C; Gumpert, J

    1997-01-01

    The cells of an L-form strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus have been grown for 20 years without a cell wall. Their cytoplasmic membranes have high stability and an unusual structural polymorphism. To clarify the importance of the lipid components for these membrane properties, a comparative analysis has been carried out with purified membranes of L-form cells, of parent vegetative hyphal cells (N-form cells), and of protoplasts derived from the latter. The phospholipid classes and fatty acids were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), two-dimensional TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The qualitative compositions of cardiolipin (CL), lyso-cardiolipin (LCL), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE1 and PE2), lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositolmannoside (PIM), phosphatidic acid (PA), dilyso-cardiolipin-phosphatidylinositol (DLCL-PI), and the 13 main fatty acids were the same in the three membrane types. However, significant quantitative differences were observed in the L-form membrane. They consist of a three- to fourfold-higher content of total, extractable lipids, 20% more phospholipids, an increased content of CL and PIM, and a reduced amount of the component DLCL-PI. Furthermore, the L-form membrane is characterized by a higher content of branched anteiso 15:0 and anteiso 17:0 fatty acids compared to that of the membranes of the walled vegetative cells. These fatty acids have lower melting points than their straight and iso-branched counterparts and make the membrane more fluid. The phospholipid composition of the protoplast membrane differs quantitatively from that of the N form and the L form. Whereas the phospholipid classes are mostly similar to that of the N form, the fatty acid pattern tends to be closer to that of the L-form membrane. The membranes of both the L-form cells and the protoplasts need to be more fluid because of their spherical cell shape and higher degree of curvature

  8. Abnormal bone composition in female juvenile American alligators from a pesticide-polluted lake (Lake Apopka, Florida).

    PubMed

    Lind, P Monica; Milnes, Matthew R; Lundberg, Rebecca; Bermudez, Dieldrich; Orberg, Jan A; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive disorders have been found in pesticide-exposed alligators living in Lake Apopka, Florida (USA). These disorders have been hypothesized to be caused by exposure to endocrine- disruptive estrogen-like contaminants. The aim of this study was to expand our analysis beyond previous studies by investigating whether bone tissue, known to be affected by sex steroid hormones, is a potential target of endocrine disruptors. Long bones from 16 juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka (pesticide-contaminated lake) and Lake Woodruff (control lake) were evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We observed significant differences in bone composition, with female alligators from the contaminated lake having greater trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), total BMD, and trabecular mineral content compared with females from the control lake (p < 0.05). Increased trabecular and total BMD measurements suggest that juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka were exposed to contaminants that created an internal environment more estrogenic than that normally observed. This estrogenic environment could be caused by both natural and anthropogenic compounds. Effects on BMD indicate interference with bone homeostasis. We hypothesize that contaminants present in the lake inhibit the natural and continuous resorption of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone mass. Although this is the only study performed to date examining effects of environmental estrogenic compounds on alligator bones, it supports previous laboratory-based studies in rodents. Further, this study is important in demonstrating that the alterations in morphology and physiology induced in free-ranging individuals living in environments contaminated with endocrine-active compounds are not limited to a few systems or tissues; rather, effects can be observed in many tissues affected by these hormones.

  9. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  10. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  11. Effect of low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function.

    PubMed

    Healy, D A; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Newsholm, P

    2000-07-01

    Although essential to host defense, neutrophils are also involved in numerous inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Dietary supplementation with relatively large amounts of fish oil [containing >2.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus 1.4 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day] can attenuate neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production. In this study, the effects of more moderate supplementation with fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function were investigated. The rationale for using lower supplementary doses of fish oil was to avoid adverse gastrointestinal problems, which have been observed at high supplementary concentrations of fish oil. Healthy male volunteers aged <40 yr were randomly assigned to consume one of six dietary supplements daily for 12 wk (n = 8 per treatment group). The dietary supplements included four different concentrations of fish oil (the most concentrated fish oil provided 0.58 g EPA plus 1.67 g DHA per day), linseed oil, and a placebo oil. The percentages of EPA and DHA increased (both P < 0.05) in neutrophil phospholipids in a dose-dependent manner after 4 wk of supplementation with the three most concentrated fish oil supplements. No further increases in EPA or DHA levels were observed after 4 wk. The percentage of arachidonic acid in neutrophil phospholipids decreased (P < 0.05) after 12 wk supplementation with the linseed oil supplement or the two most concentrated fish oil supplements. There were no significant changes in N-formyl-met-leu-phe-induced chemotaxis and superoxide radical production following the dietary supplementations. In conclusion, low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil can be used to manipulate neutrophil fatty acid composition. However, this may not be accompanied by modulation of neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production.

  12. Early changes in the fatty acid composition of photosynthetic membrane lipids from Populus nigra grown on a metallurgical landfill.

    PubMed

    Le Guédard, Marina; Faure, Olivier; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    We compared the fatty acid composition of leaves taken from poplars on a metal-contaminated landfill, and on the uncontaminated roadside bordering this site. For the first time, it is shown that the percentage of linolenic acid, which is mainly associated with thylakoid lipids, was significantly lower in tree species within the landfill than within the control area. A correlation study was carried out to investigate relationships between the C18:3/(C18:0 + C18:1 + C18:2) fatty acid ratios and the metal contents in soils and leaves. Lead and chromium leaf contents were significantly negatively correlated to this fatty acid ratio. The impact of each of these metals remains difficult to evaluate, but chromium in leaf likely plays a major role in toxicity. In addition, the decrease in the C18:3/(C18:0 + C18:1 + C18:2) fatty acid ratio occurred at low leaf metal content, and therefore it is shown that this ratio can be used as an early indicator of the effect of metals.

  13. Molecular distributions and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of lipids in wintertime aerosols from Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lujie; Fu, Pingqing; He, Yue; Hou, Juzhi; Chen, Jing; Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-06-08

    Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ(13)C) of n-alkanes, fatty acids and n-alcohols were investigated in urban aerosols from Beijing, northern China to better understand the sources and long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter during polluted and clear days in winter. n-Alkanes (C19-C36), fatty acids (C8-C32) and n-alcohols (C16-C32) detected in Beijing aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C23, C16 and C28, respectively. Carbon preference index (CPI) values of n-alkanes, the ratios of the sum of odd-numbered n-alkanes to the sum of even-numbered n-alkanes, are close to 1, indicating a heavy influence of fossil fuel combustion. Relatively higher ratios of C(18:0+16:0)/C(18:n+16:1) (fatty acids) on clear days than polluted days indicate that long-distance transport and/or photochemical aging are more significant during clear days. δ(13)C values of n-alkanes and low molecular weight fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0) ranged from -34.1 to -24.7% and -26.9 to -24.6%, respectively, which are generally heavier on polluted days than those on clear days. Such a wide range suggests that atmospheric lipids in Beijing aerosols originate from multiple sources and encounter complicated atmospheric processes during long-range transport in North China.

  14. Effects of pH and Temperature on the Composition of Polar Lipids in Thermoplasma acidophilum HO-62 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Haruo; Nemoto, Naoki; Shida, Yasuo; Oshima, Tairo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2008-01-01

    Thermoplasma acidophilum HO-62 was grown at different pHs and temperatures, and its polar lipid compositions were determined. Although the number of cyclopentane rings in the caldarchaeol moiety increased when T. acidophilum was cultured at high temperature, the number decreased at low pHs. Glycolipids, phosphoglycolipids, and phospholipids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light-scattering detector. The amount of caldarchaeol with more than two sugar units on one side increased under low-pH and high-temperature conditions. The amounts of glycolipids increased and those of phosphoglycolipids decreased under these conditions. The proton permeability of the liposomes obtained from the phosphoglycolipids that contained two or more sugar units was lower than that of the liposomes obtained from the phosphoglycolipids that contained one sugar unit. From these results, we propose the hypothesis that T. acidophilum adapts to low pHs and high temperatures by extending sugar chains on their cell surfaces, as well as by varying the number of cyclopentane rings. PMID:18539746

  15. Thermococcus kodakarensis modulates its polar membrane lipids and elemental composition according to growth stage and phosphate availability

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Travis B.; Gagen, Emma J.; Loscar, Michael E.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Wendt, Jenny; Thomm, Michael; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    We observed significant changes in the elemental and intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis (KOD1) in response to growth stage and phosphorus supply. Reducing the amount of organic supplements and phosphate in growth media resulted in significant decreases in cell size and cellular quotas of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), which coincided with significant increases in cellular IPL quota and IPLs comprising multiple P atoms and hexose moieties. Relatively more cellular P was stored as IPLs in P-limited cells (2–8%) compared to control cells (<0.8%). We also identified a specific IPL biomarker containing a phosphatidyl-N-acetylhexoseamine headgroup that was relatively enriched during rapid cell division. These observations serve as empirical evidence of IPL adaptations in Archaea that will help to interpret the distribution of these biomarkers in natural systems. The reported cell quotas of C, N, and P represent the first such data for a specific archaeon and suggest that thermophiles are C-rich compared to the cell carbon-to-volume relationship reported for planktonic bacteria. PMID:24523718

