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Sample records for abnormal lipid levels

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Lipid Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Karkinski, Dimitar; Georgievski, Oliver; Dzekova-Vidimliski, Pavlina; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Dokic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been a great interest in the interaction between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic dysfunction, but there is no consistent data suggesting that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients suspected of OSA, referred to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients referred to our hospital with suspected OSA, and all of them underwent for standard polysomnography. All patients with respiratory disturbance index (RDI) above 15 were diagnosed with OSA. In the morning after 12 hours fasting, the blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were determined in all study patients. In the study, both OSA positive and OSA negative patients were divided according to the body mass index (BMI) in two groups. The first group with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 and the second group with BMI > 30 kg/m^2. RESULTS: OSA positive patients with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m^2 had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and statistically significant lower level of HDL compared to OSA negative patients with BMI ≤ 30. There were no statistically significant differences in age and LDL levels between these groups. OSA positive patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2 had higher levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and lower levels of HDL versus OSA negative patients with BMI > 30 kg/m^2, but without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potent risk factors for dyslipidemias. OSA could play a significant role in worsening of lipid metabolism in non-obese patients. But in obese patients, the extra weight makes the metabolic changes of lipid metabolism, and the role of OSA is not that very important like in non-obese patients. PMID

  2. Abnormalities in apolipoprotein and lipid levels in an HIV-infected Brazilian population under different treatment profiles: the relevance of apolipoprotein E genotypes and immunological status.

    PubMed

    Malavazi, Iran; Abrão, Emiliana P; Mikawa, Angela Y; Landgraf, Viviane O; da Costa, Paulo I

    2004-05-01

    HIV infection is associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism due to a host's response mechanism and the current antiretroviral therapy. The pathological appearance and progression of atherosclerosis is dependent on the presence of injurious agents in the vascular endothelium and variations in different subsets of candidate genes. Therefore, the Hha I polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E gene was evaluated in addition to triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein (apo) Al, B and E levels in 86 Brazilian HIV-infected patients and 29 healthy controls. The allele frequency for apoE in the HIV-infected group and controls was in agreement with data on the Brazilian population. Dyslipidemia was observed in the HIV group and verified by increased levels of triglycerides, VLDL and apoE, and decreased levels of HDL and apoAl. The greatest abnormalities in these biochemical variables were shown in the HIV-infected individuals whose immune function was more compromised. The effect of the genetic variation at the APOE gene on biochemical variables was more pronounced in the HIV-infected individuals who carried the apoE2/3 genotype. The highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-receiving group presented increased levels of total cholesterol and apoE. Dyslipidemia was a predictable consequence of HIV infection and the protease inhibitors intensified the increase in apoE values.

  3. Lipid abnormalities in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erum, Uzma; Ahsan, Tasnim; Khowaja, Danish

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of dyslipidemia in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from November 2013 to May 2014. A total of 200 patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), diagnosed according to the ACR/EULAR criteria 2010, were included in the study. Laboratory investigations including creatinine, ALT, CBC, TSH and fasting lipid profile (LDL, HDL, and Total cholesterol) were done for all patients. Results: Out of 200 patients, 23 (11.5%) were male and 177 (88.5%) were female. The mean age was 36.31±10.46 years and the mean duration of disease was 3.82±3.03 years. A total of 107 (53.5%) patients had dyslipidemia, and the commonest abnormality was a low HDL, seen in 83 (41.5 %) patients. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was frequently observed in Rheumatoid Arthritis. This may be considered as a secondary impact of chronic inflammatory state, seen in RA. Lipid abnormalities should be sought at regular intervals, and corrective actions taken to mitigate increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28367205

  4. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a

  5. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  6. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  7. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  8. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by vitamin therapy in women using oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Heidari, Afrooz; Mostafavi-pour, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have some adverse effects on the serum lipid profile. Because hyperlipidemia is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in women consuming COCs. Vitamins E and C are known to have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of vitamins E and C on serum lipids in women using COCs. Methods The study compared changes in lipid parameters with and without vitamin therapy in women consuming COCs compared to those of a control group (40 non-contraceptive users or NCU) for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels along with HDL/LDL ratios were measured for all participants. Results COC users experienced significantly higher increases in the levels of triglycerides and LDL than non-users (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were noted in the total cholesterol and HDL levels. In the treated COC group receiving vitamins E and C, the HDL level and the HDL/LDL ratio increased and the LDL and triglycerides levels decreased significantly compared with those of the other groups. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C restores a normal lipid profile in COC users. PMID:24693493

  9. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  10. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels

  11. Abnormal serum lipid profile in Brazilian police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Metzler, Thomas; Nóbrega, Augusta; Peres, Mhara C; Coutinho, Evandro S; Volchan, Eliane; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background To measure the serum lipid composition of a sample of Brazilian police officers with and without PTSD regularly exposed to potentially traumatic situations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 118 active duty male police officers. Serum concentrations for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were enzymatically determined. Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for each participant. Results Officers with PTSD exhibited significantly higher serum total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides levels than those without PTSD. Total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-C, remained associated with PTSD diagnosis after controlling for confounding influences (i.e. socio-demographics, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol and medication use). Limitations The sample size was small. A nutritional interview was employed instead of established scales to assess alimentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption. A self-report screening tool was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions The association between PTSD and abnormal serum lipid profile and a tendency to exhibit higher BMI suggests that individuals with PTSD may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, a condition that by itself could account for many of the most serious PTSD-related physical health problems. PMID:17888517

  12. Leptin replacement therapy does not improve the abnormal lipid kinetics of hypoleptinemic patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Rajagopal V; Jahoor, Farook; Iyer, Dinakar; Guthikonda, Anuradha; Paranilam, Jaya; Elhaj, Fareed; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2012-10-01

    Patients with HIV-associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL) have characteristic lipid kinetic defects: accelerated lipolysis, blunted fat oxidation and increased hepatic fatty acid reesterification. HADL patients with lipoatrophy also have leptin deficiency. Small or non-randomized studies have suggested that leptin replacement improves glucose metabolism in HADL, with very limited data regarding its effects on the lipid kinetic abnormalities. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (0.02 mg/kg/d for two months; 0.04 mg/kg/d for a further two months) study of the effects of metreleptin on lipid kinetics in 17 adults with HADL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoleptinemia. Rates of lipolysis, intra-adipocyte and intrahepatic reesterification and fatty acid oxidation were measured using infusions of (13)C(1)-palmitate and (2)H(5)-glycerol, and indirect calorimetry. Fasting lipid profiles and glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose challenge were also measured. Metreleptin treatment induced significant, dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma leptin levels. There was no significant change in total lipolysis, net lipolysis, adipocyte or hepatic re-esterification or fatty acid oxidation, or in fasting triglyceride or HDL-C concentrations, with metreleptin treatment. Metreleptin decreased fasting non-HDL-C levels (P<.01) and area-under-the-curve for glucose (P<.05). In hypoleptinemic HADL patients, treatment with metreleptin at 0.02 or 0.04 mg/kg/d does not improve abnormal fasting lipid kinetics, or triglyceride or HDL-C levels. Metreleptin does, however, improve glycemia and non-HDL-C in these patients. These results suggest a dissociation between leptin's effects on glucose metabolism compared to those on lipid kinetics in HADL.

  13. Lipid abnormalities in cyclosporine-prednisone-treated renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vathsala, A; Weinberg, R B; Schoenberg, L; Grevel, J; Goldstein, R A; Van Buren, C T; Lewis, R M; Kahan, B D

    1989-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two major risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis, undoubtedly contribute to the excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality experienced by renal transplant recipients. The present survey of posttransplant hyperlipidemia in 500 cyclosporine-treated patients documented a 37.6% incidence of hypercholesterolemia, which occurred within 6 months posttransplant in 82% of patients. An etiologic relation to corticosteroid therapy was suggested by the strong correlation between prednisone doses and cholesterol levels, by the reduced cholesterol levels in patients undergoing steroid withdrawal, and by the reduction in hypercholesterolemia to 13% by 3 years posttransplant when steroid doses were less than 10 mg daily. Hypertriglyceridemia, which was present in 14.7% of the patients, was more severe under CsA-prednisone compared with azathioprine-prednisone therapy. Hypertriglyceridemia, which occurred later in the posttransplant course than hypercholesterolemia, strongly correlated with an excessive percent relative weight and elevated serum creatinine but not with steroid or CsA doses. Increasing age, diabetes mellitus, beta-blockers and nephrotic syndrome contribute to posttransplant hyperlipidemia in the CsA-Pred era as they did in the azathioprine era of immunosuppression.

  14. Lipid hydroperoxide levels in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G; Leverentz, M; Silkowski, H; Gill, N; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    2000-08-01

    Hydroperoxides are the primary oxygenated products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are key intermediates in the octadecanoid signalling pathway in plants. Lipid hydroperoxides (LHPO) were determined spectrophotometrically based on their reaction with an excess of Fe(2+)at low pH in the presence of the dye xylenol orange. Triphenylphosphine-mediated hydroxide formation was used to authenticate the signal generated by the hydroperoxides. The method readily detected lipid peroxidation in Phaseolus: microsomes, senescing potato leaves and in a range of other plant tissues including Phaseolus hypocotyls (26+/-5 nmol g(-1) FW), Alstroemeria floral tissues (sepals 66+/-13 nmol g(-1) FW petals 49+/-6 nmol g(-1) FW), potato leaves (334+/-75 nmol g(-1) FW), broccoli florets (568+/-68 nmol g(-1) FW) and Chlamydomonas cells (602+/-40 nmol g(-1) FW). Relative to the total fatty acid content of the tissues, the % LHPO was within the range of 0.6-1.7% for all tissue types (photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic) and represents the basal oxidation level of membrane fatty acids in plant cells. In order to relate the levels of LHPO to specific signalling pathways, transgenic potato plant lines were used in which lipoxygenase (LOX) (responsible for hydroperoxide biosynthesis) and hydroperoxide lyase (a route of hydroperoxide degradation) activities were largely reduced by an antisense-mediated approach. While the LHPO levels were similar to wild type in the individual LOX antisensed plants, basal LHPO levels, by contrast, were elevated by 38% in transgenic potato leaves antisensed in hydroperoxide lyase, indicating a role for this enzyme in the maintenance of cellular levels of LHPOs.

  15. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W.; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L.; Patterson, Tucker A.; Paule, Merle G.; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage. PMID:26206149

  16. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  17. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Sasaki, Naoya; Iwasaki, Sayaka; Baba, Nobuko; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-04-27

    Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Fucoxanthin and polyphenol contents of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids were higher than those of Wakame lipids, while Wakame lipids showed higher total omega-3 PUFA content than Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in liver lipids of KK-A(y) mouse significantly increased by Akamoku and Uganomoku lipid feeding as compared with the control, but not by Wakame lipid feeding. Fucoxanthin has been reported to accelerate the bioconversion of omega-3 PUFA and omega-6 PUFA to DHA and AA, respectively. The higher hepatic DHA and AA level of mice fed Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids would be attributed to the higher content of fucoxanthin of Akamoku and Uganomoku lipids. The lipid hydroperoxide levels of the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids were significantly lower than those of control mice, even though total PUFA content was higher in the liver of mice fed brown seaweed lipids. This would be, at least in part, due to the antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin metabolites in the liver.

  18. Insufficient Lymph Drainage Causes Abnormal Lipid Accumulation and Vein Wall Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Suzuki, Minoru; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previously, we analyzed human varicose veins (VV) using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and detected the abnormal accumulation of lipid molecules in the walls of VV, possibly due to insufficient lipid drainage by the lymphatic vessels. In this study, we created an animal model of lymphatic insufficiency to investigate the effects of insufficient lymph drainage on vein walls. Methods: In rats, the lymphatic collecting vessels surrounding the femoral vein were ligated on one side (the model tissue), which caused the local retention of lymphatic fluid in the perivascular tissue. The equivalent contralateral tissue was used as a control. A histological study of the femoral vein and the surrounding perivascular tissue was conducted. IMS was used to analyze the distribution of lipid molecules in the perivascular tissue. Results: Fourteen days after the procedure, the lymphatic vessels in the model tissue were significantly dilated. Furthermore, IMS revealed that the composition of the lipid molecules in the perivascular regions of the model tissue had altered. Compared with the control tissue, the model tissue exhibited marked perivascular accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine (1-acyl 16:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4), and triglycerides (52:2). Interestingly, the walls of the femoral veins running through the model tissue were 3.4-fold thicker than those of the femoral veins running through the control tissue. The number of tumor necrosis factor α-positive adipocytes was increased in the perivascular regions of the model tissue. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the accumulation of lymphatic fluid due to insufficient lymph drainage changes the structure of vein walls, and such changes might be associated with chronic venous insufficiency. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 227–235.) PMID:28018498

  19. Do genes modify the association of selenium and lipid levels?

    PubMed

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Guallar, Eliseo; Martin-Escudero, J Carlos; De Marco, Griselda; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Redon, Josep; Chaves, F Javier; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2015-05-20

    The interaction of selenium, a component of antioxidant selenoproteins, with genetic variation in lipid-related pathways has not been evaluated earlier as a potential determinant of blood lipid levels. We aimed at evaluating the effects of gene-environment interactions between plasma levels of selenium and polymorphisms in lipid metabolic pathways on plasma lipid levels in a study population from Spain (N=1,315). We observed statistically significant associations between plasma selenium and lipid levels (differences in total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL]-cholesterol, and triglycerides comparing the 80th with the 20th percentiles of plasma selenium levels were, respectively, 12.0 (95% confidence interval 6.3, 17.8), 8.9 (3.7, 14.2), and 9.0 (2.9, 15.2) mg/dl). We also found statistically significant interactions at the Bonferroni-corrected significance level (p=0.0008) between selenium and rs2290201 in FABP4 for total and LDL cholesterol levels and rs1800774 in CETP for elevated LDL cholesterol. Other polymorphisms showed statistically significant differential associations of plasma selenium levels and lipids biomarkers at the nominal p-value of 0.05. Reported statistical interactions with genes involved in lipid transport and transfer provide biological support to the positive associations of selenium with lipids shown in cross-sectional studies and lead to the hypothesis that selenium and lipid levels share common biological pathways that need to be elucidated in mechanistic studies.

  20. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  1. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

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    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  2. Choroideremia Is a Systemic Disease With Lymphocyte Crystals and Plasma Lipid and RBC Membrane Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Yang; Mysore, Naveen; Vali, Hojatollah; Koenekoop, Jamie; Cao, Sang Ni; Li, Shen; Ren, Huanan; Keser, Vafa; Lopez-Solache, Irma; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Khan, Ayesha; Mui, Jeannie; Sears, Kelly; Dixon, Jim; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Majewski, Jacek; Braverman, Nancy; Koenekoop, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor neuronal degenerations are common, incurable causes of human blindness affecting 1 in 2000 patients worldwide. Only half of all patients are associated with known mutations in over 250 disease genes, prompting our research program to identify the remaining new genes. Most retinal degenerations are restricted to the retina, but photoreceptor degenerations can also be found in a wide variety of systemic diseases. We identified an X-linked family from Sri Lanka with a severe choroidal degeneration and postulated a new disease entity. Because of phenotypic overlaps with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, which was recently found to have systemic features, we hypothesized that a systemic disease may be present in this new disease as well. Methods For phenotyping, we performed detailed eye exams with in vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography. For genotyping, we performed whole exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmations and cosegregation. Systemic investigations included electron microscopy studies of peripheral blood cells in patients and in normal controls and detailed fatty acid profiles (both plasma and red blood cell [RBC] membranes). Fatty acid levels were compared to normal controls, and only values two standard deviations above or below normal controls were further evaluated. Results The family segregated a REP1 mutation, suggesting choroideremia (CHM). We then found crystals in peripheral blood lymphocytes and discovered significant plasma fatty acid abnormalities and RBC membrane abnormalities (i.e., elevated plasmalogens). To replicate our discoveries, we expanded the cohort to nine CHM patients, genotyped them for REP1 mutations, and found the same abnormalities (crystals and fatty acid abnormalities) in all patients. Conclusions Previously, CHM was thought to be restricted to the retina. We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that CHM is a systemic condition with prominent crystals in lymphocytes and

  3. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  4. Abnormal barrier function in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis: Therapeutic implications for lipid metabolic disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyoses, including inherited disorders of lipid metabolism, display a permeability barrier abnormality in which the severity of the clinical phenotype parallels the prominence of the barrier defect. The pathogenesis of the cutaneous phenotype represents the consequences of the mutation for epidermal function, coupled with a “best attempt” by affected epidermis to generate a competent barrier in a terrestrial environment. A compromised barrier in normal epidermis triggers a vigorous set of metabolic responses that rapidly normalizes function, but ichthyotic epidermis, which is inherently compromised, only partially succeeds in this effort. Unraveling mechanisms that account for barrier dysfunction in the ichthyoses has identified multiple, subcellular, and biochemical processes that contribute to the clinical phenotype. Current treatment of the ichthyoses remains largely symptomatic: directed toward reducing scale or corrective gene therapy. Reducing scale is often minimally effective. Gene therapy is impeded by multiple pitfalls, including difficulties in transcutaneous drug delivery, high costs, and discomfort of injections. We have begun to use information about disease pathogenesis to identify novel, pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategies for the ichthyoses. The clinical phenotype often reflects not only a deficiency of pathway end product due to reduced-function mutations in key synthetic enzymes but often also accumulation of proximal, potentially toxic metabolites. As a result, depending upon the identified pathomechanism(s) for each disorder, the accompanying ichthyosis can be treated by topical provision of pathway product (eg, cholesterol), with or without a proximal enzyme inhibitor (eg, simvastatin), to block metabolite production. Among the disorders of distal cholesterol metabolism, the cutaneous phenotype in Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform Erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD syndrome) and X-linked ichthyosis reflect metabolite

  5. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  6. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  7. Lipid levels in dissociative disorders: effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Damsa, Cristian; Lazignac, Coralie; Miller, Nick; Maris, Susanne; Adam, Eric; Rossignon, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    Although there are several data suggesting a link between lower lipids levels and the risk of suicide, there are few data concerning lower lipids levels in patients with dissociative disorders (DD). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the evolution of the lipids levels during a specific 8 weeks of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) for patients with DD. 32 patients diagnosed with DD (SCID for DSMIVR) were assessed with Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Clinical Global Impression and Improvement Scale and their lipids levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein) were measured at inclusion and after 3 and 8 weeks of PP. 30 patients finished the study. There is a significant positive (p < 0.05) link between lower lipids levels (total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerids) and a higher level of dissociation (DES scores) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interestingly, we found a significant (p = 0.018) positive link between the reduction of the dissociation (DES) and the increase of the triglycerides levels after 8 weeks of treatment. While lower lipids seems related to a higher level of dissociation before and after the treatment, an increasing triglycerides level was observed after 8 weeks of PP in patients with a better outcome. Further studies are needed with larger samples and control groups, in order to confirm these preliminary data. These findings could open the way for hypothesis about the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of DD and raise the question of the patients with DD receiving antilipidemiants agents.

  8. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  9. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  10. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  11. Sex-Specific Parental Effects on Offspring Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Predazzi, Irene M; Sobota, Rafal S; Sanna, Serena; Bush, William S; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Lilley, Jessica S; Linton, MacRae F; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco; Fazio, Sergio; Williams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma lipid levels are highly heritable traits, but known genetic loci can only explain a small portion of their heritability. Methods and Results In this study, we analyzed the role of parental levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) in explaining the values of the corresponding traits in adult offspring. We also evaluated the contribution of nongenetic factors that influence lipid traits (age, body mass index, smoking, medications, and menopause) alone and in combination with variability at the genetic loci known to associate with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG levels. We performed comparisons among different sex-specific regression models in 416 families from the Framingham Heart Study and 304 from the SardiNIA cohort. Models including parental lipid levels explain significantly more of the trait variation than models without these measures, explaining up to ≈39% of the total trait variation. Of this variation, the parent-of-origin effect explains as much as ≈15% and it does so in a sex-specific way. This observation is not owing to shared environment, given that spouse-pair correlations were negligible (<1.5% explained variation in all cases) and is distinct from previous genetic and acquired factors that are known to influence serum lipid levels. Conclusions These findings support the concept that unknown genetic and epigenetic contributors are responsible for most of the heritable component of the plasma lipid phenotype, and that, at present, the clinical utility of knowing age-matched parental lipid levels in assessing risk of dyslipidemia supersedes individual locus effects. Our results support the clinical utility of knowing parental lipid levels in assessing future risk of dyslipidemia. PMID:26126546

  12. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-11-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.

  13. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  14. Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research. PMID:24097068

  15. Proatherogenic Abnormalities Of Lipid Metabolism In SirT1 Transgenic Mice Are Mediated Through Creb Deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Li; Lin, Hua V.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Welch, Carrie L.; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but the mechanism is unclear. Gain-of-function of the gene encoding deacetylase SirT1 improves insulin sensitivity, and could be expected to protect against lipid abnormalities. Surprisingly, when transgenic mice overexpressing SirT1 (SirBACO) are placed on atherogenic diet, they maintain better glucose homeostasis, but develop worse lipid profiles and larger atherosclerotic lesions than controls. We show that transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (Creb) is deacetylated in SirBACO mice. We identify Lys136 is a substrate for SirT1-dependent deacetylation that affects Creb activity by preventing its cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, leading to reduced expression of glucogenic genes, and promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and secretion. Expression of constitutively acetylated Creb (K136Q) in SirBACO mice mimics Creb activation and abolishes the dyslipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of SirT1 gain-of-function. We propose that SirT1-dependent Creb deacetylation regulates the balance between glucose and lipid metabolism, integrating fasting signals. PMID:22078933

  16. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view.

    PubMed

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-10-01

    Human cornea is covered by an aqueous tear film, and the outermost layer of the tear film is coated by lipids. This so-called tear film lipid layer (TFLL) reduces surface tension of the tear film and helps with the film re-spreading after blinks. Alterations of tear lipids composition and properties are related to dry eye syndrome. Therefore, unveiling structural and functional properties of TFLL is necessary for understanding tear film function under both normal and pathological conditions. Key properties of TFLL, such as resistance against high lateral pressures and ability to spread at the tear film surface, are directly related to the chemical identity of TFLL lipids. Hence, a molecular-level description is required to get better insight into TFLL properties. Molecular dynamics simulations are particularly well suited for this task and they were recently used for investigating TFLL. The present review discusses molecular level organization and properties of TFLL as seen by these simulation studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg.

  17. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  18. Lipid levels and risk of recurrent venous thrombosis: results from the MEGA follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Morelli, V M; Lijfering, W M; Rosendaal, F R; Cannegieter, S C

    2017-04-01

    Essentials The role of lipid levels in the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is unclear. Lipids were assessed in patients with a first venous thrombosis (n = 2106) followed for 6.9 years. Lipids were not associated with recurrence, overall or in patients with unprovoked first events. Testing lipid levels is not useful to identify patients at an increased risk of recurrence.

  19. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc−/− hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Otero, P. Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M.; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J.; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E.; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Kershaw, Erin E.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Yates, Nathan A.; Goetzman, Eric P.; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc−/− (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc−/− livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27105497

  20. 10-Year Trends in Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidemia Among Children and Adolescents From Several Schools in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenqing; Cheng, Hong; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Fangfang; Huang, Guimin; Hou, Dongqing; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum lipid trends in children and adolescents are predictors of the future prevalence of cardiovascular disease in adults. Methods Data were obtained from cross-sectional studies conducted in 2004 and 2014. A total of 3249 children aged 6–18 years were included in the present study; serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Results Overall, upward trends in mean TC, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C levels, and in geometric mean TG levels, were observed (all P < 0.001). Mean HDL-C levels significantly decreased between 2004 and 2014 (from 1.54 mmol/L to 1.47 mmol/L; P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal levels of serum lipids, with the exception of the prevalence of low HDL-C (P = 0.503), significantly increased over the study period (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperlipidemia (from 13.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6%–15.0% to 24.5%; 95% CI, 22.4%–26.6%; P < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (from 18.8%; 95% CI, 16.9%–20.7% to 28.9%; 95% CI, 26.7%–31.3%; P < 0.001) also increased from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of abnormal serum lipids increased, and mean serum lipid levels, with the exception of TC levels, worsened in subjects with obesity compared with non-overweight subjects, as well as in subjects with mixed obesity compared with non-obese subjects (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Adverse trends in serum lipid concentrations over the past 10 years were observed among children aged 6–9 years, with the exception of specific lipids, and among adolescents aged 10–18 years, from several schools in Beijing, China. PMID:27397598

  1. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  2. Abnormal ovarian cycles as diagnosed by ultrasound and serum estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Polan, M L; Totora, M; Caldwell, B V; DeCherney, A H; Haseltine, F P; Kase, N

    1982-03-01

    A significant portion of human infertility is presumably due to defective ovulation, including patients who fail to conceive despite medical induction of ovulation, those who fail despite repeated timely donor inseminations, and those with "infertility of unknown etiology". All point out the inadequacy of standard criteria for normal ovulation. This investigation correlates preovulatory serum estradiol and gonadotropin concentrations with dominant follicle growth measured ultrasonographically and serum progesterone levels. The data indicate a 35% incidence of cycles with significantly abnormal serum estradiol levels, decreased dominant follicle size, and abnormal progesterone levels despite biphasic basal body temperature curves and normal cycle length. If these cycles represent inadequate or abnormal ovulation, they can be distinguished from adequate cycles prior to follicle rupture and may benefit the treatment of human infertility.

  3. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p < 0.05) observed in fructose-fed rats were completely prevented with TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  4. Vitamin D Levels and Lipid Response to Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis; Abad Manteca, Laura; Vega, Gemma; del Pino Montes, Javier; de Luis, Daniel; Dueňas Laita, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Adequate vitamin D levels are necessary for good vascular health. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol activates CYP3A4, an enzyme of the cytochrome P450 system, which metabolizes atorvastatin to its main metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of cholesterol and triglycerides to atorvastatin according to vitamin D levels. Sixty-three patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with low and high doses of atorvastatin were included. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were classified as deficient (<30 nmol/L), insufficient (30–50 nmol/L), and normal (>50 nmol/L). In patients with 25-OHD <30 nmol/L, there were no significant changes in levels of total cholesterol (173 ± 47 mg/dL versus 164 ± 51 mg/dL), triglycerides (151 ± 49 mg/dL versus 177 ± 94 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (111 ± 48 mg/dL versus 92 45 ± mg/dL); whereas patients with insufficient (30–50 nmol/L) and normal vitamin D (>50 nmol/L) had a good response to atorvastatin. We suggest that vitamin D concentrations >30 nmol/L may be required for atorvastatin to reduce lipid levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:20016682

  5. Relationship between abnormal sperm morphology induced by dietary zinc deficiency and lipid composition in testes of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Merrells, Krystal J; Blewett, Heather; Jamieson, Jennifer A; Taylor, Carla G; Suh, Miyoung

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary Zn deficiency during sexual maturation on sperm integrity and testis phospholipid fatty acid composition. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four dietary groups for 3 weeks: Zn control (ZC; 30 mg Zn/kg); Zn marginally deficient (ZMD; 9 mg Zn/kg); Zn deficient (ZD; < 1 mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30 mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Morphology of cauda epididymal sperm and lipid profiles of testis phospholipids were analysed. The rats fed the ZD diet had a lower testis weight (P < 0.02). Seminal vesicles and prostate weight were also lower in the ZD and PF groups. Rats fed the ZD diet, but not the ZMD diet, had 34-35 % more abnormal spermatozoa and 24 % shorter sperm tail length than the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.001). Testis cholesterol concentration was higher in the ZD rats compared with the ZC and PF rats (P < 0.04). Testes were highly enriched with n-6 fatty acids by showing n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratios of 27:1 in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 23:1 in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The dominant fatty acid in testes was docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-6), comprising 15 and 24 % of PC and PE, respectively. This fatty acid was significantly lower in the ZD rats, whereas 18 : 2n-6 was higher compared with the rats in the other diet groups. These results demonstrate that severe Zn deficiency adversely affects sperm integrity and modulates testis fatty acid composition by interrupting essential fatty acid metabolism. This suggests that Zn deficiency-associated abnormal testicular function is perhaps preceded by altered membrane fatty acid composition, especially of a major fatty acid, 22 : 5n-6.

  6. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). Cord serum levels in complicated pregnancies, however, were unchanged. The results show lower maternal levels of vitamin E in abnormal pregnancies, suggesting a changed vitamin E metabolism.

  7. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  8. High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bobjer, J; Naumovska, M; Giwercman, Y L; Giwercman, A

    2012-10-01

    In men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), the risk of hypogonadism is often overlooked. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) may increase this risk. The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hypogonadism in NOA-patients, the impact of TESE on hormone balance and the association between testosterone deficiency and dyslipidaemia. Men with NOA who had undergone TESE during the period 2004-2009 were eligible. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone <10 nmol/L and/or LH >10 IU/L and/or ongoing androgen replacement therapy. Sixty-five consecutive men who had undergone TESE owing to NOA and from whom post-TESE serum testosterone levels measured before 1100 h were available. Furthermore, 141 fertile men served as controls. Serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and lipids were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) for biochemical hypogonadism were calculated. Pre- and post-TESE hormone levels were compared. Lipid profile was related to testosterone levels. Hypogonadism was found in 47% (95% CI, 0.36, 0.59) of the NOA-men. As compared with fertile controls, the OR for hypogonadism post-TESE was 17 (95% CI 6.6-45). Serum LH (p = 0.03), but not testosterone (p = 0.43), differed significantly pre- and post-TESE. Compared with eugonadal NOA-men, the OR for having deviations in lipid profile was 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.8) for the hypogonadal NOA-men. NOA-men are at very high risk of androgen deficiency, which even in young subjects is associated with dyslipidaemia. Medical management of these men should therefore include endocrinological evaluation and follow-up after completion of infertility treatment.

  9. Racial differences in levels of serum lipids and effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants on lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O

    2014-12-01

    Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Lipid abnormalities in alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice are independent from ABCA1

    PubMed Central

    Hebel, Tobias; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M.; Boettcher, Alfred; Froehner, Stanley C.; Adams, Marvin E.; Liebisch, Gerhard; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2015-01-01

    The syntrophins alpha (SNTA) and beta 2 (SNTB2) are molecular adaptor proteins shown to stabilize ABCA1, an essential regulator of HDL cholesterol. Furthermore, SNTB2 is involved in glucose stimulated insulin release. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are characteristic features of the metabolic syndrome, a serious public health problem with rising prevalence. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of the syntrophins herein. Mice deficient for both syntrophins (SNTA/B2−/−) have normal insulin and glucose tolerance, hepatic ABCA1 protein and cholesterol. When challenged with a HFD, wild type and SNTA/B2−/− mice have similar weight gain, adiposity, serum and liver triglycerides. Hepatic ABCA1, serum insulin and insulin sensitivity are normal while glucose tolerance is impaired. Liver cholesterol is reduced, and expression of SREBP2 and HMG-CoA-R is increased in the knockout mice. Scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI) protein is strongly diminished in the liver of SNTA/B2−/− mice while SR-BI binding protein NHERF1 is not changed and PDZK1 is even induced. Knock-down of SNTA, SNTB2 or both has no effect on hepatocyte SR-BI and PDZK1 proteins. Further, SR-BI levels are not reduced in brown adipose tissue of SNTA/B2−/− mice excluding that syntrophins directly stabilize SR-BI. SR-BI stability is regulated by MAPK and phosphorylated ERK2 is induced in the liver of the knock-out mice. Blockage of ERK activity upregulates hepatocyte SR-BI showing that increased MAPK activity contributes to low SR-BI. Sphingomyelin which is well described to regulate cholesterol metabolism is reduced in the liver and serum of the knock-out mice while the size of serum lipoproteins is not affected. Current data exclude a major function of these syntrophins in ABCA1 activity and insulin release but suggest a role in regulating glucose uptake, ERK and SR-BI levels, and sphingomyelin metabolism in obesity. PMID:25625330

  11. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  12. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  13. Dietary neutral lipid level and source in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae: effect on growth, lipid metabolism and digestive capacity.

