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Sample records for abnormal lipid levels

  1. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a

  2. Impact of body mass index levels on lipid abnormalities in Chinese Asians, American Blacks and American Whites: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    Background Several researchers have reported that Chinese adults may have a greater chronic disease burden than Whites, especially at lower body mass index (BMI) levels. Objectives To compare the incidence of lipid abnormalities in Chinese (n=5,303), White (n=10,752) and Black (n=3,408) middle-aged adults and the effect of BMI on these incidences. Methods Data were from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies. In each ethnic group, we calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence for high total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), and triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL) and low HDL-cholesterol (≤40 in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women) adjusted for age, gender, education, field site, smoking and drinking status. Risk differences associated with BMI (referent=18.5–22.9 kg/m2) were calculated using weighted linear regression and slopes compared using the Wald test. Results Chinese had lower incidence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Whites in most BMI groups and had lower incidence of abnormal HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Blacks. Across the range of 18.5 to <30, BMI was more strongly associated with the incidence of having high total cholesterol in Chinese and Whites than in Blacks. Similar trends were seen for LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but were not always statistically significant. In contrast, BMI was more highly associated with incidence of low HDL-cholesterol in Whites than in Chinese or Blacks. Conclusion Although differences in the incidence of lipid abnormalities and the impact of BMI were identified, results varied by lipid type indicating no consistent ethnic/national pattern. PMID:21802083

  3. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  4. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  5. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  6. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  7. Lipid abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A

    2003-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is the constellation of adverse metabolic and clinical effects of insulin resistance. Its high and increasing prevalence and its profound impact on the major diseases of the western world require that clinicians consider its diagnosis and management on a routine basis. Recently published guidelines on its definition now make convenient and reliable diagnosis possible. Also, there is new and better understanding of the complex dyslipidemias and other risk factors strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, which greatly increase the risk of clinical atherosclerotic events. Comprehensive clinical evaluation of these dyslipidemias and associated atherosclerosis risk factors can lead to their aggressive treatment, customized according to the circumstances of each patient. These steps are now more feasible and more clearly desirable than ever before. Statins alone greatly reduce atherosclerosis risk, but combination lipid therapy is often required for optimal dyslipidemia management and atheroprevention. PMID:12643148

  8. Lipid abnormalities in kidney disease and management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vishwam; Rao, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with kidney diseases continue to experience significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Although there are many important risk factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein and low/dysfunctional low high-density) represents one of the modifiable risk factors. Renal failure patients have unique lipid abnormalities which not only have complex role in pathogenesis of CVD but also cause relative resistance to usual interventions. Most of the randomized trials have been in hemodialysis population and data from CKD non-dialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant populations is extremely limited. Compared to general population, evidence of mortality benefit of lipid lowering medications in CKD population is scarce. Future research should be directed towards establishing long term benefits and side effects of lipid lowering medications, through randomized trials, in CKD population. PMID:25664249

  9. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism.

  10. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  11. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  12. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  13. Pathogenesis of permeability barrier abnormalities in the ichthyoses: inherited disorders of lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Holleran, Walter M.; Jiang, Yan J.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many of the ichthyoses are associated with inherited disorders of lipid metabolism. These disorders have provided unique models to dissect physiologic processes in normal epidermis and the pathophysiology of more common scaling conditions. In most of these disorders, a permeability barrier abnormality “drives” pathophysiology through stimulation of epidermal hyperplasia. Among primary abnormalities of nonpolar lipid metabolism, triglyceride accumulation in neutral lipid storage disease as a result of a lipase mutation provokes a barrier abnormality via lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation within the extracellular matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). Similar mechanisms account for the barrier abnormalities (and subsequent ichthyosis) in inherited disorders of polar lipid metabolism. For example, in recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI), cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) accumulation also produces a permeability barrier defect through lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation. However, in RXLI, the desquamation abnormality is in part attributable to the plurifunctional roles of CSO4 as a regulator of both epidermal differentiation and corneodesmosome degradation. Phase separation also occurs in type II Gaucher disease (GD; from accumulation of glucosylceramides as a result of to β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency). Finally, failure to assemble both lipids and desquamatory enzymes into nascent epidermal lamellar bodies (LBs) accounts for both the permeability barrier and desquamation abnormalities in Harlequin ichthyosis (HI). The barrier abnormality provokes the clinical phenotype in these disorders not only by stimulating epidermal proliferation, but also by inducing inflammation. PMID:18245815

  14. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  15. α-Synuclein dimerization in erythrocytes of Gaucher disease patients: correlation with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Moraitou, Marina; Dermentzaki, Georgia; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Monopolis, Ioannis; Dekker, Nick; Aerts, Hans; Stefanis, Leonidas; Michelakakis, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Several observations suggest that disturbed homeostasis of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) may provide a link between Gaucher disease (GD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported increased dimerization of α-Syn in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane of patients with GD. Several studies indicate a crucial relationship between lipids, oxidative stress and α-Syn status. Here we investigated the relationship between the observed increased dimerization of α-Syn in the cell membranes of RBCs, cells devoid of lysosomes and lacking lysosomal enzyme synthesis, and the lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress already described in GD. Correlation studies showed that in GD the α-Syn dimer/monomer ratio is positively correlated with the levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and the glucosylceramide/ceramide (GlcCer/Cer) ratio and negatively with the levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and plasmalogens. In conclusion, we have shown that the increased tendency of α-Syn to form dimers in the RBC membrane of patients with GD, is correlated with both the level of lipids, including GlcCer, the primary lipid abnormality in GD, and the increased oxidative stress observed in this disorder. The study of other tissues, and in particular brain, will be important in order to elucidate the significance of these findings regarding the link between GD and PD. PMID:26708635

  16. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  17. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  18. Haplotype analysis of Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and lipids level: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, Maryam S; Faam, Bita; Mansournia, Mohamad Ali; Hedayati, Mehdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Shojaei, Shahla; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-02-01

    Iranian populations show an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary artery disease. Considering the important role played by the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster in the regulation of the level and metabolism of lipids, this study aimed at elucidating the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms on the Apo11q cluster gene and lipid levels. A cross-sectional study of 823 subjects (340 males and 483 females) from the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) was conducted. Levels of TG, Chol, HDL-C, Apo AI, Apo AIV, Apo B, and Apo CIII were measured, and the selected segments of the APOAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster were amplified by PCR and the polymorphisms were revealed by RFLP using restriction enzymes. The allele frequencies for each SNP between males and females were not significantly different. The distribution of Genotypes and alleles was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for Apo AI (+83C>T). The results showed a significant association between TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B levels and the presence of some alleles in the polymorphisms studied. After haplotype analysis not only did the association between these variables and SNPs remain but also levels of Chol and LDL-C were added. This study demonstrates that the level of lipids such as TG, HDL-C, HDL(2), Apo AI, and Apo B, maybe regulated partly by genetic factors and their haplotype within the Apo11q gene cluster.

  19. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  20. [Clinical Application of Methods for the Qualitative Evaluation of Lipid Abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Recent lifestyle and social environment changes in Japan have been accompanied by increasing incidencerates of metabolic disorders, such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. Therefore, the rates of cardiovascular disease due to the progression of atherosclerosis are also increasing, and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in Japan. In particular, dyslipidemia, represented by hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, is closely related to the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have been used as quantitative markers of lipids to evaluate cardiovascular risks. However, these markers are not sufficient to fully assess the risks. Therefore, we focused on qualitative markers that represent lipid abnormalities, and examined the utility of qualitative lipids evaluation as clinical markers of atherosclerotic disorders. Previously, we reported that HDL and LDL subclasses and sterol markers are clinically important for evaluating the pathogenesis and risks of cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, lipoprotein subclasses may be useful as therapeutic markers for cardiovascular disorders, and oxysterols may also be useful as diagnostic markers for dementing disorders and diseases of the central nervous system. These issues remain to befully elucidated in the future. PMID:27311287

  1. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  2. An overview of lipid abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Agouridis, Aris P.; Elisaf, Moses; Milionis, Haralampos J.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder which encompasses two forms of intestinal inflammation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. It is reported that inflammation, carotid intima media thickness, homocysteine and insulin resistance, parameters that are all associated with atherosclerosis, are increased in IBD. On the contrary, it seems that IBD patients exhibit low levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. This review highlights the lipid profiles that occur in IBD patients and summarizes data of studies using regimens that may affect lipid metabolism in these patients. PMID:24713706

  3. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  4. The impact of steroid withdrawal on the development of lipid abnormalities and obesity in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lake, K D; Reutzel, T J; Pritzker, M R; Jorgensen, C R; Emery, R W

    1993-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and obesity are common problems after heart transplantation, which may increase the risk of chronic graft atherosclerosis. The intent of this study was to (1) determine the impact of a history of hyperlipidemia on the occurrence of lipid abnormalities after transplantation, (2) compare lipid profiles of those patients being treated with triple-drug immunosuppression versus those patients weaned from prednisone therapy, and (3) identify any factors that would predict which patients are at highest risk for the development of hyperlipidemia after transplantation. Of 89 patients who lived for more than 12 months, 35 patients had a history of hyperlipidemia before heart transplantation (cholesterol level of more than 240 mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of more than 160 mg/dl). The most dramatic rise in cholesterol level was observed in patients with no history of hyperlipidemia who were treated with triple-drug immunosuppression, in whom a 64% increase occurred versus a 24% increase in patients receiving steroid-free immunosuppression (p < 0.001). In patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, cholesterol level increased by 20% with triple-drug immunosuppression versus 14% with steroid-free immunosuppression (p = 0.613); however, 83% of the patients in the triple-drug group and 92% in the steroid-free group had elevated cholesterol levels. Multiple regression analysis revealed that significant independent and additive (p < 0.00001) contributions with respect to percent change in cholesterol level were evident for (1) a negative history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.005), (2) triple-drug immunosuppression (p = 0.0021), and (3) female sex (p = 0.0113). A negative history of hyperlipidemia was predictive of the percent change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (p = 0.0049), and triple-drug immunosuppression administration predicted the percent change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0119). Patients with a positive history

  5. Choroideremia Is a Systemic Disease With Lymphocyte Crystals and Plasma Lipid and RBC Membrane Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Yang; Mysore, Naveen; Vali, Hojatollah; Koenekoop, Jamie; Cao, Sang Ni; Li, Shen; Ren, Huanan; Keser, Vafa; Lopez-Solache, Irma; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Khan, Ayesha; Mui, Jeannie; Sears, Kelly; Dixon, Jim; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Majewski, Jacek; Braverman, Nancy; Koenekoop, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor neuronal degenerations are common, incurable causes of human blindness affecting 1 in 2000 patients worldwide. Only half of all patients are associated with known mutations in over 250 disease genes, prompting our research program to identify the remaining new genes. Most retinal degenerations are restricted to the retina, but photoreceptor degenerations can also be found in a wide variety of systemic diseases. We identified an X-linked family from Sri Lanka with a severe choroidal degeneration and postulated a new disease entity. Because of phenotypic overlaps with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, which was recently found to have systemic features, we hypothesized that a systemic disease may be present in this new disease as well. Methods For phenotyping, we performed detailed eye exams with in vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography. For genotyping, we performed whole exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmations and cosegregation. Systemic investigations included electron microscopy studies of peripheral blood cells in patients and in normal controls and detailed fatty acid profiles (both plasma and red blood cell [RBC] membranes). Fatty acid levels were compared to normal controls, and only values two standard deviations above or below normal controls were further evaluated. Results The family segregated a REP1 mutation, suggesting choroideremia (CHM). We then found crystals in peripheral blood lymphocytes and discovered significant plasma fatty acid abnormalities and RBC membrane abnormalities (i.e., elevated plasmalogens). To replicate our discoveries, we expanded the cohort to nine CHM patients, genotyped them for REP1 mutations, and found the same abnormalities (crystals and fatty acid abnormalities) in all patients. Conclusions Previously, CHM was thought to be restricted to the retina. We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that CHM is a systemic condition with prominent crystals in lymphocytes and

  6. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  7. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency.

  8. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  9. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  10. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  11. [Abnormal of tear lipid layer and recent advances in clinical study of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin-Ye; Liu, Zu-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Dry eye is a common disease in the ophthalmological clinic, which is related to the dysfunction of tear film. The tear film is composed of lipid layer, aqueous layer and mucin layer (or lipid layer, aqueous/mucin layer). The lipid of the outmost layer derived from Meibomian gland and distributed on the tear film after blinking can decrease the evaporation and stabilize the tear film. The thickness, quality, and distribution of lipid layer are impaired in many dry eye patients, hence restoring the physiological function of lipid layer may be crucial for the treatment of this kind of dry eye. The lipid artificial tears manifest great effects on increasing lipid layer thickness, stabilizing tear film, improving Meibomian gland dysfunction, and promoting tear film distribution.

  12. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  13. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  14. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  15. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2013-11-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.

  16. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  17. Chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 alleviates high fat-induced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, M K; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (D-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(D-Phe)(3)] on glucose and insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(D-Phe)(3) (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body-glucose and -insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up-take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[(3)H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-(32)P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)(3). These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling.