  16. Lipid and fatty acid/alcohol compositions of the subarctic copepods Neocalanus cristatus and Eucalanus bungii from various depths in the Oyashio region, western North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Nishida, Shuhei; Graeve, Martin; Kattner, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipids of Neocalanus cristatus and Eucalanus bungii (C3 to adults), collected in March, May, and December from various depths (0-2000m) were studied in the Oyashio region, western North Pacific. Total lipid and wax ester contents of younger N. cristatus stages increased during the development, being higher in May than in March and December. Major fatty acids of younger N. cristatus were 16:0, 20:5(n-3), and 22:6(n-3) and the dominant alcohols were 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 20:1(n-9)/(n-11) and 22:1(n-11). The energy-rich 20:1 and 22:1 moieties increased from the younger to the adult stages showing the importance of lipid biosynthesis which may be advantageous for successful overwintering and reproduction at depth. The 16:4(n-1) fatty acid, characteristic of a diatom diet increased in May, particularly in the younger stages. Our results suggest that the diatom-dominated feeding mode of younger N. cristatus during the spring bloom is important for an effective accumulation of wax esters. In contrast to N. cristatus, E. bungii accumulated substantial amounts of triacylglycerols. The total lipid and triacylglycerol content increased slightly toward the older developmental stages. The major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-9) and (n-7), and 20:5(n-3). There was no evidence of developmental or seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition. The differences in the lipid storage modes of both copepods via wax esters or triacylglycerols are species-specific but their fatty acid compositions varied according to diet and developmental stage, especially in N. cristatus. These lipid characteristics are discussed in relation to reproduction, feeding modes, diapause and overwintering strategies.

  17. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin: lipid composition and thermal phase behavior of the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith; Somerharju, Pentti; Wertz, Philip; Urtti, Arto; Suhonen, Marjukka

    2008-04-01

    The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the present study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramides (NP) were absent. Also some alterations in fatty acid profiles of ROC ceramides were noted, e.g., esterified omega-hydroxyacid-sphingosine contained increased levels of oleic acid instead of linoleic acid. The fraction of lipids covalently bound to corneocyte proteins was distinctly lower in ROC compared to human skin, in agreement with the results from DSC. ROC underwent a lipid lamellar order to disorder transition (T2) at a slightly lower temperature (68 degrees C) than human skin (74 degrees C). These differences in stratum corneum lipid composition and the thermal phase transitions may explain the minor differences previously observed in drug permeation between ROC and human skin.

  18. Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J V

    1984-01-01

    Ten years after an incident in which workers were exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) a controlled biochemical study showed statistically significant increases in the serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of workers both with and without chloracne. Urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid was significantly higher for all workers. PMID:6232943

  19. Postglacial climate-change record in biomarker lipid compositions of the Hani peat sequence, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijian; Zheng, Yanhong; Meyers, Philip A.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Xie, Shucheng

    2010-05-01

    The peat sequence at Hani in northeastern China accumulated over the past 16 cal kyr in a percolation mire in which rain water and ground water seeped through the peat system. The molecular compositions of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-alkanoic acids extracted from the Hani peat sequence reveal different responses to the progressive evolution of climate and changes in the nature of the peat-forming vegetation. Long chain length components that originate from the waxy coatings of subaerial vascular plants dominate the n-alkane distributions throughout the Hani peat sequence. The paleoclimate integrity of these biomarker molecules appears to be well preserved. Most of the n-alkanol distributions are similarly dominated by long chain components that indicate their origins from subaerial plants. In contrast, n-alkanoic acid distributions are dominated by secondary components that record the importance of post-depositional microbial activity in this peat sequence, which evidently can be extensive in a percolation mire. Elevated n-alkane Paq values and C 23/C 29 ratios, which are both molecular proxies for water-loving plants, record an especially moist local climate in the Bølling-Allerød (14.5 to 12.9 ka), Younger Dryas (12.9 to 11.5 ka), and Pre-Boreal (11.5 to 10.5 ka) portions of the Hani peat sequence. Depressed Paq values and C 23/C 29 ratios and larger n-alkane average chain length values indicate that the Holocene Climatic Optimum (10.5 to 6 ka) was a period of warmer climate with lower effective precipitation, which contrasts with evidence of wetter climates in most of East Asia.

  20. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  1. "Long-term callisthenic exercise-related changes in blood lipids, homocysteine, nitric oxide levels and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women".

    PubMed

    Guzel, Nevin Atalay; Pınar, Lamia; Colakoglu, Filiz; Karacan, Selma; Ozer, Cigdem

    2012-06-30

    "Regular physical exercise plays an important role in reducing obesity, preventing hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipids and reducing systemic blood pressure. But the question about the nature of the relationship between homocysteine, nitric oxide and physical activity remains unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of callisthenic exercises on plasma lipids, homocysteine (Hcy), total nitric oxide (NOx) and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women. Forty-two middle-aged women (ages: 28-49; mean: 41.40 ± 7.3 years) were asked to perform a callisthenic exercise 50 min per session, 3 times per week for 12 weeks in a sports hall. Before and after the exercise, plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride), Hcy and NO were determined. Body composition, including body mass index, fat percentage, fat free mass, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were measured. After a 12-week callisthenic exercise program, plasma NOx and Hcy levels were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05). Body composition parameters, lipid profile, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Aerobic callisthenic exercises characterized by 50 min/day and 3 days/week resulted in positive changes in important health parameters like reducing obesity, lowering blood lipids and increasing plasma NOx. Cardiovascular improvements might be dependent on the increase of NOx values. But callisthenic exercise in such intensity did not lower the plasma Hcy level. Moreover, Hcy level increased significantly. The result shows that if the Hcy is in the normal levels in healthy subjects, long-term callisthenic exercise do not decrease the Hcy levels despite some beneficial effects on health. On the contrary, the Hcy levels are increased by long-term callisthenic exercises."

  2. Influence of the dietary protein:lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Karalazos, Vasileios; Bendiksen, Eldar Å; Dick, James R; Tocher, Douglas R; Bell, John Gordon

    2011-04-01

    A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temperatures (sub-optimal, summer temperatures: 11·6°C). The six experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated to include either FO or RO (60 % of the added oil) at three dietary protein:lipid levels, specifically (1) 350 g/kg protein and 350 g/kg lipid, (2) 330 g/kg protein and 360 g/kg lipid, (3) 290 g/kg protein and 380 g/kg lipid. Final weight, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient were positively affected by the dietary RO inclusion at the expense of FO, while no significant effects were seen on growth due to the decreasing protein level. The oil source had a significant effect on muscle and liver FA composition. However, the changes in muscle and liver FA indicate selective utilisation or retention of individual FA and moderate reductions in tissue EPA and DHA. Pyloric caeca phospholipid FA composition was significantly affected by the two factors and, in some cases, significant interactions were also revealed. Liver and red muscle β-oxidation capacities were significantly increased due to RO inclusion, while an interactive effect of protein level and oil source was shown for white muscle β-oxidation capacity. The results could explain, at least partially, the better performance that was shown for the RO groups and the enhanced protein-sparing effect.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using commercial proteases: effects on lipid distribution and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kechaou, Emna Soufi; Dumay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Jaouen, Pascal; Gouygou, Jean-Paul; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-02-01

    Total lipid and phospholipid recovery as well as amino acid quality and composition from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were compared. Enzymatic hydrolyses were performed using the three proteases Protamex, Alcalase, and Flavourzyme by the pH-stat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). Three fractions were generated: an insoluble sludge, a soluble aqueous phase, and an oily phase. For each fraction, lipids, phospholipids, and proteins were quantified. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the raw material and hydrolysates were performed. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) for cuttlefish viscera was 3.2% using Protamex, 6.8% using Flavourzyme, and 7% using Alcalase. DH for sardine viscera was 1.9% (using Flavourzyme), 3.1% (using Protamex) and 3.3% (using Alcalase). Dry matter yields of all hydrolysis reactions increased in the aqueous phases. Protein recovery following hydrolysis ranged from 57.2% to 64.3% for cuttlefish and 57.4% to 61.2% for sardine. Tissue disruption following protease treatment increased lipid extractability, leading to higher total lipid content after hydrolysis. At least 80% of the lipids quantified in the raw material were distributed in the liquid phases for both substrates. The hydrolysed lipids were richer in phospholipids than in the lipids extracted by classical chemical extraction, especially after Flavourzyme hydrolysis for cuttlefish and Alcalase hydrolysis for sardine. The total amino acid content differed according to the substrate and the enzyme used. However, regardless of the raw material or the protease used, hydrolysis increased the level of essential amino acids in the hydrolysates, thereby increasing their potential nutritional value for feed products.