    PubMed

    Morais, S; Caballero, M J; Conceição, L E C; Izquierdo, M S; Dinis, M T

    2006-05-01

    Contrary to larval essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements, the effect of dietary neutral lipid supply has been little investigated in marine fish larvae. The present work investigates the effect of feeding Senegalese sole larvae on Artemia enriched with higher or lower doses of lipid emulsion. Two lipid sources - soybean oil and fish oil - were compared. From 16 days after hatching (DAH) onwards, larvae were fed one of four experimental treatments: Artemia enriched on a high or low dose of soybean oil emulsion (HS and LS) or Artemia enriched on a high or low dose of fish oil emulsion (HF and LF). In terms of growth, the dietary lipid level did not have a significant effect while the soybean oil treatments induced a lower growth than the fish oil-enriched Artemia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of the larvae closely reflected the dietary quantitative and qualitative FA profile. Only slight dietary effects were noted in the activity of trypsin, lipase and alkaline phosphatase. A higher amount of lipid droplets was noticeable in the posterior intestine epithelia and in the hepatocytes of larvae fed Artemia enriched with higher lipid doses, while LS-Artemia induced the lower lipid accumulation on the basal zone of the enterocytes, in accordance with the lowest total lipid level measured in this treatment. These results suggest an important effect of dietary total lipid level on lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and on FA absorption. At 33 DAH a tube feeding trial was conducted with 14C-labelled oleic acid (OA) or triolein (TRI), showing that the lower accumulation of lipid droplets in the larvae fed LS was associated with a significantly higher absorption and retention in the gut and body tissues of the TRI label. For OA no significant differences between treatments were found. TRI label was considerably more evacuated than OA, indicating that sole larvae may have a lower capacity to incorporate a triacylglycerol, which needs to be digested. Finally, OA appears

  14. Reduced miR-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation by stimulating JUN expression and activating the transcription of srebp1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libo; Lu, Yonggang; Dou, Lin; Huang, Xiuqing; Sun, Mingxiao; Pang, Cheng; Qu, Jing; Liu, Guanghui; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that miR-200s participated in IL-6-induced hepatic insulin resistance. However, the role of miR-200s in hepatic lipid accumulation has not been elucidated. Here we found that miR-200b and miR-200c were reduced in the steatotic livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the expression of lipogenic proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The suppression of miR-200b and miR-200c in Hep1-6 and NCTC1469 hepatocytes enhanced intracellular triglyceride levels, which were associated with increased SREBP-1 and FAS protein levels. In contrast, the over-expression of miR-200b and miR-200c suppressed lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of SREBP1 and FAS in Hep1-6 and NCTC1469 cells transfected with miR-200b or miR-200c mimics. Importantly, the up-regulation of miR-200b and miR-200c could reverse oleic acid/palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. A luciferase reporter assay identified that miR-200b and miR-200c could directly bind the 3′UTR of jun. JUN activated the transcription of srebp1 to increase lipid accumulation. The data also demonstrated that increased miR-200b and miR-200c expression might be associated with sitagliptin-reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice fed a HFD. These findings suggest, for the first time, that reduced miR-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation by stimulating JUN expression and activating the transcription of srebp1. PMID:27166182

  15. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  16. [A case of megaloblastic anemia with abnormally high urine level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Konjiki, O; Yoneda, Y; Sato, Y; Oosawa, Y; Imamura, T; Takasaki, M

    1993-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with anemia and jaundice. Hematological studies revealed hyperchromic macrocytic anemia, and biochemical studies revealed findings of hemolysis. The folic acid level was low and megaloblasts were observed in the bone marrow. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency. This patient had been a heavy alcohol drinker in the habit of drinking alcohol without meals. He began to eat regular meals in the hospital, and the anemia and jaundice improved gradually. Since liver cirrhosis was suspected, amino acid analysis of the urine was performed, and abnormal excretion of beta-amino-isobutyric acid (BAIB) was found. According to the amount of BAIB excreted, the Japanese population can be divided into low and high BAIB excretors comprising 65% and 36%, respectively. BAIB is also considered to reflect dissimilation of thymine. The present patient was included in the high excretion group because of the abnormally high urine level of BAIB, which was considered to be caused by ineffective hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as a result of his megaloblastic anemia. For this reason, dissimilation of thymine was considered to have been active in this patient.

  17. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  18. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  19. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  20. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L. ); Tyler, M.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundance and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.

  1. Arthropod food webs become increasingly lipid-limited at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Norris, Michael; Lee, Raymond W; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding why food chains are relatively short in length has been an area of research and debate for decades. We tested if progressive changes in the nutritional content of arthropods with trophic position limit the availability of a key nutrient, lipid, for carnivores. Arthropods at higher trophic levels had progressively less lipid and more protein in their bodies compared with arthropods at lower trophic levels. The nutrients present in arthropod bodies were directly related to the nutrients that predators extracted when feeding on those arthropods. As a consequence, nutrient assimilation shifted from lipid-biased to protein-biased as arthropods ascended trophic levels from herbivores to secondary carnivores. Successive changes in the nutritional consequences of predation may ultimately set an upper limit on the number of trophic levels in arthropod communities. Further work is needed to examine the influence of lipid and other nutrients on food web traits in a range of ecosystems.

  2. Melittin-Induced Lipid Extraction Modulated by the Methylation Level of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroups

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Alexandre; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Protein- and peptide-induced lipid extraction from membranes is a critical process for many biological events, including reverse cholesterol transport and sperm capacitation. In this work, we examine whether such processes could display specificity for some lipid species. Melittin, the main component of dry bee venom, was used as a model amphipathic α-helical peptide. We specifically determined the modulation of melittin-induced lipid extraction from membranes by the change of the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were demethylated either by substitution with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or chemically by using mono- and dimethylated PE. It is shown that demethylation reduces the association of melittin with membranes, likely because of the resulting tighter chain packing of the phospholipids, which reduces the capacity of the membranes to accommodate inserted melittin. This reduced binding of the peptide is accompanied by an inhibition of the lipid extraction caused by melittin. We demonstrate that melittin selectively extracts PC from PC/PE membranes. This selectivity is proposed to be a consequence of a PE depletion in the surroundings of bound melittin to minimize disruption of the interphospholipid interactions. The resulting PC-enriched vicinity of melittin would be responsible for the observed formation of PC-enriched lipid/peptide particles resulting from the lipid efflux. These findings reveal that modulating the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups is a simple way to control the specificity of lipid extraction from membranes by peptides/proteins and thereby modulate the lipid composition of the membranes. PMID:26789763

  3. High prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in the Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Harati, Hadi; Saadat, Navid; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined IFG/IGT in a large urban Iranian population aged ≥ 20 years. Methods The study population included 9,489 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with full relevant clinical data. Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance categories were reported according to the 2003 American Diabetes Association definitions. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the numbers needed to screen (NNTS) to find one person with undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, and combined IFG/IGT were 8.1%, 5.1%, 8.7%, 5.4% and 4.0% in men and 10%, 4.7%, 6.3%, 7.6%, and 4.5% in women respectively. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes had higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides (all p values <0.001) and lower HDL-cholesterol (only in women, p < 0.01) compared to normoglycemic subjects. Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with family history of diabetes, increased BMI (≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension and low HDL-cholesterol levels. Among men, a combination of increased BMI, hypertension, and family history of diabetes led to a NNTS of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.57–1.71) and among women a combination of family history of diabetes and abdominal obesity, yielded a NNTS of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.4). Conclusion In conclusion, about one third of Tehranian adults had disturbed glucose tolerance or diabetes. One- third of total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. Screening individuals with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (men), hypertension (men), abdominal obesity (women) and family history of diabetes may be more efficient. PMID:18501007

  4. Alterations in Lipid Levels of Mitochondrial Membranes Induced by Amyloid-β: A Protective Role of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Lopez-Armas, Gabriela; Cruz-Ramos, Jose; Melnikov, Valery G.; Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Munoz, Ruben; Reiter, Russel J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer pathogenesis involves mitochondrial dysfunction, which is closely related to amyloid-β (Aβ) generation, abnormal tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Alterations in membranal components, including cholesterol and fatty acids, their characteristics, disposition, and distribution along the membranes, have been studied as evidence of cell membrane alterations in AD brain. The majority of these studies have been focused on the cytoplasmic membrane; meanwhile the mitochondrial membranes have been less explored. In this work, we studied lipids and mitochondrial membranes in vivo, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ). The purpose was to determine how Aβ may be responsible for beginning of a vicious cycle where oxidative stress and alterations in cholesterol, lipids and fatty acids, feed back on each other to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. We observed changes in mitochondrial membrane lipids, and fatty acids, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar Aβ in aged Wistar rats. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant and neuroimmunomodulator indoleamine, reversed some of these alterations and protected mitochondrial membranes from obvious damage. Additionally, melatonin increased the levels of linolenic and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, in the same site where amyloid β was injected, favoring an endogenous anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:22666620

  5. Amphibian lipid levels at metamorphosis correlate to post-metamorphic terrestrial survival.

    PubMed

    Scott, David E; Casey, Erin D; Donovan, Michele F; Lynch, Tracy K

    2007-09-01

    In organisms that have complex life cycles, factors in the larval environment may affect both larval and adult traits. For amphibians, the postmetamorphic transition from the aquatic environment to terrestrial habitat may be a period of high juvenile mortality. We hypothesized that lipid stores at metamorphosis may affect an animal's success during this critical transition period. We examined variation in total lipid levels among years and sites in recently metamorphosed individuals of two pond-breeding salamander species, the marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) and the mole salamander (A. talpoideum), with limited data for one anuran species (southern leopard frog, Rana sphenocephala). Lipid levels were allometrically related to body size and ranged from 1.9 to 23.8% of body dry mass. The two salamander species differed in lipid allocation patterns, with A. opacum apportioning a higher percentage of total lipid reserves into fat bodies than A. talpoideum. Species differences in lipid allocation patterns may primarily reflect that large metamorphs will mature as one-year olds, and, regardless of species, will alter lipid compartmentalization accordingly. We used mark-recapture data obtained at drift fences encircling breeding ponds for 13 A. opacum cohorts to estimate the proportion of postmetamorphic individuals that survived to breed (age 1-4) and the mean age at first reproduction. Regression models indicated that size-corrected lipid level at metamorphosis (i.e., lipid residuals), and to a lesser extent rainfall following metamorphosis, was positively related to adult survival. Snout-vent length at metamorphosis was negatively related to age at first reproduction. We suggest that lipid stores at metamorphosis are vital to juvenile survival in the months following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitat, and that a trade-off shaped by postmetamorphic selection in the terrestrial habitat exists between allocation to energy stores versus structural

  6. Relationship between serum sodium level and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sora; Kim, Ji Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-related multisystemic vasculitis that occurs in children, especially ensuing from a coronary artery abnormality. Sodium level is known to be related to vascular injury, which could affect the progress of KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum sodium levels that could predict the occurrence of cardiac and coronary artery events in KD. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 104 patients with KD from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L at the time of initial diagnosis were assigned to the hyponatremia group. Laboratory findings and echocardiographic data were analyzed for various aspects. Results Among the 104 patients with KD, 91 were included in the study, of whom 48 (52.7%) had hyponatremia. The degree of fever, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, percentage of lymphocytes, total bilirubin level, brain natriuretic peptide level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level were higher in the patients with hyponatremia. They also demonstrated a trend of larger coronary artery diameters based on Z scores. Conclusion The severity of vascular inflammation in acute KD with hyponatremia might worsen the prognosis of coronary vasculature. Although no statistically significant correlation was found between the initial serum sodium levels and coronary arteriopathy in the patients with KD in this study, a long-term follow-up study with a larger number of enrolled patients should be designed in the future to elucidate the relationship between serum sodium level and coronary arteriopathy in patients with KD. PMID:28289432

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  8. Lipid mediators of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Knotts, Trina A; Chavez, Jose A; Wang, Li-Ping; Hoehn, Kyle L; Summers, Scott A

    2007-06-01

    Lipid abnormalities such as obesity, increased circulating free fatty acid levels, and excess intramyocellular lipid accumulation are frequently associated with insulin resistance. These observations have prompted investigators to speculate that the accumulation of lipids in tissues not suited for fat storage (e.g., skeletal muscle and liver) is an underlying component of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We review the metabolic fates of lipids in insulin-responsive tissues and discuss the roles of specific lipid metabolites (e.g., ceramides, GM3 ganglioside, and diacylglycerol) as antagonists of insulin signaling and action.

  9. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  11. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  12. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  13. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  14. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  15. An intramolecular interaction within the lipid kinase Fab1 regulates cellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Strunk, Bethany S; Azad, Nadia; Petersen, Jason L; Weisman, Lois S

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated phosphoinositide lipids (PPIs) are low-abundance signaling molecules that control signal transduction pathways and are necessary for cellular homeostasis. The PPI phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is essential in multiple organ systems. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from PI3P by the conserved lipid kinase Fab1/PIKfyve. Defects in the dynamic regulation of PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases. However, few mechanisms that regulate PI(3,5)P2 have been identified. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between the yeast Fab1 kinase region and an upstream conserved cysteine-rich (CCR) domain. We identify mutations in the kinase domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 and impair the interaction between the kinase and CCR domain. We also identify mutations in the CCR domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 Together these findings reveal a regulatory mechanism that involves the CCR domain of Fab1 and contributes to dynamic control of cellular PI(3,5)P2 synthesis.

  16. Early effects of fluoro-edenite: correlation between IL-18 serum levels and pleural and parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Matera, Serena; Massimino, Nicoletta; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Musumeci, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Fenga, Concettina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-12-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  17. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  18. Magnesium dietary intake modulates blood lipid levels and atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B T; Brust, M; Bloom, S; Barbour, R L; Stempak, J G; Altura, B M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the effects of variation in dietary Mg on the atherogenic process. Oral supplementation of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (1% or 2%) with the Mg salt magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) (i) lowers the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in normal (25-35%) as well as atherosclerotic (20-40%) animals and (ii) attenuates the atherosclerotic process markedly. In addition, we found that dietary deficiency of Mg augments atherogenesis markedly and stimulates (or activates) macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Evidence is presented to indicate that the hypercholesterolemic state may cause the loss of Mg from soft tissues to the serum, thereby masking an underlying Mg deficiency. PMID:2308944

  19. Gene-diet interactions on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

    PubMed

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Dewailly, Eric; Hegele, Robert A; Boiteau, Véronique; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Abdous, Belkacem; Giguere, Yves; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-14

    The Inuit population is often described as being protected against CVD due to their traditional dietary patterns and their unique genetic background. The objective of the present study was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n 553) were analysed via regression models which included the following: genotypes for thirty-five known polymorphisms (SNP) from twenty genes related to lipid metabolism; dietary fat intake including total fat (TotFat) and saturated fat (SatFat) estimated from a FFQ; plasma lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TAG. The results demonstrate that allele frequencies were different in the Inuit population compared with the Caucasian population. Further, seven SNP (APOA1 - 75G/A (rs670), APOB XbAI (rs693), AGT M235T (rs699), LIPC 480C/T (rs1800588), APOA1 84T/C (rs5070), PPARG2 - 618C/G (rs10865710) and APOE 219G/T (rs405509)) in interaction with TotFat and SatFat were significantly associated with one or two plasma lipid parameters. Another four SNP (APOC3 3238C>G (rs5128), CETP I405V (rs5882), CYP1A1 A4889G (rs1048943) and ABCA1 Arg219Lys (rs2230806)) in interaction with either TotFat or SatFat intake were significantly associated with one plasma lipid variable. Further, an additive effect of these SNP in interaction with TotFat or SatFat intake was significantly associated with higher TC, LDL-C or TAG levels, as well as with lower HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene-diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

  20. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE−/− mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  1. Comparative study on reduction of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovariectomized rats by soy isoflavones, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, T; Toda, T; Tsuji, K; Ishida, H

    2001-04-01

    The effects of the soy isoflavone glycoside, daidzin, genistin, and glycitin on bone loss and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (ovx) rats were compared with those of estrone. Thirty-six 11-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups, sham-operated, ovx, ovx+glycitin, ovx+daidzin, ovx+genistin, and ovx+estrone and fed matched amounts of a commercial calcium-deficient diet for 4 weeks. Throughout this period, daidzin, genistin or glycitin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/d) was given orally using a stomach tube, or estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) was administered subcutaneously. Daidzin, genistin and glycitin significantly prevented bone loss in ovx rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, like estrone. At this dose glycitin and daidzin also prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy and increases in body weight gain, abdominal fat, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, and urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline with statistical significance, like estrone. On the other hand, genistin prevented ovx-induced uterine atrophy only at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but did not block any other change of ovx rats at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. These findings indicate that daidzin, glycitin, and genistin are effective in preventing bone loss and the former two compounds are effective in reversing the unfavorable changes of lipid metabolism in this model. It is suggested that the preventive effect of daidzin or glycitin on bone loss in ovx rats is due to suppression of bone turnover, as in the case of estrone, but genistin has a different mechanism of action from the other compounds. Soy isoflavone glycosides may represent a potential alternative therapy in the treatment of bone loss and lipid metabolism abnormality in ovarian hormone-deficient women.

  2. Serum lipid levels in neighboring communities with chlorinated and nonchlorinated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program was designed to ascertain levels of serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of a total of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroid hormones differed according to the chlorination of the water supply, or to the calcium and magnesium content (hardness) of the drinking water supply. This report examines the relationship of chlorination and water calcium to estimated community mean serum lipid levels. The estimated community means are adjusted for potential confounders, including age, education level, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary fat and dietary calcium. Serum cholesterol levels proved to be significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but differences were considerably smaller and not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also higher in chlorinated communities for females (p = .06). Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in hard water communities than in soft water communities, although the p-value for the hardness term did not quite reach significance at p < .05 in either model. The regression of community mean HDL levels on both drinking water calcium and magnesium levels was positive, indicating increasing mean HDL levels with increasing calcium and/or magnesium content in the drinking water.

  3. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  4. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  5. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  6. Suppression of aflatoxin B1-induced lipid abnormalities and macromolecule-adduct formation by L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Sachan, D S; Yatim, A M

    1992-01-01

    The fatty liver and hypolipidemia caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed Purina Rat Chow with or without L-carnitine supplement for 6 weeks. In Experiment 1, the rats (n = 20) were divided into four groups, i.e., nonsupplemented control (NSC), nonsupplemented AFB1 (NSA), carnitine supplemented control (CSC), and carnitine supplemented AFB1 (CSA). The NSA and CSA groups were given an oral dose of [3H]AFB1 (1 mg/kg) 6 hr before kill. In Experiment 2 (n = 10) there were only NSA and CSA groups and they were killed 24 hr post-AFB1 administration. Hepatic and plasma concentrations of total lipid, triglycerides, AFB1-macromolecules adducts and urinary excretion of AFB1 were determined. Carnitine supplementation ameliorated AFB1-induced hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia. Supplementary carnitine reduced covalent binding of AFB1 to hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein. The carnitine effect was more pronounced after 24 hr than after 6 hr of AFB1 treatment. We conclude that supplementary carnitine suppressed AFB1-induced fatty liver and AFB1-macromolecule adduct formation in the rat.

  7. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases.

  8. Effect of Antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, F M; Orhan, F; Orem, A; Yildirmis, S; Gedik, Y

    2001-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs may alter plasma lipid status in epileptic patients. We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on plasma levels of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B in 22 epileptic children. The children were separated as group 1, seven children, mean age 1.6+/-0.2 years, treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day, twice daily; group 2, seven children, mean age 9.8+/-1.2 years, treated with carbamazepine, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily; and group 3, eight children, mean age 6.8+/-0.6 years, treated with valproate, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily. Plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels were studied before (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis, and the results were expressed as the mean and standard error of the mean. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low, compared with groups 2 and, 3 (P < .001). The mean pretreatment lipid levels between the groups were not significant. The increase in lipoprotein (a) at 3 and 6 months and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 6 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P < .025). We suggest a careful monitoring of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in epileptic children treated with antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  10. The association between childhood trauma and lipid levels in an adult low income, minority population

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Sarah J.; Gillespie, Charles F.; Davis, Jennifer S.; Brown, Angelo; Schwartz, Ann; Wingo, Aliza; Habib, Leah; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the association between childhood trauma and lipid profiles in adults from a highly traumatized population at-risk for cardiovascular disease. Method We recruited 452 participants, primarily African American, low socioeconomic status from general medical clinics in a large urban hospital. We performed direct comparisons, univariate ANOVA and regression analyses together and separated by sex, examining the associations of child abuse, BMI, lipid lowering drug use, blood pressure, age, and substance use to HDL levels and HDL/LDL ratios. Results A history of moderate to severe levels of childhood trauma and abuse was associated with a significant decrease in HDL levels (p≤0.01) and HDL/LDL ratios (p≤0.001) relative to males with low levels of abuse. This relationship held when the status of lipid-lowering drugs was considered. When controlling for age, substance abuse, tobacco use, and adult trauma, the effects of childhood trauma remained significant. We found a significant child abuse by sex interaction on HDL/LDL ratios (F(1, 369)=13.0, p≤0.0005) consistent with a differential effect of trauma on dyslipidemia in male but not female subjects Conclusions Our data suggest that childhood trauma exposure, obtained with self-report measures, may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease by way of stress-mediated alterations of lipid concentration and composition in male, but not female, subjects. PMID:24315076

  11. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  12. Red cell membrane lipid changes at 3,500 m and on return to sea level.

    PubMed

    González, Gustavo; Celedón, Gloria; Escobar, Marcela; Sotomayor, Carlos; Ferrer, Verónica; Benítez, Dixan; Behn, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute hypobaric hypoxia, obtained in a hypobaric chamber, and subsequent reoxygenation, give rise to modifications of the erythrocyte membrane lipid dynamics, resulting in an increased lateral diffusivity of the membrane lipids, and this was interpreted as the result of a modified lipid-protein interaction. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the reoxygenation condition in individuals after 3 days at an altitude of 3,500 m above sea level. Reoxygenation was a consequence of returning to sea level. Resting blood samples from both conditions were obtained, and erythrocytes were separated and immediately lysed for membrane isolation. We measured the bilayer polarity in membranes with Laurdan, a fluorescent probe. We also measured malondialdehyde in membrane lipids, an indicator of oxidative damage. We found a 12% (p = 0.016, n = 7) increase in the polarity of the membrane bilayer surface, and an increase of 70% (p = 0.005, n = 7) in the formation of malondialdehyde in the membrane after the reoxygenation condition. The membrane bilayer polarity increase is due to an oxidative modification of the phospholipid backbone after reoxygenation. People working and/or recreating at moderate altitude (3,500 m) may be at risk of erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage upon returning to sea level, and therefore a better understanding of the processes occurring upon reoxygenation may lead to proposed strategies to minimize this effect.

  13. Fish oil supplementation alters levels of lipid mediators of inflammation in microenvironment of acute human wounds

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Jodi C.; Massey, Karen; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds often result from prolonged inflammation involving excessive polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity. Studies show that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oils generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in numerous inflammatory disease models. This study’s purpose was to test the hypotheses that boosting plasma levels of EPA and DHA with oral supplementation would alter lipid mediator levels in acute wound microenvironments and reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels. Eighteen individuals were randomized to 28 days of either EPA + DHA supplementation (Active Group) or placebo. After 28 days, the Active Group had significantly higher plasma levels of EPA (p < 0.001) and DHA (p < 0.001) than the Placebo Group and significantly lower wound fluid levels of two 15-lipoxygenase products of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid [p=0.033] and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid [p=0.006]), at 24 hours postwounding. The Active Group also had lower mean levels of myeloperoxidase, a leukocyte marker, at 12 hours and significantly more reepithelialization on Day 5 postwounding. We suggest that lipid mediator profiles can be manipulated by altering polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to create a wound microenvironment more conducive to healing. PMID:21362086

  14. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  15. Effects of transdermal application of DHEA on the levels of steroids, gonadotropins and lipids in men.

    PubMed

    Sulcová, J; Hill, M; Hampl, R; Masek, Z; Novácek, A; Ceska, R; Stárka, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to ascertain the kinetics of absorption and metabolism of transdermally administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 10 men 29-72 years old (mean 52.4+/-14.5) received 50 mg DHEA/day in a gel applied onto the skin of the abdomen for 5 consecutive days. The objective was to establish the extent to which DHEA influences the levels of gonadotropins, sex hormone-binding globulin and lipids. It was found that DHEA is well absorbed and rapidly metabolized to its sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and consequently to testosterone and estradiol. The DHEA levels that markedly increased after the first doses gradually declined already during the application, and this decline proceeded even after it was discontinued, reaching levels significantly lower than the original ones. On the other hand, the levels of DHEA metabolites (with the exception of DHEAS) rose during the application and reached values significantly higher than the basal ones within 5 weeks. This effect was accompanied by significantly decreased levels of LH. The serum levels of lipids, namely of cholesterol (both HDL and LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-I and B and lipoprotein(a) after DHEA application were not changed significantly, and the atherogenic index (AI) remained unaltered. However, some correlations between hormones and lipids were found. Negative correlations concerned the following indices: DHEA/Lp(a); DHEAS/cholesterol; DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone/TG; testosterone/AI. On the other hand, LH, FSH/cholesterol, FSH, SHBG/LDL cholesterol, FSH/Apo B, Lp(a) correlated positively. It can be concluded that transdermal short-time application of DHEA results in a decrease of endogenous DHEA after finishing the treatment, with a parallel marked increase in the levels of sex hormones. Using this application protocol, exogenous DHEA neither altered the lipid spectrum, nor did it influence the atherogenic index.

  16. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals.

  17. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  18. Influence of smoking on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels among family medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Beganlic, Azijada; Salihefendic, Nizama; Pranjic, Nurka; Kusljugic, Zumreta

    2008-01-01

    Smoking causes decrease of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and increase of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Low HDL-C levels and high cholesterol and LDL-C levels are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking status on serum lipid and lipoproteins levels among patients in family medicine practice. This trial was designed to detect differences in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels between smokers and non-smokers. We had placed a limit of 300 patients for data collection. We excluded 195 patients who met excluding criteria (diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic failure, hypothyroidism; using beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, hormonal replacement therapy and corticosteroids; more than light physical activity; alcohol consumption and obesity), so the sample size included 105 randomly selected patients from Family Medicine Teaching Center Tuzla, mean age 52.05 +/- 11.61 years. Main outcomes were smoking status in all participants and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in smokers and non-smokers. Our results showed that smoking prevalence was 49.52%. Smokers had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.002) and LDL-C level (P=0.03) and significantly lower HDL-C level (P=0.003) comparing with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels between ex-smokers and never smokers. These results suggest that cigarette smoking adversely affects serum lipid and lipoprotein levels which further increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  19. Fish consumption, low-level mercury, lipids, and inflammatory markers in children.

    PubMed

    Gump, Brooks B; MacKenzie, James A; Dumas, Amy K; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; Segu, Zaneer M; Mechref, Yehia S; Bendinskas, Kestutis G

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9-11 year old children (N=100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children who consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M=0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible.

  20. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  1. Adiposity, serum lipid levels, and allergic sensitization in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Kumar, Rajesh; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Story, Rachel E.; Liu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Wenbin; Fang, Yaping; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and allergic diseases have increased dramatically in recent decades. While adiposity has been associated with asthma, associations with allergic sensitization have been inconsistent. Objective To examine the association of adiposity and lipid profiles with allergic sensitization. Methods This study included 1,187 rural Chinese twins (653 men) aged 18-39 years, with skin prick tests (SPT), anthropometric and DEXA-assessed adiposity measures, and lipid assessments. Allergic sensitization was defined as positive SPT to ≥1 allergen (9 foods and 5 aeroallergens tested). We applied gender-stratified generalized estimating equations to assess the association of adiposity and serum lipids with allergic sensitization, and structural equation models to estimate the genetic/environmental influences on any observed associations. Results Males had lower percent body fat (%BF) (13.9% vs. 28.8%) but higher rates of allergic sensitization (56.2% vs. 36.7%) than females. Males in the highest %BF quartile were 2.1 times more likely sensitized than the lowest quartile (95%CI 1.3-3.5, P-trend=0.003). In males, the risk of allergic sensitization increased with HDL<40 mg/dl (OR=4.0, 95%CI 1.8-9.2) and higher LDL quartiles (P-trend=0.007). This appeared to be partially explained by shared genetic factors between serum lipid levels and allergic sensitization. In females, lower HDL was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization. Conclusions In this relatively lean Chinese population, higher %BF, lower HDL and higher LDL were associated with greater risk of allergic sensitization, most notable in males. The observed associations between adiposity, serum lipids and allergic sensitization in males appear to be partially explained by common genetic influences on these traits. PMID:19135238

  2. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Delibas, Namik; Altuntas, Irfan; Oktem, Faruk; Yönden, Zafer

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the levels of iron, zinc, and copper and their demolishing effects against lipid peroxidation in chronic giardiasis. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels, erythrocyte cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in 34 children with chronic giardiasis and were compared with controls. The serum iron and zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher among the children with chronic giardiasis compared to the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in copper levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Consequently, the oxidant-antioxidant balance may tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in giardiasis. If early and proper treatment is not performed, free radical-mediated damage might occur in children with chronic giardiasis.

  3. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  4. The environmental light influences the circulatory levels of retinoic acid and associates with hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wenqiang; Li, Chunying; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Shiming; Dong, Wei; Jiang, Pengjiu; Zhang, Jianfa

    2008-12-01

    Environmental light is involved in the regulation of photochemical reaction in mouse retina. It remains unclear whether light-mediated increase in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis in retina will result in altering the circulatory levels of ATRA and regulating downstream gene expression and physiological function. Here we showed circulatory levels of ATRA decreased in mice under constant darkness and elevated by light exposure. Fat gene pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (mPlrp2) and its partner procolipase (mClps), but not hepatic lipase (mHl), activated in livers for responding to lack of light illuminating. Light-triggered alterations in circulatory ATRA levels regulated ecto-5'-nucleotidase gene expression by retinoic acid receptor retinoic acid receptor-alpha and modulated 5'-AMP levels in blood and were associated with mPlrp2 and mClps expression in the livers. Mice deficient in adenosine receptors displayed mPlrp2 and mClps expression in livers under 12-h light, 12-h dark cycles. Caffeine blocked adenosine receptors and induced hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression in wild-type mice. Mice activated in hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression lowered hepatic and serum lipid levels and markedly elevated circulatory levels of all-trans retinol. Our results suggest environmental light influence hepatic lipid homeostasis by light-modulated retinoic acid signaling associated with mPlrp2 and mClps gene expression in livers.

  5. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  6. Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts.

    PubMed

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida; Boomsma, Dorret; Heid, Iris M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Wilson, James F; Spector, Tim; Martin, Nicholas G; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Johansson, Asa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Jonasson, Inger; Pattaro, Cristian; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nick; Pichler, Irene; Hicks, Andrew A; Falchi, Mario; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John; Magnusson, Patrik; Saharinen, Juha; Perola, Markus; Silander, Kaisa; Isaacs, Aaron; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Elliott, Paul; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sabatti, Chiara; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Smit, Johannes H; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-11); LDL, P = 2.6 x 10(-10)), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 x 10(-10)), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 x 10(-16)), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 x 10(-9)), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-10); LDL, P = 4.4 x 10(-13)) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 x 10(-11)). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors.

  7. Clinorotation Effect on Coupling Level and Lipid Composition of Barley Thylakoid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhaylenko, N.; Podorvano, V.; Zolotareva, O.

    Microgravity can induce structural perturbation of plant photosynthetic apparatus. It was shown that space flight conditions caused both pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure changes in a number of various plant species. The transformations of photosynthetic membrane lipid composition were observed in wheat plants under microgravity as well as in chloroplasts of pea under clinorotation. The photosynthetic apparatus is located in thylakoid membranes of chloroplast and provides plant cell by macroerg compounds (ATP and NADPH) necessary for inorganic carbon fixation and metabolism. ATP is formed in the process of photophosphorylation, the rate of which is determined by a coupling level of thylakoid membranes. The aim of the work was to study the coupling level and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes isolated from barley plants grown under clinorotation. Plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown for 7 days at 22-24°C, at low illumination (143 μ mol m-2 s-1) with a light period of 16 h, on a horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control. Photochemical activity of isolated chloroplasts (class II) was estimated by the following reactions: cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, coupled and uncoupled electron transfer from water to K3Fe(CN)6. Total lipids were extracted from isolated chloroplasts and individual lipid classes were separated by thin-layer chromatography. Phospholipids were determined in the form of inorganic phosphate after mineralization with perchloric acid. Glycolipids were assayed by monosaccharide content after acidic hydrolysis. Gas chromatography was applied to analyse the fatty acid composition of membrane glycerolipids. The rates of both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation in chloroplasts isolated from clinorotated plants were lower than those in control samples. At the same time the rate of electron transfer in thylakoid membranes from clinorotated plants was higher. In the presence of protonophoric channel

  8. Nitrogen-Deprivation Elevates Lipid Levels in Symbiodinium spp. by Lipid Droplet Accumulation: Morphological and Compositional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  9. Genetic determinants of serum lipid levels in Chinese subjects: A population-based study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Menashe, Idan; Chen, Jinbo; Chang, Shih-Chen; Rashid, Asif; Gao, Yu-Tang; Han, Tian-Quan; Sakoda, Lori C.; Chanock, Stephen; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We examined the associations between 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of eight lipid metabolism genes and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Methods This study was conducted as part of a population-based study in China with 799 randomly selected healthy residents who provided fasting blood and an in-person interview. Associations between variants and mean lipid levels were examined using a test of trend and least squares mean test in a general linear model. Results Four SNPs were associated with lipid levels: LDLR rs1003723 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.002) and LDL (p-trend=0.01), LDLR rs6413503 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.05), APOB rs1367117 was associated with apoB (p-trend=0.02), and ABCB11 rs49550 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.01), triglycerides (p-trend=0.01), and apoA (p-trend=0.01). We found statistically significant effects on lipid levels for LDLR rs6413503 among those with high dairy intake, LPL rs263 among those with high allium vegetable intake, and APOE rs440446 among those with high red meat intake. Conclusion We identified new associations between SNPs and lipid levels in Chinese previously found in Caucasians. These findings provide insight into the role of lipid metabolism genes, as well as the mechanisms by which these genes may be linked with disease. PMID:19888660

  10. Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2005-05-01

    Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease.