  18. Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian’an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Ingi Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable, risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,578 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5×10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipids are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. Our results illustrate the value of genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestries and provide insights into biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological, and therapeutic research. PMID:24097068

  19. Serum lipid levels and cognitive change in late life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Chandra A.; Gatz, Margaret; Prince, Jonathan A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of lipids and lipoproteins on longitudinal cognitive performance and cognitive health in late life and to consider moderating factors such as age and sex which may clarify conflicting prior evidence. Design A 16-year prospective cohort study of health and cognitive aging. Participants 819 adults from the Swedish Adoption Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), 50 years and older at the first cognitive testing, including 21 twin pairs discordant for dementia. Measurements Up to five occasions of cognitive measurements encompassing verbal, spatial, memory and perceptual speed domains across a 16-year span. Baseline serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, apoA1, apoB, total serum cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results The effect of lipids on cognitive change was most evident prior to age 65. In women higher HDL and lower apoB and triglycerides predicted better maintenance of cognitive abilities over age, particularly verbal ability and perceptual speed. Lipid values were less predictive of cognitive trajectories in men and, where observed, were in the contrary direction: i.e., higher total cholesterol and apoB values predicted better perceptual speed performance though faster rates of decline. In twin pairs discordant for dementia, higher total cholesterol and apoB levels were observed in the twin who subsequently developed dementia. Conclusions Elevated lipids may constitute a more important risk factor for cognitive health before age 65 than after. Findings for women are consistent with clinical recommendations, while for men the findings correspond with earlier age-associated shifts in lipid profiles and the importance of lipid homeostasis to cognitive health. PMID:20398119

  20. Association between CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in a Latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Radovica, I.; Fridmanis, D.; Silamikelis, I.; Nikitina-Zake, L.; Klovins, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid levels are considered one of the most significant risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, two of the main causes of death worldwide. Apart from monogenic cases of hypercholesterolemia, most of the common dyslipidemias are caused by a number of low-impact polymorphisms. It has recently been reported that frequent polymorphisms at a large number of loci are significantly associated with one or more blood lipid parameters in many populations. Identifying these associations in different populations and estimating the possible interactions between genetic models are necessary to explain the underlying genetic architecture of the associated loci and their ultimate impact on lipid-associated traits. Methods We estimated the association between 144 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published genome-wide association studies and the levels of total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol, and triglycerides in 1273 individuals from the Genome Database of the Latvian Population. We analyzed a panel of 144 common SNPs with Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping Assays on the Illumina BeadXpress System. Results Ten SNPs at the CETP locus and two at the MLXIPL locus were associated with reduced high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels; one SNP at the TOMM40 locus was associated with increased low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol; and four SNPs at the MLXIPL locus were associated with increased log triglyceride levels. There was also a significant correlation between the number of risk alleles and all the lipid parameters, suggesting that the coexistence of many low-impact SNPs has a greater effect on the dyslipidemia phenotype than the individual effects of found SNPs. Conclusion We conclude that the CETP, MLXIPL, and TOMM40 loci are the strongest genetic factors underlying the variability in lipid traits in our population. PMID:25606439

  1. Heparin-binding defective lipoprotein lipase is unstable and causes abnormalities in lipid delivery to tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, E. Peer; Merkel, Martin; Kako, Yuko; Melford, Kristan; Radner, Herbert; Breslow, Jan L.; Bensadoun, André; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2001-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is hypothesized to stabilize the enzyme, localize LpL in specific capillary beds, and route lipoprotein lipids to the underlying tissues. To test these hypotheses in vivo, we created mice expressing a human LpL minigene (hLpLHBM) carrying a mutated heparin-binding site. Three basic amino acids in the carboxyl terminal region of LpL were mutated, yielding an active enzyme with reduced heparin binding. Mice expressing hLpLHBM accumulated inactive human LpL (hLpL) protein in preheparin blood. hLpLHBM rapidly lost activity during a 37°C incubation, confirming a requirement for heparin binding to stabilize LpL. Nevertheless, expression of hLpLHBM prevented the neonatal demise of LpL knockout mice. On the LpL-deficient background hLpLHBM expression led to defective targeting of lipids to tissues. Compared with mice expressing native hLpL in the muscle, hLpLHBM transgenic mice had increased postprandial FFAs, decreased lipid uptake in muscle tissue, and increased lipid uptake in kidneys. Thus, heparin association is required for LpL stability and normal physiologic functions. These experiments confirm in vivo that association with HSPGs can provide a means to maintain proteins in their stable conformations and to anchor them at sites where their activity is required. PMID:11342582

  2. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  3. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view.

    PubMed

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-10-01

    Human cornea is covered by an aqueous tear film, and the outermost layer of the tear film is coated by lipids. This so-called tear film lipid layer (TFLL) reduces surface tension of the tear film and helps with the film re-spreading after blinks. Alterations of tear lipids composition and properties are related to dry eye syndrome. Therefore, unveiling structural and functional properties of TFLL is necessary for understanding tear film function under both normal and pathological conditions. Key properties of TFLL, such as resistance against high lateral pressures and ability to spread at the tear film surface, are directly related to the chemical identity of TFLL lipids. Hence, a molecular-level description is required to get better insight into TFLL properties. Molecular dynamics simulations are particularly well suited for this task and they were recently used for investigating TFLL. The present review discusses molecular level organization and properties of TFLL as seen by these simulation studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg.

  4. Genetic loci associated with changes in lipid levels leading to constitution-based discrepancy in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid concentrations are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The pathological susceptibility to cardiovascular disease risks such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, insulin resistance, and so on differs between Sasang constitutional types. Methods We used multiple regression analyses to study the association between lipid-related traits and genetic variants from several genome-wide association studies according to Sasang constitutional types, considering that the Tae-Eum (TE) has predominant cardiovascular risk. Results By analyzing 26 variants of 20 loci in two Korean populations (8,597 subjects), we found that 12 and 5 variants, respectively, were replicably associated with lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk. By analyzing TE and non-TE type (each 2,664 subjects) populations classified on the basis of Sasang constitutional medicine, we found that the minor allele effects of three variants enriched in TE type had a harmful influence on lipid risk (near apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5)-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 on increased triglyceride: p = 8.90 × 10-11, in APOE-APOC1-APOC4 on increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 1.63 × 10-5, and near endothelial lipase gene on decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 4.28 × 10-3), whereas those of three variants (near angiopoietin-like 3 gene, APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1, and near lipoprotein lipase gene on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) associated in non-TE type had neutral influences because of a compensating effect. Conclusions These results implied that the minor allele effects of lipid-associated variants may predispose TE type subjects to high cardiovascular disease risk because of their genetic susceptibility to lipid-related disorders. PMID:25005712

  5. Phospho-mTOR: a novel target in regulation of renal lipid metabolism abnormality of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jun; Zhu, Lin; Li, Fan; Liu, Qingjuan; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Shuxia; Xing, Lingling; Feng, Xiaojuan; Duan, Huijun

    2013-08-15

    The activation of Akt has been proved to involve in the lipogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it's still not clear whether mTOR, another main gene in PI3K/Akt pathway, is also involved in the renal lipogenesis of diabetes. In the present study, it was revealed that the phosphorylation of mTOR was up-regulated in the renal tubular cells of diabetic rats, followed by the over-expression of SREBP-1, ADRP and lipogenesis. Again, high glucose increased the expression of phospho-mTOR accompanied with SREBP-1 and ADRP up-regulation and lipid accumulation in HKC cells. Rapamycin, known as mTOR inhibitor, was used to inhibit the activation of mTOR, which prevented effectively high glucose-induced SREBP-1 up-regulation and lipogenesis in HKC cells. Furthermore, high glucose-stimulated HKC cells transfected with wild-type mTOR vector showed the enhanced SREBP-1 and lipid droplets, however, TE mTOR vector (kinase dead)-transfected HKC cells presented resistance to high glucose and decreased SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis. These above data suggested that phospho-mTOR mediated lipid accumulation in renal tubular cells of diabetes and might be the potential targets for treating lipogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23827786

  6. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc−/− hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Otero, P. Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M.; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J.; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E.; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Kershaw, Erin E.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Yates, Nathan A.; Goetzman, Eric P.; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc−/− (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc−/− livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27105497

  7. Hypoglycaemia, Abnormal Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease among Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85–3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79–11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:26504840

  8. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  9. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    PubMed

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

  10. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that become dysregulated with age. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study used data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess curry consumption frequency as well as blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The levels of blood glucose and lipids were subdivided by age, sex, and body mass index, and compared according to the curry consumption level. The estimates in each subgroup were further adjusted for potential confounding factors, including the diagnosis of diseases, physical activity, and smoking. RESULTS After adjusting for the above confounding factors, the blood glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the moderate curry consumption group compared to the low curry consumption group, both in older (> 45) male and younger (30 to 44) female overweight individuals who have high blood glucose and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that curcumin consumption, in an ordinary diet, can have health-beneficial effects, including being helpful in maintaining blood glucose and triglyceride levels that become dysregulated with age. The results should be further confirmed in future studies. PMID:27087906

  11. Systems-Level Lipid Analysis Methodologies for Qualitative and Quantitative Investigation of Lipid Signaling Events During Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Chalfant, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence implicates a prominent role for lipid signaling molecules in the regulation of wound healing. These lipids regulate hemostasis, onset and resolution of inflammation, migration and proliferation cells, angiogenesis, epithelialization, and remodeling of collagen. The objective of this overview is to demonstrate the applicability of systems level lipid analyses to identify and quantify lipid involved in events leading to wound healing. Approach Current advances in liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have provided the means for carrying out quantitative and qualitative analysis of lipids at a systems level. This emerging field is collectively referred to as lipidomics and its potential in wound healing research is largely ignored. Results While comprehensive applications of lipidomics in wound healing are limited, studies carried out by the authors as well as others demonstrate distinct changes in the lipidome during the wound healing process. Innovation Until recently, investigations into lipids were limited to the study of a few lipids at a time. Lipidomics approaches provide the capability to quantitatively and qualitatively assay almost the full complement of lipid signaling circuits at the same time. This allows obtaining a system level understanding of changes to the entire lipidome during the wound healing process. Conclusion The technology provides promising approach to understanding new signaling pathways based on lipids involved in wound healing. The understanding gained from such studies has the potential for the development of novel lipid based treatment strategies to promote wound healing. PMID:24527363

  12. Levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Babinská, K; Béderová, A

    1995-04-01

    Age dependence of lipid peroxidation levels estimated as conjugated dienes (CD) of plasma fatty acids was investigated in vegetarian and non-vegetarian males and females aged 11-14, 15-18, 19-39 and 40-60 years. The increase of CD levels with age was found in probands on both types of nutrition up to the age of 40 years. In the first three age groups, lipid peroxidation was insignificantly lower in vegetarians when compared to nonvegetarians. The increase of conjugated dienes was on the level of significance (p < 0.05) in the oldest vegetarians vs nonvegetarians. Therefore, content of defense parameters--antioxidative vitamin and enzyme--was estimated in blood of vegetarians aged 40-60 years. Significantly higher levels of vitamin C and catalase activity were found in vegetarians (C-63.6 and 86.5 mumol/l; CAT-1497 and 1313 U/ml for males and females, respectively) when compared to nonvegetarians (C-41.3 and 54.4 mumol/l; CAT-1192 and 1086 U/ml). A significant negative linear correlation (p < 0.001) for CD-C and CD-CAT was found in both sexes of vegetarians and in nonvegetarian females (p < 0.05 for nonvegetarian males). Important finding is a more pronounced in vegetarians (2.5-3.4 times higher slope of regression lines) indicating positive effect of vegetarian nutrition on efficiency of protection system.

  13. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  14. Correlation Between Blood Lipid Levels and Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Shang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is increasing, and dyslipidemia severely affects the health of middle-aged and elderly people. We investigated the association between blood lipid levels and CP. The serum lipid metabolic indices of 48 patients with CP (CP group) were summarized retrospectively. The physical examination results of 40 randomly selected healthy individuals were used as the normal control (NC) group. Statistical analyses of the blood lipid data were performed between the 2 groups using the case–control study method. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels decreased and fasting blood glucose (GLU) levels increased in the CP group compared with those in the NC group (P < 0.01). Pearson correlation analysis results showed that serum amylase (AMY) was positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c; r = 0.414, P < 0.05), and urine AMY (UAMY) was positively correlated with total cholesterol (TC; r = 0.614, P < 0.01) and LDL-c (r = 0.678, P < 0.01). A binary logistic regression analysis showed that GLU (odds ratio [OR], 5.052; P < 0.01) and TC (OR, 1.074; P < 0.01) may be risk factors for CP, whereas HDL-c may be a CP protective factor (OR, 0.833; P < 0.01). The HDL-c levels decreased and GLU levels increased in the CP group compared with those in the NC group; AMY was positively correlated with LDL-c and UAMY was positively correlated with TC and LDL-c; GLU and TC may be risk factors for CP; and HDL-c may be a CP protective factor. This may be the first time that such results have been reported. These findings will contribute to primary prevention and control of CP progression. PMID:25526493

  15. Cardiomyocyte-specific loss of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) reproduces the abnormalities in lipids found in severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Trent, Chad M; Fang, Xiang; Son, Ni-Huiping; Jiang, HongFeng; Blaner, William S; Hu, Yunying; Yin, Yu-Xin; Farese, Robert V; Homma, Shunichi; Turnbull, Andrew V; Eriksson, Jan W; Hu, Shi-Lian; Ginsberg, Henry N; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-10-24

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis, the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) to triglyceride. Dgat1(-/-) mice exhibit a number of beneficial metabolic effects including reduced obesity and improved insulin sensitivity and no known cardiac dysfunction. In contrast, failing human hearts have severely reduced DGAT1 expression associated with accumulation of DAGs and ceramides. To test whether DGAT1 loss alone affects heart function, we created cardiomyocyte-specific DGAT1 knock-out (hDgat1(-/-)) mice. hDgat1(-/-) mouse hearts had 95% increased DAG and 85% increased ceramides compared with floxed controls. 50% of these mice died by 9 months of age. The heart failure marker brain natriuretic peptide increased 5-fold in hDgat1(-/-) hearts, and fractional shortening (FS) was reduced. This was associated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and cluster of differentiation 36. We crossed hDgat1(-/-) mice with previously described enterocyte-specific Dgat1 knock-out mice (hiDgat1(-/-)). This corrected the early mortality, improved FS, and reduced cardiac ceramide and DAG content. Treatment of hDgat1(-/-) mice with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exenatide also improved FS and reduced heart DAG and ceramide content. Increased fatty acid uptake into hDgat1(-/-) hearts was normalized by exenatide. Reduced activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα), which is increased by DAG and ceramides, paralleled the reductions in these lipids. Our mouse studies show that loss of DGAT1 reproduces the lipid abnormalities seen in severe human heart failure.

  16. A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in a patient with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers.

    PubMed

    Simsek, B; Guven, E; Gumral, R; Mert, G; Saracli, M A; Besirbellioglu, B; Yildiran, S T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is considered rare in immunocompetent patients and is mainly a disease of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of cryptococcal meningitis, due to Cryptococcus neoformans, in an apparently healthy individual with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers. Regardless of the patient's immune status, the result of the disease can be serious unless the disease is diagnosed early. PMID:27402508

  17. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    PubMed

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  18. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  19. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  20. Abnormal liver function in workers exposed to low levels of ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, M L; You, N C; Du, C L; Chau, T T

    1999-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) resulted in increased risk of liver damage. Epidemiological information, including occupational, medical, smoking, and drinking history, was obtained by interview from 251 male workers. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used as indicators of liver damage. Exposure to moderate or low levels of ECD and VCM resulted in a higher risk of developing abnormal ALT levels than did exposure to lower levels of the chemicals. Results were similar for AST. GGT was not associated with EDC or VCM exposure. Combined exposure to EDC and VCM showed a dose-response relationship in association with abnormal ALT levels. We concluded that relatively low concentrations of VCM and EDC cause liver damage.

  1. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). PMID:27622204

  2. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  3. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  4. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  5. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects. PMID:24173620

  6. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects.

  7. Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical metabolites (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered concentrations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. Metabolite levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical metabolite concentrations were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While metabolite concentrations in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599

  8. Radiographic abnormalities in Vermont granite workers exposed to low levels of granite dust.

    PubMed

    Graham, W G; Ashikaga, T; Hemenway, D; Weaver, S; O'Grady, R V

    1991-12-01

    The issue of whether low levels of granite dust exposure lead to radiographic abnormalities after a lifetime of exposure has not been settled. In 1983, we carried out a radiographic survey of the Vermont granite industry, consisting of quarry and stone shed workers who had been exposed to the low dust levels prevailing in the industry since 1938 to 1940. Films were read by three "B" readers, using the ILO classification system, which requires the identification of both rounded and irregular opacities, as well as combinations of both. X-ray films were taken of 972 workers, out of a total work force of approximately 1,400. Of these films, 28 (3 percent) were interpreted by either two or three of the three readers as showing abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis. Only seven films (or 0.7 percent of the entire cohort) showed nodular or rounded opacities of the type typically seen in uncomplicated silicosis. The remainder of the abnormal x-ray films showed irregular opacities, largely in the lower lung zones, which are of uncertain significance, but may be related to heavy cigarette smoking and aging, and possibly dust inhalation. In addition, total gravimetric dust concentrations in the workplace were measured; 417 respirable-size mass samples showed concentrations of 601 micrograms/cu m +/- 368 micrograms/cu m. Using previously published estimates of 10 percent quartz in granite dust, the average quartz concentration was 60 micrograms/cu m. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 100 micrograms/cu m, the current OSHA standard for quartz. We conclude that control of quartz exposure in the Vermont granite industry to levels which are on average less than the current OSHA standard has essentially eliminated definite radiographic changes of silicosis. The significance of the irregular opacities in the lower lung zones seen on a majority of the 28 x-ray films judged to be abnormal is not clear.