  4. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio.

  5. The C-terminal Cytosolic Region of Rim21 Senses Alterations in Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition: INSIGHTS INTO SENSING MECHANISMS FOR PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPID ASYMMETRY.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Kanako; Obara, Keisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2015-12-25

    Yeast responds to alterations in plasma membrane lipid asymmetry and external alkalization via the sensor protein Rim21 in the Rim101 pathway. However, the sensing mechanism used by Rim21 remains unclear. Here, we found that the C-terminal cytosolic domain of Rim21 (Rim21C) fused with GFP was associated with the plasma membrane under normal conditions but dissociated upon alterations in lipid asymmetry or external alkalization. This indicates that Rim21C contains a sensor motif. Rim21C contains multiple clusters of charged residues. Among them, three consecutive Glu residues (EEE motif) were essential for Rim21 function and dissociation of Rim21C from the plasma membrane in response to changes in lipid asymmetry. In contrast, positively charged residues adjacent to the EEE motif were required for Rim21C to associate with the membrane. We therefore propose an "antenna hypothesis," in which Rim21C moves to or from the plasma membrane and functions as the sensing mechanism of Rim21.

  6. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.

  7. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes. PMID:26015293

  8. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when usedmore » in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.« less

  9. [Oxidative stress in blood leukocytes, pro/antioxidant status and fatty acids composition of pancreas lipids at experimental acute pancreatitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Pryvrots'ka, I B; Kuchmerovs'ka, T M

    2013-01-01

    In an experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats no alteration in leukocyte's viability was found by flow cytometry as compared to control. After 1 day of AP production of reactive oxygen forms in granulocytes was increased more than 5 times, but after 3 days their level was decreased. Alterations of pro/antioxidant status and specific changes in the fatty acid composition in the pancreas were established. With the development of AP, the processes of lipids peroxidation were intensified while antioxidant system was altered, that was evidenced by inflammation in the pancreas. In these conditions, the increase of phospholipase A2 activity was accompanied by significant changes of fatty acid composition of the total lipids in the pancreas. This increased relative total content of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic, palmitic and stearic acid increased, while the total content of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids omega-3 (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, dokozapentayenoic, docosahexaenoic) decreased. The preparation containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids partially normalized the lipid and fatty acids composition as well as prooxidant-antioxidant system.

  10. Temporal evaluation of body composition, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile of male rats programmed by maternal protein restriction during lactation.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, A T S; Moura, E G; Passos, M C F; Santos-Silva, A P; de Oliveira, E; Trevenzoli, I H; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Nogueira-Neto, J F; Lisboa, P C

    2009-12-01

    Neonatal protein restriction causes lower body weight and hormonal dysfunctions in 6 months-old rats. In this model, we studied the body composition, glycogen content, serum lipid, serum protein, and hormones related to glucose homeostasis in the offspring during development. At birth, lactating rats were divided into: control dams - fed a normal diet (23% protein) and protein restricted dams - fed a diet with 8% protein. After weaning, pups received normal diet. Offspring were killed at 21, 90, and 180 days-old. Protein restricted offspring showed lower visceral fat (90th day: 14%; 180th day: 19%) and lower total fat (90th day: 16%; 180th day: 14%) that explain their lower body weight. They presented lower glycemia (180th day: 17%), lower insulinemia (21st day: 63%; 180th day: 24%), higher adiponectinemia (21st day: 169%), higher liver glycogen (21st day: 104%), and higher muscle glycogen (180th day: 106%), suggesting a higher insulin sensitivity. The higher serum corticosterone (50%), higher adrenal total catecholamines content (98%) as well as in vitro catecholamine secretion (26%) of adult protein restricted offspring, suggest a programming stimulatory effect upon adrenal gland. They also presented several biochemical changes, such as lower serum total protein, albumin and globulin (21st day: 17, 21, 12%, respectively), higher LDL-c (21st day: 69%), lower triglycerides (21st day: 42%; 90th day: 39%), and lower total cholesterol (180th day: 16%). Thus, maternal protein restriction during lactation induces an energy-protein malnutrition, characterized by an impairment of the pup's protein anabolism and, after weaning, the lower adiposity suggests lower lipogenesis and higher lipolytic activity, probably caused by catecholamine and glucocorticoid action.

  11. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    PubMed

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2016-08-03

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P < 0.05), respectively. Insulin resistance determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by 18%. HR during submaximal cycling was 5% lower (P < 0.05), and maximal voluntary contraction force was 8% higher (P < 0.05). Total and visceral fat content was lowered (P < 0.05) by 5% and 14%, respectively, HR at rest was 8% lower (P < 0.05) and performance in four different functional capacity tests were better (P < 0.05) after compared to before the training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men.

  12. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (P< 0·05), 2 h postprandial glucose (P< 0·05) and glucose-area under the curve (AUC) (five measurements over 2 h, P< 0·05) after fish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (P< 0·05), concomitant with increased 30 min and decreased 90 min and 2 h insulin C-peptide level (P< 0·05), and reduced LDL-cholesterol (P< 0·05). Body muscle % was increased (P< 0·05) and body fat % was reduced (P< 0·05) after 4 weeks' supplementation. Physical activity and energy and macronutrients intake did not change during the course of the study. In conclusion, short-term daily supplementation with a low dose of fish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  13. Molecular distributions and compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of lipids in wintertime aerosols from Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lujie; Fu, Pingqing; He, Yue; Hou, Juzhi; Chen, Jing; Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-01-01

    Molecular distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of n-alkanes, fatty acids and n-alcohols were investigated in urban aerosols from Beijing, northern China to better understand the sources and long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial organic matter during polluted and clear days in winter. n-Alkanes (C19–C36), fatty acids (C8–C32) and n-alcohols (C16–C32) detected in Beijing aerosols are characterized by the predominance of C23, C16 and C28, respectively. Carbon preference index (CPI) values of n-alkanes, the ratios of the sum of odd-numbered n-alkanes to the sum of even-numbered n-alkanes, are close to 1, indicating a heavy influence of fossil fuel combustion. Relatively higher ratios of C(18:0+16:0)/C(18:n+16:1) (fatty acids) on clear days than polluted days indicate that long-distance transport and/or photochemical aging are more significant during clear days. δ13C values of n-alkanes and low molecular weight fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0) ranged from –34.1 to −24.7% and −26.9 to −24.6%, respectively, which are generally heavier on polluted days than those on clear days. Such a wide range suggests that atmospheric lipids in Beijing aerosols originate from multiple sources and encounter complicated atmospheric processes during long-range transport in North China. PMID:27270951

  14. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Is a Key Determinant of Membrane Lipid Composition in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Rachel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme important for the regulation of membrane lipid homeostasis; dysregulation likely contributes to obesity associated metabolic disturbances. SCD1 catalyses the Δ9 desaturation of 12-19 carbon saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. To understand its influence in cellular lipid composition we investigated the effect of genetic ablation of SCD1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on membrane microdomain lipid composition at the species-specific level. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 70 species of ceramide, mono-, di- and trihexosylceramide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, phosphatidylinositol and cholesterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which a 90% reduction in scd1 mRNA expression was achieved with siRNA. Cholesterol content was unchanged although decreases in other lipids resulted in cholesterol accounting for a higher proportion of lipid in the membranes. This was associated with decreased membrane lateral diffusion. An increased ratio of 24:0 to 24:1 in ceramide, mono- and dihexosylceramide, and sphingomyelin likely also contributed to this decrease in lateral diffusion. Of particular interest, we observed a decrease in phospholipids containing arachidonic acid. Given the high degree of structural flexibility of this acyl chain this will influence membrane lateral diffusion, and is likely responsible for the transcriptional activation of Lands’ cycle enzymes lpcat3 and mboat7. Of relevance these profound changes in the lipidome were not accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression in mature differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that adaptive homeostatic mechanisms to ensure partial maintenance of the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur at a post-transcriptional level. PMID:27632198

  15. Proper Fatty Acid Composition Rather than an Ionizable Lipid Amine Is Required for Full Transport Function of Lactose Permease from Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Vitrac, Heidi; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William

    2013-01-01

    Energy-dependent uphill transport but not energy-independent downhill transport by lactose permease (LacY) is impaired when expressed in Escherichia coli cells or reconstituted in liposomes lacking phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and containing only anionic phospholipids. The absence of PE results in inversion of the N-terminal half and misfolding of periplasmic domain P7, which are required for uphill transport of substrates. Replacement of PE in vitro by lipids with no net charge (phosphatidylcholine (PC), monoglucosyl diacylglycerol (GlcDAG), or diglucosyl diacylglycerol (GlcGlcDAG)) supported wild type transmembrane topology of the N-terminal half of LacY. The restoration of uphill transport in vitro was dependent on LacY native topology and proper folding of P7. Support of uphill transport by net neutral lipids in vitro (PE > PC ≫ GlcDAG ≠ GlcGlcDAG provided that PE or PC contained one saturated fatty acid) paralleled the results observed previously in vivo (PE = PC > GlcDAG ≠ GlcGlcDAG). Therefore, a free amino group is not required for uphill transport as previously concluded based on the lack of in vitro uphill transport when fully unsaturated PC replaced E. coli-derived PE. A close correlation was observed in vivo and in vitro between the ability of LacY to carry out uphill transport, the native conformation of P7, and the lipid headgroup and fatty acid composition. Therefore, the headgroup and the fatty acid composition of lipids are important for defining LacY topological organization and catalytically important structural features, further illustrating the direct role of lipids, independent of other cellular factors, in defining membrane protein structure/function. PMID:23322771