  11. [About paired correlation of pi-electrons tissue lipid extracts of animals of different evolutionary levels].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukoliukova, E P; Ivanova, V P; Krivchenko, A I

    2008-01-01

    With aid of optical methods, the presence of the paired correlations of pi-electrons has been revealed in phospholipids as well as in triacylglyceride molecules. Used for analysis were lipid extracts of individual representatives of animals of various evolutionary levels--cartilaginous and bony fish and mammals differing by the content of unsaturated fatty acids in lipids. It has been established that the necessary condition for formation of electron pairs is interaction of lipid molecules with each other. An opinion is put forward that in the liquid crystal structure of the membrane monolayer there are two zones able to form electron pairs--the zone of location of ester bonds and the zone in the region of double bonds. Besides, the paired correlation in the phospholipid molecule electron system is accompanied by the absence of electric resistance of the membrane monolayer, which provides the monolayer superconductivity at low rates of movement of the "electron fluid". It is to be noted that the very fact of the presence of the electron pair implies transfer of energy by small portions, which does not allow excitation of individual phospholipid molecules in the monolayer and promotes stability of the native membrane. Our data agree with the known statements of A. Pulman and B. Pulman that the life dynamicity is determined by dynamicity of the electron cloud in coupled or partially coupled systems.

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  13. Effects of Uric Acid on Lipid Levels in CKD Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Shelmadine, Brian D.; Moreillon, Jennifer J.; Deike, Erika; Griggs, Jackson O.; Wilson, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have been conducted that compared lipid levels and uric acid in CKD or End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients with most using animal models. The purpose of the study was to explore effects on lipids while controlling uric acid levels in CKD patients. Methods Twenty-four CKD patients (N = 24) volunteered to participate in this study. The study was conducted using a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled experimental protocol. The experimental group was prescribed 300 mg of allopurinol PO daily by their treating physician and followed prospectively for 8-weeks. The control group consumed a similar pill once a day for 8-weeks. Results ANCOVA revealed significant differences in total cholesterol (P = 0.009) and Apo B (P = 0.006) with lower levels in the allopurinol group. A trend emerged with LDL (P = 0.052) with lower levels in the allopurinol group. No significant differences were discovered in triglycerides (P = 0.403), HDL (P = 0.762) and total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio (P = 0.455). Conclusions After statistically controlling for compliance and inflammation significant differences between groups were observed for total cholesterol and Apo B. In both instances the allopurinol group had lower concentrations than the placebo group. Similarly, a trend was observed in LDL with the allopurinol group having lower concentrations than the placebo group.

  14. Effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) Mushroom on serum lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Furuichi, Yukio; Kokean, Yasushi; Nishii, Takafumi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) mushroom on serum lipid levels was investigated in rats. When the mushroom (fruit body) powder or its hotwater extract was added at a level of 10% to a cholesterol-containing diet, the serum total cholesterol levels of rats fed the fruit body or the hot-water extract were markedly lower than that of controls, though there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among the three groups. On a cholesterol-free diet, the addition of fruit body powder at a level of 5% significantly decreased serum total cholesterol. Serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly decreased in both the fruit body and hot-water extract groups. Furthermore, Hatakeshimeji in the diet significantly increased the activity of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, which converts cellular cholesterol to bile acids, as well as the fecal excretion of bile acids.

  15. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Effects of policosanols and phytosterols on lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Jones, P J H; Pischel, I; Fairow, C

    2003-02-01

    The current study was carried out to examine the effects of policosanols and phytosterols, alone and in combination, on lipid profiles, cholesterol biosynthesis, and tissue histopathological changes in hamsters. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 wk before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 10 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 wk. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a PUFA to saturated FA ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given Octa-6 [a policosanol mixture from sugar cane wax, 25 mg/kg body weight (BW)], Ricewax (a policosanol mixture from rice wax with 50% being converted to the corresponding acids, 50 mg/kg BW), phytosterols (Cholestatin; 1,000 mg/kg BW), and Ricewax (50 mg/kg BW) plus phytosterols (1,000 mg/kg BW), respectively. The results showed that there was no difference between Octa-6 and Ricewax treatments in any of the lipid parameters measured, and both had similar levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) as the control. Octa-6 but not Ricewax increased (P = 0.03) non-HDL-C as compared with the control. Phytosterols reduced T-C (P < 0.0003) and HDL-C (P < 0.004) without a significant effect on TG and non-HDL-C as compared to the control. Ricewax plus phytosterols had effects similar to those with phytosterols alone. Free cholesterol synthetic rates were not different among the treatments. Policosanols or phytosterols did not show any toxic effects in liver, heart, brain, or kidney. Results suggest that, although phytosterols reduce T-C and HDL-C levels, policosanols have no significant favorable effect in changing lipid levels in hamsters.

  17. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yeom, Mijung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the hypolipidemic activity of fucoidan, complex polysaccharides from brown seaweeds, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate whether and how fucoidan has lipid-lowering potential in poloxamer-407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Fucoidan treatment 2 h after acute administration of P407 in these mice significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, but increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. In HepG2 hepatocytes and the liver, fucoidan decreased the expression of FAS and ACC mRNA with no or only a moderate inhibitory effect on SREBP-1c mRNA expression. Furthermore, fucoidan attenuated the hepatic expression of mature SREBP-2 protein with a subsequent decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression and an increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA expression. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of chronically P407-treated mice were also reduced by fucoidan. These findings indicate that fucoidan improves serum lipid levels by regulating the expression of key enzymes of cholesterol and triglyceride syntheses in the liver through modulation of SREBP-2.

  18. Abnormal levels of histone methylation in the retinas of diabetic rats are reversed by minocycline treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjun; Sidoli, Simone; Zhang, Wenquan; Wang, Qing; Wang, Leilei; Jensen, Ole N.; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Xiaolu; Zheng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this study we quantified the alterations of retinal histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in diabetic rats using a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. Some diabetic rats were subsequently treated with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, which has been shown to inhibit the diabetes-induced chronic inflammation in the retinas of rodents. We quantified 266 differentially modified histone peptides, including 48 out of 83 methylation marks with significantly different abundancein retinas of diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic controls. About 67% of these marks had their relative abundance restored to non-diabetic levels after minocycline treatment. Mono- and di-methylation states of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1/me2), markers related to DNA damage response, were found to be up-regulated in the retinas of diabetic rats and restored to control levels upon minocycline treatment. DNA damage response biomarkers showed the same pattern once quantified by western blotting. Collectively, this study indicates that alteration of some histone methylation levels is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy in rodents, and the beneficial effect of minocycline on the retinas of diabetic rodents is partially through its ability to normalize the altered histone methylation levels. PMID:28338045

  19. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  20. Renal Vein Thrombosis in a Newborn With Abnormal Factor VIII Level

    PubMed Central

    Szafranska, Agnieszka; Pajak, Agata; Kilis-Pstrusinska, Katarzyna; Królak-Olejnik, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) in neonates is a rare condition of low mortality but significant morbidity due to renal impairment. We report the case of a male term newborn with left RVT and elevated serum factor VIII (FVIII). The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings: prompt diagnosis of RVT was possible because the classic clinical presentation of macroscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable flank mass were present in this newborn infant. The main diagnoses: finally, the reason of RVT was established when the infant was 3 months of age: the increased level of FVIII was confirmed. We discuss the diagnosis, therapy, and outcome of the patient and compare with the literature. Therapeutics interventions: however, despite anticoagulant therapy the left kidney developed areas of scarring and then atrophy. Conclusions and outcomes: Prothrombotic defects should be considered in all patients with perinatal RVT. Elevated factor VIII as a reason of RVT in neonatal period is particularly rare. Given a poor renal outcome in children associated with elevated levels of factor VIII, consideration could be given to more aggressive antithrombotic therapy in such cases. PMID:26252276

  1. Dill seed extract improves abnormalities in lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation in diabetic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yao, Lan; Kim, Minji; Sasako, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Morihiro; Shono, Jinji; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-07-01

    Dill, a small annual herb, is widely used as a flavoring agent in dishes including salads. It has been demonstrated that dill extract and its essential oil show hypolipidemic effects in rats. However, the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated yet. We found that dill seed extract (DSE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), an indispensable regulator for hepatic lipid metabolism, by luciferase assay. Thus, we performed DSE feeding experiments using diabetic obese model KK-Ay mice to examine the effects of DSE on PPAR-α activation in vivo. A 4-week feeding of DSE contained in a high-fat diet decreased plasma triacylglyceride and glucose levels and increased the mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. In addition, the DSE feeding as well as bezafibrate (a PPAR-α potent agonist) feeding increased oxygen consumption rate and rectal temperature. These results indicate that DSE suppresses high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia through hepatic PPAR-α activation.

  2. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  3. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  4. Effects of exercise on L-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary L-carnitine and lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Ozorio, Rodrigo O A; Van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Bessa, Rui J B; Verstegen, Martin W A; Verreth, Johan A J; Huisman, Elbertus A

    2010-04-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two L-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, sixteen fish were induced to a 3-h swim (speed of 1.5 body length (BL)/s), while the other sixteen fish were kept under resting condition. Fish fed 1000 mg L-carnitine accumulated 3.5 and 5 times more L-carnitine in plasma and muscle, respectively, than fish fed the 15 mg L-carnitine. Muscle L-carnitine content was significantly lower in exercised fish than in rested fish. High dietary lipid level (fish oil) led to an increase in muscle n-3 PUFA content and a decrease in SFA and MUFA content. In liver, the increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increased levels of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA. L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased n-3 PUFA content. Exercise decreased n-3 PUFA in both muscle and liver. Plasma lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, normally associated with increased glycolytic processes, were positively correlated with exercise and inversely correlated with dietary L-carnitine level. L-carnitine supplementation reduced significantly the RQ from 0.72 to 0.63, and an interaction between dietary L-carnitine and lipid was observed (P < 0.03). Our results indicate that an increase in fatty acids (FA) intake may promote FA oxidation, and both carnitine and exercise might influence the regulation of FA oxidation selectivity.

  5. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  6. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  7. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment, and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P < .001) and was the same in HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected women without ART (14 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were lower if efavirenz (EFV) was included in ART (15 versus 19 ng/mL; P < .001). The most common lipid abnormality was high triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL) in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (13% versus 7% of HIV-infected without ART and 5% of HIV-uninfected; P < .001), with a positive relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and triglycerides (95% confidence interval 0.32-1.69; P < .01). No relationships between 25-OH vitamin D and cholesterol were detected. Vitamin D deficiency is common irrespective of HIV status but influenced by HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol.

  8. Circadian regulation of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-11-01

    The circadian system temporally coordinates daily rhythms in feeding behaviour and energy metabolism. The objective of the present paper is to review the mechanisms that underlie circadian regulation of lipid metabolic pathways. Circadian rhythms in behaviour and physiology are generated by master clock neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and its efferent targets in the hypothalamus integrate light and feeding signals to entrain behavioural rhythms as well as clock cells located in peripheral tissues, including the liver, adipose tissue and muscle. Circadian rhythms in gene expression are regulated at the cellular level by a molecular clock comprising a core set of clock genes/proteins. In peripheral tissues, hundreds of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid oxidation are rhythmically activated and repressed by clock proteins, hence providing a direct mechanism for circadian regulation of lipids. Disruption of clock gene function results in abnormal metabolic phenotypes and impaired lipid absorption, demonstrating that the circadian system is essential for normal energy metabolism. The composition and timing of meals influence diurnal regulation of metabolic pathways, with food intake during the usual rest phase associated with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies using metabolomics and lipidomics platforms have shown that hundreds of lipid species are circadian-regulated in human plasma, including but not limited to fatty acids, TAG, glycerophospholipids, sterol lipids and sphingolipids. In future work, these lipid profiling approaches can be used to understand better the interaction between diet, mealtimes and circadian rhythms on lipid metabolism and risk for obesity and metabolic diseases.

  9. Effect of onsite dietitian counseling on weight loss and lipid levels in an outpatient physician office.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Nasca, Melita M; Lew, Natalie S; Gregoire, Sue; Ruan, Yuheng

    2007-07-01

    We examined the effect of an outpatient office-based diet and exercise counseling program on weight loss and lipid levels with an onsite dietitian who sees patients at the same visit with the physician and is fully reimbursable. Eighty overweight or obese patients (average age 55 +/- 12 years, baseline body mass index 30.1 +/- 6.4 kg/m(2)) with > or =1 cardiovascular risk factor (86%) or coronary heart disease (14%) were counseled to exercise 30 minutes/day and eat a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (saturated fat <7%, polyunsaturated fat to 10%, monounsaturated fat to 18%, low in glycemic index and sodium and high in fiber, low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables). Weight, body mass index, lipid levels, and blood pressure were measured at 1 concurrent follow-up visit with the dietitian and physician and > or =1 additional follow-up with the physician. Maximum weight lost was an average of 5.6% (10.8 lb) at a mean follow-up of 1.75 years. Sixty-four (81%) of these patients maintained significant weight loss (average weight loss 5.3%) at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years. Average decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.3%, average decrease in triglycerides was 34%, and average increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 9.6%. Systolic blood pressure was lowered from 129 to 126 mm Hg (p = 0.21) and diastolic blood pressure from 79 to 75 mm Hg (p = 0.003). In conclusion, having a dietitian counsel patients concurrently with a physician in the outpatient setting is effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss and is fully reimbursable.

  10. Circulating irisin levels are associated with lipid and uric acid metabolism in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanshan; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Jie; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Yan, Jing; Wang, Shiyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-06-26

    Irisin is a novel hormone secreted by skeletal muscle after exercise, which may ameliorate insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between circulating irisin levels and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as related metabolic traits in a Chinese population. A total of 203 subjects were recruited. Of these, 68 subjects with NGT, 63 subjects with IGR and 72 subjects with new-onset T2DM. Circulating irisin levels were measured by ELISA. Detailed clinical investigations and biochemistry measurements were carried out in all of the subjects. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between irisin levels and related metabolic characteristics. All subjects were classified into normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups according to body mass index (BMI). No significant differences in circulating irisin levels were identified among the three groups (p=0.9741). After adjusting for covariates, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum irisin level was independently and significantly associated with total cholesterol (p=0.0005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.0014), fasting fatty acids (p=0.0402) and uric acid (p=0.0062). By dividing the serum irisin levels into three tertile group, the values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting fatty acids and uric acid were all increased significantly with the increase of irisin (p<0.05) . Moreover, serum irisin levels remain closely related to total cholesterol in both normal weight and overweight/obese subgroups. Our study suggests that circulating irisin concentrations are significantly associated with lipid and uric acid metabolism in a Chinese population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  12. UGT1A1∗28 relationship with abnormal total bilirubin levels in chronic hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcelo Moreira Tavares; Vaisberg, Victor Van; Abreu, Rodrigo Martins; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; daSilvaFerreira, Camila; Nasser, Paulo Dominguez; Paschoale, Helena Scavone; Carrilho, Flair José; Ono, Suzane Kioko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gilbert syndrome (GS) is a frequent benign clinical condition, marked by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, mostly due to the polymorphism uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1∗28 (UGT1A1∗28). Hyperbilirubinemia has been reported in a GS patient undergoing hepatitis C treatment, and other UGT isoforms polymorphisms have been linked to worse outcomes in viral hepatitis. Yet, little is known to GS contributions’ to the liver disease scenario. Our aim was to assess UGT1A1 genotypes’ frequency in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and correlate with total bilirubin (TB). This is a case–control study in a large tertiary medical center. Cases were CHC patients confirmed by hepatitis C virus (HCV)–polymerase chain reaction. Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Control were healthy blood donors. UGT1A1 promoter region gene genotyping was performed, and bilirubin serum levels were available for HCV patients. Genotypes and alleles frequencies were similar in case (n = 585; P = 0.101) and control groups (n = 313; P = 0.795). Total bilirubin increase was noticed according to thymine–adenine repeats in genotypes (P < 0.001), and the TB greater than 1 mg/dL group had more UGT1A1∗28 subjects than in the group with TB values <1 mg/dL (18.3 vs 5.3; P < 0.001). Bilirubin levels are linked to the studied polymorphisms, and this is the first time that these findings are reported in a chronic liver disease sample. Among patients with increased TB levels, the frequency of UGT1A1∗28 is higher than those with normal TB. Personalized care should be considered to GS, regarding either abnormal bilirubin levels or drug metabolism. PMID:28296739

  13. The relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels with severity of obstructive sleep apnea and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, N Colak; Cakal, E; Sahin, M; Ozkaya, E Cakir; Firat, H; Delibasi, T

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D₃ (25-OH-D) deficiency are two separate disorders associating with obesity, inflammation, and impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the vitamin D status of OSA patients regarding to potential links between lower vitamin D levels and abnormal glucose metabolism, which is one of the main adverse outcomes of OSA. Study group is composed of 190 non-diabetic subjects who were suspected of having OSA. Subjects undergone polysomnography and were grouped due to apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) as controls (AHI < 5, n = 47), mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 46), moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 47), and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 50). Serum 25-OH-D, HbA₁c, insulin levels were measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Serum 25-OH-D level (ng/ml) of OSA patients were lower than control subjects (17.4 ± 6.9 vs. 19.9 ± 7.8), and decrement was parallel to severity of OSA; as 18.2 ± 6.4 (5 ≤ AHI < 15), 17.5 ± 7.4 (15 ≤ AHI < 30), and 16.3 ± 6.9 (AHI > 30), respectively (P = 0.097, r = -0.13). However, severe female OSA patients had significantly lower 25-OH-D levels (11.55 ng/ml), while control males had the highest mean value (21.7 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). Frequency of insulin resistance (IR) was 48%, prediabetes 41%, diabetes 16% in OSA patients. Mean 25-OH-D level of insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.7, n = 77, AHI = 35.5) was lower than non-insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR < 2.7, n = 113, AHI = 19.8) as 16.18 ± 7.81 versus 19.2 ± 6.6, respectively (P = 0.004). 25-OH-D level of 91 non-diabetic subjects (n = 91, AHI = 19.7) was 19.5 ± 7.4, prediabetics (n = 75, AHI = 28.7) was 17.45 ± 6.9, and diabetics (n = 24, AHI = 46.3) was 13.8 ± 5.3 (P = 0.02). We showed that subjects with more severe OSA indices (AHI ≥ 15) tended to present lower vitamin D levels correlated to increased prevalence of IR, prediabetes, and diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role and/or worsen

  14. Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta) are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29) versus normozoospermic men (n = 16). The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation. Results hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022). Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028). Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app) of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones. Conclusions The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The alternative glycosylation

  15. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  16. Effects of different dietary lipid level on the growth, survival and immune-relating genes expression in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-peng; Li, Jin-feng; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhong, Wei-jing; Xian, Jian-an; Liao, Shao-an; Miao, Yu-tao; Wang, An-li

    2013-05-01

    Five feeding trials based on the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing 34% protein, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% or 14% lipid respectively in the circulating water culture system for both 30 and 60 days were conducted to investigate the effect of the dietary lipid level on the growth and immunity in white shirmp, Litopenaeus vannamei adults. The body weight and specific growth rate of white shrimp in different treatments indicated that shrimps fed the diet of 12% lipid level for 30d and 10% lipid level for 60d had the best developmental status. The ability of respiratory burst in hemocytes was improved as the increase of dietary lipid level. The transcripts of LGBP and pPO were sensitive to the dietary lipid in hemocyte and hepatopancreas respectively. The activities of CAT, GPx and AKP were increased to a certain extend according to dietary lipid level. Qualification of MDA showed the lowest level in the sample subjected to 12% lipid level diet, indicating an optimal utilization of the dietary lipid and an efficient clearance of MDA in vivo. These results suggested that dietary lipid level of 10-12% significantly tunes the growth and enhance the immune abilities mainly via ROS pathway of L. vannamei.

  17. Lipids and lipoproteins in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J L; Chamberlain, S; Robinson, N

    1980-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessively inherited disease affecting the nervous system with a high incidence of heart involvement. Abnormalities of lipid metabolism are known to be associated with several progressive ataxic conditions. In this study of 46 Friedreich's ataxia patients, serum lipids, fatty acids and lipoproteins were assayed and compared with some earlier findings on Friedreich's ataxia and related disorders. Abnormalities of low and high density lipoproteins suggestive of a major defect have been reported; in the present study the level and chemical composition of high density lipoprotein has been assessed in 20 Friedreich's ataxia patients but previous abnormalities could not be substantiated. Lipid compositional analysis of Friedreich's ataxia central nervous tissue and heart, which has not been previously reported, did not markedly differ from control tissue. PMID:7359148

  18. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  19. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  20. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27312339

  1. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  2. Study on abnormal intra-field CD uniformity induced by Efese-tilt application upon complex leveling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Cai, Boxiu; Xing, Bin; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Tianhui; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2014-03-01

    Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of hole layer is becoming more and more crucial and tightened alongside with the technology node being driven into 28 nm and beyond, since the critical dimension (CD) variation of 2-dimensional (2D) hole pattern is intrinsically harder to control than that of 1D pattern (line/space). As the process window becomes more marginal with the more advanced technology node, although at the cost of contrast loss, EFESE tilt (focus drilling method) is one handy trick for its DOF enhancement capability (1-3). We observed an abnormal up to 6 nm ADI CD trend-down in Y-direction (exposure scan direction) in the strictly repeated via-hole patterns within an about 8 mm x 6 mm chip in condition 1 wafer with pre-layer patterns (short as C1 wafer) where EFESE tilt is applied. No CD trend-down or trend up in X-direction. This C1 hole layer uses EFESE tilt to improve DOF. This CD trend-down phenomenon is thoroughly investigated and a model of "effective EFESE tilt" is proposed and verified. Based on the model, we made a further step into the assessment of another focus drilling method, i.e. EFESE High Range (HR) and evaluate its performance under the same complex leveling scheme. Through all this analysis, we give an insight of the safety zone for applying EFESE tilt for future reference.

  3. High levels of endogenous lipid mediators (N-acylethanolamines) in women with chronic widespread pain during acute tissue trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Bijar; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Gerdle, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Although chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a significant health problem, the molecular mechanisms involved in developing and maintaining chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain are poorly understood. Central sensitization mechanisms maintained by stimuli from peripheral tissues such as muscle have been suggested. Lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory characteristics such as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-α, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamide are suggested to regulate nociceptive transmission from peripheral locations on route towards the central nervous system. This case–control study investigates the levels of anti-inflammatory lipids in microdialysis samples collected during the first 2 h after microdialysis probe insertion and explores the association of these lipids with different pain characteristics in women with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (n = 17) and female healthy controls (n = 19). The levels of oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, and stearoylethanolamide were determined. During sampling of dialysate, pain ratings were conducted using a numeric rating scale. Pain thresholds were registered from upper and lower parts of the body. Oleoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain at all time points. Numeric rating scale correlated with levels of stearoylethanolamide in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. Higher levels of lipid mediators could reflect an altered tissue reactivity in response to microdialysis probe insertion in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27531672

  4. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  5. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  6. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  7. User requirements rating and knowledge-level of general practitioners at the start of CholGate - a lipid management decision support project.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Jacobus T; van Wijk, Marc A; Moorman, Peter W; Mosseveld, Mees; van der Lei, Johan

    2005-01-01

    In the CholGate project we performed a preliminary study evaluating user requirements and knowledge level on lipid management in 40 primary care practices in The Netherlands. Practitioners rated speed, usability and completeness as important. We hope to show that the knowledge level of physicians regarding lipid management can be passively increased from its current levels by an integrated decision support system.

  8. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  9. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  10. Lipid-associated sialic acid levels in human breast cyst fluids.

    PubMed

    Mannello, F; Bocchiotti, G; Troccoli, R; Gazzanelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion. Women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal female population. Sialic acid has drawn considerable interest because of carbohydrate aberrations in malignant cells. The current investigation determined the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA) in 62 breast cyst fluids and sera. Data analyses show a significant increase in the mean values of LASA in metabolically active apocrine cysts when compared to the cysts with Na+/K+ > 3 (flattened cysts) (p < 0.001). The greater LASA levels in cyst fluids with lower intracystic Na+/K+ ratios could represent an altered expression of biosynthetic activity of the surrounding apocrine cell surface sialoglycolipid metabolism, providing a possible explanation of why women with apocrine cysts may be at greater cancer risk and being useful in further studies on functional stage changes in the cysts and their relationship to breast cancer.

  11. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  12. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  13. Glucose tolerance and lipid-lipoprotein levels in middle-aged powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Hurley, B F; Hagberg, J M; Seals, D R; Ehsani, A A; Goldberg, A P; Holloszy, J O

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of a form of strength training (powerlifting) on certain coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in middle-aged men. The risk factors studied were the plasma lipid-lipoprotein profile, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels, all of which have been shown to be favourably influenced by endurance training in middle-aged and older men. Five elite powerlifters (52 +/- 9 years) were compared to distance runners and sedentary controls of similar age with whom they were matched in terms of body fatness as estimated from skin-fold thickness measurements. The powerlifters had a significantly (P less than 0.01) lower HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) level (34 +/- 4 mg/100 ml) than the sedentary controls (48 +/- 12 mg/100 ml) and runners (54 +/- 8 mg/100 ml). The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, a good indicator of CAD risk, was 41% higher in the powerlifters than in the controls, and 57% higher than in the runners (both P less than 0.01). The total area under the glucose tolerance curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the powerlifters was 74% higher than for the sedentary controls (P less than 0.05) and 229% higher than for runners (P less than 0.01). Similarly, the total area under the OGTT insulin curve for the powerlifters was 68% higher than for sedentary controls and 332% higher than for the runners (P less than 0.001). These findings suggest that middle-aged powerlifters, in marked contrast to endurance athletes, have an increased risk of developing CAD.

  14. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  15. Lipidomics: a mass spectrometry based, systems level analysis of cellular lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex

    2009-01-01

    Lipidomics is a logical outcome of the history and traditions of lipid biochemistry and advances in mass spectrometry are at the heart of a renaissance in understanding the roles of lipids in cellular functions. Our desire to understand the complexity of lipids in biology has led to new techniques that allow us to identify over 1000 phospholipids in mammalian cell types and tissues. Improvements in chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry have positioned us to determine not only the lipid composition (i.e., parts list) of cells and tissues, but also address questions regarding lipid substrates and products that previously overwhelmed traditional analytical technologies. In the decade since lipidomics was conceived much of the efforts have been on new methodologies, development of computer programs to decipher the gigabytes of raw data, and struggling with the highly variable nature of biological systems where absolute quantities of a given metabolite may be less important than its relative change in concentration. It is clear that the technology is now sufficiently developed to address fundamental questions about the roles of lipids in cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. PMID:19744877

  16. Atomic-level description of protein-lipid interactions using an accelerated membrane model.

    PubMed

    Baylon, Javier L; Vermaas, Josh V; Muller, Melanie P; Arcario, Mark J; Pogorelov, Taras V; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins are structurally diverse proteins that are involved in fundamental cellular processes. Their activity of these proteins is frequently modulated through their interaction with cellular membranes, and as a result techniques to study the interfacial interaction between peripheral proteins and the membrane are in high demand. Due to the fluid nature of the membrane and the reversibility of protein-membrane interactions, the experimental study of these systems remains a challenging task. Molecular dynamics simulations offer a suitable approach to study protein-lipid interactions; however, the slow dynamics of the lipids often prevents sufficient sampling of specific membrane-protein interactions in atomistic simulations. To increase lipid dynamics while preserving the atomistic detail of protein-lipid interactions, in the highly mobile membrane-mimetic (HMMM) model the membrane core is replaced by an organic solvent, while short-tailed lipids provide a nearly complete representation of natural lipids at the organic solvent/water interface. Here, we present a brief introduction and a summary of recent applications of the HMMM to study different membrane proteins, complementing the experimental characterization of the presented systems, and we offer a perspective of future applications of the HMMM to study other classes of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  17. Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome: not an N-linked oligosaccharide processing defect, but an abnormality in lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Powell, L D; Paneerselvam, K; Vij, R; Diaz, S; Manzi, A; Buist, N; Freeze, H; Varki, A

    1994-01-01

    The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS) is a developmental disease associated with an abnormally high isoelectric point of serum transferrin. Carbohydrate analyses of this glycoprotein initially suggested a defect in N-linked oligosaccharide processing, although more recent studies indicate a defect in the attachment of these sugar chains to the protein. We studied both serum glycoproteins and fibroblast-derived [2-3H]mannose-labeled oligosaccharides from CDGS patients and normal controls. While there was a decrease in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins of affected individuals, differences were not seen in either monosaccharide composition or oligosaccharide structures. The lectin-binding profiles of glycopeptides from [2-3H]-mannose-labeled fibroblasts were likewise indistinguishable. However, the incorporation of [2-3H]mannose into both glycoproteins and the dolichol-linked oligosaccharide precursor was significantly reduced. Thus, at least in some patients, CDGS is not due to a defect in processing of N-linked oligosaccharides, but rather to defective synthesis and transfer of nascent dolichol-linked oligosaccharide precursors. This abnormality could result in both a failure to glycosylate some sites on some proteins, as well as secondary abnormalities in overall glycoprotein processing and/or function. PMID:7962535

  18. Effects of two "lipid-lowering" diets on plasma lipid levels of patients with peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, G D; Whyte, L; Gee, M I; Crockford, P M; Grace, M; Oberle, K; Williams, H T; Hutchison, K J

    1984-05-01

    Fifty subjects with peripheral vascular disease were randomly assigned to either the American Heart Association Hyperlipidemia Diet C (AHA, N = 23) or a higher fiber, low fat diet based on the Pritikin maintenance diet (HFD, N = 27) and studied for a 12-month period. Diet counseling was provided, and the subjects were encouraged to exercise regularly, to decrease their consumption of salt, alcohol, and caffeine, and to restrict cigarettes as much as possible. Dietary intake data showed that energy distribution was approximately 49% and 64% carbohydrate, 20% and 22% protein, and 31% and 14% fat for the AHA and HFD groups, respectively. Cholesterol and dietary fiber intakes averaged 201 mg and 23 gm per day, respectively, for the AHA group and 108 mg and 43 gm per day, respectively, for the HFD group. Generally, both groups showed tendencies toward decreased serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol. The HFD group achieved a significant decrease in serum cholesterol (at month 12) (p less than .01). The only significant between-group difference was in serum cholesterol at 4 months (p less than .01), with the lower value in the HFD group. There was a consistent negative correlation between dietary fiber and serum cholesterol levels (p less than .01). Average weight loss was 4.1 kg for the AHA group and 6 kg for the HFD group. We concluded that both dietary regimens, combined with exercise, can be of benefit to patients with peripheral vascular disease.

  19. Severe alterations in lipid composition of frontal cortex lipid rafts from Parkinson's disease and incidental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson's disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Lipid alterations in lipid rafts from Alzheimer's disease human brain cortex.

    PubMed

    Martín, Virginia; Fabelo, Noemí; Santpere, Gabriel; Puig, Berta; Marín, Raquel; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized their biochemical lipid composition. The results revealed that lipid rafts from AD brains exhibit aberrant lipid profiles compared to healthy brains. In particular, lipid rafts from AD brains displayed abnormally low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, mainly 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) and monoenes (mainly 18:1n-9, oleic acid), as well as reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes. Also, multiple relationships between phospholipids and fatty acids were altered in AD lipid rafts. Importantly, no changes were observed in the mole percentage of lipid classes and fatty acids in rafts from normal brains throughout the lifespan (24-85 years). These indications point to the existence of homeostatic mechanisms preserving lipid raft status in normal frontal cortex. The disruption of such mechanisms in AD brains leads to a considerable increase in lipid raft order and viscosity, which may explain the alterations in lipid raft signaling observed in AD.

  1. Lipid and protein oxidation of chicken breast rolls as affected by dietary oxidation levels and packaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shan; Zhang, Wan Gang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ma, Chang Wei; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary treatment and packaging on the oxidative stability of breast rolls. A total of 120 4-wk-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to control, oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil, PV = 100), or antioxidants-added diet (500 IU vitamin E + 200 ppm BHA) and fed for 2 wk. Breast muscles were separated from the carcasses and breast rolls were prepared. The rolls were cooked in a smoke house (85 °C) to an internal temperature of 74 °C, cooled, sliced to 2-cm thick pieces, individually packaged in oxygen permeable bags or vacuum-packaged in oxygen impermeable bags, and stored in a 4 °C cold room for 7 d. Lipid, protein oxidation and volatiles were determined at 1, 4, and 7 d of storage. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants significantly reduced lipid oxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyls) in breast rolls, and the effect of dietary antioxidants on lipid oxidation was more pronounced than protein oxidation. Chicken breast rolls from antioxidants treatment group produced significantly lower amounts of hexanal and pentanal than those from control and oxidized oil treatments (P < 0.05). However, dietary oxidized oil did not increase lipid and protein oxidation in breast rolls. Vacuum-packaging significantly delayed the onset of lipid oxidation and protein oxidation in chicken rolls during 7-day refrigerated storage (P < 0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that appropriate use of dietary supplementation of antioxidants in combination with packaging could minimize lipid oxidation in chicken breast rolls.