  9. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  10. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    PubMed

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  11. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26623421

  12. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-11-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma.

  13. Abnormal glutathione and sulfate levels after interleukin 6 treatment and in tumor-induced cachexia.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Gross, A; Kinscherf, R; Bockstette, M; Fiers, W; Berke, G; Dröge, W

    1996-08-01

    Excessive urea excretion associated with a negative nitrogen balance and massive loss of skeletal muscle mass (cachexia) is a frequent life threatening complication in malignancies and HIV infection. As these patients have often elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and abnormally low cystine levels, we have now determined the intracellular levels of glutathione and other cysteine derivatives in the liver and muscle tissue of IL-6-treated or tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. IL-6 treatment or inoculation of the MCA-105 fibrosarcoma caused a significant increase in hepatic gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase activity and a decrease in the sulfate level, glutamine/urea ratio, and glutamine/glutamate ratio, suggesting that a decrease of the proton generating cysteine catabolism in the liver may increase carbamoyl-phosphate synthesis and urea formation at the expense of net glutamine synthesis. Treatment with cysteine, conversely, caused an increase in sulfate, glutamine/urea ratios, and glutamine/glutamate ratios and may thus be a useful therapeutic tool in clinical medicine. In contrast to the liver, muscle tissue of tumor-bearing mice showed decreased glutathione and increased sulfate levels, suggesting that the cysteine pool may be drained by an increased cysteine catabolism in this tissue. The findings indicate that tumor cachexia is triggered initially by IL-6 and is later sustained by processes driven by an abnormal cysteine metabolism in different organs.-Hack, V., Gross, A., Kinscherf, R., Bockstette, M., Fiers, W., Berke, G., and Dröge, W. Abnormal glutathione and sulfate levels after interleukin 6 treatment and in tumor-induced cachexia.

  14. Increased levels of invariant natural killer T lymphocytes worsen metabolic abnormalities and atherosclerosis in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Savitha; Turner, Michael S; Ding, Yilei; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Buckner, Jane H; O'Brien, Kevin; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A; Chait, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by infiltration of adipose tissue by immune cell populations, including T lymphocytes. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a specialized lymphocyte subset recognizing lipid antigens, can be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Their role in adipose inflammation continues to be inconclusive and contradictory. In obesity, the infiltration of tissues by invariant NKT (iNKT) cells is decreased. We therefore hypothesized that an excess iNKT cell complement might improve metabolic abnormalities in obesity. Vα14 transgenic (Vα14tg) mice, with increased iNKT cell numbers, on a LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) background and control Ldlr(-/-) mice were placed on an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks. Vα14tg.Ldlr(-/-) mice gained 25% more weight and had increased adiposity than littermate controls. Transgenic mice also developed greater dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Increased macrophage Mac2 immunostaining and proinflammatory macrophage gene expression suggested worsened adipose inflammation. Concurrently, these mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area and aortic inflammation. Thus, increasing the complement of iNKT cells surprisingly exacerbated the metabolic, inflammatory, and atherosclerotic features of obesity. These findings suggest that the reduction of iNKT cells normally observed in obesity may represent a physiological attempt to compensate for this inflammatory condition.

  15. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Shulman, Gordon L; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI.

  16. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  17. Effect of lipid source and oxidation level on metabolic oxidation status of young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of lipid source and oxidation level on metabolic oxidation status of young pigs, 108 barrows (~ 6.66 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 13 dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial design, including one control diet and 12 diets containing 10% lipid [corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), p...

  18. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  19. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L. ); Tyler, M.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundance and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.

  20. A genome wide association study identifies common variants associated with lipid levels in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Meian; Mo, Zengnan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Handong; Yu, Dianke; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiqin; Sun, Jielin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; He, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Zhu, Jingwen; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Zhu, Jiang; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Li, Dongfeng; Zhai, Kan; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong; Wang, Youjie; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Fang, Weimin; Liang, Yuan; Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Lin, Dafeng; Huang, Suli; Guo, Huan; Lilly Zheng, S; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Dongxin; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several lipid-associated loci, but these loci have been identified primarily in European populations. In order to identify genetic markers for lipid levels in a Chinese population and analyze the heterogeneity between Europeans and Asians, especially Chinese, we performed a meta-analysis of two genome wide association studies on four common lipid traits including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in a Han Chinese population totaling 3,451 healthy subjects. Replication was performed in an additional 8,830 subjects of Han Chinese ethnicity. We replicated eight loci associated with lipid levels previously reported in a European population. The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide significantly associated with LDL were near HMGCR, ABO and TOMM40; and those genome wide significantly associated with HDL were near LPL, LIPC and CETP. In addition, an additive genotype score of eight SNPs representing the eight loci that were found to be associated with lipid levels was associated with higher TC, TG and LDL levels (P = 5.52 × 10(-16), 1.38 × 10(-6) and 5.59 × 10(-9), respectively). These findings suggest the cumulative effects of multiple genetic loci on plasma lipid levels. Comparisons with previous GWAS of lipids highlight heterogeneity in allele frequency and in effect size for some loci between Chinese and European populations. The results from our GWAS provided comprehensive and convincing evidence of the genetic determinants of plasma lipid levels in a Chinese population.

  1. Organization of Lipids in the Tear Film: A Molecular-Level View

    PubMed Central

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175

  2. Alterations in Lipid Levels of Mitochondrial Membranes Induced by Amyloid-β: A Protective Role of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Corral, Sergio A.; Lopez-Armas, Gabriela; Cruz-Ramos, Jose; Melnikov, Valery G.; Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Munoz, Ruben; Reiter, Russel J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer pathogenesis involves mitochondrial dysfunction, which is closely related to amyloid-β (Aβ) generation, abnormal tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Alterations in membranal components, including cholesterol and fatty acids, their characteristics, disposition, and distribution along the membranes, have been studied as evidence of cell membrane alterations in AD brain. The majority of these studies have been focused on the cytoplasmic membrane; meanwhile the mitochondrial membranes have been less explored. In this work, we studied lipids and mitochondrial membranes in vivo, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ). The purpose was to determine how Aβ may be responsible for beginning of a vicious cycle where oxidative stress and alterations in cholesterol, lipids and fatty acids, feed back on each other to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. We observed changes in mitochondrial membrane lipids, and fatty acids, following intracerebral injection of fibrillar Aβ in aged Wistar rats. Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant and neuroimmunomodulator indoleamine, reversed some of these alterations and protected mitochondrial membranes from obvious damage. Additionally, melatonin increased the levels of linolenic and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, in the same site where amyloid β was injected, favoring an endogenous anti-inflammatory pathway. PMID:22666620

  3. Arthropod food webs become increasingly lipid-limited at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Norris, Michael; Lee, Raymond W; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding why food chains are relatively short in length has been an area of research and debate for decades. We tested if progressive changes in the nutritional content of arthropods with trophic position limit the availability of a key nutrient, lipid, for carnivores. Arthropods at higher trophic levels had progressively less lipid and more protein in their bodies compared with arthropods at lower trophic levels. The nutrients present in arthropod bodies were directly related to the nutrients that predators extracted when feeding on those arthropods. As a consequence, nutrient assimilation shifted from lipid-biased to protein-biased as arthropods ascended trophic levels from herbivores to secondary carnivores. Successive changes in the nutritional consequences of predation may ultimately set an upper limit on the number of trophic levels in arthropod communities. Further work is needed to examine the influence of lipid and other nutrients on food web traits in a range of ecosystems.

  4. Lead nitrate induced changes in lipid and cholesterol levels in the freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Katti, S R; Sathyanesan, A G

    1983-01-01

    C. batrachus exposed to 5 ppm of lead nitrate for 150 days exhibited marked inhibition of gonadal growth. Brain, testis and ovary showed decreased in cholesterol and lipid levels whereas the liver showed an elevation of both.

  5. [Level of blood serum lipids in rats treated with detergents].

    PubMed

    Szymaniec, J; Trzeciak, H I; Machalska, H; Turczyński, B

    1977-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally once per week for 12 weeks with following detergents: Olbrotol-18 (nonionic detergent), a product of etheric condensation of 18 moles of ethylene oxide to 1 mole of the mixture of olein alcohol and cetyl alkohol in ratio 1:1, in a dose of 10 mg/kg; SBO (anionic detergent), sodium 2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate, in a dose of 10 mg/kg and Sterinol (cationic detergent), benzalkonium bromide, in a dose of 0.6 mg/kg. The control rats were injected with 0.9% saline solution. The content of total cholesterol, beta-lipoproteins and total lipids in serum were estimated. The increase of total cholesterol and the decrease of beta-lipoproteins content in serum of rats after all used detergents were observed as compared with the control. The increase of total lipid content only after long-term treatment with Olbrotol-18 was found. It is concluded that long term intraperitoneal treatment with detergents changes similarly the contents of total cholesterol and of beta-lipoproteins in blood serum of rats.

  6. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/-) and Klotho(-/-) (Kl(-/-)) mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/-) mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/-) mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/-) (Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) or DKO) mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn) in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/-) mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-), but not of Fgf23(-/-) mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions

  7. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  8. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  9. Relationships between serum serotonin and serum lipid levels, and aggression in horses.

    PubMed

    Meral, Y; Cakiroğlu, D; Sancak, A A; Cýftcý, G; Karabacak, A

    2007-01-01

    Levels of serum serotonin and serum lipids--triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein, were determined in normal horses and horses diagnosed with aggression on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Blood serotonin levels in aggressive horses were found to be significantly lower than in non-aggressive horses (P < 0.01), but no association was found with respect to blood lipids. PMID:17252934

  10. Amphibian lipid levels at metamorphosis correlate to post-metamorphic terrestrial survival.

    PubMed

    Scott, David E; Casey, Erin D; Donovan, Michele F; Lynch, Tracy K

    2007-09-01

    In organisms that have complex life cycles, factors in the larval environment may affect both larval and adult traits. For amphibians, the postmetamorphic transition from the aquatic environment to terrestrial habitat may be a period of high juvenile mortality. We hypothesized that lipid stores at metamorphosis may affect an animal's success during this critical transition period. We examined variation in total lipid levels among years and sites in recently metamorphosed individuals of two pond-breeding salamander species, the marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) and the mole salamander (A. talpoideum), with limited data for one anuran species (southern leopard frog, Rana sphenocephala). Lipid levels were allometrically related to body size and ranged from 1.9 to 23.8% of body dry mass. The two salamander species differed in lipid allocation patterns, with A. opacum apportioning a higher percentage of total lipid reserves into fat bodies than A. talpoideum. Species differences in lipid allocation patterns may primarily reflect that large metamorphs will mature as one-year olds, and, regardless of species, will alter lipid compartmentalization accordingly. We used mark-recapture data obtained at drift fences encircling breeding ponds for 13 A. opacum cohorts to estimate the proportion of postmetamorphic individuals that survived to breed (age 1-4) and the mean age at first reproduction. Regression models indicated that size-corrected lipid level at metamorphosis (i.e., lipid residuals), and to a lesser extent rainfall following metamorphosis, was positively related to adult survival. Snout-vent length at metamorphosis was negatively related to age at first reproduction. We suggest that lipid stores at metamorphosis are vital to juvenile survival in the months following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitat, and that a trade-off shaped by postmetamorphic selection in the terrestrial habitat exists between allocation to energy stores versus structural

  11. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  12. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L P; De Cicco, Nuccia N T; Atella, Geórgia C; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  15. Metal levels in the liver, muscle, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi) with abnormal gonad.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Yeltekin, Aslı

    2014-06-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that Lake Van--the biggest soda lake in the world--is polluted due to an increasing population. Studies have shown abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi), the sole fish species that inhabits the lake. Unlike the vitellogenic and mature oocytes in normal gonads, abnormal gonads show large amounts of connective tissue and young oocytes. In this study, metal levels (nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], iron [Fe], zinc [Zn], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], and manganese [Mn]) in the muscle, liver, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish with normal and abnormal gonads were assessed. Further, the metal contents in the wastewater from the wastewater treatment facility situated near Lake Van in Van City were assessed. All the metal levels, except that of Zn, were high in the Lake Van environment (P<0.05). The highest metal content in the tissues was for Fe, while the lowest level was for Co. The Pb level was found to be very high in both fish groups. Cd was not found in the tissues of both fish groups. The levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, and Mn were not significant in the tissues of both normal and abnormal fish groups. Zn level was significantly high in the livers and gonads of fish with abnormal gonads, and Co level was significantly high only in the livers (P<0.05). Consequently, high levels of Zn in the liver and gonads and high levels of Co in the liver may be factors causing the abnormal gonads in the Lake Van fish.

  16. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  17. Comparative proteomics reveals abnormal binding of ATGL and dysferlin on lipid droplets from pressure overload-induced dysfunctional rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Li, Linghai; Zhang, Huina; Wang, Weiyi; Hong, Yun; Wang, Jifeng; Zhang, Shuyan; Xu, Shimeng; Shu, Qingbo; Li, Juanfen; Yang, Fuquan; Zheng, Min; Qian, Zongjie; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Excessive retention of neutral lipids in cardiac lipid droplets (LDs) is a common observation in cardiomyopathy. Thus, the systematic investigation of the cardiac LD proteome will help to dissect the underlying mechanisms linking cardiac steatosis and myocardial dysfunction. Here, after isolation of LDs from normal and dysfunctional Sprague-Dawley rat hearts, we identified 752 heart-associated LD proteins using iTRAQ quantitative proteomic method, including 451 proteins previously unreported on LDs. The most noteworthy finding was the identification of the membrane resealing protein, dysferlin. An analysis of dysferlin truncation mutants indicated that its C2 domain was responsible for its LD localization. Quantitative proteomic results further determined that 27 proteins were increased and 16 proteins were decreased in LDs from post pressure overload-induced dysfunctional hearts, compared with normal hearts. Notably, adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) was dramatically decreased and dysferlin was substantially increased on dysfunctional cardiac LDs. This study for the first time reveals the dataset of the heart LD proteome in healthy tissue and the variation of it under cardiac dysfunction. These findings highlight an association between the altered LD protein localization of dysferlin and ATGL and myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26795240

  18. Comparative proteomics reveals abnormal binding of ATGL and dysferlin on lipid droplets from pressure overload-induced dysfunctional rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linghai; Zhang, Huina; Wang, Weiyi; Hong, Yun; Wang, Jifeng; Zhang, Shuyan; Xu, Shimeng; Shu, Qingbo; Li, Juanfen; Yang, Fuquan; Zheng, Min; Qian, Zongjie; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Excessive retention of neutral lipids in cardiac lipid droplets (LDs) is a common observation in cardiomyopathy. Thus, the systematic investigation of the cardiac LD proteome will help to dissect the underlying mechanisms linking cardiac steatosis and myocardial dysfunction. Here, after isolation of LDs from normal and dysfunctional Sprague-Dawley rat hearts, we identified 752 heart-associated LD proteins using iTRAQ quantitative proteomic method, including 451 proteins previously unreported on LDs. The most noteworthy finding was the identification of the membrane resealing protein, dysferlin. An analysis of dysferlin truncation mutants indicated that its C2 domain was responsible for its LD localization. Quantitative proteomic results further determined that 27 proteins were increased and 16 proteins were decreased in LDs from post pressure overload-induced dysfunctional hearts, compared with normal hearts. Notably, adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) was dramatically decreased and dysferlin was substantially increased on dysfunctional cardiac LDs. This study for the first time reveals the dataset of the heart LD proteome in healthy tissue and the variation of it under cardiac dysfunction. These findings highlight an association between the altered LD protein localization of dysferlin and ATGL and myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26795240

  19. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methods Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Results Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Conclusions Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil. PMID:26565552

  20. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  1. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qianyu; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Le

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007). High levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05). The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05). The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions. PMID:27782072

  2. Elevated hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity and abnormal sulfate levels in liver and muscle tissue may explain abnormal cysteine and glutathione levels in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Hack, V; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1996-11-20

    To establish whether the low cysteine and glutathione levels in HIV-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques may be consequences of an abnormal cysteine catabolism, we analyzed sulfate and glutathione levels in macaques. Muscle tissue (m. vastus lateralis and m. gastrocnemius) of SIV-infected macaques (n = 25) had higher sulfate and lower glutathione and glutamate levels than that of uninfected controls (n =9). Hepatic tissue, in contrast, showed decreased sulfate and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels, and increased gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activity. These findings suggest drainage of the cysteine pool by increased cysteine catabolism in skeletal muscle tissue, and by increased hepatic glutathione biosynthesis. Cachectic macaques also showed increased urea levels and decreased glutamine/urea ratios in the liver, which are obviously related to the abnormal urea excretion and negative nitrogen balance commonly observed in cachexia. As urea production and net glutamine synthesis in the liver are strongly influenced by proton-generating processes, the abnormal hepatic urea production may be the direct consequence of the cysteine deficiency and the decreased catabolic conversion of cysteine into sulfate and protons in the liver.