  16. Associations of Low-Intensity Resistance Training with Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Kawashima, Yu; Tamada, Yoshiki; Furuta, Masashi; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training to increase muscle mass and functional capacity is an integral part of diet and exercise programs for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) may be a practical and safe regimen for elderly obese individuals but the health benefits are uncertain. This study investigated the effects of LST on body composition and metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six obese patients with type 2 diabetes engaged in LST training during hospitalization and were advised to maintain this regimen for 12 weeks after discharge. We compared lipid profile, arterial stiffness, and body composition before and after LST training. After 12 weeks of LST training, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight increased significantly (0.176 ± 0.028 to 0.184 ± 0.023, mean ± SD), while body fat mass and body fat percentage decreased significantly (36.2 ± 10.9 kg to 34.3 ± 9.4 kg and 41.2 ± 8.6% to 40.1 ± 7.7%, respectively). Moreover, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (42.2 ± 14 mg/dl to 46.3 ± 12.4 mg/dl) and both free fatty acids and lipoprotein(a) were decreased (665.2 ± 212.1 μEq/l to 525.4 ± 231.3 μEq/l and 15.4 ± 18 mg/dl to 13.8 ± 18 mg/dl, respectively). No significant change was observed in arterial stiffness. Although this study was a non-controlled investigation and some confounding factors including dietary intake, medication and compliance with training might affect the study result, a brief (12-week) LST training program may be a safe and effective strategy for the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba).

    PubMed

    Albalat, Amaya; Nadler, Lauren E; Foo, Nicholas; Dick, James R; Watts, Andrew J R; Philp, Heather; Neil, Douglas M; Monroig, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area) contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of EPA and DHA and changes in

  18. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba)

    PubMed Central

    Albalat, Amaya; Nadler, Lauren E.; Foo, Nicholas; Dick, James R.; Watts, Andrew J. R.; Philp, Heather; Neil, Douglas M.; Monroig, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as “tails-only” for the scampi trade. In the “tailing” process, the “head” (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area) contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of EPA and DHA and

  19. Quantitative analysis of aberrant fatty acid composition of zebrafish hepatic lipids induced by organochlorine pesticide using stable isotope-coded transmethylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hongying; Dong, Linjie; Dong, Qingjian; Ke, Changshu; Fu, Jieying; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Cong; Dai, Ling

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used worldwide for agricultural purposes. Due to their resistance to metabolism, a major public health concern has been raised. Aberrant hepatic lipid composition has been a hallmark of many liver diseases associated with exposure to various toxins and chemicals. And thus lots of efforts have been focused on the development of analytical techniques that can rapidly and quantitatively determine the changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids. In this work, changes in fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids in response to DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exposure were quantitatively analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric approach based on stable isotope-coded transmethylation. It has been quantitatively demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids including C20:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:6n3 decrease in response to DDT exposure. However, saturated long chain fatty acids including C16:0, C18:0, as well as monounsaturated long chain fatty acid C18:1n9 consistently increase in a DDT-concentration-dependent manner. In particular, much higher changes in the level of hepatic C16:0 and C18:0 for male fish were observed than that for female fish. These experimental results are in accordance with qualitative histopathological analysis that revealed liver morphological alterations. The stable isotope-coded mass spectrometric approach provides a reliable means for investigating hepatotoxicity associated with fatty acid synthesis, desaturation, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and lipid mobilization. It should be useful in elucidation of hepatotoxic mechanisms and safety assessment of environmental toxins.

  20. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30 days, and then cultivated further for 14 days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02 g L(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25 g L(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation.

  1. Valdecoxib Recovers the Lipid Composition, Order and Dynamics in Colon Cancer Cell Lines Independent of COX-2 Expression: An ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Inan Genç, Aysun; Gok, Seher; Banerjee, Sreeparna; Severcan, Feride

    2017-01-01

    Prostanoids play an important role in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including inflammation and cancer. The rate-limiting step in the prostanoid biosynthesis pathway is catalyzed by cyclooxygenases (COXs). Aberrant expression of the inducible isoform COX-2 plays a significant role in colon cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we have hypothesized that COX-2 specific inhibitors such as Valdecoxib (VLX), being highly hydrophobic, may alter biophysical properties of cellular lipids. In this study, COX-2 expressing (HT29) and COX-2 non-expressing (SW620) colon cancer cell lines were treated with VLX and examined using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that VLX treatment decreased lipid fluidity in the cells irrespective of COX-2 expression status and affected order parameters of the lipids in both cell lines. Cluster analysis also indicated that the spectral differences between the two cell lines are profound and could be successfully differentiated. Valdecoxib treatment could enhance the composition, order and dynamics of the lipids of colon cancer cells independently of its COX-2 inhibitory mechanism. Valdecoxib has therapeutic effects upon colon cancer, therefore it can be used as an adjuvant and/or chemopreventive agent for colon cancer.

  2. Changes in lipid and fatty acid composition of late larval and puerulus stages of the spiny lobster (Panulirus cygnus) across the continental shelf of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bruce F; Jeffs, Andrew G; Melville-Smith, Roy; Chubb, Chris F; Nelson, Matthew M; Nichols, Peter D

    2006-02-01

    The feeding of the late larval stages of the spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus, and the energy reserves used by the non-feeding post-larvae for crossing the continental shelf of Western Australia were examined through their lipid composition. Lipid was a significant component of the biomass of all larval and post-larval samples (range 63-213 mg g(-1) of dry biomass). The fatty acid profiles of late stage larvae (8-9) suggest that they were feeding on salps and small crustaceans, such as euphausids, from oligotrophic pelagic communities where herbivorous and microbial grazing is an important basis to the food web. There was a marked decrease in lipid content of post-larvae progressively across the continental shelf, and this corresponded closely with decreasing dry mass, suggesting that post-larvae were using lipid as an energy source during cross-shelf movement at a rate of 1.6 J km(-1). This is considerably lower than for other spiny lobster species, suggesting that the post-larvae of the western rock lobster may use physical processes as well as active swimming for onshore transport. This may help to explain the large inter-annual variability in the post-larval settlement of this species, which is closely related to differences in weather patterns capable of greatly varying onshore advection processes.

  3. Formation of lipid bodies and changes in fatty acid composition upon pre-akinete formation in Arctic and Antarctic Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) strains

    PubMed Central

    Pichrtová, Martina; Arc, Erwann; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Hájek, Tomáš; Hackl, Hubert; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions. PMID:27170362

  4. Lipid mediators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Knotts, Trina A; Chavez, Jose A; Wang, Li-Ping; Hoehn, Kyle L; Summers, Scott A

    2007-06-01

    Lipid abnormalities such as obesity, increased circulating free fatty acid levels, and excess intramyocellular lipid accumulation are frequently associated with insulin resistance. These observations have prompted investigators to speculate that the accumulation of lipids in tissues not suited for fat storage (e.g., skeletal muscle and liver) is an underlying component of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We review the metabolic fates of lipids in insulin-responsive tissues and discuss the roles of specific lipid metabolites (e.g., ceramides, GM3 ganglioside, and diacylglycerol) as antagonists of insulin signaling and action.

  5. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  6. Maintenance or Collapse: Responses of Extraplastidic Membrane Lipid Composition to Desiccation in the Resurrection Plant Paraisometrum mileense

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Buzhu; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Resurrection plants usually grow in specific or extreme habitats and have the capacity to survive almost complete water loss. We characterized the physiological and biochemical responses of Paraisometrum mileense to extreme desiccation and found that it is a resurrection plant. We profiled the changes in lipid molecular species during dehydration and rehydration in P. mileense, and compared these with corresponding changes in the desiccation-sensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. One day of desiccation was lethal for A. thaliana but not for P. mileense. After desiccation and subsequent rewatering, A. thaliana showed dramatic lipid degradation accompanied by large increases in levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG). In contrast, desiccation and rewatering of P. mileense significantly decreased the level of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and increased the unsaturation of membrane lipids, without changing the level of extraplastidic lipids. Lethal desiccation in P. mileense caused massive lipid degradation, whereas the PA content remained at a low level similar to that of fresh leaves. Neither damage nor repair processes, nor increases in PA, occurred during non-lethal desiccation in P. mileense. The activity of phospholipase D, the main source of PA, was much lower in P. mileense than in A. thaliana under control conditions, or after either dehydration or rehydration. It was demonstrated that low rates of phospholipase D-mediated PA formation in P. mileense might limit its ability to degrade lipids to PA, thereby maintaining membrane integrity following desiccation. PMID:25068901

  7. Maintenance or collapse: responses of extraplastidic membrane lipid composition to desiccation in the resurrection plant Paraisometrum mileense.