  2. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A) and α-amylase (RP-E) on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS). Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P < 0.05), as well as hepatic accumulation of lipids (P < 0.05). RP-A and RP-E significantly depressed the hepatic activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of lipoprotein lipase (PL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were significantly stimulated (P < 0.05), as compared to CAS. Neither lipids level nor activities of enzymes were different between RP-A and RP-E (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P < 0.05), as well as the plasma TG concentration (r = 0.8627, P < 0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action. PMID:22330327

  3. Abnormal epigenetic regulation of the gene expression levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b: Implications for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoling; Chen, Shuyuan; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Qian; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    The association between Wnt genes and neural tube defects (NTDs) is recognized, however, it remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are affected in human NTDs. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Wnt2b and Wnt7b are susceptible to abnormal epigenetic modification in NTDs, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to evaluate histone enrichments and the MassARRAY platform to detect the methylation levels of target regions within Wnt genes. The results demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Wnt2b and Wnt7b were abnormally upregulated in mouse fetuses with NTDs and, in the GC‑rich promoters of these genes, histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) acetylation was enriched, whereas H3K27 trimethylation was reduced. Furthermore, several CpG sites in the altered histone modification of target regions were significantly hypomethylated. The present study also detected abnormal epigenetic modifications of these Wnt genes in human NTDs. In conclusion, the present study detected abnormal upregulation in the levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b, and hypothesized that the alterations may be due to the ectopic opening of chromatin structure. These results improve understanding of the dysregulation of epigenetic modification of Wnt genes in NTDs.

  4. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  5. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  6. Association of the variants in the PPARG gene and serum lipid levels: a meta-analysis of 74 studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Chen, Rong; Bie, Lizhan; Zhao, Dandan; Huang, Chunkai; Hong, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Considerable studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of PPARG (Pro12Ala, C161T and C1431T) and serum lipid levels, but the results were inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the association. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. The subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity. Seventy-four studies with 54,953 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. In Pro12Ala, the group with the ‘PP’ (C/C genotype) genotype group had lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference, MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 28%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) and higher levels of triglyceride (TG) (MD: 0.06, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ (PA = C/G genotype, AA = G/G genotype) genotype group in Asian population, and the group with the ‘PP’ genotype had higher levels of TG (MD: 0.07, P < 0.02; I2 = 67%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ genotype group in non-Asian population. No statistically significant differences in the levels of TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C were detected between different genotypes in C161T(Asian or non-Asian) and C1431T(Asian) polymorphisms. This meta-analysis was a renewed and confirmed study to assess the association between PPARG polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in Asian and non-Asian populations. There is a prominent association between Pro12Ala polymorphism and the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in Asian population. No statistically significant differences in serum lipid levels were detected between different genotypes in C161T and C1431T polymorphisms. PMID:25265984

  7. Changes in plasma lipid and glucose levels during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chics.

    PubMed

    Evans, A J; Bannister, D W; Whitehead, C C; Siller, W G; Wight, P A

    1977-11-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were measured during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks. Intial studies indicated that behavioural and clinical changes characteristically associated with the syndrome were observed only during the 24 h preceding death. A more detailed examination of the blood changes was made on fasted birds. Typically, affected birds could be distinguished from healthy fasted birds by a hypoglycaemia which developed within 2.5 h of the removal of food, and a slightly higher and more sustained elevation of free fatty acid levels. Triglyceride values were not generally different from those found in normal birds. Although moderate to large amounts of lipid were occasionally observed in the kidneys of healthy fasted birds, only in affected birds was significant lipid infiltration of the kidneys associated with a similar level of lipid infiltration of the liver. In extreme cases death from fatty liver and kidney syndrome could occur within 4 h of the removal of food.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  10. Coenzyme Q10, copper, zinc, and lipid peroxidation levels in serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2011-11-01

    Severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation is associated with increased level of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lipid peroxidation (malodialdehyde, MDA). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of lipid peroxidation, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), Zn, and Cu in the COPD exacerbations. Forty-five patients with COPD acute exacerbation and 45 healthy smokers as control group were used in the study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were lower in exacerbation group than in control. C- reactive protein levels, white blood cell count, and sedimentation rate were significantly (p<0.001) higher in patients than in control. CoQ10 level and Cu/Zn ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients than in control, although MDA, Cu, and Zn levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients than in control. Negative correlations were found among MDA, Cu, Zn, FEV1, and FVC values in exacerbation and control subjects (p<0.05). In conclusion, we observed that oxidative stress in the exacerbation period of COPD patients was increased. The decrease in CoQ10 level and Cu/Zn ratio and elevation in Cu and Zn levels observed in the patients probably result from the defense response of organism and are mediated by inflammatory-like substances.

  11. The impact of low-frequency and rare variants on lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Surakka, Ida; Horikoshi, Momoko; Mägi, Reedik; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marullo, Letizia; Ferreira, Teresa; Miraglio, Benjamin; Timonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Johannes; Pirinen, Matti; Karjalainen, Juha; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hägg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isaacs, Aaron; Ladenvall, Claes; Beekman, Marian; Esko, Tõnu; Ried, Janina S; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Gustafsson, Stefan; Westra, Harm-Jan; Blades, Matthew; de Craen, Anton JM; de Geus, Eco J; Deelen, Joris; Grallert, Harald; Hamsten, Anders; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Hyppönen, Elina; Karssen, Lennart C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mihailov, Evelin; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Pers, Tune H; Peters, Annette; Rung, Johan; Smit, Johannes H; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Tobin, Martin D; Tsernikova, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Viikari, Jorma S; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lind, Lars; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P Eline; Groop, Leif; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Power, Christine; Raitakari, Olli T; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Stefansson, Kari; Franke, Lude; Ikonen, Elina; Kallioniemi, Olli; Pietiäinen, Vilja; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Palotie, Aarno; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P; Prokopenko, Inga; Ripatti, Samuli

    2016-01-01

    Using a genome-wide screen of 9.6 million genetic variants achieved through 1000 Genomes imputation in 62,166 samples, we identify association to lipids in 93 loci including 79 previously identified loci with new lead-SNPs, 10 new loci, 15 loci with a low-frequency and 10 loci with missense lead-SNPs, and, 2 loci with an accumulation of rare variants. In six loci, SNPs with established function in lipid genetics (CELSR2, GCKR, LIPC, and APOE), or candidate missense mutations with predicted damaging function (CD300LG and TM6SF2), explained the locus associations. The low-frequency variants increased the proportion of variance explained, particularly for LDL-C and TC. Altogether, our results highlight the impact of low-frequency variants in complex traits and show that imputation offers a cost-effective alternative to re-sequencing. PMID:25961943

  12. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  13. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  14. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lenka A.; Kluth, Jessica; Hübschle, Tobias; Fritzsche, Jonas; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Pletschen, Lars; Schilli, Karin; Hodina, Arwen; Griffith, Lee S.; Breul, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented. PMID:27351011

  15. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. Serum selenium and lipid levels: Associations observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen

    2015-07-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and due to its antioxidant activity, is hypothesized to be beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, the evidence for an association between selenium and health markers such as lipid levels has been mixed. This may be due to substantial variability in the level of selenium intake between populations and potential non-linearity of selenium-health outcome associations. We used the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between serum selenium and lipid levels among participants aged 12 years and older. Associations were evaluated using both linear regression models, as well as ordinal logistic regression and quantile regression models to allow for potential non-linear relationships. In all models, potential confounders of sex, age group, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and cotinine were included. Overall, 40% of participants had total cholesterol levels classified as borderline or elevated, and total cholesterol increased with increasing selenium (p=0.01). A similar pattern was seen for triglycerides (p=0.02). LDL cholesterol was also associated with selenium but not in a linear fashion; HDL cholesterol did not vary with selenium. Multivariate quantile regression showed significant associations between selenium and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The effect of selenium was stronger with increasing quantile for total cholesterol and for triglycerides. In contrast, for LDL cholesterol the association was positive in the 10th and 50th percentiles, but (non-significant and) negative in the 90th percentile. These results show that while selenium may impact cardiovascular health via effects on lipid levels, the associations may not be linear.

  18. [Lipid and lipoprotein profile in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Deiana, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Tidore, M; Cherchi, G M

    1992-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common relapsing dermatosis characterized by an increased epidermal cell proliferation. In this work we studied the lipid and lipoprotein pattern in 17 patients affected by long-standing psoriasis and in 20 normal controls. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein AI and B levels were measured; VLDL, LDL and HDL chemical composition was assessed by preparative ultracentrifugation. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the patient group; chemical analysis of the main lipoprotein classes showed compositional abnormalities consistent with an accelerated turnover of these particles. We believe that epidermal cell proliferation can play a role in determining these changes.

  19. Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to

  20. Induction of Embryogenesis in Brassica Napus Microspores Produces a Callosic Subintinal Layer and Abnormal Cell Walls with Altered Levels of Callose and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The induction of microspore embryogenesis produces dramatic changes in different aspects of the cell physiology and structure. Changes at the cell wall level are among the most intriguing and poorly understood. In this work, we used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution, immunolocalization, confocal, and electron microscopy to analyze the structure and composition of the first cell walls formed during conventional Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis, and in cultures treated to alter the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our results revealed that one of the first signs of embryogenic commitment is the formation of a callose-rich, cellulose-deficient layer beneath the intine (the subintinal layer), and of irregular, incomplete cell walls. In these events, Ca2+ may have a role. We propose that abnormal cell walls are due to a massive callose synthesis and deposition of excreted cytoplasmic material, and the parallel inhibition of cellulose synthesis. These features were absent in pollen-like structures and in microspore-derived embryos, few days after the end of the heat shock, where abnormal cell walls were no longer produced. Together, our results provide an explanation to a series of relevant aspects of microspore embryogenesis including the role of Ca2+ and the occurrence of abnormal cell walls. In addition, our discovery may be the explanation to why nuclear fusions take place during microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26635844

  1. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  2. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.

  3. Changes in lipid levels after 48 weeks of dual versus triple therapy observed in the GARDEL study

    PubMed Central

    Cahn, Pedro; Andrade Villanueva, Jaime; Arribas, Jose; Gatell, Jose; Lama, Javier; Norton, Michel; Patterson, Patricia; Sierra Madero, Juan; Sued, Omar; Ines Figueroa, Maria; Jose Rolón, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogues frequently leads to rises in lipids, which might increase the cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to describe changes in lipid levels among HIV positive patients participating in the GARDEL study. Materials and Methods The GARDEL study compared the efficacy and safety of a dual therapy (DT) combination of LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC 150 mg BID to a triple therapy (TT) with LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC or FTC and a third investigator-selected NRTI in fixed-dose combination among HIV+ treatment naïve patients. We compared changes in lipid levels from baseline to week 48 in both arms. Results Patient's characteristics were well balanced regarding mean baseline total cholesterol (157 mg/dL DT, 154 mg/dL TT), triglycerides (142 mg/dL DT, 139 mg/Dl TT), LDL-C (94 mg/dL DT, 91 mg/dL TT) and HDL-C (36 mg/dL DT, 35 mg/dL TT). Changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in DT arm, compared to TT (32% DT vs 26% TT for cholesterol; 25% DT vs 16% TT for LDL and 33% DT vs 28% TT for HDL). Increase in triglycerides was higher in TT compared to DT (55% DT vs 92% TT) (Table 1). In TT arm LDL-C and total cholesterol elevations were lower among patients receiving TDF compared to those treated with ZDV or ABC. Conclusion Changes in lipid parameters were observed in both arms. Albeit the increase was numerically higher for cholesterol (total and LDL-C) in DT arm while TT arm had higher increases in TG; no difference was observed when week 48 values were compared with the NCEP ATP III goals for cardiovascular risk reduction [1]. So, the DT strategy, even missing the lipid-lowering effect observed with tenofovir, does not seem to add significant risk to patients treated with this novel strategy. PMID:25394061

  4. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences.

  5. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock.

  6. Iron Together with Lipid Downregulates Protein Levels of Ceruloplasmin in Macrophages Associated with Rapid Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shuangying; Zhang, Meng; Li, Kuanyu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Iron accumulation in foam cells was previously shown to be involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism for iron accumulation was not clarified. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an important factor in cellular iron efflux and was found to be downregulated in atherosclerotic plaques in our previous study. The current study is to investigate the role of Cp in atherosclerosis. Methods: We used RAW264.7 cells, a well-accepted cell model of atherosclerosis, which were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) or deferoxamine, and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to detect the regulation of Cp and its influence in iron efflux and lipid accumulation using biochemical and histological assays. Results: Our results showed that the Cp protein level increased after 200-µM FAC treatment in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Ox-LDL treatment (50 µg/ml) moderately reduced both mRNA and protein levels and ferroxidase activity of Cp (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the expression of ferritin and ferroportin, two important iron-related proteins for iron storage and efflux, respectively, after ox-LDL treatment. However, co-treatment with ox-LDL and FAC drastically reduced the expression of Cp. Accordingly, the ferroxidase activities simultaneously decreased, whereas the protein levels of Ft and Fpn1 significantly increased, indicating further iron accumulation. Moreover, co-treatment with FAC and ox-LDL enhanced the accumulation of cholesterol compared with ox-LDL-only treatment to trigger apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that physiological interaction of iron and lipid obstructs iron efflux and accelerates the lipid accumulation in macrophages during foam cell formation, which implicates the role of iron in the pathology of atherosclerosis. PMID:27040361

  7. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-11-30

    BACKGROUND Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. MATERIAL AND METHODS The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. RESULTS Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=-0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=-0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. CONCLUSIONS The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism.

  8. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Material/Methods The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. Results Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=−0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=−0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. Conclusions The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism. PMID:27899788

  9. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  10. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  11. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  12. Associations of lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; HE, Biwei; Cheng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations of elevated lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary maternal hospital in Shanghai, China from February to November 2014. Lipid constituents, including triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) of 1310 eligible women were assessed in the first (10–13+ weeks), second (22–28 weeks) and third (30–35 weeks) trimesters consecutively. Associations of lipid profiles with HDP and/or GDM outcomes were assessed. Results Compared with the normal group, maternal TG concentrations were higher in the HDP/GDM groups across the three trimesters (p<0.001); TC and LDL-c amounts were only higher in the first trimester for the HDP and GDM groups (p<0.05). HDL-c levels were similar in the three groups. Compared with intermediate TG levels (25–75th centile), higher TG amounts (>75th centile) were associated with increased risk of HDP/GDM in each trimester with aORs (95% CI) of 2.04 (1.41 to 2.95), 1.81 (1.25 to 2.63) and 1.78 (1.24 to 2.54), respectively. High TG elevation from the first to third trimesters (>75th centile) was associated with increased risk of HDP, with an aOR of 2.09 (1.16 to 3.78). High TG elevation before 28 weeks was associated with increased risk of GDM, with an aOR of 1.67 (1.10 to 2.54). TG elevation was positively correlated with weight gain during gestation (R=0.089, p=0.005). Conclusions Controlling weight gain during pregnancy could decrease TG elevation and reduce the risk of HDP/GDM. TGs could be used as follow-up parameters during complicated pregnancy, while other lipids are meaningful only in the first trimester. PMID:28011814

  13. Severe Alterations in Lipid Composition of Frontal Cortex Lipid Rafts from Parkinson’s Disease and Incidental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  14. Associations of retrospective and concurrent lipid levels with subclinical atherosclerosis prediction after 20 years of follow-up: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Lewis A.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Pletcher, Mark J.; Shikany, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we sought to determine how well lipids measured at baseline and at 20 years predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Complete risk factor, coronary artery calcification (CAC), and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) data were available for 2435 participants. Lipids were categorized into quartiles, CAC at Y20 was dichotomized as present/absent, and CIMT was dichotomized as ≥84 or <84th overall percentile. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association between lipids and CAC/CIMT. C statistics were used to assess the discriminative value of each lipid measure in predicting the presence of CAC or CIMT at Y20. Results Lipid levels measured in young adulthood as well as middle age were both associated with subclinical disease in middle age. The discriminatory value of lipids was virtually identical at baseline, when participants were 18–30 years of age, and 20 years later. Neither baseline nor Y20 lipid data were strong predictors of Y20 subclinical disease despite statistically significant associations. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that early-life exposure to nonoptimal lipids matters and lifestyle modifications administered earlier in the lifespan could slow the progress of the atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:23889858

  15. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  16. Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Abbriano, Raffaela M; Traller, Jesse C; Davis, Aubrey; Trentacoste, Emily; Vernet, Maria; Allen, Andrew E; Hildebrand, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid composition, pigmentation, and photosynthetic parameters were characterized alongside lipid accumulation. Extensive coordination of large suites of genes was observed, highlighting the existence of clusters of coregulated genes as a key feature of global gene regulation in T. pseudonana. The identity of key enzymes for carbon metabolic pathway inputs (photosynthesis) and outputs (growth and storage) reveals these clusters are organized to synchronize these processes. Coordinated transcript level responses to silicon starvation are probably driven by signals linked to cell cycle progression and shifts in photophysiology. A mechanistic understanding of how this is accomplished will aid efforts to engineer metabolism for development of algal-derived biofuels.

  17. Configurational entropies of lipids in pure and mixed bilayers from atomic-level and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Baron, Riccardo; de Vries, Alex H; Hünenberger, Philippe H; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2006-08-10

    Single-chain and single-fragment configurational entropies of lipid tails in hydrated lipid bilayers are evaluated from molecular dynamics simulations using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The entropy distribution along individual acyl tails is obtained and compared to that of corresponding hydrocarbon chains in the liquid phase. We consider pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and mixed dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. The systems are modeled at different levels of spatial resolution: In an atomic-level (AL) model all (heavy) atoms are explicitly simulated; in a coarse-grained (CG) model particles (beads) representing groups of covalently bound atoms are used, which map approximately four non-hydrogen atoms to one interaction site. Single-chain and single-fragment entropies and correlations between the motions of (single) acyl chains are compared. A good correspondence is found between the flexibility of the AL and CG models. The loss in configurational entropy due to the reduction in the number of degrees of freedom upon coarse-graining of the model is estimated. The CG model shows about 4 times faster convergence of the chain entropies than the more detailed AL model. Corrections to the quasi-harmonic entropy estimates were found to be small for the CG model. For the AL model, the correction due to mode anharmonicities is small, but the correction due to pairwise (supralinear) mode correlations is sizable.

  18. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  19. Alexithymia, Suicide Ideation, C-Reactive Protein, and Serum Lipid Levels Among Outpatients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and serum lipid levels in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Seventy consecutive patients with GAD were recruited and evaluated. Measures were the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All patients were assessed for: CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on almost all rating scales and altered serum CRP and lipid levels vs. non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of higher MADRS scores together with higher scores at the Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher rates of suicide ideation. Although alexithymic subjects with GAD may show a CRP and cholesterol dysregulation, this latter seems independent on increased suicide ideation, rather to Difficulty in Identifying Feelings, and subthreshold depressive symptoms. Study limitations and future research implications are discussed.

  20. Are neuropsychological impairments in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) related to white matter abnormalities or elevated phenylalanine levels?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Wood, Stephen J; Francis, Dorothy E; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Vicki; Boneh, Avihu

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance our understanding of neuropsychological functioning in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) and assess the relative impact of white matter abnormalities (WMA) and neurotransmitter deficiencies on cognitive functions in this population. The study consisted of 33 children with early-treated PKU and 34 healthy control children aged between 7 to 18 years. All children had a neuropsychological evaluation that included measures of general intelligence, attention, processing speed, memory and learning, executive function, and academic achievement. Children in the PKU group also had a magnetic resonance (MR) brain scan. When compared with the control group, the PKU group exhibited global cognitive impairment including lower IQ, attention problems, slow information processing, reduced learning capacity, mild executive impairments, and educational difficulties. Children in the PKU group with extensive WMA (n = 14) displayed significant impairments across all cognitive domains. Metabolic control correlated weakly to moderately with attention, executive, and memory/learning factors. Within the PKU group, regressions revealed that executive function and attention factors were independently related to severity of WM pathology and age, while the memory and learning factor was independently related to metabolic control and age. It is concluded that children with early-treated PKU exhibit a global pattern of impairment, with a particular deficit in processing speed. WM pathology extending into frontal and subcortical regions correlates with the greatest deficits and a profile of impairment consistent with diffuse WM damage. Our findings also offer some support for dopamine depletion in the prefrontal cortex, however adverse consequences as a result of norepinephrine and serotonin deficiencies should not be discounted.

  1. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  2. Metallothionein proteins expression, copper and zinc concentrations, and lipid peroxidation level in a rodent model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Ono, Shin-Ichi; Ishige, Kumiko; Naganuma, Akira; Ito, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takashi

    2007-01-05

    It has been hypothesized that copper-mediated oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal motor neuron disease in humans. To verify this hypothesis, we examined the copper and zinc concentrations and the amounts of lipid peroxides, together with that of the expression of metallothionein (MT) isoforms in a mouse model [superoxide dismutase1 transgenic (SOD1 Tg) mouse] of ALS. The expression of MT-I and MT-II (MT-I/II) isoforms were measured together with Western blotting, copper level, and lipid peroxides amounts increased in an age-dependent manner in the spinal cord, the region responsible for motor paralysis. A significant increase was already seen as early as 8-week-old SOD1 Tg mice, at which time the mice had not yet exhibited motor paralysis, and showed a further increase at 16 weeks of age, when paralysis was evident. Inversely, the spinal zinc level had significantly decreased at both 8 and 16 weeks of age. The third isoform, the MT-III level, remained at the same level as an 8-week-old wild-type mouse, finally increasing to a significant level at 16 weeks of age. It has been believed that a mutant SOD1 protein, encoded by a mutant SOD1, gains a novel cytotoxic function while maintaining its original enzymatic activity, and causes motor neuron death (gain-of-toxic function). Copper-mediated oxidative stress seems to be a probable underlying pathogenesis of gain-of-toxic function. Taking the above current concepts and the classic functions of MT into account, MTs could have a disease modifying property: the MT-I/II isoform for attenuating the gain-of-toxic function at the early stage of the disease, and the MT-III isoform at an advanced stage.

  3. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anniston, Alabama, is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of ΣPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three, four, or at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196–203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Conclusions Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These

  4. Structural Abnormalities and Learning Impairments Induced by Low Level Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency: A Cross-Fostering Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe reductions in thyroid hormones (TH) during development alter brain structure and impair learning. Uncertainty surrounds both the impact oflower levels of TH disruption and the sensitivity of available metrics to detect neurodevelopmental deficits of this disruption. We ha...

  5. Lipid Profile of Children with Malaria by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Rosa Maria; Cabral, Bianca da Conceição; da Silva, Isameriliam Rosaulem Pereira; Brasil, Laelia Maria Barra Feio; Araújo, Eliete da Cunha; de Andrade, Marcieni Ataíde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Changes in lipid profile are commonly reported in adult patients with malaria. However, a few studies evaluated lipid abnormalities in children continuously exposed to P. vivax. Objective. To evaluate lipid abnormalities in children with P. vivax infection and to assess if parasite count or the history of malaria correlates with lipid levels at admission. Methods. A total of 75 children were included in the study, from which 43 were slide confirmed infection by P. vivax. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and, on days 7 and 14, evaluated for the colorimetric measurements of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Results. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were significantly lower in malaria cases. The levels of VLDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in children with malaria. Such changes were transient and were not associated with parasite counting as well as with the history of malaria of patients. Conclusion. There are significant lipid abnormalities in children with low level of P. vivax infection and mild signs and symptoms of the disease, which are not associated with parasitaemia and previous episodes of disease. PMID:28050172

  6. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  7. Dandruff: a condition characterized by decreased levels of intercellular lipids in scalp stratum corneum and impaired barrier function.

    PubMed

    Harding, C R; Moore, A E; Rogers, J S; Meldrum, H; Scott, A E; McGlone, F P

    2002-07-01

    Dandruff is a major problem, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism and subsequent biochemical changes occurring in the scalp skin that lead to its manifestation. The characteristic flaking and scaling of the scalp experienced by dandruff sufferers suggests, similar to the changes classically seen in xerosis, that the desquamation process is impaired. We initiated studies to quantify the biochemical nature of the stratum corneum in the scalp of healthy individuals and dandruff sufferers. Total amounts and relative ratios of stratum corneum lipids species were analysed in scalp stratum corneum samples collected during studies conducted in the UK and Thailand in order to examine ethnic differences. In both populations, dandruff was associated with a dramatic decrease in free lipid levels, with significant decreases in ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Detailed sub-analysis of the major ceramide species within the total ceramide fraction revealed a decrease in ceramide 1 and increased proportions of ceramide 6i and 6ii. In a separate study, we demonstrated that dandruff sufferers show both an elevated blood flow and an increased reported incidence of itch in response to histamine topically applied to the scalp compared with no-dandruff controls. Taken together these two studies indicate that the quality and resilience of the epidermal water barrier is impaired in the scalp of dandruff sufferers. We propose that the perturbed barrier leaves dandruff sufferers more prone to the adverse effects of microbial and fungal toxins, and environmental pollutants, thus perpetuating their impaired barrier.

  8. Low plasma adiponectin level, white blood cell count and Helicobacter pylori titre independently predict abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Ko, Gary T; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher C; Chan, Juliana C

    2009-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin sensitizing effect while chronic inflammation damages pancreatic beta-cells leading to reduced insulin response. We aimed to prove the hypothesis that adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts [WCC], Helicobacter pylori [HP] titers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) may interact to affect risk of diabetes. We studied 288 Chinese men (age-median: 41.0 years, IQR: 35.3-46.0 years) being recruited from the community in Hong Kong. The mean adiponectin level was 5.39+/-2.81 microg/ml and 40.9% (n=107) had low adiponectin level (<4 microg/ml). On multiple regression analysis, adiponectin was negatively associated with diabetes, HOMA insulin resistance top quartile, plasma glucose (PG) and 2h insulin; and positively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity index. WCC was independently associated with PG and 15' insulin, and negatively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity top quartile. HP titre was associated with 30' PG level and diabetes. hs-CRP did not enter the multivariable model. In conclusion, adiponectin, WCC and HP titer are independent predictors for hyperglycemia and reduced insulin sensitivity in Chinese men. These findings may explain the high risk for diabetes in Chinese population despite their relatively low adiposity.

  9. Effects of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, on serum lipid levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Kawakami, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Imazato, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Naoki; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effects of anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), on lipid metabolism. Nineteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), entered in clinical case-control study of SAMURAI trial at Sasebo Chuo Hospital, were examined. Nine patients received TCZ monotherapy at 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks (TCZ group) and 10 patients received conventional DMARDs (control group). Serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), apolipoprotein (Apo) A-1, Apo A-2 and Apo B as well as disease activity score (DAS), C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein were examined at baseline and after 3 months of the treatment. IL-6 inversely was correlated with LDL, Apo A-1 and Apo A-2, and also tended to correlate with Apo B. In TCZ group, serum levels of TC, HDL, LDL, Apo A-1 and Apo A-2 were significantly increased after 3 months treatment with TCZ. There was no significant change in Apo B, the atherogenic index, and TC/HDL by the TCZ treatment. Changes in the DAS28-ESR negatively correlated with those in TC. In one patient, whose serum level of TCZ was not detected after 3 months of the treatment, the absence of the increment in serum levels of Apo A-1 and A-2 in the patient was remarkable. All of the markers did not change during 3 months in control group. These data may raise an important issue to evaluate the impact of these alternations in lipid metabolism for longer periods in RA patients treated with TCZ.

  10. Role of rs3846662 and HMGCR alternative splicing in statin efficacy and baseline lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Valerie; Bourque, Lucienne; Poirier, Judes; Dufour, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the contribution of the rs3846662 polymorphism of HMGCR on serum lipid levels and statin efficacy, we measured in vivo HMGCR mRNA and lipid levels in French Canadian individuals affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia due to the deletion of more than 15 kb of the LDLR gene. Results Men and women carrying the AA genotype at rs3846662, and no APOE4 allele, had higher levels of total cholesterol (5.43 vs. 4.58 mmol/l, P <0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (5.20 vs. 4.39 mmol/l, P <0.05) at baseline. However, with regard to statin efficacy, the penetrance of the AA genotype was sex dependent. Indeed, the percentage reduction in LDL-cholesterol upon statin treatment was significantly decreased in women with the AA genotype compared with women without it (38.4 vs. 46.2%, P <0.05), whereas this was not observed in men. Although both men and women bearing the AA genotype showed a higher ratio of full-length HMGCR mRNA/total HMGCR mRNA compared with individuals without it (n =37, P <0.05), overall transcription of HMGCR was decreased and increased in men and women carrying this genotype, respectively (n =37, P <0.01 and P <0.05). Finally, in our familial hypercholesterolemia cohort, HMGCR alternative splicing explained between 22 and 55% of the variance in statin response. Conclusion rs3846662 polymorphism and the alternative splicing of HMGCR mRNA significantly impact women’s response to statin therapy. PMID:26466344

  11. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  12. Effects of different copper sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and copper status of lambs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Ma, Hui; Fan, Caiyun; Zhang, Zijun; Jia, Zhihai; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Lisheng

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of different copper (Cu) sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, and Cu status of lambs. Fifty Dorper × Mongolia wether lambs (approximately 3 month of age; average BW = 23.8 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into five equal groups each with ten animals according to their weight. Treatments consisted of (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (4) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl; TBCC), and (5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from TBCC. The Cu concentration was 6.74 mg/kg DM in the basal diet. Plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities were not affected on day 30 by Cu supplementation. Copper supplementation increased plasma and liver copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities on day 60. Muscle Cu concentrations were not affected by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle Cu concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities between Cu-lysine and TBCC. Liver copper concentrations and plasma ceruloplasmin activities were increased in lambs supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM than in those supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM on day 60. However, copper levels had no effects on Cu concentrations in plasma and muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were decreased in plasma and liver tissues, but not affected in muscle by Cu supplementation. Plasma SOD activities were increased by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle MDA concentrations and plasma SOD activities between Cu sources and levels. These results indicated that Cu supplementation increased plasma SOD activity, lipid oxidative stability, and copper status of lambs, but did not influence lipid oxidative stability in sheep muscle. Cu-lysine and TBCC were of similar availability when offered to finishing sheep.

  13. Comparative study of apolipoprotein-E polymorphism and plasma lipid levels in dyslipidemic and asymptomatic subjects, and their implication in cardio/cerebro-vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia N; Carvalho, Maria G; Fernandes, Ana P S M; Lima, Luciana M; Loures-Valle, Andréia A; Dantas, Julizar; Janka, Zoltán; Palotás, András; Sousa, Marinez O

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein-E (apoE) gene may modulate lipoprotein metabolism at different steps and influence total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDLc) levels, as well as other lipid features. Population studies have documented significant differences in the frequency of apoE alleles which are related to the prevalence of various cardio-vascular and neuro-psychiatric diseases. In this study, the apoE genotypes and allele frequencies were analyzed in 216 individuals (109 dyslipidemic and 107 normo-lipidic subjects), and the relative contribution of apoE polymorphism on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, as well as risk factors was evaluated. In normo-lipidic volunteers, the frequencies of epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 alleles were 0.042, 0.832 and 0.126, while in dyslipidemic subjects 0.046, 0.835 and 0.119, respectively. No significant difference was observed among epsilon2, epsilon3 or epsilon4 and plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels in the dyslipidemic group. In normo-lipidemics, however, total cholesterol, LDLc and non-HDLc plasma levels were significantly lower in epsilon2 subjects when compared to epsilon3 and epsilon4 individuals. The allelic frequencies of apoE epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 were similar in dyslipidemic and normo-lipemic subjects, suggesting that apoE polymorphisms have no effect on plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels in dyslipidemic subjects. In contrast, in normo-lipemic subjects the epsilon2 allele showed to be associated with lower total cholesterol and LDLc levels, the mark of a better lipid profile. Depending on other co-existing factors, the epsilon2 allele, therefore, may play either a protective or pathogenic role. This elementary knowledge is a fundamental prerequisite for a possible diagnostic application of these lipoproteins as biomarkers to predict adverse cardio-vascular and/or neuro-psychiatric maladies.

  14. Multivitamin supplementation of adult omnivores and lactovegetarians: circulating levels of vitamin A, D and E, lipids, apolipoproteins and selenium.