  3. Epipolymorphisms within lipoprotein genes contribute independently to plasma lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Lamarche, Benoit; Gaudet, Daniel; Bouchard, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with plasma lipid concentrations explain only a fraction of their heritability, which can reach up to 60%. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation) could contribute to explain part of this missing heritability. We therefore assessed whether the DNA methylation of key lipoprotein metabolism genes is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Untreated FH patients (61 men and 37 women) were recruited for the measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1, LIPC, PLTP and SCARB1 gene loci using bisulfite pyrosequencing. ABCG1, LIPC and PLTP DNA methylation was significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in a sex-specific manner (all P < 0.05). FH subjects with previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD) had higher LIPC DNA methylation levels compared with FH subjects without CAD (P = 0.02). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models showed that new and previously reported epipolymorphisms (ABCG1-CpGC3, LIPC-CpGA2, mean PLTP-CpGC, LPL-CpGA3, CETP-CpGA2, and CETP-CpGB2) significantly contribute to variations in plasma lipid levels (all P < 0.001 in men and P < 0.02 in women), independently of traditional predictors such as age, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma lipids and glucose levels. These results suggest that epigenetic perturbations of key lipoprotein metabolism genes are associated with plasma lipid levels, contribute to the interindividual variability and might partially explain the missing heritability of plasma lipid levels, at least in FH. PMID:24504152

  4. Resveratrol alters the lipid composition, metabolism and peroxide level in senescent rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Momchilova, Albena; Petkova, Diana; Staneva, Galya; Markovska, Tania; Pankov, Roumen; Skrobanska, Ralica; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana; Koumanov, Kamen

    2014-01-25

    Investigations were performed on the influence of resveratrol on the lipid composition, metabolism, fatty acid and peroxide level in plasma membranes of hepatocytes, isolated from aged rats. Hepatocytes were chosen due to the central role of the liver in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. The obtained results showed that the level of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS) was augmented in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. The saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio of the two most abundant membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), was decreased as a result of resveratrol treatment. The neutral sphingomyelinase was found to be responsible for the increase of SM and the decrease of ceramide in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. Using labeled acetate as a precursor of lipid synthesis we demonstrated, that resveratrol treatment resulted in inhibition mainly of phospholipid synthesis, followed by fatty acids synthesis. Resveratrol induced reduction of specific membrane-associated markers of apoptosis such as localization of PS in the external plasma membrane monolayer and ceramide level. Finally, the content of lipid peroxides was investigated, because the unsaturated fatty acids, which were augmented as a result of resveratrol treatment, are an excellent target of oxidative attack. The results showed that the lipid peroxide level was significantly lower, ROS were slightly reduced and GSH was almost unchanged in resveratrol-treated hepatocytes. We suggest, that one possible biochemical mechanism, underlying the reported resveratrol-induced changes, is the partial inactivation of neutral sphingomyelinase, leading to increase of SM, the latter acting as a native membrane antioxidant. In conclusion, our studies indicate that resveratrol treatment induces beneficial alterations in the phospholipid and fatty acid composition, as well as in the ceramide and peroxide

  5. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  6. A Comparitive Study to Evaluate the Role of Serum Lipid Levels in Aetiology of Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipan; Sidhu, D S; Panag, K M D S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common occurring cancer in women worldwide. Various factors that have lead to change in lifestyle are thought to be associated with increase in breast cancer incidence in Asian countries. Several clinical studies suggest the prognostic significance of serum lipid levels in breast cancer. Present study was planned to confirm the association of lipids levels with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Lipid analyses was carried out on serum samples from 100 breast cancer patients and 100 control women, with a age group of 25 y and above. The case & control group included 50 premenopausal women and 50 postmenopausal women. Results: Patients of study group had high Low density lipoproteins (LDL) (p-value - 0.00), Triglycerides (TG) (p-value -0.001) and Total cholesterol (TC) (p-value -0.00) as compared to control group. There was no association of VLDL (p-value -0.436) and HDL (p-value -0.797) among study group and control group. There was no association of lipid levels in different grades of carcinoma. Conclusion: High levels of LDL, TG and TC were associated with breast cancer. However, no association was there in different grades of carcinoma. So it may be concluded that, LDL, TG and TC may be having some role in aetiology of breast cancer. Therefore, early detection and control of these factors may help in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and ultimately social and economic burden on society. PMID:25859487

  7. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  8. Red cell membrane lipid changes at 3,500 m and on return to sea level.

    PubMed

    González, Gustavo; Celedón, Gloria; Escobar, Marcela; Sotomayor, Carlos; Ferrer, Verónica; Benítez, Dixan; Behn, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute hypobaric hypoxia, obtained in a hypobaric chamber, and subsequent reoxygenation, give rise to modifications of the erythrocyte membrane lipid dynamics, resulting in an increased lateral diffusivity of the membrane lipids, and this was interpreted as the result of a modified lipid-protein interaction. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the reoxygenation condition in individuals after 3 days at an altitude of 3,500 m above sea level. Reoxygenation was a consequence of returning to sea level. Resting blood samples from both conditions were obtained, and erythrocytes were separated and immediately lysed for membrane isolation. We measured the bilayer polarity in membranes with Laurdan, a fluorescent probe. We also measured malondialdehyde in membrane lipids, an indicator of oxidative damage. We found a 12% (p = 0.016, n = 7) increase in the polarity of the membrane bilayer surface, and an increase of 70% (p = 0.005, n = 7) in the formation of malondialdehyde in the membrane after the reoxygenation condition. The membrane bilayer polarity increase is due to an oxidative modification of the phospholipid backbone after reoxygenation. People working and/or recreating at moderate altitude (3,500 m) may be at risk of erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage upon returning to sea level, and therefore a better understanding of the processes occurring upon reoxygenation may lead to proposed strategies to minimize this effect. PMID:16351566

  9. Red cell membrane lipid changes at 3,500 m and on return to sea level.

    PubMed

    González, Gustavo; Celedón, Gloria; Escobar, Marcela; Sotomayor, Carlos; Ferrer, Verónica; Benítez, Dixan; Behn, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute hypobaric hypoxia, obtained in a hypobaric chamber, and subsequent reoxygenation, give rise to modifications of the erythrocyte membrane lipid dynamics, resulting in an increased lateral diffusivity of the membrane lipids, and this was interpreted as the result of a modified lipid-protein interaction. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the reoxygenation condition in individuals after 3 days at an altitude of 3,500 m above sea level. Reoxygenation was a consequence of returning to sea level. Resting blood samples from both conditions were obtained, and erythrocytes were separated and immediately lysed for membrane isolation. We measured the bilayer polarity in membranes with Laurdan, a fluorescent probe. We also measured malondialdehyde in membrane lipids, an indicator of oxidative damage. We found a 12% (p = 0.016, n = 7) increase in the polarity of the membrane bilayer surface, and an increase of 70% (p = 0.005, n = 7) in the formation of malondialdehyde in the membrane after the reoxygenation condition. The membrane bilayer polarity increase is due to an oxidative modification of the phospholipid backbone after reoxygenation. People working and/or recreating at moderate altitude (3,500 m) may be at risk of erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage upon returning to sea level, and therefore a better understanding of the processes occurring upon reoxygenation may lead to proposed strategies to minimize this effect.

  10. The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Levine, P H; Weiner, B; Ockene, I S; Johnson, B; Johnson, M H; Natale, A M; Vaudreuil, C H; Hoogasian, J

    1986-06-01

    Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls. The most striking observations were a highly significant rise in platelet linoleic acid concentration and a decline in platelet arachidonic acid concentration in both vegetarian subgroups as compared with omnivorous controls. Serum thromboxane and prostacyclin levels as well as results of platelet aggregation studies did not differ among the groups tested. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both vegetarian groups as compared with controls, but plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein levels were lower only in the vegan subgroup as compared with omnivores. If diet produces these changes in platelet fatty acid and plasma lipid levels it may contribute to the decreased risk of coronary heart disease and possibly atherosclerosis in vegetarians.

  11. Association between the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Yin, Rui-Xing; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Ming; Li, Hui; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the association between the muscle Ras (MRAS) gene rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 632 subjects of Han and 629 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationalities were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The subjects with GG genotype had higher serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels in Han, and higher serum TC and LDL-C levels in Mulao than the subjects with AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with GG genotype had higher TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, ApoAI and ApoB in Han males, lower ApoAI and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han females; and higher LDL-C levels in Mulao males but not in Mulao females than the subjects with AG/AA genotypes. The association of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25973078

  12. Association between the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Yin, Rui-Xing; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Ming; Li, Hui; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the association between the muscle Ras (MRAS) gene rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 632 subjects of Han and 629 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationalities were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The subjects with GG genotype had higher serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels in Han, and higher serum TC and LDL-C levels in Mulao than the subjects with AA/AG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with GG genotype had higher TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, ApoAI and ApoB in Han males, lower ApoAI and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han females; and higher LDL-C levels in Mulao males but not in Mulao females than the subjects with AG/AA genotypes. The association of the MARS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the MRAS rs6782181 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in our study populations.

  13. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  14. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. PMID:27006242

  15. Resequencing of LPL in African Blacks and associations with lipoprotein-lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Pirim, Dilek; Wang, Xingbin; Radwan, Zaheda H; Niemsiri, Vipavee; Bunker, Clareann H; Barmada, M Michael; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Demirci, F Yesim

    2015-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with plasma lipid levels but those common variants together account only for a small proportion of the genetic variance of lipid traits. It has been hypothesized that the remaining heritability may partly be explained by rare variants with strong effect sizes. Here, we have comprehensively investigated the associations of both common and uncommon/rare variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in relation to plasma lipoprotein-lipid levels in African Blacks (ABs). For variant discovery purposes, the entire LPL gene and flanking regions were resequenced in 95 ABs with extreme high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. A total of 308 variants were identified, of which 64 were novel. Selected common tagSNPs and uncommon/rare variants were genotyped in the entire sample (n=788), and 126 QC-passed variants were evaluated for their associations with lipoprotein-lipid levels by using single-site, haplotype and rare variant (SKAT-O) association analyses. We found eight not highly correlated (r(2)<0.40) signals (rs1801177:G>A, rs8176337:G>C, rs74304285:G>A, rs252:delA, rs316:C>A, rs329:A>G, rs12679834:T>C, and rs4921684:C>T) nominally (P<0.05) associated with lipid traits (HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 or ApoB levels) in our sample. The most significant SNP, rs252:delA, represented a novel association observed with LDL-C (P=0.002) and ApoB (P=0.012). For TG and LDL-C, the haplotype analysis was more informative than the single-site analysis. The SKAT-O analysis revealed that the bin (group) containing 22 rare variants with MAF≤0.01 exhibited nominal association with TG (P=0.039) and LDL-C (P=0.027). Our study indicates that both common and uncommon/rare LPL variants/haplotypes may affect plasma lipoprotein-lipid levels in general African population. PMID:25626708

  16. Reduction of plasma lipid and homocysteine levels by pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin, choline, riboflavin, and troxerutin in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, A J; Szostak, W B; Bialkowska, M; Rudnicki, S; McCully, K S

    1989-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine and lipid levels are risk factors for atherosclerosis. The plasma levels of homocysteine, determined in acid hydrolyzates of plasma, were found to be correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.47, P less than 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.40, P less than 0.01), and body mass index (r = 0.42, P less than 0.01) in 52 males, aged 30-60. A group of 12 male survivors of acute myocardial infarction was given pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin, choline, riboflavin, and troxerutin for 21 days. The plasma concentrations of homocysteine and alpha-amino adipic acid declined to 68% (P less than 0.001) and 57% (P less than 0.001) of the pretreatment values, and the cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL apo B declined to 79% (P less than 0.001), 68% (P less than 0.01), and 63% (P less than 0.001) of the pretreatment values, respectively. The results suggest a new strategy for control of the metabolic abnormalities in atherosclerosis through the use of naturally occurring, non-toxic nutrients which minimize homocysteine accumulation.

  17. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  18. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  19. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  20. The apolipoprotein E4 allele is not associated with an abnormal lipid profile in a Native American population following its traditional lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C A; Talavera, G; Ordovas, J M; Barriguete, J A; Guillén, L E; Leco, M E; Pedro-Botet, J; Gonzalez-Barranco, J; Gómez-Pérez, F J; Rull, J A

    1999-02-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated in industrialized countries with an elevated LDL cholesterol concentration and an increased cardiovascular risk. Our purpose in this study was to assess the influence of the genetic variation at the APOE gene locus on the lipid profile of a Native American rural population. We examined plasma lipid levels and the common apo E alleles in 142 healthy randomly selected adults living in their native communities in western Mexico. Their age was 38+/-17 years and the BMI 25.7+/-4.5 kg/m2. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL C and HDL C were 165+/-29.6, 126+/-83, 98+/-26 and 42+/-12.7 mg/dl respectively. Ninety-one per cent of the subjects had Lp(a) concentrations below 20 mg/dl and 30% had levels lower than 2 mg/dl. The most common APOE genotype was E3/3 (63%), followed by E3/4 (30.1%). The prevalence of the E2 allele was very low (2.3%). No difference was observed in LDL C concentrations between the E3/E3 and E3/E4 subjects; however carriers of the E2/3 genotype had lower LDL C levels. Similar results were obtained for cholesterol and apo B levels. In summary, the increased LDL C levels associated with the E4 allele in previous studies were not observed in a population with non-westernized habits. Environmental factors, such as diet and lifestyle, could outweigh the hypercholesterolemic predisposition resulting from the presence of the apo E4 allele.