    PubMed

    Li, Aihua; Wang, Dandan; Yu, Buzhu; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Resurrection plants usually grow in specific or extreme habitats and have the capacity to survive almost complete water loss. We characterized the physiological and biochemical responses of Paraisometrum mileense to extreme desiccation and found that it is a resurrection plant. We profiled the changes in lipid molecular species during dehydration and rehydration in P. mileense, and compared these with corresponding changes in the desiccation-sensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. One day of desiccation was lethal for A. thaliana but not for P. mileense. After desiccation and subsequent rewatering, A. thaliana showed dramatic lipid degradation accompanied by large increases in levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG). In contrast, desiccation and rewatering of P. mileense significantly decreased the level of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and increased the unsaturation of membrane lipids, without changing the level of extraplastidic lipids. Lethal desiccation in P. mileense caused massive lipid degradation, whereas the PA content remained at a low level similar to that of fresh leaves. Neither damage nor repair processes, nor increases in PA, occurred during non-lethal desiccation in P. mileense. The activity of phospholipase D, the main source of PA, was much lower in P. mileense than in A. thaliana under control conditions, or after either dehydration or rehydration. It was demonstrated that low rates of phospholipase D-mediated PA formation in P. mileense might limit its ability to degrade lipids to PA, thereby maintaining membrane integrity following desiccation.

  8. Epidermal surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Apostolos

    2009-03-01

    A layer of lipids, which are of both sebaceous and keratinocyte origin, covers the surface of the skin. The apparent composition of surface lipids varies depending on the selected method of sampling. Lipids produced by the epidermal cells are an insignificant fraction of the total extractable surface lipid on areas rich in sebaceous glands. Due to the holocrine activity of the sebaceous gland, its product of secretion (sebum) is eventually released to the surface of the skin and coats the fur as well. Lipids of epidermal origin fill the spaces between the cells, like mortar or cement. The sebaceous lipids are primarily non polar lipids as triglycerides, wax esters and squalene, while epidermal lipids are a mixture of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. The composition of the sebaceous lipids is unique and intriguing and elevated sebum excretion is a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Recent studies have elucidated the roles that epidermal surface lipids have on normal skin functions and acne.

  9. Epidermal surface lipids

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A layer of lipids, which are of both sebaceous and keratinocyte origin, covers the surface of the skin. The apparent composition of surface lipids varies depending on the selected method of sampling. Lipids produced by the epidermal cells are an insignificant fraction of the total extractable surface lipid on areas rich in sebaceous glands. Due to the holocrine activity of the sebaceous gland, its product of secretion (sebum) is eventually released to the surface of the skin and coats the fur as well. Lipids of epidermal origin fill the spaces between the cells, like mortar or cement. The sebaceous lipids are primarily non polar lipids as triglycerides, wax esters and squalene, while epidermal lipids are a mixture of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. The composition of the sebaceous lipids is unique and intriguing and elevated sebum excretion is a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Recent studies have elucidated the roles that epidermal surface lipids have on normal skin functions and acne. PMID:20224687

  10. Modifications in high-density lipoprotein lipid composition and structure alter the plasma distribution of free and liposomal annamycin.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Ng, S; Cassidy, S M

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentration alters the plasma distribution of free (Ann.) and liposomal annamycin (LAnn) and that the majority of Ann. is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) following the incubation in plasma of LAnn. To demonstrate that alterations in HDL lipid composition and HDL structure may influence the plasma distribution of Ann. and LAnn, Ann. and LAnn (20 micrograms/mL) were incubated in plasma pretreated with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB, a compound which inhibits the conversion of free cholesterol to esterified cholesterol) 18 h prior to the experiment or in untreated plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. In addition, Ann. and LAnn were co-incubated with DTNB in plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Following incubation the plasma was separated into its HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and lipoprotein-deficient plasma (LPDP) fractions by ultracentrifugation and assayed for Ann. by fluorimetry. The HDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio was significantly decreased following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment compared to untreated plasma controls. No significant differences in LDL/VLDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment was observed. An increased number of discoidal HDL particles were observed following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment. When Ann. was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL, LDL, and VLDL fractions significantly increased. However, the percentage of Ann. recovered within the LPDP fraction was significantly decreased. When LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL fraction significantly decreased. The percentage of Ann. recovered in the LPDP fraction significantly increased when LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h. No significant differences

  11. Diapause induces remodeling of the fatty acid composition of membrane and storage lipids in overwintering larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Vukašinović, Elvira L; Pond, David W; Worland, M Roger; Kojić, Danijela; Purać, Jelena; Popović, Željko D; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids prepared from the whole bodies of non-diapausing and diapausing fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubn. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were determined to evaluate the role of these lipids in diapause. Substantial changes in the FA composition of triacylglycerols and phospholipids were triggered by diapause development. This led to a significant increase in the overall FA unsaturation (UFAs/SFAs ratio), attributable to an increase in the relative proportion of MUFAs and the concomitant decrease in PUFAs and SFAs. In triacylglycerols, the significant changes in the FAs composition are the result of an increase in the relative proportions of MUFAs, palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and oleic acid (18:1n-9), and a concomitant reduction in the composition of SFAs and PUFAs, mainly palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6), respectively. Changes in the composition of phospholipids were more subtle with FAs contributing to the overall increase of FA unsaturation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the melt transition temperatures of total lipids prepared from whole larvae, primarily attributable to the triacylglycerol component, were significantly lower during the time course of diapause compared with non-diapause. These observations were correlated to the FA composition of triacylglycerols, most likely enabling them to remain functional during colder winter conditions. We conclude that O. nubilalis undergoes remodeling of FA profiles of both energy storage triacylglycerols and membrane phospholipids as an element of its overwintering physiology which may improve the ability to cold harden during diapause.

  12. Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply.

    PubMed

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y

    1998-03-01

    Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.

  13. Effects of dietary lipid and environmental salinity on growth, body composition, and cold tolerance of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Neill, W H; Gatlin, D M

    1995-02-01

    Simultaneous, 6-week feeding trials were conducted in which diets containing menhaden, corn, coconut and hydrogenated menhaden oil at 7.0%, plus a diet containing 14% menhaden oil, were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) at two different salinities (5 and 32%.). Weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by diet and salinity. Fish fed the diet containing 14% menhaden oil had the greatest weight gain; whereas, fish fed the diet containing coconut oil gained the least weight. Fish in brackish water had significantly greater weight gain than fish in full-strength seawater over the 6-week period, although fish fed coconut and saturated menhaden oil in brackish water had reduced survival. Dietary lipid also significantly affected muscle and liver total lipid, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) ratio, as fish fed the diets containing 14% menhaden oil had higher values for all of these body condition indices.After the feeding trial, fish were subjected to a chronic cold tolerance assay. In the chronic trial, where temperature was gradually reduced over a 3-week period, fish fed the diets containing menhaden oil had significantly lower median lethal temperatures (MLT) than those fish fed the diets containing coconut, corn and saturated menhaden oils. No significant effects of cold exposure were observed on muscle and liver total lipid. Cold exposure prompted a modification in lipid metabolism by lowering total saturated fatty acids and raising (n - 3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in the neutral lipid of liver. Fish with the lowest MLT in the chronic assay exhibited signs of conserving (n - 3) HUFA and depleting (n - 6) fatty acids [primarily 18:2 (n - 6)], resulting in higher (n - 3)/(n - 6) ratios in the polar lipid of liver. These data suggest that the lower lethal temperature of juvenile red drum can be reduced through dietary manipulation involving the inclusion of high levels of dietary lipid rich

  14. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice.

    PubMed

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA1c, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects.

  15. Aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for the enhancement of drug release and oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Shao, Yating; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare the aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite to enhance the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Antisolvent precipitation coupled with an immediate freeze-drying method was adopted to incorporate fenofibrate into aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite (ALC). The optimal composition of the ALC formulation was determined as the ratios of aminoclay to krill oil of 3:1 (w/w), krill oil to fenofibrate of 2:1 (w/w), and antisolvent to solvent of 6:4 (v/v). The morphological characteristics of ALC formulation were determined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction, which indicated microcrystalline state of fenofibrate in ALC formulation. The ALC formulation achieved almost complete dissolution within 30 minutes, whereas the untreated powder and physical mixture exhibited less than 15% drug release. Furthermore, ALC formulation effectively increased the peak plasma concentration (C max) and area under the curve (AUC) of fenofibric acid (an active metabolite) in rats by approximately 13- and seven-fold, respectively. Furthermore, ALC formulation exhibited much lower moisture sorption behavior than the lyophilized formulation using sucrose as a cryoprotectant. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ALC formulation is promising for improving the oral absorption of poorly soluble fenofibrate.