    PubMed

    Kumpusalo, E; Karinpää, A; Jauhiainen, M; Laitinen, M; Lappeteläinen, R; Mäenpää, P H

    1990-01-01

    Serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins, lipids, apolipoproteins, total protein, hemoglobin, iron, and selenium were determined in healthy Finnish adults during a 7-month period beginning in January and ending in August. The subjects were either omnivores or established lactovegetarians, who had consumed their respective diets for at least 6 months prior to the study. Half of the subjects in both groups received daily multivitamin supplementation and the other half served as controls. In the beginning, the lactovegetarians differed from the omnivores in having lower serum levels of protein, apolipoproteins A-I and C-II, and higher levels of standardized alpha-tocopherol. During the study, serum retinol and standardized alpha-tocopherol (in March and May), as well as apolipoproteins A-I and C-II, and selenium decreased in the omnivores and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol/cholesterol ratio increased. Apolipoprotein B decreased and then increased. In the lactovegetarians, serum selenium and protein decreased during the study, whereas retinol and alpha-tocopherol stayed higher than in the omnivores. Consumption of the lactovegetarian diet was accompanied by lower circulating levels of cholesterol and selenium and higher levels of retinol and standardized alpha-tocopherol than the mixed diet. Multivitamin supplementation may have value especially for omnivores in northern countries, like Finland, in providing better retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin D, and selenium status in late winter and early spring.

  15. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  16. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  17. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea) by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Min; Li, Yi; Lu, You; Hou, Yingmei; Zhou, Qicun

    2017-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g) were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m). Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of lipoprotein

  18. Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J V

    1984-01-01

    Ten years after an incident in which workers were exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) a controlled biochemical study showed statistically significant increases in the serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of workers both with and without chloracne. Urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid was significantly higher for all workers. PMID:6232943

  19. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  20. Effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins in persons with moderately elevated cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Mann, J; Sutherland, W; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1995-08-01

    The physiological effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins have been compared in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Twenty eight participants (13 men, 15 women) followed three 6-week experimental diets of similar macronutrient distribution with the different test fats providing 50% total dietary fat. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the diet containing butter [6.8 +/- 0.9, 4.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l] (mean +/- SD), respectively than on the coconut oil diet (6.4 +/- 0.8; 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) when levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than on the safflower diet (6.1 +/- 0.8; 3.9 +/- 0.7 mmol/l). Findings with regard to the other measures of lipids and lipoproteins were less consistent. Apolipoprotein A-I was significantly higher on coconut oil (157 +/- 17 mg/dl) and on butter (141 +/- 23 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (132 +/- 22 mg/dl). Apolipoprotein B was also higher on butter (86 +/- 20 mg/dl) and coconut oil (91 +/- 32 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (77 +/- 19 mg/dl). However gender differences were apparent. In the group as a whole, high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly on the three diets whereas levels in women on the butter and coconut oil diet were significantly higher than on the safflower oil diet. Triacylglycerol was higher on the butter diet than on the safflower and coconut oil diets but the difference only reached statistical significance in women. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity was significantly higher on butter than safflower oil in the group as a whole and in women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Short-term magnesium deficiency results in decreased levels of serum sphingomyelin, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Perez-Albela, José Luis; Sica, Anthony C; Altura, Bella T

    2009-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would 1) result in decreased serum(s) [the present study tested the levels of Mg, sphingomyelin (SM), and phosphatidylcholine (PC)]; 2) promote DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation (LP), and activation of caspase-3 in cardiac (ventricular and atrial) and vascular(aortic) muscle; and 3) low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water would either prevent or greatly ameliorate these manifestations. The data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (10% normal dietary intake) resulted in profound reductions in serum-ionized Mg and total Mg with an elevation in serum-ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), significant lowering of serum SM and serum PC, with concomitant LP, DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3 in ventricular (right and left chambers), atrial (right and left chambers) and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. The greater the reduction in serum-ionized Mg, the greater the effects on DNA fragmentation, LP, and caspase-3 activity. The intake of water-borne Mg(2+) at all levels greatly attenuated or inhibited the reductions in serum SM and serum PC, activation of LP, DNA fragmentation, and the activation of caspase-3; even very low levels of Mg(2+) in drinking water (i.e., 15 parts.million(-1).day(-1)) were cardio- and vascular protective. In addition, we demonstrate that short-term dietary deficiency of Mg probably results in a downregulation of SM synthase and a decreased synthesis of PC.

  2. Life style and cardiovascular risk factors in the Japanese population--from an epidemiological survey on serum lipid levels in Japan 1990 part 2: association of lipid parameters with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akira; Temba, Hitomi; Horibe, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Kita, Toru; Nakamura, Haruo

    2003-01-01

    The importance of metabolic syndrome as a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) has recently become more and more recognized. In view of such a background, changes in cholesterol and other lipid parameters in the Japanese population associated with excess body weight and hypertension were analyzed in this study based on data obtained in an epidemiological survey carried out in 1990. Hypertension was closely associated with a higher body mass index (BMI). Among the lipid parameters, triglyceride (TG) and non-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-cholesterol) levels showed remarkable differences between hypertensive and normotensive subjects, with a greater statistical significance than LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Changes in lipid parameters in the presence of hypertension were mostly associated with an increase in BMI in younger men aged 20-39, while increases in TG levels took place independently of excess body weight in middle-aged (40-59-year old) men. Considering that hypertension is a common and the greatest risk factor in the Japanese population, TG and non-HDL-C appear to be more important than LDL-C as major lipid parameters related to atherogenesis.

  3. Lipids of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described.

  4. Cold induced changes in lipid, protein and carbohydrate levels in the tropical insect Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    PubMed

    Chowanski, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Spochacz, Marta; Ewelina, Paluch; Grzegorz, Smykalla; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Slocinska, Malgorzata

    2015-05-01

    Insects cope with thermal stressors using mechanisms such as rapid cold hardening and acclimation. These mechanisms have been studied in temperate insects, but little is known about their use by tropical insects in response to cold stress. Here, we investigated whether cold stress (1×8 h and 3×8 h at 4°C) triggers a metabolic response in the Madagascar cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana. We examined the effects of cold on the levels of selected metabolites in the fat body tissue of G. coquereliana. After cold exposure, we found that the quantity of total protein increased significantly in the insect fat body, whereas glycogen decreased slightly. Using antibodies, we observed upregulation of AQP-like proteins and changes in the HSP70 levels in the fat body of G. coquereliana when exposed to cold. We also examined the content and nature of the free sugars in the G. coquereliana hemolymph and discovered an increase in the levels of polyols and glucose in response to cold stress. These results suggest an important role of the fat body tissue of tropical insects upon cold exposure.

  5. Effects of Subcutaneous Injection MnO2 Micro- and Nanoparticles on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Zahra; Hassanpourezatti, Majid; Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Rezagholian, Shiva; Rhamanifar, Mohammad Safi; Nosrati, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of nanotechnology has led to rapid growth in various areas. Thus, health and safety issues of nanoparticles (NPs) should be promptly addressed. Manganese oxide (MnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are typically used for biomedical and industrial applications. However, characterizing the potential human health effects of MnO2 NPs is required before fully exploiting these materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles on blood glucose level and lipid profile in male Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 105 rats were divided into one control and two experimental groups. Each experimental group received a single subcutaneous injection of MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles (100 μg/kg), respectively, every two weeks for 14 weeks. Their blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL levels were then measured. The data presented as mean±SEM and compared with the repeated measures using the Prism statistical software (version 6.0). Results: Biochemical assessment in plasma samples showed that MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles injection significantly (P<0.01) increased the plasma glucose and cholesterol levels in all and few weeks, respectively. MnO2 nanoparticles significantly (P<0.01) decreased the HDL level in weeks 6, 12, and 14, but MnO2 microparticles decreased the HDL level only in week 12. In both MnO2 micro- and nanoparticles groups, LDL alterations were near to the control group, except for week 10. However, the same treatment had no effect on triglycerides concentrations compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results show that exposure to nanosized particles at subchronic doses caused adverse changes in animal biochemical profiles, especially in glucose level. It seems that the high oxidative power of these particles is the main reason for these disturbances. PMID:27853332

  6. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B.; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21−/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine’s beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  7. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  8. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Tathiana Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the food-restricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in food-restricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk. PMID:22522763

  9. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  10. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Haim; Friedensohn, Aharon; Leibovitz, Arthur; Gabay, Galia; Rocas, Claudia; Habot, Benno

    2004-05-01

    Intervention trials have shown the beneficial effects of chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). This study investigated the effects of chromium picolinate on elderly diabetic patients within a rehabilitation program. Thirty-nine diabetic subjects, average age 73 years (18 males and 21 females), undergoing rehabilitation following stroke or hip fracture, were recruited to participate in this study. An additional 39 diabetic patients constituted the control group. Along with standard treatment for diabetes, the study group received 200 microg of chromium twice a day for a three-week period. Blood samples, dietary intake, and anthropometric data were collected prior to and post-intervention. Throughout the study period, participants received a diet of approximately 1500 kcal/day. Significant differences in the fasting blood level of glucose compared to the baseline (190 mg/dL vs 150 mg/dL, p < 0.001) were found at the end of the study. HbA1c also improved from 8.2% to 7.6% (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol was also reduced from 235 mg/dL to 213 mg/dL (p < 0.02). A trend towards lowered triglyceride levels was also observed (152 mg/dL vs 136 mg/dL). We conclude that, in this population of elderly, diabetic patients undergoing rehabilitation, dietary supplementation with chromium is beneficial in moderating glucose intolerance. In addition, chromium intake appears to lower plasma lipid levels.

  11. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  12. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  13. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  14. Effect of VULM 1457, an ACAT inhibitor, on serum lipid levels and on real time red blood cell flow in diabetic and non-diabetic hamsters fed high cholesterol-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Vojtassáková, E; Syneková, M; Tazká, D; Mátyás, S; Hózová, R; Sadlonová, I; Svec, P

    2007-12-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesterol/fatty acyl-coenzyme A esters. Accumulation of cholesterol esters leads to pathological changes connected with atherosclerosis. We have evaluated effects of a newly synthesized ACAT inhibitor, 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM 1457), on serum lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels and velocity of red blood cells (RBC) in non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on high cholesterol-lipid (HCHL) diet during 3 months. The VULM 1457 effects on the paw microcirculation were assessed using capillary microscopy by measuring (RBC) velocity in vivo. Hamsters fed on HCHL diet became hypercholesterolemic with a dramatic increase in serum lipids accompanied with significantly decreased RBC velocity. Diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet had further increased serum lipids with reduction of RBC velocity. The VULM 1457 inhibitor lowered cholesterol levels in both non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet. The greater VULM 1457 effect was shown in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet where VULM 1457 expressed hypotriglycerides effects, too. An improved RBC velocity-pronounced effect was observed in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet treated with VULM 1457. These results suggest that the ACAT inhibitor, VULM 1457, is a prospective hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic drug which treats diabetes.

  15. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  16. Simvastatin Efficiently Lowers Small LDL-IgG Immune Complex Levels: A Therapeutic Quality beyond the Lipid-Lowering Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ferstl, Ulrika; Ledinski, Gerhard; Binder, Josepha; Cvirn, Gerhard; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Trauner, Michael; Koidl, Christoph; Tafeit, Erwin; Amrein, Karin; Scharnagl, Hubert; Jürgens, Günther; Hallström, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a polyethylene glycol non-precipitable low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction targeted by IgG and the influence of statin therapy on plasma levels of these small LDL-IgG-immune complexes (LDL-IgG-IC). LDL-subfractions were isolated from 6 atherosclerotic subjects and 3 healthy individuals utilizing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Cholesterol, apoB and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in each fraction by enzymatic testing, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The levels of LDL-IgG-IC were quantified densitometrically following lipid electrophoresis, particle size distribution was assessed with dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. The influence of simvastatin (40 mg/day for three months) on small LDL-IgG-IC levels and their distribution among LDL-subfractions (salt gradient separation) were investigated in 11 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). We demonstrate that the investigated LDL-IgG-IC are small particles present in atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects. In vitro assembly of LDL-IgG-IC resulted in particle density shifts indicating a composition of one single molecule of IgG per LDL particle. Normalization on cholesterol levels revealed MDA values twice as high for LDL-subfractions rich in small LDL-IgG-IC if compared to dominant LDL-subfractions. Reactivity of affinity purified small LDL-IgG-IC to monoclonal antibody OB/04 indicates a high degree of modified apoB and oxidative modification. Simvastatin therapy studied in the CAD patients significantly lowered LDL levels and to an even higher extent, small LDL-IgG-IC levels without affecting their distribution. In conclusion simvastatin lowers levels of small LDL-IgG-IC more effectively than LDL-cholesterol and LDL-apoB levels in atherosclerotic patients. This antiatherogenic effect may additionally contribute to the known beneficial

  17. Effects of selenium and topiramate on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamin levels in blood of pentylentetrazol-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Kutluhan, Süleyman; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Free radicals and selenium (Se) deficiency are involved in pathogenesis of epilepsy. Topiramate (TPM), a new anticonvulsant, was reported to possess neuroprotective effect via inhibition of free radicals. We investigated the effects of Se and TPM on pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced blood toxicity in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups. First and second groups were used as control and PTZ group, respectively. TPM and Se were administrated to rats constituting third and forth groups for 7 days, respectively. The TPM and Se combination were given to animals in fifth group for 7 days. At the end of 7 days all groups except the first group received single dose PTZ. The brain cortex samples were taken at 3 h of PTZ administration. PTZ resulted in significant increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid peroxidation (LP) levels although plasma vitamin E concentrations and erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were reduced by PTZ. The plasma and erythrocytes LP levels in third, fourth, and fifth groups were decreased as compared to second group although GSH-Px and reduced glutathione values increased in the groups. Vitamin C and E concentrations were increased through fourth and fifth group only. Vitamin A concentrations were not changed by PTZ. In conclusion, Se and TPM seem to have protective effects on the PTZ-induced blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical supporting antioxidant redox system.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Chokeberry Juice Consumption on Blood Pressure Level and Lipid Status in Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Milovanović, Branislav; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Mutavdžin, Slavica; Gligorijević, Tatjana; Spasić, Slavica

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between intake of foods rich in antioxidants and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease development. Polyphenols are considered the most abundant and important dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice consumption on 24-h ambulatory monitored blood pressure (BP) level in subjects with no pharmacologically treated high normal BP or grade I hypertension. Twenty-three subjects (12 men and 11 women) aged 33-67 were enrolled and instructed to consume 200 mL of juice daily for 4 weeks. Participants were divided in two groups, based on prevalence of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Measurements of biochemical parameters and heart rate variability analysis were also applied. At the end of the intervention period, average 24-h and awake systolic and diastolic BP were significantly decreased (P<.05). This was more pronounced in the group with prevalence of sympathetic activity. Significant reduction in triglyceride level (P<.05) and a reducing effect on total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found. Obtained results indicate a positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on BP and lipid status in pharmacologically untreated hypertensive subjects.

  19. Variation of content of lipid classes, sterols and fatty acids in gonads and digestive glands of Scrobicularia plana in relation to environment pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Perrat, E; Couzinet-Mossion, A; Fossi Tankoua, O; Amiard-Triquet, C; Wielgosz-Collin, G

    2013-04-01

    Lipids are central for energy metabolism and their fate in bivalves is closely linked to environmental conditions and gametogenic cycle. In order to assess the pollution impact on lipid metabolism of bivalves, storage and structure lipids from samples of Scrobicularia plana were studied. These samples were collected during sexual maturity both from estuaries considered contaminated (Goyen and Blavet) and from a reference site (Bay of St Brieuc) for comparison. Lipids were extracted from the gonads and the digestive glands and further separated by column chromatography. Fatty acids and sterols were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlations were shown between dioxin-like compounds (Eq-TCDD) and triacyglycerol levels (TAG). In the same way, glycolipids and contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and pollutants with estrogenic activity seem to be closely related. In a second time, lipid indices (ratio between storage and structure lipids) were evaluated. Whereas these indices are often used in fish to assess habitat quality with regards to differential anthropogenic pressure, the ratio TAG/sterols was not here significantly influenced by the site of origin of S. plana. Intersite fluctuations of the ratio TAG/phospholipids also remained very limited. This could be explained by the limited contamination level in studied sites but also by a contrasted response from organisms in different taxa (bivalves vs. fish). Environmental pollution is not the only factor able to induce changes in lipid classes. The trophic wealth seemed to be different between the reference site and contaminated estuaries, the total organic carbon content being higher in muddy estuarine sediments.

  20. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  1. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  2. High Dietary Lipid Level Is Associated with Persistent Hyperglycaemia and Downregulation of Muscle Akt-mTOR Pathway in Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M. P.; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    High levels of dietary lipids are incorporated in feeds for most teleost fish to promote growth and reduce nitrogen waste. However, in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) previous studies revealed that increasing the level of dietary lipids above 8% negatively affect growth and nutrient utilization regardless of dietary protein content. It has been shown that glucose regulation and metabolism can be impaired by high dietary fat intake in mammals, but information in teleost fish is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of dietary lipids on glucose metabolism in Senegalese sole with special emphasis on the regulation of proteins involved in the muscle insulin-signalling pathway. Senegalese sole juveniles (29 g) were fed two isonitrogenous diets (53% dry matter) for 88 days. These two diets were one with a high lipid level (∼17%, HL) and a moderate starch content (∼14%, LC), and the other being devoid of fish oil (4% lipid, LL) and with high starch content (∼23%, HC). Surprisingly, feeding Senegalese sole the HL/LC diet resulted in prolonged hyperglycaemia, while fish fed on LL/HC diet restored basal glycaemia 2 h after feeding. The hyperglycaemic phenotype was associated with greater glucose-6-phosphatase activity (a key enzyme of hepatic glucose production) and lower citrate synthase activity in the liver, with significantly higher liver glycogen content. Sole fed on HL/LC diet also had significantly lower hexokinase activity in muscle, although hexokinase activity was low with both dietary treatments. The HL/LC diet was associated with significant reductions in muscle AKT, p70 ribosomal S6-K1 Kinase (S6K-1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6) 2 h after feeding, suggesting down regulation of the AKT-mTOR nutrient signalling pathway in these fish. The results of this study show for the first time that high level of dietary lipids strongly affects glucose metabolism in Senegalese sole. PMID:25036091

  3. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  4. What’s the Optimal Lipids Level for Dialysis Patients? A Cohort Study from a Chinese Dialysis Center in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen- Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background With lipid level being a major contributing factor for cardiovascular health, the high cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients has raised substantial concerns in regard to the optimal lipid level in these patient population. Objective To explore the optimal lipid level for the survival of dialysis patients. Methods The lipid profile was measured for each patient. All participants were followed throughout the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to analyze the prognostic value of lipid level on the survival of these patients. Results In our study that included 311 stable maintenance dialysis patients, 54.98% of the participants had LDL-C level ≥100 mg/dl and 82.91% of the patients with triglycerides ≥200 mg/dl had non-HDL level ≥130 mg/dl. During the follow-up period of 48.0 (18.0, 55.5) months, 149 (47.91%) participants died. Among those who died, 59 patients died of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 33 patients died of ischemic CVD (12.0, 4.7, and 2.7 events per 100 patient-years, respectively). Patients with LDL-C 100–130 mg/dl or non-HDL 130–160 mg/dl had a lower all-cause mortality rate than those who did not meet these criteria. After adjusting for the traditional and ESRD-related risk factors, non-HDL was found to be the independent risk factor for the all-cause mortality. Compared to those patients with non-HDL 130–160 mg/dl, patients with non-HDL <100 mg/dl, 100–130 mg/dl, 160–190 mg/dl, or ≥190 mg/dl all had higher all-cause mortality: HR (95% CI) 3.207 (1.801, 5.713), 2.493 (1.485, 4.184), 2.476 (1.423, 4.307), and 1.917 (1.099, 3.345), respectively. There were no differences in nutrition, comorbidity, and inflammation indices among the patients with different non-HDL groups. However, patients with non-HDL of 130–160 mg/dl had the lowest corrected calcium and calcium phosphate product values as compared with other non-HDL groups. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that non-HDL 130–160

  5. Biodistribution of Small Interfering RNA at the Organ and Cellular Levels after Lipid Nanoparticle-mediated Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Keough, Ed; Matter, Andrea; Leander, Karen; Young, Stephanie; Carlini, Ed; Sachs, Alan B.; Tao, Weikang; Abrams, Marc; Howell, Bonnie; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Chemically stabilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be delivered systemically by intravenous injection of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in rodents and primates. The biodistribution and kinetics of LNP–siRNA delivery in mice at organ and cellular resolution have been studied using immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At 0.5 and 2 hr post tail vein injection of Cy5-labeled siRNA encapsulated in LNP, the organ rank-order of siRNA levels is liver > spleen > kidney, with only negligible accumulation in duodenum, lung, heart, and brain. Similar conclusions were drawn by using qPCR to measure tissue siRNA levels as a secondary end point. siRNA levels in these tissues decreased by more than 10-fold after 24 hr. Within the liver, LNPs delivered siRNA to hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoids in a time-dependent manner, as revealed by IF staining and signal quantitation methods established using OPERA/Columbus software. siRNA first accumulated in liver sinusoids and trafficked to hepatocytes by 2 hr post dose, corresponding to the onset of target mRNA silencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization methods were used to detect both strands of siRNA in fixed tissues. Collectively, the authors have implemented a platform to evaluate biodistribution of siRNA across cell types and across tissues in vivo, with the objective of elucidating the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship to guide optimization of delivery vehicles. PMID:21804077

  6. "Long-term callisthenic exercise-related changes in blood lipids, homocysteine, nitric oxide levels and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women".

    PubMed

    Guzel, Nevin Atalay; Pınar, Lamia; Colakoglu, Filiz; Karacan, Selma; Ozer, Cigdem

    2012-06-30

    "Regular physical exercise plays an important role in reducing obesity, preventing hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipids and reducing systemic blood pressure. But the question about the nature of the relationship between homocysteine, nitric oxide and physical activity remains unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of callisthenic exercises on plasma lipids, homocysteine (Hcy), total nitric oxide (NOx) and body composition in middle-aged healthy sedentary women. Forty-two middle-aged women (ages: 28-49; mean: 41.40 ± 7.3 years) were asked to perform a callisthenic exercise 50 min per session, 3 times per week for 12 weeks in a sports hall. Before and after the exercise, plasma lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride), Hcy and NO were determined. Body composition, including body mass index, fat percentage, fat free mass, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates were measured. After a 12-week callisthenic exercise program, plasma NOx and Hcy levels were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05). Body composition parameters, lipid profile, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Aerobic callisthenic exercises characterized by 50 min/day and 3 days/week resulted in positive changes in important health parameters like reducing obesity, lowering blood lipids and increasing plasma NOx. Cardiovascular improvements might be dependent on the increase of NOx values. But callisthenic exercise in such intensity did not lower the plasma Hcy level. Moreover, Hcy level increased significantly. The result shows that if the Hcy is in the normal levels in healthy subjects, long-term callisthenic exercise do not decrease the Hcy levels despite some beneficial effects on health. On the contrary, the Hcy levels are increased by long-term callisthenic exercises."

  7. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed.

  8. Down's syndrome is associated with increased 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-VI levels: evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Iuliano, L; Amerio, G; Tang, L X; Rokach, J; Sabatino, G; Violi, F

    2000-11-01

    Postmortem and in vitro studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many of the clinical features of Down's syndrome. The isoprostane 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-VI is a specific marker of lipid peroxidation. We found elevated levels of this isoprostane in urine samples of subjects with Down's syndrome compared with those of matched controls, which correlated with the duration of the disease. These results suggest that increased in vivo lipid peroxidation is a prominent component early in the course of Down's syndrome.

  9. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  10. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26880924

  11. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  12. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30 days, and then cultivated further for 14 days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02 g L(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25 g L(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation.

  13. Pioglitazone improves lipid and insulin levels in overweight rats on a high cholesterol and fructose diet by decreasing hepatic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Massimo; Aragno, Manuela; Castiglia, Sara; Miglio, Gianluca; Tomasinelli, Chiara; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe; Thiemermann, Christoph; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nutrient overload leads to obesity and insulin resistance. Pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist, is currently used to manage insulin resistance, but the specific molecular mechanisms activated by PPARγ are not yet fully understood. Recent studies suggest the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the hepatic signalling pathway activated by PPARγ activation in a non-genetic insulin-resistant animal model. Experimental approach: Male Wistar rats were maintained on a high-cholesterol fructose (HCF) diet for 15 weeks. Pioglitazone (3 mg·kg−1) was administered orally for the last 4 weeks of this diet. At the end of the treatment, serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Levels of PPARγ, SOCS-3, pro-inflammatory markers, insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation were assesed in rat liver. Key results: Rats fed the HCF diet exhibited hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Pioglitazone administration evoked a significant improvement in lipid metabolism and insulin responsiveness. This was accompanied by reduced hepatic expression of SOCS-3, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and markers of neutrophil infiltration. Diet-induced PPARγ expression was unaffected by the pioglitazone treatment. Conclusion and implications: Chronic pioglitazone administration reduced hepatic inflammatory responses in rats fed a HCF diet. These effects were associated with changes in hepatic expression of SOCS-3, which may be a crucial link between the reduced local inflammation and the improved insulin signalling. This article is commented on by Chatterjee, pp. 1889–1891 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00739.x PMID:20233219

  14. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  15. Weight loss increased serum adiponectin but decreased lipid levels in obese subjects whose body mass index was lower than 30 kg/m².

    PubMed

    Lang, Hui-Fen; Chou, Ching-Ya; Sheu, Wanye Huey-Herng; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that weight loss in obese subjects may affect adipokine levels, such as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. This study investigated the effects of an 8-week weight-control program on serum adiponectin, TNF-α, and blood lipid level profiles in obese subjects. Twenty obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m² were recruited for this weight loss program that used dietetic control and aerobic exercise training. A total of 3 obese men and 11 obese women (mean age, 40.3 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m²) finished the program. Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics in subjects before and after the program were determined. The results showed that subjects' body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly (P < .05) decreased during the program. Further analysis showed a negative correlation between delta adiponectin and delta TNF-α, triacylglycerol, and systolic blood pressure in obese subjects. Subgroup analysis showed that obese subjects whose original BMI was less than 30 kg/m² had significantly increased serum adiponectin levels, and more than 3% weight reduction markedly improved blood lipids and body fat profiles during the program. Our findings suggest that weight reduction through an 8-week weight loss program may have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects via increased serum adiponectin levels and improvements in blood lipid profiles and systolic blood pressure.

  16. Hsp70 and lipid peroxide levels following heat stress in Xeropicta derbentina (Krynicki 1836) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) with regard to different colour morphs.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, A; Troschinski, S; Schwarz, S; Di Lellis, M A; Henneberg, A; Fischbach, U; Ludwig, M; Gärtner, U; Triebskorn, R; Köhler, H-R

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial snails which live under dry and hot conditions need efficient mechanisms of adaptation to counteract the problems of desiccation and over-heating. A profoundly heat tolerant snail species is the Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina, exhibiting different shell colour morphs ranging from pale white to darkly banded. Considering that dark-pigmented snails are believed to have a disadvantage due to faster heating, we investigated possible differences in the stress markers Hsp70 and lipid peroxideation between four pre-defined colour morphs which were exposed to different temperatures for eight hours. The highest Hsp70 levels were observed in response to 38-40 °C. Levels decreased when this temperature was exceeded. Snails of a pre-defined colour category 3 (with a large black band at the umbilicus side of the shell) showed the most prominent Hsp70 response. Lipid peroxideation levels also showed a maximum at 38 °C but displayed a second peak at rather high temperatures at which the Hsp70 level already had decreased (45-48 °C). Particularly pure white snails (category 1) and the most pigmented ones (category 4) were found to have different levels of lipid peroxidation at 38 °C and 45 °C compared to the other morphs. A hypothesis involving a combined two-phase defence mechanism, to which both, the Hsp70 protection system and the antioxidant defence system, may contribute, is discussed.

  17. Exercise alleviates lipid-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle-signaling interaction at the level of TBC1 domain family member 4.

    PubMed

    Pehmøller, Christian; Brandt, Nina; Birk, Jesper B; Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim A; Goodyear, Laurie J; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2012-11-01

    Excess lipid availability causes insulin resistance. We examined the effect of acute exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance and TBC1 domain family member 1/4 (TBCD1/4)-related signaling in skeletal muscle. In eight healthy young male subjects, 1 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise was followed by 7 h of saline or intralipid infusion. During the last 2 h, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed. Femoral catheterization and analysis of biopsy specimens enabled measurements of leg substrate balance and muscle signaling. Each subject underwent two experimental trials, differing only by saline or intralipid infusion. Glucose infusion rate and leg glucose uptake was decreased by intralipid. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in the prior exercised leg in the saline and the lipid trials. In the lipid trial, prior exercise normalized insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to the level observed in the resting control leg in the saline trial. Insulin increased phosphorylation of TBC1D1/4. Whereas prior exercise enhanced TBC1D4 phosphorylation on all investigated sites compared with the rested leg, intralipid impaired TBC1D4 S341 phosphorylation compared with the control trial. Intralipid enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation and lactate release. Prior exercise led to higher PDH phosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase compared with resting control. In conclusion, lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was associated with impaired TBC1D4 S341 and elevated PDH phosphorylation. The prophylactic effect of exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance may involve augmented TBC1D4 signaling and glycogen synthase activation.

  18. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  19. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  20. Abnormal lipoprotein(a) levels predict coronary artery calcification in Southeast Asians but not in Caucasians: use of noninvasive imaging for evaluation of an emerging risk factor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhinav; Kasim, Manoefris; Joshi, Parag H; Qian, Zhen; Krivitsky, Eric; Akram, Kamran; Rinehart, Sarah; Vazquez, Gustavo; Miller, Joseph; Rohman, Mohammad Saifur; Voros, Szilard

    2011-08-01

    Subclinical atherosclerosis can be quantified by coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. Due to its high specificity for atherosclerosis, CAC is an excellent phenotypic tool for the evaluation of emerging risk markers. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is atherogenic due to the presence of apoB and may be thrombogenic through its apo(a) component. Lp(a) has been linked to cardiovascular events in Caucasians; however, its link to atherosclerosis in various ethnicities remains unclear. We evaluated the ability of Lp(a) mass to predict subclinical atherosclerosis in Southeast Asians and Caucasians, as measured by CAC. Traditional lipid measurements, Lp(a) measurements, and CAC by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography was performed in 103 consecutive patients in the USA and in 104 consecutive patients in Jakarta, Indonesia. Proportion of positive CAC and median CAC in Southeast Asians and in Caucasians was 61.5% and 63.1%, and 23.5 (interquartile range, 0-270) and 13 (interquartile range, 0-388), respectively. Significantly higher proportion of Southeast Asians had elevated Lp(a) levels, compared to Caucasians (51.0% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.005). In Southeast Asians, Lp(a) remained an independent predictor of CAC with an odds ratio of 4.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.56-15.88; p < 0.0001), but not in Caucasians. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an improvement in area under the curve from 0.81 to 0.86 (p = 0.05) when including Lp(a) in the predictive model in Southeast Asians. This translated to 7% of Southeast Asians reclassified to correct CAC status. Lp(a) measurements may have a role in risk stratification of Southeast Asians. Ethnic variation should be taken into account when considering the use of Lp(a) measurements in risk assessment.

  1. Lipid droplets maintain lipid homeostasis during anaphase for efficient cell separation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Lin; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Wang, Chao-Wen; Chen, Rey-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutral lipids steryl ester and triacylglycerol (TAG) are stored in the membrane-bound organelle lipid droplet (LD) in essentially all eukaryotic cells. It is unclear what physiological conditions require the mobilization or storage of these lipids. Here, we study the budding yeast mutant are1Δ are2Δ dga1Δ lro1Δ, which cannot synthesize the neutral lipids and therefore lacks LDs. This quadruple mutant is delayed at cell separation upon release from mitotic arrest. The cells have abnormal septa, unstable septin assembly during cytokinesis, and prolonged exocytosis at the division site at the end of cytokinesis. Lipidomic analysis shows a marked increase of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, the precursors for TAG, in the mutant during mitotic exit. The cytokinesis and separation defects are rescued by adding phospholipid precursors or inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, which both reduce DAG levels. Our results suggest that converting excess lipids to neutral lipids for storage during mitotic exit is important for proper execution of cytokinesis and efficient cell separation. PMID:27307588

  2. Serum fatty acid composition in normal Japanese and its relationship with dietary fish and vegetable oil contents and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their

  3. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Iwai, Akiko; Yano, Toshihiro

    2004-10-01

    Antihyperlipidemia or hypocholesterolaemic and antibacterial activities of red hot pepper and garlic are well known. To determine the effect of the dietary spices ingested to suppress blood lipids on the intestinal condition, we examined plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice that were fed diets containing 19% (w/w) beef tallow and 2% red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides 'Takanotume' (RP) or garlic Allium sativum 'White' (GP) for 4-weeks. Plasma triacylglyceride level was suppressed by the spices. RP lowered cecal bacteroidaceae, a predominant bacterial group (from 9.4 to 9.0 log CFU/g), bifidobacteria (from 8.7 to 7.6 log CFU/g), and staphylococci. Although GP increased the cecal weight including their contents, significant differences were not shown in the cecal microflora. These results suggest that RP can affect the intestinal condition and host health through the disturbance of intestinal microflora.