  1. SERUM LEPTIN, ATHEROGENIC LIPIDS AND GLUCOSE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SKIN TAGS

    PubMed Central

    Gorpelioglu, Canan; Erdal, Emel; Ardicoglu, Yasemin; Adam, Bahattin; Sarifakioglu, Evren

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between serum leptin, atherogenic lipid and glucose levels in patients with skin tags and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients, with at least three skin tags, aged 24 to 85 years, and 31 healthy controls aged 30 to 70 years, were examined in the present study. The subjects in all the groups were selected with statistically similar Body Mass Index (BMI). Fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum lipids including triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), HbA1c, and leptin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, serum LDL level was calculated using Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference in age, sex, BMI, HbA1c, triglyceride, HDL and leptin levels between the groups. Skin tags group showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL, when compared with the healthy controls groups (P < 0.01). In addition, regression analysis showed that leptin level was positively correlated to serum triglyceride level (r = 0.265, P = 0.044). Conclusion: Total cholesterol and LDL serum levels should be controlled in patients with skin tags. On the other hand, glucose, leptin and HbA1c serum levels may not be as important as is being considered in recent times. PMID:20049263

  2. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  3. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  4. Plasma xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Supnet, M C; David-Cu, R; Walther, F J

    1994-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury may affect morbidity and mortality in preterm and asphyxiated term infants. Reoxygenation of hypoxic tissues leads to the formation of free oxygen radicals by xanthine oxidase that may induce lipid peroxidation, enzyme inhibition, and DNA strand breakage. We measured arterial cord blood samples from 36 healthy term infants for baseline values and arterial blood sampled at 1 and 4 h after birth from 45 preterm infants admitted for intensive care for serial estimates of plasma xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Mean +/- SEM plasma xanthine oxidase activity in cord blood of term infants was 2.3 +/- 0.4 mU/mL and lipid hydroperoxide levels were 2.6 +/- 0.3 nmol/mL. Eighteen of the 45 preterm infants met the criteria defining poor outcome (poor outcome group) and had lower umbilical arterial pH and base excess than the 27 preterm infants in the control group. Mean plasma xanthine oxidase activity increased from 2.7 +/- 0.4 at 1 h to 4.7 +/- 0.6 mU/mL at 4 h of age (p < 0.001) in the poor outcome group and decreased from 2.1 +/- 0.3 to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mU/mL (p = 0.004) in the control group. Lipid hydroperoxide levels in the poor outcome group increased from 2.8 +/- 0.6 nmol/mL at 1 h to 4.3 +/- 0.6 nmol/mL at 4 h of age (p < 0.001) and decreased from 2.1 +/- 0.6 to 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/mL (p = 0.008) in the control group. At 4 h of age, xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the controls (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Relation of Lipid Content of Coronary Plaque to Level of Serum Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuichi; Nakayama, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazumasa; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2015-11-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) level is known to be a prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the pathogenesis of the relation between SUA level and coronary plaque characteristics has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between SUA level and plaque composition of nonculprit lesions in patients with ACS. A total of 81 patients with ACS who underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention were included. They were classified into 3 groups according to tertiles of SUA level. Using integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS system, tissue components were classified into 4 categories: calcium deposits, dense fibrosis, fibrosis, and lipid. Tertiles of SUA level were as follows: low tertile <5.0 mg/dl; intermediate tertile 5.0 to 6.4 mg/dl; and high tertile >6.4 mg/dl. There was a trend toward greater vessel volume in the high tertile group than in the low and intermediate tertile groups (19.4 ± 3.7 vs 17.4 ± 4.4 vs 16.7 ± 4.1 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in lumen volume between the 3 groups. Plaque volume was significantly greater in the high than in the low tertile group (8.6 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.2 mm(3)/mm, p = 0.01). IB-IVUS analysis demonstrated greater lipid (59.1 ± 9.1% vs 49.7 ± 10.9% vs 51.1 ± 9.3%, p = 0.001) and less fibrous components (36.8 ± 7.8% vs 44.3 ± 7.8% vs 43.2 ± 6.7%, p <0.001) in the high than in the low and intermediate tertile groups. Multivariate analysis showed high SUA as an independent predictor of increasing lipid volume. In conclusion, elevated SUA level is associated with greater lipid content of coronary plaque in patients with ACS than in patients with normal levels.

  6. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism -174G/C influences plasma lipid levels in women.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Susanne; Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Ekman, Agneta; Nissbrandt, Hans; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-11-01

    Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the promoter polymorphism IL-6 -174G/C and the following indices of metabolism: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma levels of IL-6, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, leptin, and C-reactive protein in 252 42-year-old women and 245 51-year-old men. Subgroups were also studied 5 years later. The CC genotype of the IL-6 polymorphism was associated with lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) in women. This finding was replicated in the follow-up, when a significant association between the CC genotype and low triglycerides was also observed. The association between the C allele and lipid pattern found in women was not found in men, where on the contrary, C carriers tended to display elevated triglycerides. IL-6 genotype was not associated with IL-6 plasma levels in either sample. The results suggest different effects of the IL-6 polymorphism on metabolic indices in women and men. None of the associations between IL-6 genotype and lipid pattern seemed to result from an effect of the polymorphism on IL-6 plasma levels.

  7. Adverse effects on cardiovascular status and lipid levels of albino Wistar rats treated with cisplatin and oxaliplatin in combination with 5 Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Najam, Rahila; Bano, Nusrat; Mirza, Talat; Hassan, Saba

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to comparatively assess direct damages on cardiac tissues and aorta associated with abnormalities in lipid profile and cardiac biomarkers induced by two platinum cytotoxic compounds with and without 5FU (5Fluorouracil) in rats. Albino Wistar rats were treated with 5FU (15mg/kg), cisplatin (0.8mg/kg) and oxaliplatin (0.8mg/kg) in different dosing schedules. The changes in the lipid levels, CPK and Tropinin I levels, following treatment with single and combination schedules of CDDP, 5FU and Oxaliplatin were compared with the control group maintained on normal saline. Changes in LDL and cholesterol levels were highly significant in cisplatin and oxaliplatin treated rats. Myofibrillar loss and vascular wall thickening was seen in cisplatin treatment groups in the acute model of toxicity. The damages were mild but progressive. Tropinin I levels were raised well above diagnostic risk levels in the delayed model of toxicity in the rats treated with oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU, indicative of definite cardiotoxic potential of oxaliplatin in combination of 5FU mimicking the FOLFOX regimen.

  8. Hippocampal enlargement in Bassoon-mutant mice is associated with enhanced neurogenesis, reduced apoptosis, and abnormal BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Heyden, Alexandra; Ionescu, Mihai-Constantin S; Romorini, Stefano; Kracht, Bettina; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Calabresi, Paolo; Seidenbecher, Constanze; Angenstein, Frank; Gundelfinger, Eckart D

    2011-10-01

    Mice mutant for the presynaptic protein Bassoon develop epileptic seizures and an altered pattern of neuronal activity that is accompanied by abnormal enlargement of several brain structures, with the strongest size increase in hippocampus and cortex. Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, an abnormal brain enlargement was found, which is first detected in the hippocampus 1 month after birth and amounts to an almost 40% size increase of this structure after 3 months. Stereological quantification of cell numbers revealed that enlargement of the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper is associated with larger numbers of principal neurons and of astrocytes. In search for the underlying mechanisms, an approximately 3-fold higher proportion of proliferation and survival of new-born cells in the dentate gyrus was found to go hand in hand with similarly larger numbers of doublecortin-positive cells and reduced numbers of apoptotic cells in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper. Enlargement of the hippocampus and of other forebrain structures was accompanied by increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These data show that hippocampal overgrowth in Bassoon-mutant mice arises from a dysregulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis that might be associated with unbalanced BDNF levels.

  9. Clinorotation Effect on Coupling Level and Lipid Composition of Barley Thylakoid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhaylenko, N.; Podorvano, V.; Zolotareva, O.

    Microgravity can induce structural perturbation of plant photosynthetic apparatus. It was shown that space flight conditions caused both pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure changes in a number of various plant species. The transformations of photosynthetic membrane lipid composition were observed in wheat plants under microgravity as well as in chloroplasts of pea under clinorotation. The photosynthetic apparatus is located in thylakoid membranes of chloroplast and provides plant cell by macroerg compounds (ATP and NADPH) necessary for inorganic carbon fixation and metabolism. ATP is formed in the process of photophosphorylation, the rate of which is determined by a coupling level of thylakoid membranes. The aim of the work was to study the coupling level and lipid composition of thylakoid membranes isolated from barley plants grown under clinorotation. Plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown for 7 days at 22-24°C, at low illumination (143 μ mol m-2 s-1) with a light period of 16 h, on a horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control. Photochemical activity of isolated chloroplasts (class II) was estimated by the following reactions: cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, coupled and uncoupled electron transfer from water to K3Fe(CN)6. Total lipids were extracted from isolated chloroplasts and individual lipid classes were separated by thin-layer chromatography. Phospholipids were determined in the form of inorganic phosphate after mineralization with perchloric acid. Glycolipids were assayed by monosaccharide content after acidic hydrolysis. Gas chromatography was applied to analyse the fatty acid composition of membrane glycerolipids. The rates of both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation in chloroplasts isolated from clinorotated plants were lower than those in control samples. At the same time the rate of electron transfer in thylakoid membranes from clinorotated plants was higher. In the presence of protonophoric channel

  10. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...

  11. Copper and zinc levels in serum from patients with abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Grail, A; Norval, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 110 women with varying degrees of cervical dysplasia up to carcinoma-in-situ and in 9 women with invasive carcinoma of the cervix, and compared with levels in 21 women with no evidence of cervical dysplasia. The average serum copper and zinc levels in the control group were 1.25 mg/l and 1.02 mg/l (respectively). The mean serum copper level increased with dysplasia to 1.4 mg/l and with invasive carcinoma to 1.47 mg/l. The mean serum zinc levels were decreased in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 to 0.81 mg/l and in invasive carcinoma to 0.73 mg/l. The copper:zinc ratios varied significantly between controls, patients with cervical dysplasia and patients with invasive carcinoma (p less than 0.01). Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin revealed no significant differences among the control group and the groups of patients.

  12. Nitrogen-Deprivation Elevates Lipid Levels in Symbiodinium spp. by Lipid Droplet Accumulation: Morphological and Compositional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pei-Luen; Pasaribu, Buntora; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2014-01-01

    Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium) endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B) upon nitrogen (N)-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503), indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol ester (CE) were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid) became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs), a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm. PMID:24475285

  13. Assessment of BMI, Serum Leptin Levels and Lipid Profile in Patients with Skin Tags

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (ST) are benign lesions composed of loose fibrous tissue, associated with obesity and atherogenic profile. Thus help in the follow up by considering ST as a useful cutaneous sign for the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Aim: To evaluate the association of skin tags with BMI, serum leptin and lipid profile. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 cases with ST and 40 age and gender matched controls. Subjects on oral contraceptives and systemic drugs especially lipid lowering agents, pregnant women, cases with medical history of endocrine disease, acute infection, erythroderma and psoriasis, cases with a drug history of isotretinoin use in last six months were excluded from the study. Blood samples were collected. Serum lipids and serum leptin were estimated. Result: The acrochordons group showed significantly higher values of BMI, total cholesterol (TC) and TC/HDL ratio. 60% of the patients with ST were overweight and 10% were obese. There was no statistical significant difference in leptin levels between the groups. Leptin showed a positive significant correlation with BMI in the acrochordons group. Conclusion: All the above derangements confirm that ST is cutaneous findings frequently associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. Thus follow-up of these patients with regard to the development of diseases associated with atherosclerosis may be beneficial. PMID:25386426

  14. LRRK2 phosphorylation level correlates with abnormal motor behaviour in an experimental model of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Jennifer; Mellone, Manuela; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Zianni, Elisa; Di Luca, Monica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2016-05-11

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. LRRK2 N-terminal domain encompasses several serine residues that undergo phosphorylation influencing LRRK2 function. This work aims at investigating whether LRRK2 phosphorylation/function may be involved in the molecular pathways downstream D1 dopamine receptor leading to LIDs. Here we show that LRRK2 phosphorylation level at serine 935 correlates with LIDs induction and that inhibition of LRRK2 induces a significant increase in the dyskinetic score in L-DOPA treated parkinsonian animals. Our findings support a close link between LRKK2 functional state and L-DOPA-induced abnormal motor behaviour and highlight that LRRK2 phosphorylation level may be implicated in LIDs, calling for novel therapeutic strategies.

  15. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet.

  16. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  17. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yeom, Mijung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the hypolipidemic activity of fucoidan, complex polysaccharides from brown seaweeds, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate whether and how fucoidan has lipid-lowering potential in poloxamer-407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Fucoidan treatment 2 h after acute administration of P407 in these mice significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, but increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. In HepG2 hepatocytes and the liver, fucoidan decreased the expression of FAS and ACC mRNA with no or only a moderate inhibitory effect on SREBP-1c mRNA expression. Furthermore, fucoidan attenuated the hepatic expression of mature SREBP-2 protein with a subsequent decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression and an increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA expression. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of chronically P407-treated mice were also reduced by fucoidan. These findings indicate that fucoidan improves serum lipid levels by regulating the expression of key enzymes of cholesterol and triglyceride syntheses in the liver through modulation of SREBP-2.

  18. A Comparative Study of Serum Uric Acid levels and Lipid Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Niranjan, G.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Amirtha, Ganesh B.; Ramesh, R.; Babu, M. Sathish; Saha, Subiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) appears to be common in the Indian population of different geographical origins, religions and languages. Measurement of lipid fractions and ratios are widely recommended for risk assessment. A few studies have shown that serum uric acid plays a role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity. Very few reports are cited linking serum uric acid with the lipid fraction in CAD Objectives: To find the significance of non-HDL cholesterol, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL ratio and serum uric acid level in CAD patients Subjects and Methodology: In this study, we included fifty CAD patients as subjects and an equal number of controls. Both subjects and controls were assessed for anthropometric, physiological and biochemical parameters Results: The present study showed significant increased levels of total cholesterol (p=0.002), TAGs (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005), LDL (p<0.006) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.001). LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (p<0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (p<0.001) in CAD patients (subjects) were also significant when compared to controls. Uric acid level in CAD patients was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers, in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with CAD. PMID:25018681

  19. Renal Vein Thrombosis in a Newborn With Abnormal Factor VIII Level: Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Agnieszka; Pajak, Agata; Kilis-Pstrusinska, Katarzyna; Królak-Olejnik, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) in neonates is a rare condition of low mortality but significant morbidity due to renal impairment.We report the case of a male term newborn with left RVT and elevated serum factor VIII (FVIII).The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings: prompt diagnosis of RVT was possible because the classic clinical presentation of macroscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable flank mass were present in this newborn infant.The main diagnoses: finally, the reason of RVT was established when the infant was 3 months of age: the increased level of FVIII was confirmed. We discuss the diagnosis, therapy, and outcome of the patient and compare with the literature.Therapeutics interventions: however, despite anticoagulant therapy the left kidney developed areas of scarring and then atrophy.Conclusions and outcomes: Prothrombotic defects should be considered in all patients with perinatal RVT. Elevated factor VIII as a reason of RVT in neonatal period is particularly rare. Given a poor renal outcome in children associated with elevated levels of factor VIII, consideration could be given to more aggressive antithrombotic therapy in such cases.