  16. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valencak, Teresa G.; Raith, Johannes; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars; Strasser, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C) while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation. PMID:26805895

  17. Aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite as a novel drug carrier of fenofibrate for the enhancement of drug release and oral absorption

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Shao, Yating; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare the aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite to enhance the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Antisolvent precipitation coupled with an immediate freeze-drying method was adopted to incorporate fenofibrate into aminoclay–lipid hybrid composite (ALC). The optimal composition of the ALC formulation was determined as the ratios of aminoclay to krill oil of 3:1 (w/w), krill oil to fenofibrate of 2:1 (w/w), and antisolvent to solvent of 6:4 (v/v). The morphological characteristics of ALC formulation were determined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction, which indicated microcrystalline state of fenofibrate in ALC formulation. The ALC formulation achieved almost complete dissolution within 30 minutes, whereas the untreated powder and physical mixture exhibited less than 15% drug release. Furthermore, ALC formulation effectively increased the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) of fenofibric acid (an active metabolite) in rats by approximately 13- and seven-fold, respectively. Furthermore, ALC formulation exhibited much lower moisture sorption behavior than the lyophilized formulation using sucrose as a cryoprotectant. Taken together, the present findings suggest that ALC formulation is promising for improving the oral absorption of poorly soluble fenofibrate. PMID:27042061

  18. Lipid Composition of methane-derived Carbonate Crusts and Sediments from Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Baas, M.; Hopmans, E.; van Weering, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the distributions and d13C values of bacterial and archaeal lipids in four carbonate crusts and hosting sediments collected from three mud volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough during the 11th Training Through Research expedition in 2001. The lipid extract from carbonate crusts contains abundant archaeal and bacterial biomarkers such as pentamethylicosane (PMI), unsaturated PMIs, archaeol, hydroxyarchaeols (sn-2 and sn-3 isomers), diphytanyl glycerol diethers (DGDs). Hosting sediments also contain a diversity of bacterial and archaeal lipids, but their concentrations are significantly lower then those observed in the crusts. The stable isotopic signature of these compounds have established their biosynthesis by consortia of microorganisms performing anaerobic methanotrophy. Quantitatively, the most predominant group of archaeal core membrane lipids in the crusts and in the sediments is the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Besides, two carbonate crusts contained two archaeal core membrane macrocyclic diether lipids which have not been reported previously. These macrocyclic diethers are structurally related to GDGTs with one and two cyclopentane rings. Cyclopentane-bearing GDGTs are well known for different archaeal species thriving in different environments, while a macrocyclic diether was found only in the thermophilic methanogen Methanococcus jannaschi. Therefore, the molecular structure of novel macrocyclic DGDs unites ecologically contrasting archaeal groups. Strongly depleted carbon isotopic values of these diethers indicate that these diethers derived from archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia in cold-water environments.

  19. Positive effect of exercise training at maximal fat oxidation intensity on body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Cao, Liquan; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 10 weeks of supervised exercise training at the maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity would improve important variables of body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. A longitudinal study design was employed to evaluate the effects of FATmax exercise training. Thirty women (45-59 years old; BMI 28·2 ± 1·8 kg m(-2) ; body fat 38·9 ± 4·1%) were randomly allocated into the Exercise and Control groups, n = 15 in each group. Body composition, FATmax, predicted VO2 max, lipid profile, plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and serum leptin concentration were measured before and after the experimental period. The Exercise group was trained at the individualized FATmax intensity, 5 days per week and 1 h per day for 10 weeks. No diet control was introduced during the experimental period for all participants. Exercise group obtained significant decreases in body mass, BMI, body fat % and abdominal fat mass, as well as the concentrations of triglycerides, serum leptin and blood glucose. The activity of lipoprotein lipase was increased in trained participants. There were no changes in these variables in the Control group. In addition, there was no significant change in daily energy intake for all participants before and after the experimental period. In conclusion, the 10-week FATmax exercise training achieved improvements in body composition and lipid metabolism in overweight middle-aged women. This result suggests FATmax is an effective exercise training intensity for obesity treatment.

  20. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  1. Effect of vitamin E supplementation or alfalfa grazing on fatty acid composition and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in lambs.

    PubMed

    González-Calvo, L; Joy, M; Blanco, M; Dervishi, E; Molino, F; Sarto, P; Ripoll, G; Serrano, M; Calvo, J H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E (VE) supplementation and alfalfa grazing during fattening on fatty acid composition and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in the LM of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs. After weaning, 48 lambs were kept indoors and fed a commercial concentrate and a VE supplemented concentrate (480 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM) for 0 (control [CON]), 10 (VE10d), 20 (VE20d), and 30 d (VE30d) before slaughtering at 22 to 24 kg. Simultaneously, 8 unweaned lambs grazed in alfalfa (154 mg α-tocopherol/kg DM) paddocks with their dams and supplemented with the commercial concentrate (ALF). Immediately after slaughter, LM was sampled to determine gene expression. After 24 h of cooling at 4°C, LM was extracted to determine intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition. The IMF content did not differ with the dietary treatment ( = 0.212). Unweaned grazing alfalfa lambs had greater concentration of rumenic acid (C18:2 c9,t11; P < 0.001) and lower oleic acid (C18:1 c9; = 0.001) content and PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (P < 0.001) but similar expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism compared to the concentrate-fed lambs. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify muscle fatty acid composition; however, it increased the expression of FADS2 and ELOVL6, which are involved in desaturation of long-chain fatty acid and the elongation of SFA and MUFA. The results showed that a short period of VE supplementation, especially 10 (VE10d) and 20 d (VE20d), modified gene expression. Overall, the results showed that VE may be acting as a regulatory factor for transcriptional control of genes related to lipid metabolism in the muscle of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs (22-24 kg live weight and younger than 90 d old).

  2. Analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition of three species of scorpions with relation to different organs.

    PubMed

    Laino, Aldana; Mattoni, Camilo; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés; Cunningham, Mónica; Fernando Garcia, C

    2015-12-01

    Within arthropods most of the information related to the type of mobilization and storage of lipids is found in insects and crustaceans. Literature is scarce with relation to scorpions. This order is a remarkably important model of the biochemistry, since it is characterized as an animal with very primitive traits which have varied minimally through time. In the present study we characterize and compare lipids and fatty acids present in three species of scorpion: Timogenes elegans, Timogenes dorbignyi, and Brachistosternus ferrugineus, focusing the study on the main organs/tissues involved in the dynamics of lipids. As found in the fat body of insects, hepatopancreas of crustaceans and midgut diverticula of spiders, the hepatopancreas of the three species studied here turned out to be the organ of lipid storage (great quantity of triacylglycerides). With relation to the hemolymph and muscles, a great quantity of phospholipids was observed, which is possibly involved in membrane formation. It is important to highlight that unlike what happens in insects, in scorpions the main circulating energetic lipid is the triacylglyceride. This lipid is found in greater proportion in the hepatopancreas of females, surely for reproduction. The fatty acid of the different organs/tissues analyzed remained constant in the three species studied with certain characteristic patterns, thus observing saturated and unsaturated most abundant fatty acids of C16 and C18. Finally, it could be observed that in T. elegans, T. dorbignyi and B. ferrugineus scorpions, there is a lack of 20:4 that generates a special condition within fatty acids of arthropods.

  3. The effects of nutrients and temperature on biomass, growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition of Cyclotella cryptica Reimann, Lewin, and Guillard

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.; Bagga, D.; Nawaz, M.

    1991-12-31

    Batch cultures of Cyclotella cryptica Reimann, Lewin, and Guillard were grown at two different nutrient (nitrogen/silica) levels and at two different temperatures (20 and 30{degrees}C). Biomass and cell yields decreased with decreased levels of both the nutrients (nitrogen and silica) at 20 and 30{degrees}C; whereas lipids (total, neutral, and polar) increased with decreased levels of nutrients at these two temperatures. Changes in fatty acid composition were also noted; the diatoms produced increased amounts of fatty acids C14:0 and C16:0 when grown in nutrient-deficient medium. The influence of nutrient stress and temperature is discussed.

  4. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black Sea algae and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nechev, Jordan T; Khotimchenko, Svetlana V; Ivanova, Albena P; Stefanov, Kamen L; Dimitrova-Konaklieva, Stefka D; Andreev, Stoitse; Popov, Simeon S

    2002-01-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100mg l(-1)) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms--algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution.