  4. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  5. Glucose and lipid metabolism in the pancreas of rainbow trout is regulated at the molecular level by nutritional status and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Seiliez, Iban; Soengas, Jose Luis; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-05-01

    Glucose and lipid metabolism in pancreatic islet organs is poorly characterized. In the present study, using as a model the carnivorous rainbow trout, a glucose-intolerant fish, we assessed mRNA expression levels of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (including ATP-citrate lyase; carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 isoforms, CPT; the mitochondrial isoform of the phosphoenolpyrutave carboxykinase, mPEPCK and pyruvate kinase, PK) and glucosensing (glucose transporter type 2, Glut2; glucokinase, GK and the potassium channel, K(ATP)) in Brockmann bodies. We evaluated the response of these parameters to changes in feeding status (food deprived vs. fed fish) as well as to changes in the amount of carbohydrate (dextrin) in the diet. A general inhibition of the glycolytic (including the glucosensing marker GK) and β-oxidation pathways was found when comparing fed versus food-deprived fish. When comparing fish feeding on either low- or high-carbohydrate diets, we found that some genes related to lipid metabolism were more controlled by the feeding status than by the carbohydrate content (fatty acid synthase, CPTs). Findings are discussed in the context of pancreatic regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fish, and show that while trout pancreatic metabolism can partially adapt to a high-carbohydrate diet, some of the molecular actors studied seem to be poorly regulated (K(ATP)) and may contribute to the glucose intolerance observed in this species when fed high-carbohydrate diets.

  6. Bioactive lipids S1P and C1P are prometastatic factors in human rhabdomyosarcoma, and their tissue levels increase in response to radio/chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Bryndza, Ewa; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Ratajczak, Janina; Maj, Magdalena; Tarnowski, Maciej; Klyachkin, Yuri M; Houghton, Peter; Morris, Andrew J; Vater, Axel; Klussmann, Sven; Kucia, Magdalena; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-07-01

    Evidence suggests that bioactive lipids may regulate pathophysiologic functions such as cancer cell metastasis. Therefore, we determined that the bioactive lipid chemoattractants sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) strongly enhanced the in vitro motility and adhesion of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. Importantly, this effect was observed at physiologic concentrations for both bioactive lipids, which are present in biologic fluids, and were much stronger than the effects observed in response to known RMS prometastatic factors such as stromal derived factors-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) or hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). We also present novel evidence that the levels of S1P and C1P were increased in several organs after γ-irradiation or chemotherapy, which indicates an unwanted prometastatic environment related to treatment. Critically, we found that the metastasis of RMS cells in response to S1P can be effectively inhibited in vivo with the S1P-specific binder NOX-S93 that is based on a high-affinity Spiegelmer. These data indicate that bioactive lipids play a vital role in dissemination of RMS and contribute to the unwanted side effects of radio/chemotherapy by creating a prometastatic microenvironment.

  7. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  8. miR-27b inhibits LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goedeke, Leigh; Rotllan, Noemi; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Aranda, Juan F.; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Araldi, Elisa; Fernández-Hernando, Ana; Langhi, Cedric; de Cabo, Rafael; Baldán, Ángel; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, there has been significant interest in the therapeutic administration of miRNA mimics and inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease. In particular, miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism and potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis. Despite this, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. As such, here we set out to further characterize the role of miR-27b in regulating cholesterol metabolism in vitro and to determine the effect of miR-27b overexpression and inhibition on circulating and hepatic lipids in mice. Methods and Results Our results identify miR-27b as an important regulator of LDLR activity in human and mouse hepatic cells through direct targeting of LDLR and LDLRAP1. In addition, we report that modulation of miR-27b expression affects ABCA1 protein levels and cellular cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in human hepatic Huh7 cells. Overexpression of pre-miR-27b in the livers of wild-type mice using AAV8 vectors increased pre-miR-27b levels 50–fold and reduced hepatic ABCA1 and LDLR expression by 50% and 20%, respectively, without changing circulating and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides. To determine the effect of endogenous miR-27b on circulating lipids, wild-type mice were fed a Western diet for one month and injected with 5 mg/kg of LNA control or LNA anti-miR-27b oligonucleotides. Following two weeks of treatment, the expression of ABCA1 and LDLR were increased by 10–20% in the liver, demonstrating effective inhibition of miR-27b function. Intriguingly, no differences in circulating and hepatic lipids were observed between treatment groups. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence that short-term modulation of miR-27b expression in wild-type mice regulates hepatic LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels. PMID:26520906

  9. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  10. Association of gene variants with lipid levels in response to fenofibrate is influenced by metabolic syndrome status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fenofibrate therapy reduces serum triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and thus addresses the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our hypothesis is that genetic factors contribute to the variability of lipid response to fenofib...

  11. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  12. Association of increased lipid peroxide levels in the aorta in comparison to the pulmonary artery with the presence of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    MALIK, ABDUL RAUOOF

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis predominantly affects systemic arteries as compared to pulmonary arteries; however, the reasons for this differential predilection are not clear. Oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a key initiating event in atherogenesis and the lungs are able to produce large quantities of free radicals even under physiological conditions. The present study investigated whether pulmonary venous blood reaching the aorta contained greater quantities of lipid peroxides, a marker of oxidative stress, compared to the pulmonary artery. Aortic and pulmonary artery blood samples were collected at the time of cardiac catheterization from 45 consecutive patients (38% female) without acute coronary event and free of other medical disorders, who were scheduled to undergo coronary angiography for anginal chest pain. Lipid peroxides were measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA levels were significantly higher in the aorta compared to the pulmonary artery (4.93±1.97 vs. 3.36±1.14 nmol/ml; P<0.001); the difference was significant in patients with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) (P<0.001) compared to the patients without CAD (P=0.071). Higher aortic MDA levels were associated with the presence of CAD even following adjustment for major risk factors. The results of the present study demonstrate that aortic blood contains significantly greater levels of lipid peroxides compared to pulmonary artery. This differential oxidative stress between systemic and pulmonary arteries could provide a mechanistic explanation for their difference in the propensity to develop atherosclerosis. PMID:27073637

  13. Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities based on hypertension severity and blood pressure levels: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hemal; Gamboa, Christopher M; Safford, Monika M; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Glasser, Stephen P

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of major and minor electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities based on blood pressure (BP) control and hypertension (HTN) treatment resistance. We analyzed data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study of 20,932 participants who were divided into presence of major (n = 3782), only minor (n = 8944), or no (n = 8206) ECG abnormalities. The cohort was stratified into normotension (n = 3373), pre-HTN (n = 4142), controlled HTN (n = 8619), uncontrolled HTN (n = 3544), controlled apparent treatment-resistant HTN (aTRH, n = 400), and uncontrolled aTRH (n = 854) groups, and the prevalence ratios (PRs) of major and minor ECG abnormalities were assessed separately for each BP group. The full multivariable adjustment included demographics, risk factors, and HTN duration. Compared with normotension, the PRs of major ECG abnormalities for pre-HTN, controlled HTN, uncontrolled HTN, controlled aTRH, and uncontrolled aTRH groups were 1.01 (0.90-1.14), 1.30 (1.16-1.45), 1.37 (1.23-1.54), 1.42 (1.22-1.64), and 1.44 (1.26-1.65), respectively (P < .001), whereas the PRs of minor ECG abnormalities among each of the above BP groups were similar. Detection of major ECG abnormalities among hypertensive persons with poor control and treatment resistance may help improve their cardiovascular risk stratification and early intervention.

  14. Topological regulation of lipid balance in cells.

    PubMed

    Drin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are unevenly distributed within and between cell membranes, thus defining organelle identity. Such distribution relies on local metabolic branches and mechanisms that move lipids. These processes are regulated by feedback mechanisms that decipher topographical information in organelle membranes and then regulate lipid levels or flows. In the endoplasmic reticulum, the major lipid source, transcriptional regulators and enzymes sense changes in membrane features to modulate lipid production. At the Golgi apparatus, lipid-synthesizing, lipid-flippase, and lipid-transport proteins (LTPs) collaborate to control lipid balance and distribution within the membrane to guarantee remodeling processes crucial for vesicular trafficking. Open questions exist regarding LTPs, which are thought to be lipid sensors that regulate lipid synthesis or carriers that transfer lipids between organelles across long distances or in contact sites. A novel model is that LTPs, by exchanging two different lipids, exploit one lipid gradient between two distinct membranes to build a second lipid gradient.

  15. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1) assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2) detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3) compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5%) and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration) on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI) for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54) and 2.51 (1.46-4.31), in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37). OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98) and 0.41 (0.19-0.85) in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437) with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. PMID

  16. Levels of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Phosphatidic Acids, Phosphatidylserines, and Most Trienoate-Containing Polar Lipid Molecular Species Increase during the Dark Period of the Diurnal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Maatta, Sara; Scheu, Brad; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Li, Maoyin; Williams, Todd D; Wang, Xuemin; Welti, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that plant leaf polar lipid fatty acid composition varies during the diurnal (dark-light) cycle. Fatty acid synthesis occurs primarily during the light, but fatty acid desaturation continues in the absence of light, resulting in polyunsaturated fatty acids reaching their highest levels toward the end of the dark period. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana were grown at constant (21°C) temperature with 12-h light and 12-h dark periods. Collision induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrated that 16:3 and 18:3 fatty acid content in membrane lipids of leaves are higher at the end of the dark than at the end of the light period, while 16:1, 16:2, 18:0, and 18:1 content are higher at the end of the light period. Lipid profiling of membrane galactolipids, phospholipids, and lysophospholipids by electrospray ionization triple quadrupole MS indicated that the monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine classes include molecular species whose levels are highest at end of the light period and others that are highest at the end of the dark period. The levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylserine classes were higher at the end of the dark period, and molecular species within these classes either followed the class pattern or were not significantly changed in the diurnal cycle. Phospholipase D (PLD) is a family of enzymes that hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce PA. Analysis of several PLD mutant lines suggests that PLDζ2 and possibly PLDα1 may contribute to diurnal cycling of PA. The polar lipid compositional changes are considered in relation to recent data that demonstrate phosphatidylcholine acyl editing.

  17. No changes of cholesterol levels with a commercially available glucosamine product in patients treated with lipid lowering drugs: a controlled, randomised, open cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The widespread use of natural health products is also a problem, as they could interact with prescribed drugs in patients. One commonly used product is glucosamine for osteoarthritis and some reports have found increased values of cholesterol and other lipids in patients treated with simvastatin for hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of glucosamine on s-cholesterol levels (total s-cholesterol, s-HDL, s-LDL) in primary care patients on treatment with simvastatin or atorvastatin. Methods Controlled, randomized, open, crossover pharmacodynamic study in two primary health care centres. Patients were treated with Artrox® (glucosamine) 625 mg twice daily and control (a commercially available multivitamin tablet Vitamineral®). The study started with a run-in period of four weeks followed by control or active treatment with randomization of sealed envelopes. Each treatment period was four weeks and the treatment with simvastatin or atorvastatin was unchanged during the study (12 weeks). 34 patients were treated with a stable dose of simvastatin (n=21) or atorvastatin (n=13) for at least three months. Assessments of total s-cholesterol, s-HDL, S-LDL and s-triglycerides were performed in the morning with the patients in a fasting condition. T-tests for paired samples were used for statistical analyses and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Endpoints were the differences in lipid values at week 8 and week 12. Results All patients completed the study. No significant changes were seen on any of lipid levels in the simvastatin group. Conclusion The actual glucosamine product did not change lipid levels of patients treated with simvastatin. Atorvastatin group was too small for safe calculations but was also without changes. Trial registration EUDRACT2006-001458-28 PMID:23050945

  18. Birth weight and blood lipid levels in Spanish adolescents: Influence of selected APOE, APOC3 and PPARgamma2 gene polymorphisms. The AVENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-2 (PPARγ2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13–18.5 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Results Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE ε3ε4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARγ2 genotypes. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life. PMID:19000312

  19. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  20. Associations of Rs3744841 and Rs3744843 Polymorphisms in Endothelial Lipase Gene with Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Lipid Levels in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunyan; Shi, Ganwei; Weng, Weijin; Xue, Sheliang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the 2037T/C and 2237G/A polymorphisms in the EL gene and the risk of CAD and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Methods A case-control study including 706 patients with CAD and 315 controls was performed. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to identify the genotypes. Results The EL 2037 T/C polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and HDL-C levels. No significant differences were found between the EL 2237 G/A genotypes and CAD risk and lipid levels in the whole population. However, carriers of the 2237 A allele had higher Apo A1 levels than those with the 2237 GG genotype and in the CAD subgroup (P = 0.044). The CAD cases have a significantly lower frequency of the C-G haplotypes than the controls, and the T-A haplotype was significantly more common in the CAD patients than in the controls. Conclusions Our study concluded that the EL 2037 T/C polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and HDL-C levels, and that the C allele might be a protective factor against CAD in the Chinese Han population. In addition, the EL 2237 A allele might be associated with an increased Apo A1 level in CAD subjects. PMID:27612170

  1. Salt stress induced lipid accumulation in heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides: Mechanisms based on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Haiyan; Liu, Tingting; Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Zejian; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-06-20

    Salt stress as an effective stress factor that could improve the lipid content and lipid yield of glucose in the heterotrophic culture cells of Chlorella protothecoides was demonstrated in this study. The highest lipid content of 41.2% and lipid yield of 185.8mg/g were obtained when C. protothecoides was stressed under 30g/L NaCl condition at its late logarithmic growth phase. Moreover, the effects of salt and osmotic stress on lipid accumulation were comparatively analyzed, and it was found that the effects of NaCl and KCl stress had no significant differences at the same osmolarity level of 1150mOsm/kg with lipid contents of 41.7 and 40.8% as well as lipid yields of 192.9 and 186.8mg/g, respectively, whereas these results were obviously higher than those obtained under the iso-osmotic glycerol and sorbitol stresses. Furthermore, basing on the multi-level analysis of oxidative response, key enzyme activity and biochemical alteration, the superior performance of salt stress driving lipid over-synthesis was probably ascribed to the more ROS production as a result of additional ion effect besides the osmotic effect, subsequently mediating the alteration from carbohydrate storage to lipid accumulation in signal transduction process of C. protothecoides.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  3. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  4. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  5. Interrelationship of antioxidative status, lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cimbaljević, Branko; Vasilijević, Ana; Cimbaljević, Slavica; Buzadzić, Biljana; Korać, Aleksandra; Petrović, Vesna; Janković, Aleksandra; Korać, Bato

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interrelationship of plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte antioxidative defense in patients with insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides and the activities of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), as well as the amount of glutathione in erythrocytes, were determined in IDDM, NIDDM, and nondiabetic control subjects. Additionally, morphology of erythrocytes in all subjects was examined. Plasma levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in NIDDM compared with controls. Also, the lipid peroxide level was higher in NIDDM than in either control or IDDM subjects. CuZnSOD activity in erythrocytes was elevated in NIDDM patients compared with the control. In NIDDM patients, more extensive erythrocyte spherocytosis and echinocytosis compared with both control and IDDM subjects were observed. In contrast with the IDDM group, the observed abnormality in lipid metabolism in NIDDM patients is closely associated with increased lipid peroxidation, changes in antioxidative defense, and erythrocyte morphology.

  6. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  7. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  8. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  9. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  10. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  11. Study of the Vitamin D Levels in Patients Referred to Clinical Laboratories in Mashhad in 2015 and their Relationship with the Patients’ Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shamsian, Ali Akbar; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim; Rajabiian, Majid; Moghaddam, Habibolah Taghizadeh; Saeidi, Masumeh; Bahreini, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that has a significant role in the metabolism of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus; it also is a major determinant of the strength of bones. This hormone has a significant effect on three major health issues that people worldwide encounter, i.e., high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes. Considering the limited and dispersed studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iran and the relationship of vitamin D with lipid profiles in different people, this study was conducted to determine the vitamin D levels in patients and its relationship with their lipid profiles. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 1,110 patients who were referred to the two laboratories at Jihad Daneshgahi and to eight specialist laboratories in Mashhad through random sampling of patients for whom serum vitamin D and serum lipid tests were prescribed. The data that were obtained were entered into SPSS 13 software. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients in the study were deficient in vitamin D. The vitamin D levels in males were significantly lower than those in females (p < 0.05). The relationship between age and vitamin D deficiency was significant as well (p < 0.05). A positive and significant relationship was observed between age and vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.000, r = 0.187), i.e., vitamin D deficiency was more apparent in patients whose ages were in the range of 40–59. The relationship between the levels of vitamin D and serum lipids was significant and positive (p = 0.05), with the exception of LDL. Conclusion About two-thirds of the population that was studied had a vitamin D deficiency. There was a positive and significant relationship between serum vitamin D and serum lipids and serum calcium. The results of this study showed the necessity for more research and the implementation of preventive measures related to vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended that vitamin D enrichment

  12. Effects of transdermal application of 7-oxo-DHEA on the levels of steroid hormones, gonadotropins and lipids in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sulcová, J; Hill, M; Masek, Z; Ceska, R; Novácek, A; Hampl, R; Stárka, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 7-oxo-DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on the serum levels of steroid sexual hormones, gonadotropins, lipids and lipoproteins in men. 7-oxo-DHEA was applied onto the skin as a gel to 10 volunteers aged 27 to 72 years for 5 consecutive days. The single dose contained 25 mg 7-oxo-DHEA. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I and B and lipoprotein(a) were measured before the beginning and shortly after the end of the steroid application. After the treatment, we noted the following significant changes: a decline of testosterone and estradiol levels, increase of LH, HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels. The decrease of total cholesterol levels was of the borderline significance. A slight but significant increase was found in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a). The most expressive was the fall of the atherogenic index. We suggest that the gel containing 7-oxo-DHEA might be a suitable drug for improving the composition of the steroid and lipid parameters in elderly men.

  13. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  14. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) rs662 Polymorphism and Its Association with Serum Lipid Levels and Longevity in the Bama Zhuang Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Liang, Guiyun; Shi, Liwei; Liang, Xue; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study was performed to identify the association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and human longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. Material/Methods PON1 genotypes were determined by Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays in 110 long-lived inhabitants (longevity group, aged 90–110 years), 110 healthy inhabitants in Bama County (control 1 group, aged 43–82 years) and 110 healthy inhabitants in Nandan County (control 2 group, aged 28–82 years) without family history of longevity. Results BMI (body mass index) and TG (serum total triglyceride) level were lower in the longevity group than in the two control groups, while the contents of serum LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and the levels of SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) in the longevity group were higher than in the two control groups (p<0.01). Significant differences in the frequencies of three genotypes (GG, AG, and AA) were observed between the longevity group and control 2 group (χ2=15.190, p=0.001). The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs662 was significantly higher in the longevity group than in the two control groups. The levels of HDL-c in the longevity group were different among the three genotypes (p<0.05). The levels of TG for GG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different, while the levels of TC (total cholesterol) and HDL-c for AG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different among the three groups (p<0.05). Serum lipid parameters were correlated with several environmental factors, including age, gender, DBP, SBP, and BMI. The association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism and serum lipid levels was different among the three groups. Conclusions PON1 polymorphism might be one of the genetic factors of longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. The PON1 rs662 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) was associated with serum HDL-c levels in the longevity group. PMID:28027289

  15. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  16. Antiretroviral drug levels and interactions affect lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in HIV-1 seronegative subjects: A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Susan L.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Para, Michael F.; Reichman, Richard C.; Morse, Gene D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral medications (ARVs) develop undesirable changes in lipid and glucose metabolism that mimic the metabolic syndrome and may be proatherogenic. Antiretroviral drug levels and their interactions may contribute to these metabolic alterations. Methods: Fifty-six HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, pharmacokinetic interaction study, and received a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz on days 1-21) plus a protease inhibitor (PI; amprenavir on days 11-21), with a second PI on days 15-21 (saquinavir, nelfinavir, indinavir, or ritonavir). Fasting triglycerides, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured on days 0, 14, 21, and 2-3 weeks after discontinuing drugs. Regression models were used to estimate changes in these parameters and associations between these changes and circulating levels of study drugs. Results: Short-term efavirenz and amprenavir administration significantly increased cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels. Addition of a second protease inhibitor further increased triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. Higher amprenavir levels predicted larger increases in triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol. Two weeks after all study drugs were stopped, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol remained elevated above baseline. Conclusions: ARV regimens that include a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus single or boosted PIs are becoming more common, but the pharmacodynamic interactions associated with these regimens can result in persistent, undesirable alterations in serum lipid/lipoprotein levels. Additional pharmacodynamic studies are needed to examine the metabolic effects of ritonavir-boosted regimens, with and without efavirenz. PMID:18007962

  17. Effects of glucose and disorders in lipid metabolism on cytokine levels and cognitive impairment in the olanzapine-induced obesity rat model.

    PubMed

    Ma, X J; Maimaitirexiati, T X; Zhang, R; Hu, G; Luo, X

    2015-09-25

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of increased levels of blood sugar and cytokines on impaired cognitive function in the olanzapine-induced obesity rat model. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups; the control and olanzapine groups (N = 20 per group). The control rats were fed regular food, while the olanzapine rats received olanzapine-enriched (1.2 mg/kg) food by gavage for 4 weeks to establish the olanzapine-induced obese rat model. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Serum glucose content was measured by biochemical colorimetry. Learning and memory capacity was measured using a Y-maze, and the time before escape from a Morris water maze was recorded. Body weight and levels of blood glucose, lipids, TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP increased in the olanzapine group. In addition, the number of shocks received before reaching the learning and memory standard and the time before escape from the Morris water maze were higher in the olanzapine group than in the control group. Olanzapine causes disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. Increase in blood glucose promotes the toxicity of cytokines and leads to cognitive dysfunction in rats.

  18. Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Dogan, Inci; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten-H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels. PUFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The lipid metabolites were assayed using LC-MS/MS. AA and DHA were the prominent PUFAs in wildtype and fat-1 mice. EPA levels were low in both groups even though there was a significant increase in fat-1 organs with an up to 12-fold increase in fat-1 spleen and kidney. DHA levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold in fat-1 as compared to wildtype mice. While HETEs remained the same or decreased moderately and HDHAs increased 1- to 3-fold, HEPE formation in fat-1 tissues increased from 8- (muscle) to 44-fold (spleen). These findings indicate distinct profiles of monohydroxy lipid metabolites in different organs and strong utilization of EPA for HEPE formation, by which moderate EPA supplementation might trigger formation of biologically active EPA-derived resolvins. PMID:28165385

  19. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  20. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  2. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  3. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  4. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  5. VimA-Dependent Modulation of Acetyl Coenzyme A Levels and Lipid A Biosynthesis Can Alter Virulence in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Aruni, A. Wilson; Lee, J.; Osbourne, D.; Dou, Y.; Roy, F.; Muthiah, A.; Boskovic, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Porphyromonas gingivalis VimA protein has multifunctional properties that can modulate several of its major virulence factors. To further characterize VimA, P. gingivalis FLL406 carrying an additional vimA gene and a vimA-defective mutant in a different P. gingivalis genetic background were evaluated. The vimA-defective mutant (FLL451) in the P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 genetic background showed a phenotype similar to that of the vimA-defective mutant (FLL92) in the P. gingivalis W83 genetic background. In contrast to the wild type, gingipain activity was increased in P. gingivalis FLL406, a vimA chimeric strain. P. gingivalis FLL451 had a five times higher biofilm-forming capacity than the parent strain. HeLa cells incubated with P. gingivalis FLL92 showed a decrease in invasion, in contrast to P. gingivalis FLL451 and FLL406, which showed increases of 30 and 40%, respectively. VimA mediated coenzyme A (CoA) transfer to isoleucine and reduced branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The lipid A content and associated proteins were altered in the vimA-defective mutants. The VimA chimera interacted with several proteins which were found to have an LXXTG motif, similar to the sorting motif of Gram-positive organisms. All the proteins had an N-terminal signal sequence with a putative sorting signal of L(P/T/S)X(T/N/D)G and two unique signatures of EXGXTX and HISXXGXG, in addition to a polar tail. Taken together, these observations further confirm the multifunctional role of VimA in modulating virulence possibly through its involvement in acetyl-CoA transfer and lipid A synthesis and possibly by protein sorting. PMID:22144476

  6. Dietary intake and plasma lipid levels: lessons from a study of the diet of health conscious groups.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, M; Roe, L; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1990-01-01

    AIM--To re-examine the contentious relation between diet and plasma lipids within a population. DESIGN--Cross sectional sample from a large prospective cohort study of people eating different diets in Britain. Blood samples and diet records collected from subjects. SUBJECTS--Volunteers eating one of four distinct diets--namely, vegans, vegetarians, fish eaters who do not eat meat, and meat eaters. 52 Subjects selected from each group. METHODS--Examination of the relation between nutritional intake recorded in a four day dietary record and plasma lipid concentrations of subjects measured in blood samples collected previously. RESULTS--After controlling for age, sex, and body mass index, the correlation between plasma total cholesterol and the Keys score (which includes dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fat) was 0.37 (p less than 0.001). The mean saturated fat intake in all groups was low (6-14% of energy), but polyunsaturated fat intake was high, so mean total fat intake was generally above that recommended. A high dietary fibre intake was not associated with high carbohydrate intake. Plasma high density lipoprotein values were not associated with any measure of fat intake, but there was a significant correlation of 0.24 between high density lipoprotein values and alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS--The nature rather than quantity of dietary fat is an important determinant of cholesterol concentrations. Health conscious individuals select a fat modified, rather than a low fat--high carbohydrate diet. National cholesterol lowering dietary advice should be reconsidered. PMID:2369659

  7. High dose trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases lean body mass in hamsters, but elevates levels of plasma lipids and liver enzyme biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Joseph, Shama V; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the efficacy of graded doses of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on body composition, energy expenditure, hepatic and serum lipid liver biomarkers in hamsters. Animals (n = 105) were randomized to seven treatments (control, 1, 2, 3% of c9,t11; 1, 2, 3% of t10,c12) for 28 days. After 28 days treatment, 1-3% of t10,c12 lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass compared to the control group. The 1-3% t10,c12 and 3% c9,t11 fed groups showed higher (p < 0.05) lean mass compared to other groups. We observed unfavorable changes in plasma total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in animals fed with 3% t10,c12 CLA isomers. The 2%, 3% t10,c12 groups presented elevated (p < 0.05) ALT levels. The present data suggest that a diet enriched with more than 2% t10, c12 led to liver malfunction and poses unfavorable changes on plasma lipid profiles. The 1% t10,c12 CLA lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass and increased (p < 0.05) lean body mass. The c9,t11 CLA has less potent actions than t10,c12 CLA. We conclude that the actions of CLA on energy and lipid metabolism are form and dose dependent in the hamster model.

  8. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins—LDL, high density lipoproteins—HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma–FRAP, non-protein thiols–NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl—DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders. PMID:27788267

  9. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  11. Methylation on the Circadian Gene BMAL1 Is Associated with the Effects of a Weight Loss Intervention on Serum Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Samblas, Mirian; Milagro, Fermin I; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martínez, J Alfredo; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock system has been linked to the onset and development of obesity and some accompanying comorbidities. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are putatively involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a weight loss intervention based on an energy-controlled Mediterranean dietary pattern in the methylation levels of 3 clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1, and the association between the methylation levels and changes induced in the serum lipid profile with the weight loss treatment. The study sample enrolled 61 women (body mass index = 28.6 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); age: 42.2 ± 11.4 years), who followed a nutritional program based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern. DNA was isolated from whole blood obtained at the beginning and end point. Methylation levels at different CpG sites of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1 were analyzed by Sequenom's MassArray. The energy-restricted intervention modified the methylation levels of different CpG sites in BMAL1 (CpGs 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 18) and NR1D1 (CpGs 1, 10, 17, 18, 19, and 22). Changes in cytosine methylation in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 with the intervention positively correlated with the eveningness profile (p = 0.019). The baseline methylation of the CpG 5 to 9 region in BMAL1 positively correlated with energy (p = 0.047) and carbohydrate (p = 0.017) intake and negatively correlated with the effect of the weight loss intervention on total cholesterol (p = 0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.005). Similar significant and positive correlations were found between changes in methylation levels in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 due to the intervention and changes in serum lipids (p < 0.05). This research describes apparently for the first time an association between changes in the methylation of the BMAL1 gene with the intervention and the effects of a weight loss intervention on blood lipids levels.

  12. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432

  13. CETP genotype and changes in lipid levels in response to weight-loss diet intervention in the POUNDS LOST and DIRECT randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Leitersdorf, Eran; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Li, Yanping; Wu, Hongyu; Champagne, Catherine M; Hu, Frank B; Stampfer, Meir J; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about whether cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genetic variation may modify the effect of weight-loss diets varying in fat content on changes in lipid levels. We analyzed the interaction between the CETP variant rs3764261 and dietary interventions on changes in lipid levels among 732 overweight/obese adults from a 2 year randomized weight-loss trial [Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST)], and replicated the findings in 171 overweight/obese adults from an independent 2 year weight-loss trial [Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT)]. In the POUNDS LOST, participants with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype on the high-fat diet had larger increases in HDL cholesterol (P = 0.001) and decreases in triglycerides (P = 0.007) than those on the low-fat diet at 6 months, while no significant difference between these two diets was observed among participants carrying other genotypes. The gene-diet interactions on changes in HDL-cholesterol and tri-glyc-erides were replicated in the DIRECT (pooled P for interaction ≤ 0.01). Similar results on trajectory of changes in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides over the 2 year intervention were observed in both trials. Our study provides replicable evidence that individuals with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype might derive greater effects on raising HDL cholesterol and lowering triglycerides by choosing a low-carbohydrate/high-fat weight-loss diet instead of a low-fat diet.

  14. CETP genotype and changes in lipid levels in response to weight-loss diet intervention in the POUNDS LOST and DIRECT randomized trials1

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Leitersdorf, Eran; Shpitzen, Shoshi; Li, Yanping; Wu, Hongyu; Champagne, Catherine M.; Hu, Frank B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genetic variation may modify the effect of weight-loss diets varying in fat content on changes in lipid levels. We analyzed the interaction between the CETP variant rs3764261 and dietary interventions on changes in lipid levels among 732 overweight/obese adults from a 2 year randomized weight-loss trial [Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST)], and replicated the findings in 171 overweight/obese adults from an independent 2 year weight-loss trial [Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT)]. In the POUNDS LOST, participants with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype on the high-fat diet had larger increases in HDL cholesterol (P = 0.001) and decreases in triglycerides (P = 0.007) than those on the low-fat diet at 6 months, while no significant difference between these two diets was observed among participants carrying other genotypes. The gene-diet interactions on changes in HDL-cholesterol and tri­glyc­erides were replicated in the DIRECT (pooled P for interaction ≤ 0.01). Similar results on trajectory of changes in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides over the 2 year intervention were observed in both trials. Our study provides replicable evidence that individuals with the CETP rs3764261 CC genotype might derive greater effects on raising HDL cholesterol and lowering triglycerides by choosing a low-carbohydrate/high-fat weight-loss diet instead of a low-fat diet. PMID:25548261

  15. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  16. Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B; Barnard, R J; Rose, D P; Inkeles, S; Hall, J; Pritikin, N

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated elevated levels of serum estradiol in males as the major predisposing factor for myocardial infarction, with serum cholesterol playing a secondary role. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and daily exercise on levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, and lipids in males. Twenty-one males participating in the Pritikin Longevity Center 26-day residential program volunteered for the study. During the program, serum estradiol levels were significantly reduced from 47.2 +/- 4.6 to 23.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) whereas serum testosterone levels were unchanged (5.1 +/- 0.3 versus 5.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). Total serum cholesterol levels were reduced from 229 +/- 9 to 181 +/- 7 mg/dl whereas triglyceride levels were reduced from 301 +/- 66 to 151 +/- 13 mg/dl. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels fell from 41 +/- 3 to 35 +/- 1 mg/dl whereas the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was unchanged (5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 5.1 +/- 0.3).

  17. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  18. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  19. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  20. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  1. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  2. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  3. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  4. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  5. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid.

    PubMed

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-04-29

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  6. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement.