  20. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  1. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  2. Phosphodiesterase 3A rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, DONG-FENG; AUNG, LYNN HTET HTET; HUANG, PING; ZENG, XIAO-NA; HUANG, KE-KE; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; WU, JIAN; GUO, TAO

    2014-01-01

    The association between the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are not well understood in the general population. The present study was performed in order to detect the association between the rs7134375 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. The genotypes of the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP in 761 subjects of the Mulao population and 774 subjects of the Han Chinese population were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. It was observed that serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in the Mulao population than in the Han population (P<0.05 for each). The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 72.14 and 27.86% in the Mulao population, and 78.55 and 21.45% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the CC, CA and AA genotypes were 52.04, 40.21 and 7.75% in the Mulao population, and 61.50, 34.11 and 4.39% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 74.89 and 25.11% in Mulao females, and 68.08 and 31.92% in Mulao males (P<0.01), respectively. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels were different among the genotypes in the Mulao population; however, not in the Han population (P<0.01), and the A allele carriers exhibited lower TG levels than the A allele noncarriers. The serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). It was concluded that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7134375 SNP are different between the Mulao and Han populations. In addition, the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP is associated with serum TG levels in the Mulao population, however, not in the Han population. PMID:24604378

  3. The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cater, Nilo B; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2002-06-01

    Dietary therapy is the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss. This approach will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to both the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the primary target of therapy is the serum LDL cholesterol level, with the secondary targets being non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The recently updated guidelines of the NCEP place new emphasis on increasing soluble fiber intake to 10 to 25 g/d and adding foods fortified with plant stanols/sterols (2 g/d) as options to enhance the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of diet.

  4. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  5. Association between the DOCK7, PCSK9 and GALNT2 Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Feng; Yao, Li-Mei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 (DOCK7), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2) and serum lipid levels. Genotyping of 9 SNPs was performed in 881 Jing subjects and 988 Han participants. Allele and genotype frequencies of the detected SNPs were different between the two populations. Several SNPs were associated with triglyceride (TG, rs10889332, rs615563, rs7552841, rs1997947, rs2760537, rs4846913 and rs11122316), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (rs1997947), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (rs1168013 and rs7552841), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 (rs1997947), ApoB (rs10889332 and rs7552841), and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs7552841) in Jing minority; and with TG (rs10889332, rs615563, rs7552841, rs11206517, rs1997947, rs4846913 and rs11122316), HDL cholesterol (rs11206517 and rs4846913), LDL cholesterol (rs1168013), ApoA1 (rs11206517 and rs4846913), ApoB (rs7552841), and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4846913) in Han nationality. Strong linkage disequilibria were noted among the SNPs. The commonest haplotype was G-C-G-C-T-G-C-C-G (>10%). The frequencies of C-C-G-C-T-G-T-C-G, G-C-A-C-T-G-C-C-G, G-C-G-C-T-A-C-C-A, G-C-G-C-T-G-C-C-A, G-C-G-C-T-G-T-C-A haplotypes were different between the two populations. Haplotypes could explain much more serum lipid variation than any single SNP alone especially for TG. Differences in lipid profiles between the two populations might partially attribute to these SNPs and their haplotypes. PMID:26744084

  6. The relationship between dietary lipids and serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Ali R; Nabipour, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in humans, particularly in postmenopausal women. Inflammation has been shown to play a basic role in the development of CVD. In light of the involvement of adipocytokines and dietary lipids in the induction of inflammation in CVD, this study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between dietary lipids and two well-known adipocytokines, visfatin and adiponectin. A total of 374 postmenopausal women were randomly selected from 13 geographical clusters in Bushehr port. Serum visfatin and adiponectin were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay technique and current dietary intake was recorded with a food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day recall. Each food and beverage was analyzed for macro- and micronutrient content. Bivariate correlation analysis showed a correlation between serum visfatin level and dietary SFA, n-6 PUFA and cholesterol intake. In multiple regression analyses, serum visfatin levels showed a significant positive correlation with dietary SFA (β=0.06, p=0.01), PUFA (β=0.02, p=0.02) and cholesterol (β=0.005, p=0.002) after controlling for age, diabetes, total energy intake and BMI. There was no significant relationship between dietary MUFA intake and serum visfatin level. No significant correlations were found between age- and BMI-adjusted adiponectin and dietary SFA, MUFA or n-6 PUFA intake (p>0.05). We found a positive relationship between dietary SFA, PUFA and cholesterol with serum visfatin level in postmenopausal women, and conclude that the postmenopause-induced inflammatory responses may be modulated at least in part by dietary modification.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  8. [Lipid levels of a healthy population in the region of Extremadura].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, P; Fernández de los Ríos, A; Sanz, A; Cabanillas, A; Díaz, F; Rodilla, C S; Piñán, E

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of the first epidemiological study on lipidic levels among a healthy population from Extremadura. The study included 1.128 subjects, 520 males and 608 females, distributed by age and sex. Average total cholesterol levels were 228 +/- 40 mg/dl among middle-age and 215.6 +/- 43 mg/dl among women. We observed a significant reduction of these figures in ages above 60. In addition, we observed significant differences in HDL-Ch levels between men and women from all ages, with higher values among women and we only observed significant differences regarding total cholesterol levels between men and women in the 20-29 and 40-49 age-groups. Total cholesterol levels were higher than 220 mg/dl in more than half the studied population between 40 and 60 years of age and higher than 250 mg/dl in 20% of the subjects in such age groups. These data suggest the need for dietary changes in near 70% of the population if cholesterol levels are to approach the recommendations of the Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis.

  9. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  10. First-line treatment patterns and lipid target levels attainment in very high cardiovascular risk outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients at very high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate lipid treatment patterns, rates and predictors of lipid targets attainment, in such outpatients in an urban area of Greece. Methods This was a prospective observational study, conducted in 19 outpatient clinics of Western Greece. We recruited patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM), previously (at least 3 months before baseline assessment) untreated with any lipid lowering medication. Lipid profile assessment was performed at baseline (prior to lipid-lowering treatment initiation) and at follow-up. Lipid lowering treatment choice was at physicians’ discretion and was kept constant until follow-up. Results We recruited 712 patients with a mean age 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 68.0% males, 43.0% with DM, 64.7% with prior coronary artery disease-CAD. In total, 237/712 (33.3%) of prescribed regimens were of high or very high LDL-C lowering efficacy and out of them 113/237 (47.7%) comprised a combination of statin and ezetimibe. At follow-up the primary target of LDL-C < 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) was achieved in 71(10.0%) patients. The secondary target of non-HDL-C < 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in the subgroup of patients with DM or increased triglycerides levels (>150 mg/dl or 1.7 mmol/L) was achieved in 45(11.6%) of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis (AUC = 0.71, 95% CIs 0.65-0.77, p < 0.001) male gender, smoking, baseline LDL-C and very high potency LDL-C lowering regimen emerged as independent predictors of LDL-C goal attainment (OR = 1.88, 95% CIs 1.03-3.44, p = 0.04, OR = 0.57, 95% CIs 0.33-0.96, p = 0.04, OR = 0.98, 95% CIs 0.98-0.99, p < 0.001 and OR = 2.21, 95% CIs 1.15-4.24, p = 0.02 respectively). Conclusions First-line management of dyslipidemia among very

  11. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  12. Traditional and alternative nutrition--levels of homocysteine and lipid parameters in adults.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Babinská, K; Kopcová, J; Klvanová, J; Béderová, A; Magálová, T

    2000-12-01

    Values of homocysteine and lipid parameters were measured in groups of adults consuming alternative nutrition (vegetarians/lactoovo/, vegans) and compared with a group consuming traditional diet (omnivores, general population). Frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia was 53% in the vegans group, 28% in vegetarians vs. 5% in omnivores. In conditions of lower methionine intake (reduced content in plant proteins), the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism prevails and it is vitamin B12 and folate-dependent. The intake of vitamin B12 is equal to zero in vegans; vegetarians consume 124% of the RDA vs. 383% in omnivores. Serum vitamin levels are significantly lower in subjects consuming alternative nutrition with deficiency observed in 24% of vegetarians, 78% of vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. Serum folate levels are within the reference range in all groups. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia in the groups consuming alternative diet is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Vegetarians and vegans meet the RDA for energy and fat, and have a favourable proportion of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on total energy intake; the ratio of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid in their diet corresponds with the recommendations. They have low cholesterol consumption and higher vitamin E and C intake. Optimal fat intake of correct composition is reflected in lower values of atherosclerosis risk factors (cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, saturated fatty acids, triacylglycerols), and significantly higher levels of protective substances (linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, HDL-cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin E/cholesterol, vitamin C). Low lipid risk factors but higher findings of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians mean a diminished protective effect of alternative nutrition in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  13. Traditional and alternative nutrition--levels of homocysteine and lipid parameters in adults.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Babinská, K; Kopcová, J; Klvanová, J; Béderová, A; Magálová, T

    2000-12-01

    Values of homocysteine and lipid parameters were measured in groups of adults consuming alternative nutrition (vegetarians/lactoovo/, vegans) and compared with a group consuming traditional diet (omnivores, general population). Frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia was 53% in the vegans group, 28% in vegetarians vs. 5% in omnivores. In conditions of lower methionine intake (reduced content in plant proteins), the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism prevails and it is vitamin B12 and folate-dependent. The intake of vitamin B12 is equal to zero in vegans; vegetarians consume 124% of the RDA vs. 383% in omnivores. Serum vitamin levels are significantly lower in subjects consuming alternative nutrition with deficiency observed in 24% of vegetarians, 78% of vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. Serum folate levels are within the reference range in all groups. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia in the groups consuming alternative diet is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Vegetarians and vegans meet the RDA for energy and fat, and have a favourable proportion of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on total energy intake; the ratio of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid in their diet corresponds with the recommendations. They have low cholesterol consumption and higher vitamin E and C intake. Optimal fat intake of correct composition is reflected in lower values of atherosclerosis risk factors (cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, saturated fatty acids, triacylglycerols), and significantly higher levels of protective substances (linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, HDL-cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin E/cholesterol, vitamin C). Low lipid risk factors but higher findings of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians mean a diminished protective effect of alternative nutrition in cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:11218148

  14. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). A significant 20% reduction in hepatic LDL receptor protein expression was also observed with empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. PMID:27207551

  15. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). A significant 20% reduction in hepatic LDL receptor protein expression was also observed with empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion.

  16. Effects of estrogen dose and smoking on lipid and lipoprotein levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Krauss, R M; Perlman, J A; Ray, R; Petitti, D

    1988-06-01

    The joint effects of conjugated estrogen use, age, body mass index, and smoking on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were assessed in 585 women who used oral estrogen and 1093 women who did not who participated in the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study. Whether administered daily or cyclically, conjugated estrogen was associated with reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The adjusted mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 132 mg/dl for women who used conjugated estrogen in a dose greater than or equal to 1.25 mg/day; the adjusted corresponding mean concentration was 147 mg/dl for postmenopausal women who did not use estrogen. A dose-response pattern was demonstrated between conjugated estrogen and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. A maximum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level reduction was reached at a dose of 1.25 mg, suggesting a saturation phenomenon. Stepwise dose-response increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also found with estrogen therapy, with a maximum increase of 8 to 10 mg/dl observed with the 1.25 mg dose. Estrogen-related rises in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were offset by 2 to 3 mg/dl in women who smoked. It may be concluded, therefore, that among postmenopausal women, low-risk lipoprotein profiles as assessed by low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are found in nonsmokers whose postmenopausal hormone therapy includes the equivalent of a conjugated estrogen dose of 1.25 mg.

  17. Secular trends in serum lipid levels of a Middle Eastern adult population; 10 years follow up in Tehran lipid and glucose study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine trends in the population levels of serum lipids among a Middle-Eastern adult population with high prevalence of dyslipidemia. Methods A population-based cohort of adult Iranian participants, aged ≥20 years underwent four consecutive examinations between 1999–2001 and 2008–2011. Trends in age and multivariate-adjusted mean lipid levels were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Results At each of the 4 assessments, there were significant decreases in levels of total cholesterol (TC) (multivariate-adjusted means, 5.21 vs. 4.88 mmol/L in men; 5.42 vs. 5.07 mmol/L in women), triglycerides (TGs) (2.11 vs. 1.94 mmol/L in men; 1.88 vs. 1.74 mmol/L in women), and an increase in HDL-C level in both genders (0.95 vs. 1.058 mmol/L in men; 1.103 vs. 1.246 mmol/L in women) in multivariate analyses (all Ps <0.001); however, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased simultaneously (25.92 vs. 27.45 kg/m2 in men; 27.76 vs. 30.02 kg/m2 in women) (P < 0.001). There were significant (P < 0.001) increases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels only among men (5.35 vs. 5.73 mmol/L). Results did not change after excluding participants that had cardiovascular disease or used lipid lowering drugs during follow-up. There were significant decreases in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia (all Ps <0.001) during follow-up. Furthermore, the consumption of lipid lowering drugs significantly increased (P <0.001). Conclusion During a 10 years follow-up, favorable trends were observed in the population levels of TC, triglycerides, HDL-C, which could not be fully accounted for by the increase observed in the consumption of lipid lowering drugs. These favorable trends were counterbalanced by the progressive increase in general obesity and FPG level. PMID:24456699

  18. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lipid Abnormalities: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Lin-Huang; Chen, I-Ju; Chiu, Jung-Peng; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of green tea extract on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities on glycemic and lipid profiles, and hormone peptides by a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities randomized into 2 arms, each arm comprising 46 participants. Of the participants, 39 in therapeutic arm took 500 mg green tea extract, three times a day, while 38 in control arm took cellulose with the same dose and frequency to complete the 16-week study. Anthropometrics measurements, glycemic and lipid profiles, safety parameters, and obesity-related hormone peptides were analyzed at screening and after 16-week course. Within-group comparisons showed that green tea extract caused a significant decrease in triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index after 16 weeks. Green tea extract also increased significantly high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The HOMA-IR index decreased from 5.4±3.9 to 3.5±2.0 in therapeutic arm only. Adiponectin, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B100 increased significantly in both arms, but only glucagon-like peptide 1 increased in the therapeutic arm. However, only decreasing trend in triglyceride was found in between-group comparison. Our study suggested that green tea extract significantly improved insulin resistance and increased glucagon-like peptide 1 only in within-group comparison. The potential effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 warrant further investigation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01360567 PMID:24614112

  19. [Plasma lipid levels in men aged 30-59 years living in rural areas of the Buriat ASSR (epidemiological study)].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Shelud'ko, L P; Shakalis, D A; Filimonova, T A

    1988-12-01

    A simultaneous epidemiologic survey was carried out in 1985-1986 to assess plasma lipids and lipoproteins in 30-to-59-year-old male rural residents of Buryatia. Comparative characteristics of plasma lipid profiles are presented for the native populations and newcomers to the land. Buryats and other natives were shown to have lower levels of atherogenic lipoproteins (LDLP CS, VLDLP CS) and lipids (CS, TG) and higher levels of antiatherogenic HDLP CS, as compared to the newcomers. Mean LDLP CS levels and the atherogenic index were significantly lower, and HDLP CS levels, significantly higher, in the Buryats, as compared to other natives. Specialized studies may throw light on the causes of these differences.