  5. Mitochondrial lipids in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Aufschnaiter, Andreas; Kohler, Verena; Diessl, Jutta; Peselj, Carlotta; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Keller, Walter; Büttner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes that eventually result in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood. However, defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial bioenergetics have been linked to cellular demise. These processes are influenced by the lipid environment within mitochondrial membranes as, besides membrane structure and curvature, recruitment and activity of different proteins also largely depend on the respective lipid composition. Hence, the interaction of neurotoxic proteins with certain lipids and the modification of lipid composition in different cell compartments, in particular mitochondria, decisively impact cell death associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the relevance of mitochondrial lipids in the pathological alterations that result in neuronal demise, focussing on proteinopathies.

  6. Optimization of flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluation of its composition in different cultivation modes.

    PubMed

    Mandik, Yohanis Irenius; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al(3+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) tested, Al(3+) was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15 min, Al(3+) concentration of 2.22 mM and microalgal cells of 0.47 g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al(3+) (0.74 mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22 mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08 ± 0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08 ± 3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42 ± 1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%.

  7. Mast cell- and dendritic cell-derived exosomes display a specific lipid composition and an unusual membrane organization.

    PubMed Central

    Laulagnier, Karine; Motta, Claude; Hamdi, Safouane; Roy, Sébastien; Fauvelle, Florence; Pageaux, Jean-François; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Perret, Bertrand; Bonnerot, Christian; Record, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from multivesicular bodies, which are able to stimulate the immune system leading to tumour cell eradication. We have analysed lipids of exosomes secreted either upon stimulation from rat mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells), or constitutively from human dendritic cells. As compared with parent cells, exosomes displayed an enrichment in sphingomyelin, but not in cholesterol. Phosphatidylcholine content was decreased, but an enrichment was noted in disaturated molecular species as in phosphatidylethanolamines. Lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid was not enriched in exosomes as compared with cells. Fluorescence anisotropy demonstrated an increase in exosome-membrane rigidity from pH 5 to 7, suggesting their membrane reorganization between the acidic multivesicular body compartment and the neutral outer cell medium. NMR analysis established a bilayer organization of exosome membrane, and ESR studies using 16-doxyl stearic acid demonstrated a higher flip-flop of lipids between the two leaflets as compared with plasma membrane. In addition, the exosome membrane exhibited no asymmetrical distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. Therefore exosome membrane displays a similar content of the major phospholipids and cholesterol, and is organized as a lipid bilayer with a random distribution of phosphatidylethanolamines. In addition, we observed tight lipid packing at neutral pH and a rapid flip-flop between the two leaflets of exosome membranes. These parameters could be used as a hallmark of exosomes. PMID:14965343

  8. Fatty acid composition, sarcoplasmic reticular lipid oxidation, and immunity of hard clam (Meretrix lusoria) fed different dietary microalgae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Tseng, Kai-Yi; Huang, Chen-Huei

    2015-07-01

    Fatty acid profiles, activities of biomembrane lipid peroxidation, and immunity of a seawater clam (Meretrix lusoria) fed three species of dietary microalgae were investigated. Clams of a marketable size (25 g mean weight) were fed Tetraselmis chui, Chaetoceros muelleri, or Isochrysis galbana for 8 weeks. Fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the polar lipid fractions of clams reflected those of the dietary algae species. Clams fed with T. chui and C. muelleri contained higher proportion of non-methylene interrupted (NMI) fatty acids than those fed I. galbana. Proportion of DHA in lipids of the clams fed with I. galbana was the highest among test groups. The NADH-dependent sarcoplasmic reticular lipid peroxidation activity of clams fed I. galbana was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that of clams fed T. chui or C. muelleri. The hemocyte adhesion capacity of clams fed C. muelleri or I. galbana was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of clams fed T. chui. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, clearance efficiency hemocyte and phagocytosis were detected among clams fed different microalgae.

  9. Effect of composition on biological fate of oil particles after intravenous injection of O/W lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sakaeda, T; Hirano, K

    1998-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of oil particles after intravenous injection of oil-in-water (O/W) lipid emulsions were monitored based on the plasma concentration of phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG), and the light scattering intensity (LSI) of plasma. Previously, we found that their time profiles after injection of the standard O/W lipid emulsion composed of soybean oil (SO) and egg yolk phosphatides (EYP) were similar and suggested that the oil particles with diameter of about 200 nm were entrapped by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Herein, in order to develop a delivery system to avoid the RES uptake by using the lipid emulsions, biological fate of lipid emulsions with oil particles of various sizes or those emulsified by surfactants with polyoxyethylene segments were subjected to the investigations. Lipid emulsions with oil particles of various sizes (about 150-550 nm) were prepared by altering EYP content. The oil particles were stable in plasma in vitro, but oil particle size decreased time-dependently after intravenous injection. Plasma clearance of oil particles depended on their initial size and was decreased by pretreatment with dextran sulfate 500 (DS500), a known RES suppressor. These results suggested that oil particles are still entrapped by RES, even for small-sized oil particles (about 150 nm). Lipid emulsion with small-sized oil particles was also prepared using medium chain triglycerides. The oil particles were stable in vitro, but the time profiles of plasma concentrations of PL and TG, and LSI of plasma were different, and oil particle size decreased time-dependently after intravenous injection. Plasma clearance of the oil particles also depended on their initial size and was decreased by DS500, suggesting that in vivo instability could be due to RES-mediated processes. Artificial surfactants with polyoxyethylene segments, HCO-60 (HCO60) and polysorbate 80 (PS80), were used for RES avoidance. HCO60 resulted in drastic reduction of the plasma

  10. PEGylation of phytantriol-based lyotropic liquid crystalline particles--the effect of lipid composition, PEG chain length, and temperature on the internal nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Christa; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng; Larsen, Claus; Urtti, Arto; Yaghmur, Anan

    2014-06-10

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines (DSPE-mPEGs) are a family of amphiphilic lipopolymers attractive in formulating injectable long-circulating nanoparticulate drug formulations. In addition to long circulating liposomes, there is an interest in developing injectable long-circulating drug nanocarriers based on cubosomes and hexosomes by shielding and coating the dispersed particles enveloping well-defined internal nonlamellar liquid crystalline nanostructures with hydrophilic PEG segments. The present study attempts to shed light on the possible PEGylation of these lipidic nonlamellar liquid crystalline particles by using DSPE-mPEGs with three different block lengths of the hydrophilic PEG segment. The effects of lipid composition, PEG chain length, and temperature on the morphology and internal nanostructure of these self-assembled lipidic aqueous dispersions based on phytantriol (PHYT) were investigated by means of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and Transmission Electron Cryo-Microscopy. The results suggest that the used lipopolymers are incorporated into the water-PHYT interfacial area and induce a significant effect on the internal nanostructures of the dispersed submicrometer-sized particles. The hydrophilic domains of the internal liquid crystalline nanostructures of these aqueous dispersions are functionalized, i.e., the hydrophilic nanochannels of the internal cubic Pn3m and Im3m phases are significantly enlarged in the presence of relatively small amounts of the used DSPE-mPEGs. It is evident that the partial replacement of PHYT by these PEGylated lipids could be an attractive approach for the surface modification of cubosomal and hexosomal particles. These PEGylated nanocarriers are particularly attractive in designing injectable cubosomal and hexosomal nanocarriers for loading drugs and/or imaging probes.

  11. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Estelle V; Goedecke, Julia H; Bluett, Kerry; Heggie, Kerry; Claassen, Amanda; Rae, Dale E; West, Sacha; Dugas, Jonathan; Dugas, Lara; Meltzeri, Shelly; Charlton, Karen; Mohede, Inge

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women) received either 3.9 g/d CLA or 3.9 g high-oleic acid sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Prior to and after 12 weeks of supplementation, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipid concentrations, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography scans), RMR, resting and exercising RER and appetite were measured. There were no significant effects of CLA on body composition or distribution, RMR, RER or appetite. During the oral glucose tolerance tests, mean plasma insulin concentrations (0, 30, 120 min) were significantly lower (P= 0.04) in women who supplemented with CLA (24.3 (SD 9.7) to 20.4 (SD 8.5) microU/ml) compared to high-oleic acid sunflower oil control (23.7 (SD 9.8) to 26.0 (SD 8.8) microU/ml). Serum NEFA levels in response to oral glucose were attenuated in both men and women in the CLA (P=0.001) compared to control group. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in both groups and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in women over 12 weeks (P=0.001, P=0.02, P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, mixed-isomer CLA supplementation had a favourable effect on serum insulin and NEFA response to oral glucose in non-obese, regularly exercising women, but there were no CLA-specific effects on body composition, energy expenditure or appetite.