  7. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  8. [The effects of early application of simvastatin on C-reactive protein level, blood lipids, and the clinical course of acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Shal'nev, V I

    2007-01-01

    In spite of a large number of studies on the use of HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) in treatment of different forms of coronary artery disease, the efficacy of their early administration in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is still unclear. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of medium doses (40 mg per day) of simvastatin on the clinical course of ACS and blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipids in ACS patients to whom the drug was administered on the first day of the disease. One hundred and eight patients with ACS were randomized into two groups: the control group receiving standard therapy, and the main group receiving in addition 40 mg of simvastatin beginning on the first day of the disease. Blood levels of lipids and CRP were measured by a precise qualitative technique on the first and fourteenth days of the disease. The clinical course of the disease was evaluated during six months from the first day of hospital stay. Mean CRP level decreased significantly within two weeks in the group of patients receiving simvastatin (from 14.9 +/- 9.7 to 7.6 +/- 6.0 mg/l; p = 0.02). In the control group CRP concentration decreased less and not significantly (from 16.1 +/- 7.3 to 13.2 +/- 6.8 mg/l; p = 0.18). Two main types of the dynamics of CRP level were revealed in the ACS patients. Most patients in both groups displayed a decrease in CRP level by the fourteenth day of the disease. At the same time, in some patients CRP level grew during this period, and these patients had stenocardia and required repeated hospital admissions due to ACS recurrence significantly more frequently during the following six months (relative risk 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.8). The frequency of postinfarction stenocardia was the most substantial and significant clinical difference between the groups (50.9% in the control group, and 23.6% in the main group, p = 0.04). Thus, early therapy with simvastatin in ACS lowers SRP level and the

  9. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  10. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  11. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring's microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Besson, Marie; Guérin, Sylvie; Coquery, Nicolas; Randuineau, Gwénaëlle; Kanzari, Ameni; Quesnel, Hélène; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Blat, Sophie; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Clouard, Caroline

    2017-02-06

    A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny. Milk dry matter and lipid content, as well as plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations (P < 0.05) were higher in WD than in SD sows. Microbiota activity decreased in both WD sows and 100-d-old piglets (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10, depending on short-chain FAs [SCFAs]). At weaning [postnatal day (PND) 25], WD piglets had increased blood triglyceride and FFA levels (P < 0.01). Both SD and WD piglets consumed more of a known SD than an unknown high-fat/-sucrose (HFS) diet (P < 0.0001), but were quicker to obtain HFS rewards compared with SD rewards (P < 0.01). WD piglets had higher working memory (P = 0.015) and reference memory (P < 0.001) scores, which may reflect better cognitive abilities in the task context and a higher motivation for the food rewards. WD piglets had a smaller hippocampal granular cell layer (P = 0.03) and decreased neurogenesis (P < 0.005), but increased cell proliferation (P < 0.001). A maternal WD during gestation and lactation, even in the absence of obesity, has significant consequences for piglets' blood lipid levels, microbiota activity, gut-brain axis, and neurocognitive abilities after weaning.-Val-Laillet, D., Besson, M., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Randuineau, G., Kanzari, A., Quesnel, H., Bonhomme, N., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Blat, S., Le Huërou-Luron, I., Clouard, C. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring

  12. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Liver Lipid Oxidation-Related Enzyme Levels and Increased the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression Level in Mice Subjected to Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying; Wu, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-22

    Appropriate metabolic interventions after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation injury have not yet been identified. We aimed to examine the effects of fish oil on lipid metabolic intervention after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. Firstly, 48 C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups (n = 8 per group). The sham group did not undergo surgery, while mice in the remaining groups were sacrificed 1-5 days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. In the second part, mice were treated with saline or fish oil (n = 8 per group) five days after injury. We determined serum triglyceride levels and liver tissues were collected and prepared for qRT-PCR or Western blot analysis. We found that triglyceride levels were increased five days after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation, but decreased after addition of fish oil. After injury, the protein and gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, fatty acid transport protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α decreased significantly in liver tissue. In contrast, after treatment with fish oil, the expression levels of these targets increased compared with those in the saline group. The present results suggest n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could improve lipid oxidation-related enzymes in liver subjected to hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation. This function is possibly accomplished through activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α pathway.

  13. The effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels, and on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in kainic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Yasemin Delen; Yalcin, Ayfer; Sozmen, Eser Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) initiates neuronal injury and death by inducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide release from various regions of the brain. It was recently shown that melatonin has free radical-scavenging action and may protect against kainate-induced toxicity. In order to assess the possible supportive effect of melatonin treatment in KA-induced injury in the rat brain cortex, we determined malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of lipid peroxidation, and assessed the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of nitrite/nitrate 35 male rats were divided into five groups, each receiving a different intraperitoneal treatment: saline solution (0.2 ml), kainic acid (15 mg/kg), melatonin (20 mg/kg), KA then melatonin (each as above, 15 min apart), or melatonin then KA (each as above, 30 min apart). Administration of KA caused an about five-fold increase in the catalase activity and an increase in the SOD activity in the cortex relative to the activities for the controls. Treatment with melatonin 15 min after KA injection kept malondialdehyde levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at the normal levels, and led to an increase in the levels of nitrite/nitrate. Our data suggests that melatonin treatment following KA administration has a protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and thus supports the role of melatonin and oxidative stress in the regulation of antioxidative enzyme activity.

  14. Serum Lipid Levels in Selected Air Force Officers during the First Four Years after Graduation from the USAF Academy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    cardiovascular disease . Since an earlier study of West Point cadets found that serum levels of cholesterol and lipoproteins rose to peak levels 2 years after graduation from the United States Military Academy, this study also followed the subjects in the study through their years at the USAF Academy and for almost 4 years thereafter. During the years at the USAF Academy, only transient elevations in serum cholesterol and uric acid levels were found, but these were apparently related to short-term stress. During the 3 1/2 to 4 years after graduation, serum cholesterol

  15. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  16. Population Screening for Blood Lipid Levels and Related Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among U.S. Army Basic Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-26

    7 2. Distribution of Subjects By Sex , Race, and Average Age ............................................ 20 3. Frequency Distribution of Male and...be influenced by diet, sex , lifestyle and behavioral factors, and genetics (17,18). Aging appears to increase total cholesterol levels • , i a i r i...5 regardless of race and sex . White females generally have higher total cholesterol levels during childhood than white males. After completion of

  17. Effect of Whole Grain Qingke (Tibetan Hordeum vulgare L. Zangqing 320) on the Serum Lipid Levels and Intestinal Microbiota of Rats under High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuejuan; Li, Guannan; Ding, Yongbo; Ren, Tingyuan; Zheng, Jiong; Kan, Jianquan

    2017-04-05

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas they increased the body weight of the rats. Cecal weight and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration increased with increasing WGQ dose. An Illumina-based sequencing approach showed that the relative abundance of putative SCFA-producing bacteria Prevotella and Anaerovibrio increased in the rats fed the WGQ diet. Principal component analysis revealed a significant difference in intestinal microbiota composition after the administration of the WGQ diet. These findings provide insights into the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the hypolipidemic effect of WGQ.

  18. Lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians and its association with cardiovascular disease: Current state and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Ozlem; Kamal, Ayeesha; Virani, Salim S

    2016-01-01

    South Asians have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and suffer from early-onset CHD compared to other ethnic groups. Conventional risk factors may not fully explain this increased CHD risk in this population. Indeed, South Asians have a unique lipid profile which may predispose them to premature CHD. Dyslipidemia in this patient population seems to be an important contributor to the high incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. The dyslipidemia in South Asians is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated lipoprotein(a) levels, and a higher atherogenic particle burden despite comparable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with other ethnic subgroups. HDL particles also appear to be smaller, dysfunctional, and proatherogenic in South Asians. Despite the rapid expansion of the current literature with better understanding of the specific lipid abnormalities in this patient population, studies with adequate sample sizes are needed to assess the significance and contribution of a given lipid parameter on overall cardiovascular risk in this population. Specific management goals and treatment thresholds do not exist for South Asians because of paucity of data. Current treatment recommendations are mostly extrapolated from Western guidelines. Lastly, large, prospective studies with outcomes data are needed to assess cardiovascular benefit associated with various lipid-lowering therapies (including combination therapy) in this patient population. PMID:27022456

  19. The effect of buparvaquone treatment on the levels of some antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase in cattle with theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, M; Saki, C E; Sevgili, M

    1999-05-01

    Plasma levels of vitamins A, E, beta carotene, both plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata and treated with buparvaquone. There were two groups each containing 30 cattle. Naturally infected cattle were used in the second group. Buparvaquone (2.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered to animals in the second group. Blood samples were taken from control animals, and immediately before treatment, and from animals 10 days after the injection of buparvaquone. Detection of the infected animals was carried out by blood smears. Plasma vitamins A, E, beta carotene, both plasma and erythrocyte GSHPx, LPO and GSH levels were determined. The levels of LPO in plasma and erythrocyte samples were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) higher after treatment than in either control animals or before treatment. Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin E and beta carotene were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) lower after treatment than in either control animals or before treatment, while the vitamin E level was found to be higher before treatment than in either the control group or animals after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The levels of vitamin A in plasma and the activity of GSHPx and GSH in both plasma and erythrocytes in control animals after and before treatment did not differ significantly. In conclusion, we observed that there was a decreased plasma level of vitamin E and beta carotene and an increased level of LPO in cattle treated with buparvaquone. Buparvaquone might function in the treatment of Theileria annulata by forming free radicals.

  20. Association of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1)-565 C/T Gene Polymorphism with Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Serum Lipids, IL-6 and CRP Levels

    PubMed Central

    Babashamsi, Mohammad Mahdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Moradi Firouzjah, Hamid; Parsian, Hadi; Jalali, Seyed Farzad; Babashamsi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane integral protein which plays a vital role in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and exerts a protective effect against Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA) by mediation of rate-limiting step in HDL biogenesis. In addition, this protein possesses anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of some inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. This study investigated the association of ABCA1-565 C/T gene polymorphism with HA and serum lipids, IL-6 and CRP levels. Methods: A population which consisted of 101 HA and 95 normal subjects were genotyped for ABCA1-565C/T polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The serum concentrations of lipids, IL-6 and high sensitive-CRP (hs-CRP) were measured by the relevant methods. Results: The frequency of T allele was significantly higher in the HA group than the controls (31.7 vs. 19.5%, p=0.002). Thus, carriers of the T allele (CT and TT genotypes) had a higher risk for HA (p=0.016, OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.14–3.63). T allele carriers demonstrated decreased HDL-C and increased triglyceride, IL-6 and CRP levels than those with the CC genotype. Conclusion: This study suggests that the-565 C/T polymorphism of ABCA1 gene is associated with an increased risk of HA, decreased HDL-C and increased TG, IL-6 and CRP. PMID:28090279

  1. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with swimming training improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Antonio E.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Paolillo, Fernanda R.; Duarte, Fernanda O.; Oishi, Jorge C.; Pena, Airton A.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and associated dyslipidemia is the fastest growing health problem throughout the world. The combination of exercise and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be a new approach to the treatment of obesity and associated disease. In this work, the effects of LLLT associated with exercises on the lipid metabolism in regular and high-fat diet rats were verified. We used 64 rats divided in eight groups with eight rats each, designed: SC, sedentary chow diet; SCL, sedentary chow diet laser, TC, trained chow diet; TCL, trained chow diet laser; SH, sedentary high-fat diet; SHL, sedentary high-fat diet laser; TH, trained high-fat diet; and THL, trained high-fat diet laser. The exercise used was swimming during 8 weeks/90 min daily and LLLT (GA-Al-As, 830 nm) dose of 4.7 J/point and total energy 9.4 J per animal, applied to both gastrocnemius muscles after exercise. We analyzed biochemical parameters, percentage of fat, hepatic and muscular glycogen and relative mass of tissue, and weight percentage gain. The statistical test used was ANOVA, with post hoc Tukey–Kramer for multiple analysis between groups, and the significant level was p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.05. LLLT decreased the total cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p<0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05), and relative mass of fat tissue (p<0.05), suggesting increased metabolic activity and altered lipid pathways. The combination of exercise and LLLT increased the benefits of exercise alone. However, LLLT without exercise tended to increase body weight and fat content. LLLT may be a valuable addition to a regimen of diet and exercise for weight reduction and dyslipidemic control. PMID:23151893

  2. Lipids in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  3. Salivary Lipid Peroxidation and Total Sialic Acid Levels in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users as Maraş Powder

    PubMed Central

    Kurtul, Naciye; Gökpınar, Engin

    2012-01-01

    Maraş powder (MP), a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST) and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs). The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also observed that as the number of cigarettes consumed and MP amount increases, TSA and MDA levels increase too. In smokers, MDA values were significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. In MPU, both MDA and TSA levels were significantly correlated with the duration of MP use and the amount of daily consumed MP. We have concluded increased salivary TSA and MDA levels associated in MPU and smokers. Results can help to evaluate harmful effects of these habits. It is important to point out that bigger change in the measured parameters has been observed for MP use. This observation may be an important indication of harmful effects of ST use as MP. PMID:22577253

  4. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P; Vasudev, V; Pugalendi, K V

    2005-05-05

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 microg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 microg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 microg/ml of sesamol significantly (p<0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed.

  5. Short-term administration of tall oil phytosterols improves plasma lipid profiles in subjects with different cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, P J; Howell, T; MacDougall, D E; Feng, J Y; Parsons, W

    1998-06-01

    To assess the short-term cholesterol-lowering potential of sitostanol-containing tall oil plant sterols, 22 subjects consumed fixed-food diets over two 10-day periods with or without 21.2 mg/kg body weight/d tall oil phytosterols (sitosterol 62%, sitostanol 21%, campesterol 16%, and campestanol 1%) in a randomized crossover study design. On day 10 of each diet, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels, plasma phytosterol concentrations, and cholesterol biosynthesis rates were determined. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were lower (P < .01) after administration of tall oil phytosterol (4.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively) versus placebo (5.0 +/- 0.3 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively). Tall oil treatment had no effect on the plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) versus placebo (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L). Similarly, plasma triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between tall oil (1.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) and placebo (1.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) treatments. Plasma campesterol (15.8 +/- 3.7 mmol/mol cholesterol) and sitosterol (6.0 +/- 2.1 mmol/mol cholesterol) levels were not different after tall oil treatment versus placebo treatment (15.4 +/- 2.3 and 6.4 +/- 2.0 mmol/mol cholesterol, respectively). Plasma sitostanol levels were essentially undetectable. No difference was observed in cholesterol biosynthesis between tall oil (0.045 +/- 0.004 pools/d) and placebo (0.034 +/- 0.004 pools/d) treatments; however, the effect of treatments in subjects with different cholesterol levels varied. In subjects with lower cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) increased from 0.0291 +/- 0.0054 pools/d after placebo to 0.0509 +/- 0.0049 pools/d (P < .05) after phytosterol treatment. In subjects with higher cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol FSR did not change significantly after treatment. These results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of tall

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  8. Serum Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 2 in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Duration More Than 2 Years: Correlation With Cardiac and Pulmonary Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Amira; Elsawaf, Amani; Ramadan, Shahira; Shaker, Olfat; Amin, Mona; Taha, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measured the serum concentration of TIMP-2 in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and explored its possible correlation with cardiac and pulmonary lesions. We studied 42 patients with SSc, with duration equal to or more than 2 years. CT chest, ECG, echocardiography, and serum TIMP-2 concentration measurement using ELISA technique were performed in all patients and in 25 normal controls. The mean serum levels of TIMP-2 in patients was higher than in controls (P = .005). The mean CT score of dSSc patients with elevated TIMP-2 levels was significantly higher than dSSc patients with normal levels (P = .013). Four patients out of five with elevated TIMP-2 levels showed diastolic dysfunction (80%), compared to 2 out of 15 lSSc patients with normal levels (13.3%), with P = .014. Our research, though involving a small group of patients, points to the probable role of TIMP-2 in the development of pulmonary lesions in dSSc patients and cardiac lesions in lSSc patients with duration equal to or more than 2 years. PMID:17392585

  9. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  10. [Gender differences in parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants in groups of juveniles--the Evenks and the europeans].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Comparative estimation of the mean parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants was performed in youths and girls of the indigenous (the Evenks) and newly arrived population of the north of the Irkutsk oblast and of the Oblast Center (the Europeans). Gender differences were revealed in the level of ChlHDLP in juveniles of the arrived population, in the glutathione status and content of fat-soluble vitamins in juveniles Evens and the arrived and in concentration of retinol in the Oblast Center juveniles. Adaptive changes in the AOD system were found in the Evenk girls (the higher concentrations of α-to- copherol, GSH, the GSH/GSSG index, and a decrease of GSSG relatively to the Evenk boys and the girls of the arrived populations, as well as an increase of the ca-tocopherol level relatively to the Europeans of the Oblast Center) and in boys of the arrived population (the higher GSH content and the GSH/GSSG index relatively to the Evenk boys).

  11. Tissue lipid composition in fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, C C

    1975-01-01

    The lipid composition of the liver, kidneys, heart and adipose tissue of chicks affected by the fatty liver and kidney syndrome were analysed. Livers and kidneys showed 400 to 500 per cent increases in heart lipid levels. Liver and kidney triglycerides contained increased proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, mainly palmitoleic acid, at the expense of the saturated fatty acids, mainly stearic acid. Phospholipid and adipose tissue fatty acid composition were not markedly altered. The abnormalities were regressing in birds recovering from the syndrome.

  12. Association of structural variants of the gene of apolipoprotein B with coronary heart disease and serum lipid level

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, V.A.; Puzyrev, V.P.; Lemza, S.V.; Karpov, R.S.; Fedorov, A.Yu.

    1995-07-01

    Xba I and EcoR I polymorphism of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene was studied by PCR. A significant increase in the frequency of allele X{sup +} and haplotype X{sup +}E{sup +} was demonstrated in patients with coronarographically documented coronary heart disease (CHD) over that of the general population. Association of allele E{sup {minus}} with increased levels of serum triglycerides was found. The results provide evidence about the contribution of structural variants of the APOB gene to determining CHD. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  14. Taq1B Polymorphism of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) and Its Effects on the Serum Lipid Levels in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Maroufi, Nazila Fathi; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Alibabrdel, Mahdi; Zarei, Leila; Cheraghi, Omid; Soltani, Sina; Montazersaheb, Soheila; Akbarzadeh, Maryam; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The plasma origin of Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is responsible for transferring cholesterol esters from high-density lipoprotein particles to apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins compartment. We conducted this study to investigate the association between CETP gene Taq1B (rs708272) polymorphism in the metabolic syndrome among Iranian subjects. A sample size of 200 patients diagnosed with MetS together with 200 healthy donors as control were enrolled in this study. The investigation of polymorphism was performed by the use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To determine the relationship between polymorphism and lipid profile, we measured lipids and CETP concentration in metabolic syndrome and control subjects. Genotype distribution and allelic frequencies of polymorphism were determined and compared in both groups. Our findings showed that all clinical and biochemical characteristics in patients differed from the control group. The results showed that genotype and allele frequency of the Taq1B polymorphism was not significantly different between two groups. Instinctively, CETP was significantly higher in metabolic syndrome (1.64 ± 0.32 µg/ml) than in control (1.53 ± 0.34 µg/ml). A low level of CETP was found in blood of B2B2 typified genotype. In spite of Taq1B polymorphism on ester transfer protein concentration, no direct correlation was found between this polymorphism and metabolic syndrome.

  15. Correlation between serum lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Sarkar, Chandan; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Karim, R

    2008-07-01

    Abnormal lipid profile is often found in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. To assess the impact of abnormal lipid profile on atherosclerosis in young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women, carotid intima-media thickness as judged by B-mode ultrasonography were done in 30 young (18-35 yrs) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women and in similarly age-matched 30 apparently healthy controls. Compared to controls, young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women had significantly elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C levels and carotid intima-media thickness. HDL-C level did not differ significantly between two groups of women. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women carotid intima-media thickness was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C and negatively correlated with serum HDL-C. Our study suggests that even young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women are prone to atherosclerosis from early age.

  16. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  17. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  18. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 6: effects of varying pancreatin and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Williams, Hywel D; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Carrière, Frédéric; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-11-01

    The impact of pancreatin and calcium addition on a wide array of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) during in vitro lipolysis, with regard to digestion rates and distribution of the model drug danazol, was investigated. Pancreatin primarily affected the extent of digestion, leaving drug distribution somewhat unaffected. Calcium only affected the extent of digestion slightly but had a major influence on drug distribution, with more drug precipitating at higher calcium levels. This is likely to be caused by a combination of removal of lipolysis products from solution by the formation of calcium soaps and calcium precipitating with bile acids, events known to reduce the solubilizing capacity of LBFs dispersed in biorelevant media. Further, during the digestion of hydrophilic LBFs, like IIIA-LC, the un-ionized-ionized ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged at physiological calcium levels. This makes the titration curves at pH 6.5 representable for digestion. However, caution should be taken when interpreting lipolysis curves of lipophilic LBFs, like I-LC, at pH 6.5, at physiological levels of calcium (1.4 mM); un-ionized-ionized ratio of FFA might change during digestion, rendering the lipolysis curve at pH 6.5 non-representable for the total digestion. The ratio of un-ionized-ionized FFAs can be maintained during digestion by applying non-physiological levels of calcium, resulting in a modified drug distribution with increased drug precipitation. However, as the main objective of the in vitro digestion model is to evaluate drug distribution, which is believed to have an impact on bioavailability in vivo, a physiological level (1.4 mM) of calcium is preferred.

  19. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  20. Effects of a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture and alpha-lipoic acid diet on body composition, antioxidant status, and plasma lipid levels in the Golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Wang, Yanwen; Kubow, Stan; Jones, Peter J H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALP) versus a medium chain triglyceride oil mixture (MCTo), which was designed to increase energy expenditure and to improve lipid profiles containing medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and omega-3 fatty acids in the form of flaxseed oil. A total of 48 hamsters were fed a) hypercholesterolemic (HC) control, b) HC MCTo, c) HC ALP, or d) HC MCTo/ALP diet for 4 weeks. No differences were observed on food intake, body weight, total body water, lean and fat mass, and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). ALP alone had no effect on total cholesterol (TC); however, MCTo feeding increased TC with (P < 0.03) and without (P < 0.003) ALP when compared with control. ALP increased HDL levels compared with control (P < 0.04) and MCTo/ALP (P < 0.007) groups. MCTo, with (P < 0.0001) or without (P < 0.006) ALP, increased non-HDL cholesterol levels versus control. The non-HDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased by ALP compared with MCTo (45%) and MCTo/ALP (68%) (P < 0.0001), a similar trend was seen when compared with the HC control (22%) group (P < 0.14). Triglyceride levels were not altered by any dietary treatment. Liver and heart tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) was increased (P < 0.05) by all three treatments when compared with control. Both tissues showed an increase (P < 0.05) in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) when fed ALP as compared with other treatments. Hamsters fed ALP had a lower (P < 0.05) GSH/GSSG ratio compared with other treatment groups. In conclusion, MCTo feeding does not elicit beneficial effects on circulating plasma lipids and measures of body composition. In addition, our results do not clearly support an improvement in oxidative status through supplementation of ALP. However, our results do support the existence of beneficial effects of ALP on circulating lipoprotein content in the hamster.

  1. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities.

  2. Antioxidant status, lipid and color stability of aged beef from grazing steers supplemented with corn grain and increasing levels of flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Pouzo, L B; Descalzo, A M; Zaritzky, N E; Rossetti, L; Pavan, E

    2016-01-01

    Angus steers were grazed on unsupplemented pasture (CNTRL), pasture supplemented with 0.7% BW cracked corn (FLAX-0), FLAX-0 with 0.125% and 0.250% BW of whole flaxseed (FLAX-1 and FLAX-2). Six steers were grazed per treatment for 70 days, with start and finish weights of 458 and 508 kg. At 24 h post slaughter, longissimus thoracis were harvested, and steaks assigned to treatments of postmortem aging time under vacuum (PM; 3, 14 and 56 days) with or without five days of aerobic exposure (AE). Meat antioxidant status was higher (P<0.05) when feeding CNTRL and FLAX-1 than FLAX-0 and FLAX-2. Under AE, lipid oxidation was highest for FLAX-2 (P<0.05), and lowest for FLAX-1. Greatest TBARs and lowest antioxidant capacity and redness values were obtained with AE and the longer PM (P<0.05). Beef oxidative stability through AE improved by adding a low flaxseed level to supplemented corn grain, but deteriorated by adding a high flaxseed level or by extending PM.

  3. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  4. Tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules decrease reactive oxygen species levels and improve bovine embryonic development during in vitro oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Remião, Mariana Härter; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Domingues, William Borges; Haas, Cristina; Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Ourique, Aline; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols can be improved by adding chemical supplements to the culture media. Tretinoin is considered an important retinoid in embryonic development and its association with lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC) represents an innovative way of improving its solubility, and chemical stability, and reducing its toxicity. The effects of supplementing IVM medium with TTN-LNC was evaluated by analyzing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), S36-phosphorilated-p66Shc levels and caspase activity in early embryonic development, and expression of apoptosis and pluripotency genes in blastocysts. The lowest concentration tested (0.25μM) of TTN-LNC generated higher blastocyst rate, lower ROS production and S36-p66Shc amount. Additionally, expression of BAX and SHC1 were lower in both non-encapsulated tretinoin (TTN) and TTN-LNC-treated groups. Nanoencapsulation allowed the use of smaller concentrations of tretinoin to supplement IVM medium thus reducing toxic effects related with its use, decreasing ROS levels and apoptose frequency, and improving the blastocyst rates.

  5. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  6. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  7. Quantitative analysis of polar lipids in the nanoliter level of rat serum by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polar lipids in serum, including lysophospholipids (LPLs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), have a broad range of biological activities and require a suitable method for their quantitative analysis. Conventional methods use multistep procedures to simultaneously purify and analyze polar lipids and non-po...

  8. Relationship between proliferative activity of bone marrow micrometastasis and plasmatic level of a new cancer marker: lipid associated sialic acid (LASA) in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ginsbourg, M; Musset, M; Misset, J L; Mathé, G

    1986-01-01

    The correlation between elevated level of a new plasma cancer marker, Lipid Associated Sialic Acid (LASA) and detection of bone marrow heterotopic epithelial cells by monoclonal antibodies using an immunocytologic technique, associated with the study of the proliferative activity of these heterotopic cells by measurement of their labelling index (LI) was analyzed in 158 samples obtained from 94 breast cancer patients. Six different groups of patients in complete remission of breast cancer, after radical treatment of the primary (minimal residual disease (MRD] were defined, according to the presence with or without proliferative activity of heterotopic cells in the bone marrow or the absence of such cells and to the level, normal or elevated of LASA in the serum of the same patient at the same time. 115 samples (73%) of the patients had an elevated LASA level at the time of the study among which 71 (45%) came from patients in which heterotopic cells were detected in the bone marrow, 32 (20%) of which with proliferative activity (LI+) 39 (25%) without (LI-). In 44 (28%) samples, no heterotopic cells were detected in the B.M. 43 samples (27%) of the patients had a normal LASA level. In 29 (18%) no heterotopic cells could be detected in the B.M. In only 14 could such cells be found, 5 with LI+, 9 with LI-. Both of these cytological and biological parameters can be useful markers of minimal residual disease and help to determine the prognosis and define optimal therapeutic strategy for curable breast cancer. Their prognostic value in predicting relapse awaits further observation with longer follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. [Changes of fatty-acid structure of common lipids and contents of peroxidation products in tissues of embryos depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in a diet of geese during the reproductive period].

    PubMed

    Moravs'ka, O V; Vovk, S O

    2010-01-01

    Results concerning the contents of retinol in the liver, residual yoke of 25-day embryos and yoke of eggs depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in the diet of geese by grey Obroshin breeds in reproductive period are presented in the paper. It is established, that vitamin D3 reduces the level of retinol deposition in the tissues of embryos and yoke of eggs of geese, and addition of vitamins A and E to a diet of geese raises the level of retinol both in the liver and residual yoke of embryos, and in yokes of geese eggs. Besides the data about changes of fatty-acid spectrum of common lipids and contents of lipid peroxidations products in tissues of the liver and pectoral muscles of 25-day embryos are presented in the paper depending on the level of vitamins A, D3 and E in geese diet during their reproductive period. Introduction of vitamin A--in quantity of 10000 IU, vitamin D3--in quantity of 3000 IU, in the composition of mixed fodder of geese during the reproductive period and vitamin E in quantity 35 IU on 1 kg to mixed fodder optimizes fatty-acid structure of the common lipids and the level of peroxidations lipids products in the liver and pectoral muscles of embryos.

  10. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Terpos, E; Christoulas, D; Kastritis, E; Bagratuni, T; Gavriatopoulou, M; Roussou, M; Papatheodorou, A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, E; Kanellias, N; Liakou, C; Panagiotidis, I; Migkou, M; Kokkoris, P; Moulopoulos, L A; Dimopoulos, M A

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. PMID:27716740

  11. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential

  12. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  13. Chlorophytum borivilianum Root Extract Maintains near Normal Blood Glucose, Insulin and Lipid Profile Levels and Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Male Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. Methods: C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. Results: C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes. PMID:25249786

  14. Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannosylphosphodolichol synthase-encoding gene in Trichoderma reesei results in an increased level of protein secretion and abnormal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kruszewska, J S; Butterweck, A H; Kurzatkowski, W; Migdalski, A; Kubicek, C P; Palamarczyk, G

    1999-06-01

    Production of extracellular proteins plays an important role in the physiology of Trichoderma reesei and has potential industrial application. To improve the efficiency of protein secretion, we overexpressed in T. reesei the DPM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding mannosylphosphodolichol (MPD) synthase, under homologous, constitutively acting expression signals. Four stable transformants, each with different copy numbers of tandemly integrated DPM1, exhibited roughly double the activity of MPD synthase in the respective endoplasmic reticulum membrane fraction. On a dry-weight basis, they secreted up to sevenfold-higher concentrations of extracellular proteins during growth on lactose, a carbon source promoting formation of cellulases. Northern blot analysis showed that the relative level of the transcript of cbh1, which encodes the major cellulase (cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I]), did not increase in the transformants. On the other hand, the amount of secreted CBH I and, in all but one of the transformants, intracellular CBH I was elevated. Our results suggest that posttranscriptional processes are responsible for the increase in CBH I production. The carbohydrate contents of the extracellular proteins were comparable in the wild type and in the transformants, and no hyperglycosylation was detected. Electron microscopy of the DPM1-amplified strains revealed amorphous structure of the cell wall and over three times as many mitochondria as in the control. Our data indicate that molecular manipulation of glycan biosynthesis in Trichoderma can result in improved protein secretion.