  20. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. PMID:26435258

  1. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer.

  2. Effects of pyrene on antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation level in mangrove plants, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wang, Yu-Tu; Peng, Ya-Lan; Cheng, Hao

    2012-08-01

    The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) (pyrene) on superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline were studied in leaves, stems and roots of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. The results showed that the responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants varied significantly among the three tissues studied. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in PAH-treated stems and roots fluctuated in different stress levels compared to the controls, while the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, APX in leaves increased when stressed by PAH with a significant positive relation between PAH and leaf SOD or APX activity. Low PAH treatments could also stimulate proline in leaves and stems. MDA content was obviously accumulated in stems and roots under PAH stress while decreased in leaves, indicating that the increased antioxidant enzymes in leaves may partly alleviate lipid peroxidation. For pollution monitoring purpose, SOD and APX in leaves may be potential biomarkers of PAH pollution in intertidal estuaries.

  3. Loss of haem from cytochrome P-450 caused by lipid peroxidation and 2-allyl-2-isoprophylacetamide. An abnormal pathway not involving production of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, F; Gibbs, A H; Unseld, A

    1977-01-01

    1. Microsomal preparations undergoing lipid peroxidation produce CO and lose haem from cytochrome P-450. 2. The amount of CO produced does not correlate with the amount of haem lost and, after pre-labelling of microsomal haem in its bridges with 5-amino[5-14C]laevulinate, the radioactivity lost from haem is not recorved as CO. 3. Similarly, when pre-labelled microsomal haem is destroyed by the action of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide, no radioactivity is recovered as CO. In clear contrast, on degradation of haem by the haem oxygenase system, CO is produced in an amount equimolar to the haem lost. 4. It is concluded that (a) the CO produced during lipid peroxidation originates from a source different from haem and (b) the degradations of haem caused by lipid peroxidation and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide do not involve to any significant extent evolution of the methene-bridge carbon of haem as CO. PMID:606245

  4. Interactions of several lipid-related gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Cao, Xiao-Li; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Miao, Lin; Long, Xing-Jiang; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG), alleles (ABCA-1), and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1) were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1), and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and PP (LIPC) in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9), DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD), and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9) in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking. PMID:22606049

  5. Pomegranate juice consumption increases GSH levels and reduces lipid and protein oxidation in human blood.

    PubMed

    Matthaiou, Chrysoula M; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Sarafoglou, Eleni; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Koulocheri, Sofia D; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption in humans. Thus, 14 healthy volunteers consumed PJ daily for a period of 15days and the changes of oxidative stress markers in their blood were assessed at four different time points, immediately before the experiment (T1), after 15days of juice administration (T2), one (T3) and three weeks (T4) after the interruption of PJ administration. The markers studied were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyls (CARB) measured in plasma, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity (CAT) measured in erythrocytes. The MDA was reduced by 24.4% at T3 and CARB were reduced by 19.6% and 17.7% at T2 and T3, respectively, supporting the evidence that PJ consumption enhances the antioxidant status in humans by decreasing lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Moreover, GSH levels were significantly increased (22.6%) at T2, indicating that PJ consumption improves the antioxidant mechanisms in erythrocytes by increasing GSH levels. Finally, it was shown that even a week after stopping PJ consumption some of its beneficial effects on antioxidant status still remained in the organism.

  6. Recovery of motor deficit, cerebellar serotonin and lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of injured rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Nekrassov-Protasova, Vladimir; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Montes, Sergio; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso

    2010-10-01

    The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum. PMID:20535555

  7. Effects of a resistive training program on lipoprotein--lipid levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Manning, J M; Dooly-Manning, C R; White, K; Kampa, I; Silas, S; Kesselhaut, M; Ruoff, M

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a resistive training program on the time course of changes in strength, body mass index, lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in sedentary obese women. Sixteen sedentary obese women strength trained 3 times . wk-1 for 12 wk performing three sets of six to eight repetitions per set with sets 1 and 2 at 60-70% of one-repetition maximum. During set 3, the subjects used the greatest weight possible so that failure occurred between six to eight repetitions. Six sedentary obese women served as controls. Blood samples for serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), TC/HDL-C ratio, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) were obtained pre, and after 4, 8, and 12 wk of training and approximately 3-4 d following the last training session. A 3-d dietary record was obtained on all subjects pre and post, and subjects were instructed not to alter their diet. The 12 wk of resistive training did not result in a significant change in body weight, BMI, or total kilocalories consumed per day but did show a mean improvement of 58% in muscular strength (P less than 0.05). The training program did not significantly alter the TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C ratio, apo A-I, or apo B-100 levels, which suggests that this increase in strength owing to resistive training in the absence of body weight loss did not alter the lipid profiles in these sedentary obese women.

  8. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  9. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E; Brinton, Eliot A; Triscari, Joseph; Chen, Erluo; Maccubbin, Darbie; MacLean, Alexandra A; Gibson, Kendra L; Ruck, Rae Ann; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; O’Neill, Edward A; Mitchel, Yale B

    2015-01-01

    Background The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT) in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796), examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a), compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758). PMID:25750540

  10. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  11. Several lipid-related gene polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to modulate blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Yan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Xiao-Li; Long, Xing-Jiang; Miao, Lin; Liu, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Lin; Li, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. The present study was undertaken to detect 10 lipid-related gene SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G > A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C > T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C > T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed in 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The genotypes of ACAT-1 AC, LIPC GA and AA, and SCARB1 TT; LDL-R A-A- and LIPC GA; and SCARB1 TT were interacted with overweight/obesity to increase systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) levels; respectively. The genotypes of ACAT-1 CC; ACAT-1 AA and CC were interacted with overweight/obesity to decrease SBP, PP levels (p < 0.01-0.001); respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and overweight/obesity. PMID:23109900

  12. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  13. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet. PMID:26563870

  14. High levels of endogenous lipid mediators (N-acylethanolamines) in women with chronic widespread pain during acute tissue trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri, Bijar; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Gerdle, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Although chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a significant health problem, the molecular mechanisms involved in developing and maintaining chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain are poorly understood. Central sensitization mechanisms maintained by stimuli from peripheral tissues such as muscle have been suggested. Lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory characteristics such as endogenous ligands of peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-α, oleoylethanolamide, and palmitoylethanolamide are suggested to regulate nociceptive transmission from peripheral locations on route towards the central nervous system. This case–control study investigates the levels of anti-inflammatory lipids in microdialysis samples collected during the first 2 h after microdialysis probe insertion and explores the association of these lipids with different pain characteristics in women with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (n = 17) and female healthy controls (n = 19). The levels of oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, and stearoylethanolamide were determined. During sampling of dialysate, pain ratings were conducted using a numeric rating scale. Pain thresholds were registered from upper and lower parts of the body. Oleoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain at all time points. Numeric rating scale correlated with levels of stearoylethanolamide in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. Higher levels of lipid mediators could reflect an altered tissue reactivity in response to microdialysis probe insertion in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27531672

  15. [Relationship between polyreactive properties of immunoglobulins and level of lipids in them].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A; Margitich, V M; Klimashevskiĭ, V M; Artamonov, M V; Gulaia, N M

    2001-01-01

    Presented paper deals with the relationship between immunoglobulin polyreactive properties and its lipid composition. Serum blood immunoglobulin fraction of an intact rabbit as an experimental model was used. Immunoglobulins (Ig) obtained by this way were transformed into polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIg) by treatment with chaotropic agent KSCN or reactive oxygen species (ROS) with usage of Fe2+, EDTA and ascorbic acid. It was demonstrated that native Ig were able to bind with immobilized antigen (ovalbumin) and this ability dramatically increased after transformation of Ig into PRIg. The high immunoreactivity of PRIg was associated with marked fall (by 2-3 fold) of total phospholipids as well as individual ones--sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acids of the Ig and PRIg phospholipid fractions in the sequence to decreasing decrease were stearic, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. The treatment of Ig by chaotropic agent and ROS led to decrease of stearic acid and enhancement of oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids. The level of free cholesterol of Ig did not differ from that of PRIg. At the same time the content of cholesterol esters of PRIg was substantially diminished if compare with Ig. The main fatty acids of the Ig and PRIg cholesterol ester fraction in the sequence to decreasing were arachidonic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids. Transformation of Ig into PRIg was accompanied by enhancement of stearic acid level and loss of docosapentaenoic, arachidonic and palmitoleic acids. The results presented here support the idea about non peroxidative manner of the phospholipid and cholesterol ester extrusion from Ig molecule under its transformation into PRIg. Rather the last process could be explained by the term of concurrent physico-chemical interaction of Ig molecule with chaotropic agent or ROS leading to fall of lipid content. The presented data for the first time provide us an opportunity to conclude that transformation of

  16. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  17. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  18. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Ke-Ke; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  19. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  20. Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P < 0.05). Protein retention ratio was highest in 51.4 g kg(-1) diet group. The results revealed that the optimum dietary lipid level for maximum growth performance is 76.6-87.9 g kg(-1). Increasing dietary lipid levels contributed to increased tissue and whole body lipid levels. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) m

  1. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  2. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  3. Atomic-level description of protein-lipid interactions using an accelerated membrane model.

    PubMed

    Baylon, Javier L; Vermaas, Josh V; Muller, Melanie P; Arcario, Mark J; Pogorelov, Taras V; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins are structurally diverse proteins that are involved in fundamental cellular processes. Their activity of these proteins is frequently modulated through their interaction with cellular membranes, and as a result techniques to study the interfacial interaction between peripheral proteins and the membrane are in high demand. Due to the fluid nature of the membrane and the reversibility of protein-membrane interactions, the experimental study of these systems remains a challenging task. Molecular dynamics simulations offer a suitable approach to study protein-lipid interactions; however, the slow dynamics of the lipids often prevents sufficient sampling of specific membrane-protein interactions in atomistic simulations. To increase lipid dynamics while preserving the atomistic detail of protein-lipid interactions, in the highly mobile membrane-mimetic (HMMM) model the membrane core is replaced by an organic solvent, while short-tailed lipids provide a nearly complete representation of natural lipids at the organic solvent/water interface. Here, we present a brief introduction and a summary of recent applications of the HMMM to study different membrane proteins, complementing the experimental characterization of the presented systems, and we offer a perspective of future applications of the HMMM to study other classes of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov. PMID:26940626

  4. Lipidomics: a mass spectrometry based, systems level analysis of cellular lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex

    2009-01-01

    Lipidomics is a logical outcome of the history and traditions of lipid biochemistry and advances in mass spectrometry are at the heart of a renaissance in understanding the roles of lipids in cellular functions. Our desire to understand the complexity of lipids in biology has led to new techniques that allow us to identify over 1000 phospholipids in mammalian cell types and tissues. Improvements in chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry have positioned us to determine not only the lipid composition (i.e., parts list) of cells and tissues, but also address questions regarding lipid substrates and products that previously overwhelmed traditional analytical technologies. In the decade since lipidomics was conceived much of the efforts have been on new methodologies, development of computer programs to decipher the gigabytes of raw data, and struggling with the highly variable nature of biological systems where absolute quantities of a given metabolite may be less important than its relative change in concentration. It is clear that the technology is now sufficiently developed to address fundamental questions about the roles of lipids in cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. PMID:19744877

  5. Atomic-level description of protein-lipid interactions using an accelerated membrane model.

    PubMed

    Baylon, Javier L; Vermaas, Josh V; Muller, Melanie P; Arcario, Mark J; Pogorelov, Taras V; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins are structurally diverse proteins that are involved in fundamental cellular processes. Their activity of these proteins is frequently modulated through their interaction with cellular membranes, and as a result techniques to study the interfacial interaction between peripheral proteins and the membrane are in high demand. Due to the fluid nature of the membrane and the reversibility of protein-membrane interactions, the experimental study of these systems remains a challenging task. Molecular dynamics simulations offer a suitable approach to study protein-lipid interactions; however, the slow dynamics of the lipids often prevents sufficient sampling of specific membrane-protein interactions in atomistic simulations. To increase lipid dynamics while preserving the atomistic detail of protein-lipid interactions, in the highly mobile membrane-mimetic (HMMM) model the membrane core is replaced by an organic solvent, while short-tailed lipids provide a nearly complete representation of natural lipids at the organic solvent/water interface. Here, we present a brief introduction and a summary of recent applications of the HMMM to study different membrane proteins, complementing the experimental characterization of the presented systems, and we offer a perspective of future applications of the HMMM to study other classes of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  6. Severe alterations in lipid composition of frontal cortex lipid rafts from Parkinson's disease and incidental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson's disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Abnormal epigenetic regulation of the gene expression levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b: Implications for neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    BAI, BAOLING; CHEN, SHUYUAN; ZHANG, QIN; JIANG, QIAN; LI, HUILI

    2016-01-01

    The association between Wnt genes and neural tube defects (NTDs) is recognized, however, it remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are affected in human NTDs. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Wnt2b and Wnt7b are susceptible to abnormal epigenetic modification in NTDs, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to evaluate histone enrichments and the MassARRAY platform to detect the methylation levels of target regions within Wnt genes. The results demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Wnt2b and Wnt7b were abnormally upregulated in mouse fetuses with NTDs and, in the GC-rich promoters of these genes, histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) acetylation was enriched, whereas H3K27 trimethylation was reduced. Furthermore, several CpG sites in the altered histone modification of target regions were significantly hypomethylated. The present study also detected abnormal epigenetic modifications of these Wnt genes in human NTDs. In conclusion, the present study detected abnormal upregulation in the levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b, and hypothesized that the alterations may be due to the ectopic opening of chromatin structure. These results improve understanding of the dysregulation of epigenetic modification of Wnt genes in NTDs. PMID:26548512

  9. Metabolomics analysis reveals the association between lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis, and Nrf2 dysfunction in aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Wang, Hui-Ling; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Bai, Xu; Lin, Rui-Chao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative medicines are commonly used for the disease prevention and treatment worldwide. Aristolochic acid (AAI) nephropathy (AAN) is a common and rapidly progressive interstitial nephropathy caused by ingestion of Aristolochia herbal medications. Available data on pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of AAN are limited and were explored here. SD rats were randomized to AAN and control groups. AAN group was treated with AAI by oral gavage for 12 weeks and observed for additional 12 weeks. Kidneys were processed for histological evaluation, Western blotting, and metabolomics analyses using UPLC-QTOF/HDMS. The concentrations of two phosphatidylcholines, two diglycerides and two acyl-carnitines were significantly altered in AAI treated rats at week 4 when renal function and histology were unchanged. Data obtained on weeks 8 to 24 revealed progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, inflammation, renal dysfunction, activation of NF-κB, TGF-β, and oxidative pathways, impaired Nrf2 system, and profound changes in lipid metabolites including numerous PC, lysoPC, PE, lysoPE, ceramides and triglycerides. In conclusion, exposure to AAI results in dynamic changes in kidney tissue fatty acid, phospholipid, and glycerolipid metabolisms prior to and after the onset of detectable changes in renal function or histology. These findings point to participation of altered tissue lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of AAN. PMID:26251179