  13. Optimization of liposomal lipid composition for a new, reactive sulfur donor, and in vivo efficacy studies on mice to antagonize cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Jayanna, Prashanth; Childress, Jonathan; Budai, Marianna; Martin, Sarah; Kuzmitcheva, Galina; Rockwood, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Present studies have focused on a novel cyanide antidotal system, on the coencapsulation of a new sulfur donor DTO with rhodanese within sterically stabilized liposomes. The optimal lipid composition for coencapsulation of DTO with rhodanese is the combination of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, cationic lipid (DOTAP), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] ammonium salt (with molar ratios of 82.7 : 9.2 : 3.0 : 5.1). With the optimized compositions, prophylactic and therapeutic in vivo efficacy studies were carried out in a mice model. When DTO was coencapsulated with rhodanese and thiosulfate the prophylactic antidotal protection was 4.9 × LD(50). Maximum antidotal protection against cyanide intoxication (15 × LD(50)) was achieved with coencapsulated rhodanese and DTO/thiosulfate in combination with sodium nitrite. When applied therapeutically, 100% survival rate (6/6) was achieved at 20 mg/kg cyanide doses with the encapsulated DTO-rhodanese-thiosulfate antidotal systems with and without sodium nitrite. These data are indicating that the appropriately formulated DTO is a promising sulfur donor for cyanide antagonism.

  14. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens.

  15. The influence of a 12-week program of physical activity on changes in body composition and lipid and carbohydrate status in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Wanda Barbara; Mucha, Dariusz Mikołaj; Pałka, Tomasz Adam; Suder, Agnieszka Ewa; Tyka, Anna Katarzyna; Tota, Łukasz Marcin; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For years there have been studies on what kind of physical activity is optimal for maintaining proper health condition. Besides well known and approved endurance training of moderate intensity, an importance of interval exercise where short term, sudden intensification of work is performed at low endurance load is emphasized. The aim of the work was to assess the effects of a program of physical activity applied to postmenopausal women regarding improvement of their body composition and biochemical indices of lipid and carbohydrate status. Material and methods The program of physical activity contained 12-week trainings of Nordic walking (NW) and gymnastic-dance classes (G-D). The intensity of effort during the NW training was at the level of 60% HRmax, whereas intensity of G-D exercises was selected based on a subjective assessment of effort according to the scale of American College of Sports Medicine. Results The 12-week program of physical activity resulted in statistically significant lowering of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction levels. An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was observed, whereas the values of triacylglycerols (TG) did not change. The average fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly. Similar changes were noted for the insulin level. The analysed body biometrical-structural indices did not change significantly. Conclusions The applied 12-week program of physical activity without changes of dietary habits contributed to an improvement in plasma lipid profile and an increased insulin sensitivity, but it did not affect significantly body composition. PMID:26848294

  16. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  17. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  18. Curative and preventive activity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite coatings containing antifungal food additives to control citrus postharvest green and blue molds.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Pérez-Gago, María B; Del Río, Miguel A; Palou, Lluís

    2009-04-08

    Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lipid components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated in vivo on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules, hybrid mandarins cv. Ortanique, and oranges cv. Valencia. Their curative and preventive activity against citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue molds (BM), caused by Penicillium digitatum (PD) or Penicillium italicum (PI), respectively, were determined. Fruits were artificially inoculated before or after the application of the coatings and incubated up to 7 days at 20 degrees C. Selected food preservatives included mineral salts, organic acid salts, parabens, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Inoculated but uncoated fruits were used as controls. For curative activity, HPMC-lipid edible composite coatings containing sodium benzoate (SB) were most effective in reducing the incidence and severity of GM on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules (86 and 90%, respectively). On this cultivar, the reduction in GM incidence by the SB-based coating was twice that of potassium sorbate (PS)-based coating. On mandarins cv. Ortanique, PS- and SB-based coatings reduced the incidence of GM and BM by more than 40 and 21%, respectively. However, the HPMC-lipid coating containing a mixture of PS and sodium propionate (PS + SP) exhibited a synergistic effect in the reduction of the incidence of GM (78%) and BM (67%). Coatings with parabens modestly reduced disease incidence and severity. On oranges cv. Valencia, coatings with food preservatives better controlled BM than GM. Coatings containing SB + PS and SB + SP reduced the incidence and severity of BM by 85% and 95%, respectively. PS- and SB- based coatings controlled GM more effectively than coatings formulated with other food preservatives. In every cultivar, fruit coated before inoculation did not show any incidence or severity reduction of both GM and BM (preventive activity). In every test, the antifungal action of the

  19. Effects of lipid composition and preparation conditions on physical-chemical properties, technological parameters and in vitro biological activity of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Calvagno, Maria Grazia; Celia, Christian; Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Iannone, Michelangelo; Castelli, Francesco; Doldo, Patrizia; Frest, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of lipid composition and preparation conditions on the physicochemical and technological properties of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes, as well as the in vitro anti-tumoral activity of various liposome formulations were investigated. Three liposome formulations were investigated: DPPC/Chol/Oleic acid (8:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes A), DPPC/Chol/DPPS (6:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes B) and DPPC/Chol/DSPE-MPEG (6:3:1 molar ratio, liposomes C). Multilamellar liposomes were prepared by using the TLE, FAT and DRV methods, while small unilamellar liposomes were obtained by extrusion through polycarbonate filters. Light scattering techniques were used to characterize liposome formulations. Loading capacity and release profiles of gemcitabine from various liposome formulations were also investigated. Caco-2 cells were used to evaluate in vitro the antitumoral activity of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes with respect to the free drug and also the intracellular drug uptake. Preparation methods and liposome lipid composition influenced both physicochemical parameters and drug delivery features. Liposomes with a size ranging from 200 nm to 7 microm were obtained. The gemcitabine entrapment was higher than that expected probably due to an interaction with the liposome lipid components. The following decreasing loading capacity order was observed: liposome B>liposome C>liposome A. Gemcitabine release from various liposome formulations is modulated by two different processes, i.e. desorption from and permeation through liposomal bilayers. MTT assay showed a greater cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine-loaded liposomes with respect to the free drug. The following decreasing anticancer activity order was observed between the various liposome formulations: liposome C>liposome A>liposome B. The increased anticancer activity is correlated to the ability of the colloidal carrier to increase the intracellular drug uptake. Due to the encouraging results and to the high liposome modularity

  20. Human milk fat globules: polar lipid composition and in situ structural investigations revealing the heterogeneous distribution of proteins and the lateral segregation of sphingomyelin in the biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christelle; Ménard, Olivia

    2011-03-01

    Although human milk fat globules (MFG) are of primary importance since they are the exclusive lipid delivery carriers in the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants, they remain the poorly understood aspect of milk. The objectives of this study were to investigate these unique colloidal assemblies and their interfacial properties, i.e. composition and structure of their biological membrane. In mature breast milk, MFG have a mean diameter of 4-5 microm, a surface area of about 2m(2)/g fat and an apparent zeta potential ζ=-6.7 ± 0.5 mV at 37°C. Human MFG contain 3-4mg polar lipids/g fat as quantified by HPLC/ELSD. The main polar lipids are sphingomyelin (SM; 36-45%, w/w), phosphatidylcholine (19-23%, w/w) and phosphatidylethanolamine (10-15%, w/w). In situ structural investigations of human MFG have been performed using light and confocal microscopy with adapted fluorescent probes, i.e. Nile Red, the extrinsic phospholipid Rh-DOPE, Fast Green and the lectin WGA-488. This study revealed a spatial heterogeneity in the human milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), with the lateral segregation of SM in liquid-ordered phase domains of various shapes and sizes surrounded by a liquid-disordered phase composed of the glycerophospholipids in which the proteins are dispersed. The glycocalyx formed by glycoproteins and cytoplasmic remnents have also been characterised around human MFG. A new model for the structure of the human MFGM is proposed and discussed. The unique composition and lateral organisation of the human MFGM components could be of metabolic significance and have health impact for the infants that need to be further explored.

  1. Effect of phenol-induced changes in lipid composition on conformation of OmpF-like porin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sanina, Nina; Nina, Sanina; Davydova, Ludmila; Ludmila, Davydova; Bakholdina, Svetlana; Svetlana, Bakholdina; Novikova, Olga; Olga, Novikova; Pornyagina, Olga; Olga, Pornyagina; Solov'eva, Tamara; Tamara, Solov'eva; Shnyrov, Valery; Valery, Shnyrov; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Mikhail, Bogdanov

    2013-07-11

    The present work aimed to compare the effects of different lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) content in lipids derived from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis cells exposed and not exposed to phenol on the conformation of OmpF-like porin of these bacteria. Differential scanning calorimetry and intrinsic protein fluorescence showed that the 2.5-fold increase of LPE content and the corresponding increase in the phase transition temperature of bacterial lipids were accompanied by enhanced protein thermostability. Integral conformational rearrangement of protein was supported by drastic changes in the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues, likely resulting in a convergence of monomers in trimeric porin and exposure of outer tryptophan residues to the water environment. These conformational changes may impede the porin channel permeability under stress conditions in bacteria.

  2. Lipid composition and microbial diversity of carbonate crusts and mud volcano deposits in the sorokin trough, ne black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)