  15. Mice deficient in Endothelin-Converting Enzyme-2 exhibit abnormal responses to morphine and altered peptide levels in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L.K.; Hou, X.; Rodriguiz, R.M.; Gagnidze, K.; Sweedler, J. V.; Wetsel, W.C.; Devi, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that Endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) is a non-classical neuropeptide processing enzyme. Similar to other neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits restricted neuroendocrine distribution, intracellular localization, and an acidic pH optimum. However, unlike classical neuropeptide processing enzymes, ECE-2 exhibits a non-classical cleavage site preference for aliphatic and aromatic residues. We previously reported that ECE-2 cleaves a number of neuropeptides at non-classical sites in vitro; however its role in peptide processing in vivo is poorly understood. Given the recognized roles of neuropeptides in pain and opiate responses, we hypothesized that ECE-2 knockout (KO) mice might show altered pain and morphine responses compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We find that ECE-2 KO mice show decreased response to a single injection of morphine in hot-plate and tail-flick tests. ECE-2 KO mice also show more rapid development of tolerance with prolonged morphine treatment and fewer signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Peptidomic analyses revealed changes in the levels of a number of spinal cord peptides in ECE-2 KO as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for ECE-2 in the non-classical processing of spinal cord peptides and morphine responses; however, the precise mechanisms through which ECE-2 influences morphine tolerance and withdrawal remain unclear. PMID:21972895

  16. NPC1 late endosomes contain elevated levels of non-esterified (‘free’) fatty acids and an abnormally glycosylated form of the NPC2 protein

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    NPC (Niemann–Pick type C) disease is a rare lipidosis characterized by the accumulation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-derived non-esterified cholesterol in the E/L (endosomal/lysosomal) system. The gene products that are responsible for the two NPC complementation groups are distinct and dissimilar, yet their cellular and disease phenotypes are virtually indistinguishable. To investigate the relationship between NPC1 and NPC2 and their potential role in NPC disease pathogenesis, we have developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of late endocytic vesicles from mouse liver by magnetic chromatography. Late endosomes from Wt (wild-type) and NPC1 mice were found to differ not only in their cholesterol and sphingomyelin content, as expected, but also in their non-esterified (‘free’) fatty acid content, with NPC1 vesicles showing an approx. 7-fold increase in non-esterified fatty acid levels compared with Wt vesicles. Furthermore, we show that the NPC2 protein is in an incompletely deglycosylated form in NPC1 late endosomes by a mechanism that is specific to the NPC2 protein and not a global aberration of protein glycosylation/deglycosylation or trafficking, since NPC2 secreted from NPC1 cells is indistinguishable from that secreted from Wt cells. Also, a greater proportion of the normally soluble cellular NPC2 protein partitions with detergent-insoluble late endosomal internal membrane domains in NPC1 vesicles. In addition, we show that, although a small amount of the NPC2 protein associates with these membranes in Wt vesicles, this localization becomes much more pronounced in NPC1 vesicles. These results suggest that the function of the NPC2 protein may be compromised as well in NPC1 endosomes, which might explain the paradoxical phenotypic similarities of the two NPC disease complementation groups. PMID:15896196

  17. Metabolism of radio-iodinated IgG in patients with abnormal serum IgG levels. I. Hypergamma-globulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. V.; Fudenberg, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    Metabolic turnover studies were performed with radio-iodinated IgG in twelve patients with a serum IgG level greater than 1600 mg/100 ml (six with monoclonal gammopathy and six with a polyclonal increase in IgG associated with liver disease). The six patients with an IgG monoclonal protein comprised four multiple myeloma, one benign monoclonal gammopathy and one biclonal gammopathy presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. The six patients with liver disease comprised two patients with cirrhosis, two with infective hepatitis and two with chronic active hepatitis. The injected IgG was either autologous normal IgG (five cases), autologous monoclonal IgG (five cases), homologous normal IgG (one case) or therapeutic intravenous HGG (two cases). The plasma volume was increased in six patients; the plasma IgG pool in nine; and the total body IgG pool in seven. The plasma T½ was normal in one patient with monoclonal and one patient with polyclonal gammopathy but shortened in the other ten studies with mean values of 11·3 and 11·0 days in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy respectively. The fractional turnover rate was normal in two studies in polyclonal gammopathy and increased in the other ten with mean values of 13·6% per day in both groups of patients. The IgG synthesis rate was significantly increased in all studies except for a reduced synthesis of normal IgG in one patient with multiple myeloma. The mean synthesis rates in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy were respectively 6·7 and 4·1 times the mean synthesis rate in normal controls. The pattern of increased synthesis and increased catabolism in such patients confirms published reports in some diseases and demonstrates a similar pattern in chronic active hepatitis. The findings are consistent with the `concentration-catabolism' effect. PMID:5003444

  18. Impact of TLR5 rs5744174 on stroke risk, gene expression and on inflammatory cytokines, and lipid levels in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lian; Huang, Jingyan; Tan, Jinjing; Wei, Qiugui; Jiang, Haiyun; Shen, Tingting; Liang, Baoyun; Tang, Nong

    2016-09-01

    Many studies reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) played an important role in the process of ischemic stroke (IS). However, the impact of TLR5 rs5744174 on stroke risk, gene expression and on inflammatory cytokines, and lipid levels in ischemic stroke patients has not yet been reported and was therefore the subject of this study. In this case-control study, a total of 816 ischemic stroke patients and 816 healthy controls were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray technology. The mRNA expression of TLR5 was detected through quantitative real-time PCR among 52 ischemic stroke patients. The levels of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were measured by ELISA among 62 IS patients. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined among 816 IS patients using a Hitachi 7600 Automatic Biochemistry Analyzer. Our result showed TLR5 rs5744174 polymorphism was not associated with stroke risk, TLR5 mRNA expression and inflammatory cytokines of IS patients (P > 0.050), but was significantly associated with HDL-C (recessive model: β = - 0.14, 95 % CI: -0.24 to -0.03, P = 0.009). TLR5 rs5744174 polymorphism may have no impact on the stroke risk, gene expression and inflammatory cytokines, but may influence the HDL-C serum level of IS patients in Chinese Han population.

  19. Effects of protein level, methionine supplementation and carbohydrate type of the diet on liver lipid and plasma free threonine contents in the lactating rat.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J; Chanussot, B; Miller, M L; Poisson, J P; Belleville, J

    1989-01-01

    Eight groups of 13-15 female rats were fed purified diets after littering. Four groups received a low protein (8% casein) diet (groups 8) and the others, a normal protein (20% casein) diet (groups 20). Carbohydrates were supplied either as starch (groups S) or as starch plus 40% fructose (groups F). Half the animals received a 0.4% methionine supplementation (groups M). Four or five dams per group were sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 14 after littering. The diet intake was increased by methionine supplementation, substitution of starch for fructose and increased protein content, mainly during the second week of lactation. This influenced weight variation of the dams and litter growth. On all days, the plasma levels of cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids were positively correlated with the dietary protein level. On days 7 and 14, the liver neutral lipid content was increased in rats fed the low protein diets supplemented with methionine (groups 8SM and 8FM) and the normal protein diets containing 40% fructose (groups 20F and 20FM). The plasma free threonine content was positively correlated with the protein level in the diet. On day 14, rats fed a low protein diet had a threonine deficiency, except those in groups 8S and 8F. The plasma free threonine content of these rats was not reduced, possibly due to an impaired utilization of this amino acid. The liver lipidosis observed during lactation, in contrast to that observed during growth with a low protein diet, was not due to a threonine deficiency.

  20. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  1. Association between the MLX Interacting Protein-Like, BUD13 Homolog and Zinc Finger Protein 259 Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Lynn-Htet-Htet; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the association between the MLX interacting protein-like (MLXIPL), BUD13 homolog (BUD13) and zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid levels in the Chinese Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of 9 SNPs was performed in 825 Mulao and 781 Han participants. The genotype and allele frequencies of ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184, and BUD13 rs10790162 SNPs were different between the Mulao and Han populations (P < 0.001). The SNPs of ZNF259 rs2075290 and BUD13 rs10790162 were associated with serum total cholesterol levels; ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184, BUD13 rs10790162, and MLXIPL rs3812316 and rs13235543 were associated with triglyceride (TG); and MLXIPL rs35332062 was associated with apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in the Mulaos (P < 0.006–0.001). However, in the Hans, the SNPs of ZNF259 rs2075290 and BUD13 rs10790162 were associated with serum TG levels; ZNF259 rs2075290 was associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio (P < 0.006–0.001). Significant linkage disequilibria were noted among ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184 and BUD13 rs10790162, and between MLXIPL rs3812316 and rs13235543 (r2 > 0.05, P < 0.001). The haplotypes of A-C-G-A-C (rs2075290A-rs964184C-rs10790162G-rs17119975A-rs11556024C) and C-C-C-C (rs799161C-rs35332062C-rs3812316C-rs13235543C) accounted for over half of the % haplotype of each ethnic group. PMID:24989072

  2. Lipid profiles in brains from sheep with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Incani, Alessandra; Pilla, Federica; Maestrale, Caterina; Manca, Matteo; Ligios, Ciriaco; Pani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study we investigated levels of total lipids and cholesterol as well as profiles of fatty acids in brain homogenates from symptomatic and asymptomatic scrapie-infected sheep vs. healthy sheep, all belonging to the same flock. Lipid extracts were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Data of fatty acids were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis to give a picture of the brain lipid profiles of sheep. Interestingly, results revealed abnormalities in the brain fatty acid unsaturation of infected/symptomatic animals. Significant reduction of monoene 18:1 n-9 was detected in brain lipids from infected/symptomatic sheep, as compared to healthy and infected/asymptomatic animals, and this alteration occurred in combination with a significant increase in 18:0 level. The unsupervised Principal Component Analysis showed that infected/symptomatic and healthy sheep samples lie in two different regions of the plot, infected/asymptomatic lie mostly next to healthy. The increase of cerebral saturated fatty acids provides a rough indication of presumed alterations in lipid raft domains of nervous cells during scrapie, suggesting that they may exist in a notable viscous liquid-ordered state. Such physicochemical alteration would have a profound impact on the raft thermodynamic properties, its spatial organization, and signal transduction, all potentially relevant for prion generation.

  3. Case study on the pathophysiology of Fabry Disease: Abnormalities of cellular membranes can be reversed by substrate reduction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brogden, Graham; Shammas, Hadeel; Maalouf, Katia; Naim, Samara L; Wetzel, Gabi; Amiri, Mahdi; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Das, Anibh M; Naim, Hassan Y

    2017-03-28

    It is still not entirely clear how a-galactosidase (GAA) deficiency translates into clinical symptoms of Fabry disease (FD). The current communication investigates the effects of the mutation N215S in FD on the trafficking and processing of lysosomal GAA and their potential association with alterations in the membrane lipid composition. Abnormalities in lipid rafts were observed in fibroblasts isolated from a male patient with Fabry disease bearing the mutation N215S. Interestingly, lipid raft analysis revealed that the distribution of cholesterol and flotillin-2 are distinctly altered in the Fabry fibroblasts when compared to that of wild type cells. Furthermore, increased levels of glycolipid Gb3 (globotriaosylceramide 3) and sphingomyelin were observed in non-raft membrane fractions of Fabry cells. Substrate reduction with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin in vitro was capable of reversing these abnormalities in this patient. These data lead to the hypothesis that alterations of lipid rafts may contribute to the pathophysiology of Morbus Fabry. Furthermore, it may be suggested that substrate reduction therapy with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin might be a promising approach for the treatment of GAA-deficiency at least for selected patients.

  4. [Special recommendations for lipid-lowering treatment: efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Tania Leme da Rocha; Nascimento, Helena Maria do

    2005-10-01

    Pharmacologic lipid-lowering interventions should be monitored periodically to assess efficacy and safety parameters. Statins are usually well-tolerated drugs and major side effects include increased serum liver and muscle enzymes (AST, ALT, CK). Treatment should be stopped or diminished in case of significant increase of AST or ALT (> 3x ULN), or CK (> 10x ULN). Other lipid lowering agents may also produce hepatotoxicity or myositis, especially in association with statins (fibrates and nicotinic acid) or in presence of metabolic abnormalities (thyroid, liver or renal disorders). Nicotinic acid can also increase glucose and uric acid plasma levels. Laboratory tests might be performed prior to hypolipidemic drug treatment and should be repeated every three months during the first year and then at 6-mo intervals. Shorter intervals should be recommended in individual cases.

  5. Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Ruan, Xiong Zhong; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is a negative feedback system that plays important roles in the regulation of plasma and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. To maintain a cholesterol homeostasis, LDLR expression is tightly regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in transcriptional level and by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in posttranscriptional level. The dysregulation of LDLR expression results in abnormal lipid accumulation in cells and tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle cells, hepatic cells, renal mesangial cells, renal tubular cells and podocytes. It has been demonstrated that inflammation, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and hyperglycemia induce the disruption of LDLR pathway, which might contribute to lipid disorder-mediated organ injury (atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, kidney fibrosis, etc). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical mediator in the disruption of LDLR pathway caused by pathogenic factors. The mTOR complex1 activation upregulates LDLR expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, consequently resulting in lipid deposition. This paper mainly reviews the mechanisms for the dysregulation of LDLR pathway and its roles in lipid disorder-mediated organ injury under various pathogenic conditions. Understanding these mechanisms leading to the abnormality of LDLR expression contributes to find potential new drug targets in lipid disorder-mediated diseases. PMID:27019638

  6. Modifications in Lipid Levels Are Independent of Serum TNF-α in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of an Observational 24-Week Cohort Study Comparing Patients Receiving Etanercept Plus Methotrexate or Methotrexate as Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Garcia-Gonzalez, Carlos E.; Ayala-Lopez, Karina Patricia; Trujillo-Hernandez, Benjamin; Aguilar-Chavez, Erika Anita; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Vasquez-Jimenez, Jose Clemente; Olivas-Flores, Eva; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Varon-Villalpando, Evangelina; Cota-Sanchez, Adolfo; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare the modifications in lipids between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving etanercept plus methotrexate (ETA + MTX) versus methotrexate (MTX) and their relationship with serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Methods. In an observational cohort study, we compared changes in lipid levels in patients receiving ETA + MTX versus MTX in RA. These groups were assessed at baseline and at 4 and 24 weeks, measuring clinical outcomes, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TNF-α. Results. Baseline values for lipid levels were similar in both groups. HDL-C levels increased significantly only in the ETA + MTX group (from 45.5 to 50.0 mg/dL at 4 weeks, a 10.2% increase, P < 0.001, and to 56.0 mg/dL at 24 weeks, a 25.1% increase, P < 0.001), while other lipids underwent no significant changes. ETA + MTX also exhibited a significant increase in TNF-α (44.8 pg/mL at baseline versus 281.4 pg/mL at 24 weeks, P < 0.001). The MTX group had no significant changes in lipids or TNF-α. Significant differences in HDL-C between groups were observed at 24 weeks (P = 0.04) and also in TNF-α  (P = 0.01). Conclusion. HDL-C levels increased significantly following treatment with ETA + MTX, without a relationship with decrease of TNF-α. PMID:25243145

  7. Cognitive Function and Brain Structure in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Intensive Lowering of Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeff D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Bryan, R. Nick; Coker, Laura H.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Murray, Anne M.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L.; Davatzikos, Christos; Barzilay, Joshua; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Linz, Peter E.; Miller, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for decline in cognitive function, reduced brain volume, and increased white matter lesions in the brain. Poor control of blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels are risk factors for T2DM-related cognitive decline, but the effect of intensive treatment on brain function and structure is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intensive therapy for hypertension and combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate reduces the risk of decline in cognitive function and total brain volume (TBV) in patients with T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A North American multicenter clinical trial including 2977 participants without baseline clinical evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 7.5% randomized to a systolic BP goal of less than 120 vs less than 140 mm Hg (n = 1439) or to a fibrate vs placebo in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dL (n = 1538). Participants were recruited from August 1, 2003, through October 31, 2005, with the final follow-up visit by June 30, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cognition was assessed at baseline and 20 and 40 months. A subset of 503 participants underwent baseline and 40-month brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess for change in TBV and other structural measures of brain health. RESULTS Baseline mean HbA1c level was 8.3%; mean age, 62 years; and mean duration of T2DM, 10 years. At 40 months, no differences in cognitive function were found in the intensive BP-lowering trial or in the fibrate trial. At 40 months, TBV had declined more in the intensive vs standard BP-lowering group (difference, −4.4 [95% CI, −7.8 to −1.1] cm3; P = .01). Fibrate therapy had no effect on TBV compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In participants with long-standing T2DM and at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive BP control and fibrate therapy in the presence of

  8. Comparative study on the influence of fluoride on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in the different brain regions of well-fed and protein undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Shallie, Philemon D; Salau, Bamidele A; Ajani, Emmanuel O; Adenuga, Gbenga A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of fluoride on the levels of Lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidant enzymes in the brain regions of protein undernourished (PU) and well-fed rats (WF) rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water were investigated. The results indicate that the mean body weights and the total brain weights of PU rats as well as those given fluoride (both WF and PU) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than their respective controls. The weights of different brain regions were also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in PU rats compared to WF rats except in the brain stem. Fluoride ingestion diminished the weights of WF and PU rats affecting the cerebrum only (in the case of PU rats) and the cerebellum of both WF and PU rats without an effect on the brain stem of both WF and PU. Additionally, increased LP was observed in the cerebrum and cerebellum of PU rats but after fluoride ingestion, 30% increase in LP was observed only in the cerebrum. In the brain stem however, protein undernutrition was accompanied with a significant reduction in LP but the region seems insensitive to fluoride. There were significant reductions (P < 0.05) in CAT, SOD and GSH in all the brain regions (except the GSH level in the brain stem only) of PU rats. Fluoride induced reduction in the activity of CAT in the three brain regions and on SOD activity in cerebrum only for WF rats but no effect of fluoride on all the antioxidants studied in the three brain regions for PU rats. It is concluded that WF and PU rats responded differently to fluoride toxicity. However, it seems that at the dosage used, fluoride toxicity may be a direct effect on the antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Lipid Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  10. Interactive effects of dietary lipids and vitamin E level on performance, blood eicosanoids, and response to mitogen stimulation in broiler chickens of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Konieczka, P.; Barszcz, M.; Chmielewska, N.; Cieślak, M.; Szlis, M.; Smulikowska, S.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-6:n-3 ratio and vitamin E (vE) on the levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) into immune tissues, and changes in leukocyte population after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) challenge were investigated in broiler chickens of different ages. One-day-old female broilers (48 per treatment) were fed 4 different wheat-soybean-corn-based diets containing corn oil with a high PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (HR) or a mixture of linseed and fish oils with a low PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (LR). Diets contained either 50 mg vE kg−1 of diet (basal vE) or 300 mg vE kg−1 of diet (increased vE). At d 14 and d 34, 8 chickens per treatment were challenged with PHA, and wing web swelling (WWS) was measured. The blood concentration of leukotriene (LTB4), prostaglandin (PGE2), and thromboxane (TBX2) in 17-day-old and 43-day-old chickens was determined. The pattern of AA and DHA incorporation into bursa, spleen, and brain lipids reflected the level of their precursors in the diet. WWS was the highest in chickens fed a LR diet and in 14-day-old chickens (P < 0.01). Leukocyte proportions varied with dietary PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio and with age. The heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was the highest at 6 h post PHA challenge, and was higher in 34-day-old chickens (P < 0.001). TBX2 and PGE2 concentrations were higher in chickens fed HR diet, whereas TBX2 and LTB4 concentrations were lower at high vE level. Lower PGE2 and LTB4, but higher TBX2 concentrations were measured in younger birds (P < 0.001). The results indicated that LR increased the phagocytic cell proportion in the blood; HR promoted the incorporation of AA into the immune tissues, which increased the levels of more pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the blood; and vE counteracts these effects to some extent. Owing to the immaturity of the immune system, dietary interventions might be promising at the early stage of chicken

  11. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically) popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts). Today, a PubMed search using the key word “lipid rafts” returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, “ceramide” returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews), and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as “lipid raft-dependent.” However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells has been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasizes multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompass their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes. PMID:21423393

  12. Lipoprotein abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Humphries, Tania; Bottenberg, B; Kuntz, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in men and women in the United States. Aggressive treatment of insulin resistance and its associated lipid abnormalities remains a top priority for preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  14. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  15. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  16. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry imaging reveals molecular level changes in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene joint implants in correlation with lipid adsorption.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Sophie M; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2014-10-07

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW), a material with high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties, is among the most commonly used materials for acetabular cup replacement in artificial joint systems. It is assumed that the interaction with synovial fluid in the biocompartment leads to significant changes relevant to material failure. In addition to hyaluronic acid, lipids are particularly relevant for lubrication in an articulating process. This study investigates synovial lipid adsorption on two different PE-UHMW materials (GUR-1050 and vitamin E-doped) in an in vitro model system by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Lipids were identified by high performance thin layer chromatography (HP-TLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis, with an analytical focus on phospholipids and cholesterol, both being species of high importance for lubrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was applied in the study to correlate molecular information with PE-UHMW material qualities. It is demonstrated that lipid adsorption preferentially occurs in rough or oxidized polymer regions. Polymer modifications were colocalized with adsorbed lipids and found with high density in regions identified by SEM. Explanted, the in vivo polymer material showed comparable and even more obvious polymer damage and lipid adsorption when compared with the static in vitro model. A three-dimensional reconstruction of MSI data from consecutive PE-UHMW slices reveals detailed information about the diffusion process of lipids in the acetabular cup and provides, for the first time, a promising starting point for future studies correlating molecular information with commonly used techniques for material analysis (e.g., Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation).

  17. Effect of different dietary levels of mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves and spice supplementation on productive performance, egg quality, lipid metabolism and metabolic profiles in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Harthi, M A; El-Deek, A A; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F; Qota, E M

    2009-11-01

    In order to study the influence of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) leaves on productive performance, egg quality, lipids metabolism and metabolic profiles, 180 Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to 6 dietary treatments each contained 6 replicates of 5 individually caged hens during the period from 50 to 60 weeks of age. 2. Three isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 0, 50 and 100 g/kg of sun-dried mangrove leaves. Each diet was fed with or without supplementation of 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet. 3. Mangrove leaves at either 50 or 100 g/kg adversely affect laying rate, egg mass and FCR, whilst increasing water intake and water to feed ratio. Mangrove leaves had no significant effect on dry matter, protein, lipid, cholesterol and ash content of liver, or on dry matter, protein and ash of yolk. 4. Plasma total protein, total lipids; liver enzymes AST and ALT and mortality rate were not significantly affected by mangrove leaves. On the other hand, yolk lipid, yolk cholesterol and plasma cholesterol significantly decreased, while yolk colour significantly increased with inclusion of 50 or 100 g/kg mangrove leaves, and Haugh unit score significantly increased with 100 g/kg mangrove leaves. 5. Spice mixture significantly increased egg weight by 2.2%. Yolk lipid content significantly decreased by 2.6%, while yolk colour and Haugh unit significantly increased with inclusion of spice mixtures. 6. In conclusion, mangrove leaves at 50 g/kg may be included in the laying hen diets as a means of decreasing lipid and cholesterol in yolk and plasma cholesterol and increasing yolk colour. Spice mixture at 2 g of cardamom, cumin, hot and black pepper mixture (1:1:1:1)/kg diet increased laying rate, egg mass, Haugh unit score and yolk colour while decreasing yolk lipids.

  18. Alteration of Lipid Parameters in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; War, Fayaz Ahmad; Shah, Sonaullah; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Kumar Kotwal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population. Patients and Methods: Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Results: Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level. Conclusions: High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH. PMID:25237326

  19. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH. PMID:27683603

  20. Impact of gene variants on sex-specific regulation of human Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) expression in liver and association with lipid levels in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have noted that genetic variants of SCARB1, a lipoprotein receptor involved in reverse cholesterol transport, are associated with serum lipid levels in a sex-dependent fashion. However, the mechanism underlying this gene by sex interaction has not been explored. Methods We utilized both epidemiological and molecular methods to study how estrogen and gene variants interact to influence SCARB1 expression and lipid levels. Interaction between 35 SCARB1 haplotype-tagged polymorphisms and endogenous estradiol levels was assessed in 498 postmenopausal Caucasian women from the population-based Rancho Bernardo Study. We further examined associated variants with overall and SCARB1 splice variant (SR-BI and SR-BII) expression in 91 human liver tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Several variants on a haplotype block spanning intron 11 to intron 12 of SCARB1 showed significant gene by estradiol interaction affecting serum lipid levels, the strongest for rs838895 with HDL-cholesterol (p = 9.2 × 10-4) and triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10-3) and the triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio (p = 2.7 × 10-4). These same variants were associated with expression of the SR-BI isoform in a sex-specific fashion, with the strongest association found among liver tissue from 52 young women <45 years old (p = 0.002). Conclusions Estrogen and SCARB1 genotype may act synergistically to regulate expression of SCARB1 isoforms and impact serum levels of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This work highlights the importance of considering sex-dependent effects of gene variants on serum lipid levels. PMID:20085651

  1. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  2. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y.-T.; Li, W.-F.; Chen, C.-J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Chen, Wei J.; Zhang Zhuming; Sun, C.-W.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure > 14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water > 21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  3. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  4. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  5. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  6. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  7. A quantitative review of the postmortem evidence for decreased cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression levels in schizophrenia: How can we link molecular abnormalities to mismatch negativity deficits?

    PubMed

    Catts, Vibeke S; Lai, Yan Ling; Weickert, Cyndi Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W; Catts, Stanley V

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that anomalous mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia is related to glutamatergic abnormalities, possibly involving N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Decreased cortical expressions of NMDA receptor subunits have been observed in schizophrenia, though not consistently. To aid with integration and interpretation of previous work, we performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes of mRNA or protein levels of the obligatory NR1 subunit in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia. In schizophrenia compared to unaffected controls the pooled effect size was -0.64 (95% confidence interval: -1.08 to -0.20) for NR1 mRNA reduction and -0.44 (95% confidence interval: -0.80 to -0.07) for NR1 protein reduction. These results represent the first step to a deeper understanding of the region-specific, cell-specific, and stage-specific NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia, which could be linked to mismatch negativity deficits via transgenic and pharmacological animal models.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of a combined lipid-lowering nutraceutical on cholesterolemia, hs-CRP level and endothelial function in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F; Colletti, A; Rosticci, M; Grandi, E; Borghi, C

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to test, by a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, whether a short-term treatment with a combined lipid-lowering nutraceutical could improve endothelial function in a cohort of moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Thus, 80 healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects were consecutively enrolled and, after 4 weeks of stabilization diet, they were randomized to either the tested lipid-lowering nutraceutical or placebo for 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of treatment a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP and endothelial function were measured. When compared to placebo, during nutraceutical treatment patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in total cholesterol (TC vs baseline: -17.9%; TC vs placebo: -5.6%), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C vs baseline: -23.3%; LDL-C vs placebo: -2.8%), hs-CRP (hs-CRP vs baseline: -2.4%; hs-CRP vs placebo: -1.5%), and endothelial function (pulse volume displacement vs baseline: +17%; pulse volume displacement vs placebo treatment: -3.3%). No significant difference was observed in respect to effects on triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, the tested lipid-lowering nutraceutical seems to significantly improve endothelial function in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results have to be confirmed on larger patient samples and over longer periods.

  9. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  10. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  11. Lipid Microdomains in Cell Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cascianelli, Giacomo; Villani, Maristella; Tosti, Marcello; Marini, Francesca; Bartoccini, Elisa; Viola Magni, Mariapia

    2008-01-01

    It is known that nuclear lipids play a role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic process. Cellular nuclei contain high levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, which are partially linked with cholesterol and proteins to form lipid–protein complexes. These lipids are also associated with transcription factors and newly synthesized RNA but, up to date, their organization is still unknown. The aim of the present work was to study if these specific lipid–protein interactions could be nuclear membrane microdomains and to evaluate their possible role. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the existence of nuclear microdomains characterized by a specific lipid composition similar to that of intranuclear lipid–protein complexes previously described. Nuclear microdomain lipid composition changes during cell proliferation when the content of newly synthesized RNA increases. Because previous data show a correlation between nuclear lipids and transcription process, the role of nuclear microdomains in cellular functions is discussed. PMID:18923143

  12. Lipid Informed Quantitation and Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crowell, PNNL

    2014-07-21

    LIQUID (Lipid Informed Quantitation and Identification) is a software program that has been developed to enable users to conduct both informed and high-throughput global liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based lipidomics analysis. This newly designed desktop application can quickly identify and quantify lipids from LC-MS/MS datasets while providing a friendly graphical user interface for users to fully explore the data. Informed data analysis simply involves the user specifying an electrospray ionization mode, lipid common name (i.e. PE(16:0/18:2)), and associated charge carrier. A stemplot of the isotopic profile and a line plot of the extracted ion chromatogram are also provided to show the MS-level evidence of the identified lipid. In addition to plots, other information such as intensity, mass measurement error, and elution time are also provided. Typically, a global analysis for 15,000 lipid targets

  13. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  14. The Lipids of Pneumocystis carinii

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    1998-01-01

    Information about a number of Pneumocystis carinii lipids obtained by the analyses of organisms isolated and purified from infected lungs of corticosteroid-immunosuppressed rats has been reported in recent years. Of the common opportunistic protists associated with AIDS (Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and the microsporidia), more is currently known about the lipids of P. carinii than the others. Lipids that are synthesized by the organism but not by humans are attractive targets for drug development. Thus, the elucidation of Δ7C-24-alykylated sterol and cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid biosyntheses in P. carinii is currently being examined in detail, since these have been identified as P. carinii-specific lipids. The development of low-toxicity drugs that prevent sterol C-24 alkylation and the specific inhibition of the lipoxygenase that forms cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid might prove fruitful. Although humans can synthesize coenzyme Q10, the anti-P. carinii activity and low toxicity of ubiquinone analogs such as atovaquone suggest that the electron transport chain in the pathogen may differ importantly from that in the host. Although resistance to atovaquone has been observed, development of other naphthoquinone drugs would provide a broader armamentarium of drugs to treat patients with P. carinii pneumonia. Studies of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and of infected lungs have demonstrated that the infection causes a number of chemical abnormalities. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained after the removal of lung cellular material and the organisms has been shown to contain larger amounts of surfactant proteins and smaller amounts of phospholipids than do comparable samples from P. carinii-free lungs. Increased phospholipase activity, inhibition of surfactant secretion by type II cells, and uptake and catabolism of lipids by the pathogen may explain this phenomenon related to P. carinii pneumonia. Although not yet thoroughly examined, initial studies on the uptake and

  15. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Ya-Min; Shen, Ji-Duo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Pei, Yang-Yi; Fang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-13

    Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  16. Effects of insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation on hepatic mRNA expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Nobito; Kato, Masaki; Tanaka, Masatake; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Takao, Shinichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Enjoji, Munechika; Nakamuta, Makoto; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2011-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, which is known to be associated with insulin resistance (IR). NAFLD occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and excretion as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). To estimate the effects of IR on hepatic lipid excretion, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in VLDL assembly were analyzed in NAFLD liver. Twenty-two histologically proven NAFLD patients and 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. mRNA was extracted from liver biopsy samples and real-time PCR was performed to quantify the expression levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and liver fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP). Hepatic expression levels of the genes were compared between NAFLD patients and control subjects. In NAFLD patients, we also examined correlations between expression levels of the genes and metabolic factors, including IR, and the extent of obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation. Hepatic expression levels of apoB, MTP and L-FABP were significantly up-regulated in NAFLD patients compared to control subjects. The expression levels of MTP were correlated with those of apoB, but not with those of L-FABP. In the NAFLD liver, the expression levels of MTP were significantly reduced in patients with HOMA-IR >2.5. In addition, a significant reduction in MTP expression was observed in livers with advanced steatosis. Enhanced expression of genes involved in VLDL assembly may be promoted to release excess lipid from NAFLD livers. However, the progression of IR and hepatic steatosis may attenuate this compensatory process.

  17. New insights of altered lipid profile in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seidah, Nabil G.; Lortie, Audrey; Gagné, Nancy; Perron, Patrice; Dubé, Jean; Corbin, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency resulting the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Clinical picture is characterized by cognitive impairment associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric comorbidities including autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with lipid abnormalities and lower cholesterol levels. Since lipids are important for neuronal development, we aim to investigate the lipid profile of French Canadian-FXS individuals and to identify the altered components of cholesterol metabolism as well as their association with clinical profile. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from 25 FXS individuals and 26 controls. Lipid assessment included: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, LDL, HDL, ApoB, ApoA1, PCSK9, Lp(a) and lipoprotein electrophoresis. Aberrant and adaptive behaviour of affected individuals was respectively assessed by the ABC-C and ABAS questionnaires. Results FXS participants had a higher body mass index as compared to controls while 38% of them had TC<10th percentile. Lower levels of LDL, HDL and apoA1 were observed in FXS group as compared to controls. However, PCSK9 levels did not differ between the two groups. As expected, PCSK9 levels correlated with total cholesterol (rs = 0.61, p = 0.001) and LDL (rs = 0.46, p = 0.014) in the control group, while no association was present in the FXS group. An inverse relationship was observed between total cholesterol and aberrant behaviour as determined by ABC-C total score. Conclusion Our results showed the presence of hypocholesterolemia in French Canadian-FXS population, a condition that seems to influence their clinical phenotype. We identified for the first time a potential underlying alteration of PCSK9 function in FXS that could result from the absence of FMRP. Further investigations are warranted to better understand the

  18. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  20. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Anderson's disease (chylomicron retention disease): a new mutation in the SARA2 gene associated with muscular and cardiac abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Silvain, M; Bligny, D; Aparicio, T; Laforêt, P; Grodet, A; Peretti, N; Ménard, D; Djouadi, F; Jardel, C; Bégué, J M; Walker, F; Schmitz, J; Lachaux, A; Aggerbeck, L P; Samson-Bouma, M E

    2008-12-01

    Anderson's disease (AD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a rare hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome linked to SARA2 gene mutations. We report in this study a novel mutation in two sisters for which the Sar1b protein is predicted to be truncated by 32 amino acids at its carboxyl-terminus. Because the SARA2 gene is also expressed in the muscle, heart, liver and placenta, extraintestinal clinical manifestations may exist. For the first time, we describe in this study in the two sisters muscular as well as cardiac abnormalities that could be related to the reported expression of SARA2 in these tissues. We also evaluated six other patients for potential manifestations of the SARA2 mutation. The creatine phosphokinase levels were increased in all patients [1.5-9.4 x normal (N)] and transaminases were moderately elevated in five of the eight patients (1.2-2.6 x N), probably related to muscle disease rather than to liver dysfunction. A decreased ejection fraction occurred in one patient (40%, N: 60%). The muscle, liver and placental tissues that were examined had no specific abnormalities and, in particular, no lipid accumulation. These results suggest that myolysis and other extraintestinal abnormalities can occur in AD/CMRD and that the clinical evaluation of patients should reflect this.

  2. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  3. Lipid Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    Nonviral vectors which offer a safer and versatile alternative to viral vectors have been developed to overcome problems caused by viral carriers. However, their transfection efficacy or level of expression is substantially lower than viral vectors. Among various nonviral gene vectors, lipid nanoparticles are an ideal platform for the incorporation of safety and efficacy into a single delivery system. In this chapter, we highlight current lipidic vectors that have been developed for gene therapy of tumors and other diseases. The pharmacokinetic, toxic behaviors and clinic trials of some successful lipids particles are also presented. PMID:25409602

  4. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-03-20

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production.

  5. Glycoprotein (90 kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO lowers plasma lipid level through scavenging of intracellular radicals in Triton WR-1339-induced mice.