  10. Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Dawn M; Ricketts, Sally L; Song, Kijoung; Chen, Li; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ripatti, Samuli; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Zhang, Weihua; Yuan, Xin; Lim, Noha; Luan, Jian’an; Ashford, Sofie; Wheeler, Eleanor; Young, Elizabeth H; Hadley, David; Thompson, John R; Braund, Peter S; Johnson, Toby; Struchalin, Maksim; Surakka, Ida; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodwell, Sheila A; Loos, Ruth J F; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Inouye, Michael; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Elliott, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Scuteri, Angelo; Jackson, Anne; Mohlke, Karen L; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Mahley, Robert W; Grundy, Scott M; Hofman, Albert; McArdle, Wendy; Cardon, Lon; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Chambers, John C; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Salomaa, Veikko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Barroso, Inês; Epstein, Stephen E; Hakonarson, Hakon H; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Strachan, David P; Barter, Philip; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Peltonen, Leena; Wareham, Nicholas J; McPherson, Ruth; Mooser, Vincent; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Genetic studies might provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and risk of CAD. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel genetic determinants of LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides. Methods and results We combined genome-wide association data from eight studies, comprising up to 17,723 participants with information on circulating lipid concentrations. We did independent replication studies in up to 37,774 participants from eight populations and also in a population of Indian Asian descent. We also assessed the association between SNPs at lipid loci and risk of CAD in up to 9,633 cases and 38,684 controls. We identified four novel genetic loci that showed reproducible associations with lipids (P values 1.6 × 10−8 to 3.1 × 10−10). These include a potentially functional SNP in the SLC39A8 gene for HDL-c, a SNP near the MYLIP/GMPR and PPP1R3B genes for LDL-c and at the AFF1 gene for triglycerides. SNPs showing strong statistical association with one or more lipid traits at the CELSR2, APOB, APOE-C1-C4-C2 cluster, LPL, ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1 cluster and TRIB1 loci were also associated with CAD risk (P values 1.1 × 10−3 to 1.2 × 10−9). Conclusions We have identified four novel loci associated with circulating lipids. We also show that in addition to those that are largely associated with LDL-c, genetic loci mainly associated with circulating triglycerides and HDL-c are also associated with risk of CAD. These findings potentially provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and CAD risk. PMID:20864672

  11. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies. PMID:1387478

  12. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  13. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  14. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  15. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  16. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  17. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  18. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  19. The effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, H

    1987-10-01

    This review examines the effects of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on blood lipids. These agents have been effective in the treatment of angina and hypertension and in the reduction of recurrence of ischemic cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction. Many beta blockers, however, have an adverse effect on blood lipids, especially by reducing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increasing triglycerides. One result is an unfavorable influence on the cholesterol ratio (expressed either as low-density lipoprotein [LDL]/HDL or total cholesterol/HDL). These cholesterol parameters have been shown to have a strong influence on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Studies have shown that antihypertensive therapy has reduced the incidence of cerebrovascular disease but, in many instances, has not reduced the incidence of CHD. A hypothesis for this lesser effect on coronary disease is that antihypertensive agents may be adversely affecting blood lipids. Thus, while one major risk factor for CHD is reduced, another may be somewhat enhanced. Pharmacologic properties of some beta blockers such as peripheral alpha blockade (e.g., with labetalol) or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) (e.g., with pindolol) may counteract some of these negative lipid effects. An investigational beta blocker, bevantolol, which will be marketed shortly in the United States, has been effective in antihypertensive therapy. Bevantolol has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol and not adversely affect HDL cholesterol; in this way, bevantolol favorably influences the serum lipoprotein profile. Whether this effect will have clinical significance remains to be seen.

  20. L-asparaginase-induced abnormality in plasma glucose level in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted to a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Mousumee; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Panigrahi, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate any abnormal change in plasma glucose levels in patients treated with L-asparaginase (L-Asp)-based chemotherapy regimen in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in patients of ALL, admitted to the Clinical Haematology Department of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha from August 2014 to July 2015. Indoor records of 146 patients on multi-centered protocol-841 were evaluated for any alteration in plasma glucose level, time of onset of hypo/hyperglycemia, and persistence of plasma glucose alteration. Results: Twenty-one percent of patients showed abnormal plasma glucose level. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group, whereas a majority of higher age group patients developed hyperglycemia. In majority of the cases, abnormal glucose developed after three doses of L-Asp. Hypoglycemia subsided whereas hyperglycemia persisted till the end of our observation period. Conclusions: L-Asp produces more incidences of hypoglycemia than hyperglycemia in a good number of ALL patients towards which clinicians should be more vigilant. However, hyperglycemia persists for a longer duration than hypoglycemia. PMID:27721550

  1. Alterations in superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in thinner inhaled rat lungs: relationship between histopathological properties.

    PubMed

    Ulakoğlu, E Z; Saygi, A; Gümüştaş, M K; Zor, E; Oztek, I; Kökoğlu, E

    1998-09-01

    Paint thinner has widespread use in industry. The use of thinner among children as a narcotic agent has become a social and health problem. There is some evidence that organic solvents may express their toxicity by the way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cell damage. ROS has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. This study examined peroxidative and histopathological changes in the rat lung, during 5 weeks of thinner inhalation. Significant increases were found in lipid peroxidation (MDA+4-DHA) levels related to the duration of inhalation. As opposed to increases in the lipid peroxidation levels, significant decreases in superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels were observed from the third inhalation week to the end of the fifth week. At the beginning of the inhalation slight inflammatory changes, intraalveolar and interstitial extravasation and oedema in lung parenchyma were noted. As the inhalation period extended, chronic inflammatory changes, alveolar epithelial proliferation, collapse, emphysematous changes and interstitial fibrosis in lung were detected. PMID:9782071

  2. Production of lipids containing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid by a newly isolated microalga, Aurantiochytrium sp. KRS101.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won-Kyung; Rairakhwada, Dina; Seo, Pil-Soo; Park, Sung-Yong; Hur, Byung-Ki; Kim, Chul Ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, a novel oleaginous Thraustochytrid containing a high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was isolated from a mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia. The strain identified as an Aurantiochytrium sp. by 18S rRNA sequencing and named KRS101 used various carbon and nitrogen sources, indicating metabolic versatility. Optimal culture conditions, thus maximizing cell growth, and high levels of lipid and DHA production, were attained using glucose (60 g l⁻¹) as carbon source, corn steep solid (10 g l⁻¹) as nitrogen source, and sea salt (15 g l⁻¹). The highest biomass, lipid, and DHA production of KRS101 upon fed-batch fermentation were 50.2 g l⁻¹ (16.7 g l⁻¹ day⁻¹), 21.8 g l⁻¹ (44% DCW), and 8.8 g l⁻¹ (40% TFA), respectively. Similar values were obtained when a cheap substrate like molasses, rather than glucose, was used as the carbon source (DCW of 52.44 g l⁻¹, lipid and DHA levels of 20.2 and 8.83 g l⁻¹, respectively), indicating that production of microbial oils containing high levels of DHA can be produced economically when the novel strain is used.

  3. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  4. Parenteral lipid emulsions in guinea pigs differentially influence plasma and tissue levels of fatty acids, squalene, cholesterol, and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Walker, Candace; Pavlina, Thomas; McGrath, Sheila; Zaloga, Gary; Siddiqui, Rafat

    2014-08-01

    Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute administration, peak triacylglycerols were highest with SO and lowest with OOSO. Upon chronic administration, the plasma triglyceride levels did not increase in any group over that of the controls. Fatty acid levels varied greatly between organs of animals on the control diets and organs of animals following acute or chronic lipid administration. Squalene levels increased in plasma following acute administration of OOSO, but plasma squalene levels were similar to control in all emulsion groups following chronic administration. Total plasma phytosterol levels were increased in the SO, OOSO, and FOCS groups following both acute and chronic infusions, whereas phytosterols were not increased following FO infusion. Total phytosterol levels were higher in liver, lung, kidney and adipose tissue following SO and OOSO. Levels were not increased in tissues after FO and FOCS infusion. These results indicate that fatty acid and sterol contents vary greatly among organs and that no one tissue reflects the fatty acid or sterol composition of other tissues, suggesting that different organs regulate these compounds differently.

  5. Effects of isoflavones on lipid and apolipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in Heilongjiang Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiao-Xing; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Yu, Wei; Wang, Qiu-Ying; Zhen, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between soy isoflavones and lipid profiles, apolipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in China. The study population was composed of 120 cases (80 women with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy women). Objects in treatment group received isoflavones 435 mg/day for 2 months, then lipid profiles were analyzed by the colorimetry method and apolipoprotein levels were determined by immune turbidimetric method. And all the indexes were determined after oral glucose tolerance test. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C significantly reduced and the levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 significantly raised in the treatment group after intervention (p<0.05). After oral glucose tolerance test, the level of total cholesterol was lower at postprandial 6 h than at empty stomach in treatment group, it had significantly difference (p<0.05). LDL-C levels in the treatment group not only decreased after intervention, but also was significantly lower at postprandial 4, 6 h than in non-intervention group. The ratio of apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B at postprandial 2 h was the highest after treatment in isoflavone group. Supplementation with 435 mg/day of isoflavones exerted favorable effect on the blood total cholesterol, LDL-C levels and the ratio of apolipoprotein A1/apolipoprotein B in Chinese type 2 diabetes women.

  6. Induction of Embryogenesis in Brassica Napus Microspores Produces a Callosic Subintinal Layer and Abnormal Cell Walls with Altered Levels of Callose and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The induction of microspore embryogenesis produces dramatic changes in different aspects of the cell physiology and structure. Changes at the cell wall level are among the most intriguing and poorly understood. In this work, we used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution, immunolocalization, confocal, and electron microscopy to analyze the structure and composition of the first cell walls formed during conventional Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis, and in cultures treated to alter the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our results revealed that one of the first signs of embryogenic commitment is the formation of a callose-rich, cellulose-deficient layer beneath the intine (the subintinal layer), and of irregular, incomplete cell walls. In these events, Ca2+ may have a role. We propose that abnormal cell walls are due to a massive callose synthesis and deposition of excreted cytoplasmic material, and the parallel inhibition of cellulose synthesis. These features were absent in pollen-like structures and in microspore-derived embryos, few days after the end of the heat shock, where abnormal cell walls were no longer produced. Together, our results provide an explanation to a series of relevant aspects of microspore embryogenesis including the role of Ca2+ and the occurrence of abnormal cell walls. In addition, our discovery may be the explanation to why nuclear fusions take place during microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26635844

  7. Tysnd1 Deficiency in Mice Interferes with the Peroxisomal Localization of PTS2 Enzymes, Causing Lipid Metabolic Abnormalities and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yumi; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Iseki, Mioko; Iwasa, Hiroyasu; Akita, Masumi; Tsukui, Tohru; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Nishimukai, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Maeba, Ryouta; Okazaki, Tomoki; Alodaib, Ali Nasser Ali; Amoudi, Mohammed Al; Jacob, Minnie; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Horai, Yasushi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Motegi, Hiromi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Noda, Tetsuo; Kurochkin, Igor V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Schönbach, Christian; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles involved in lipid metabolic processes, including those of very-long-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids, among others. Peroxisome matrix proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Targeting signals (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of peroxisomal matrix proteins mediate their import into the organelle. In the case of PTS2-containing proteins, the PTS2 signal is cleaved from the protein when transported into peroxisomes. The functional mechanism of PTS2 processing, however, is poorly understood. Previously we identified Tysnd1 (Trypsin domain containing 1) and biochemically characterized it as a peroxisomal cysteine endopeptidase that directly processes PTS2-containing prethiolase Acaa1 and PTS1-containing Acox1, Hsd17b4, and ScpX. The latter three enzymes are crucial components of the very-long-chain fatty acids β-oxidation pathway. To clarify the in vivo functions and physiological role of Tysnd1, we analyzed the phenotype of Tysnd1−/− mice. Male Tysnd1−/− mice are infertile, and the epididymal sperms lack the acrosomal cap. These phenotypic features are most likely the result of changes in the molecular species composition of choline and ethanolamine plasmalogens. Tysnd1−/− mice also developed liver dysfunctions when the phytanic acid precursor phytol was orally administered. Phyh and Agps are known PTS2-containing proteins, but were identified as novel Tysnd1 substrates. Loss of Tysnd1 interferes with the peroxisomal localization of Acaa1, Phyh, and Agps, which might cause the mild Zellweger syndrome spectrum-resembling phenotypes. Our data established that peroxisomal processing protease Tysnd1 is necessary to mediate the physiological functions of PTS2-containing substrates. PMID:23459139

  8. Effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, EE, N, and C in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of lipid source and oxidation level on DE, ME, and ATTD of DM, GE, EE, N, and C of young pigs, 108 barrows (~ 6.66 kg BW) were assigned to 1 of 13 dietary treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control diet and 12 diets containing 10% lipid (corn oil, canola oil, poultry fa...

  9. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  10. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  11. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  12. The impact of low-frequency and rare variants on lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Surakka, Ida; Horikoshi, Momoko; Mägi, Reedik; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Marullo, Letizia; Ferreira, Teresa; Miraglio, Benjamin; Timonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Johannes; Pirinen, Matti; Karjalainen, Juha; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hägg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Isaacs, Aaron; Ladenvall, Claes; Beekman, Marian; Esko, Tõnu; Ried, Janina S; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Gustafsson, Stefan; Westra, Harm-Jan; Blades, Matthew; de Craen, Anton JM; de Geus, Eco J; Deelen, Joris; Grallert, Harald; Hamsten, Anders; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Hyppönen, Elina; Karssen, Lennart C; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mihailov, Evelin; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Perola, Markus; Pers, Tune H; Peters, Annette; Rung, Johan; Smit, Johannes H; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Tobin, Martin D; Tsernikova, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Viikari, Jorma S; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lind, Lars; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Slagboom, P Eline; Groop, Leif; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Power, Christine; Raitakari, Olli T; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Stefansson, Kari; Franke, Lude; Ikonen, Elina; Kallioniemi, Olli; Pietiäinen, Vilja; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Palotie, Aarno; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P; Prokopenko, Inga; Ripatti, Samuli

    2016-01-01

    Using a genome-wide screen of 9.6 million genetic variants achieved through 1000 Genomes imputation in 62,166 samples, we identify association to lipids in 93 loci including 79 previously identified loci with new lead-SNPs, 10 new loci, 15 loci with a low-frequency and 10 loci with missense lead-SNPs, and, 2 loci with an accumulation of rare variants. In six loci, SNPs with established function in lipid genetics (CELSR2, GCKR, LIPC, and APOE), or candidate missense mutations with predicted damaging function (CD300LG and TM6SF2), explained the locus associations. The low-frequency variants increased the proportion of variance explained, particularly for LDL-C and TC. Altogether, our results highlight the impact of low-frequency variants in complex traits and show that imputation offers a cost-effective alternative to re-sequencing. PMID:25961943

  13. [Indices of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system and prostanoid level in patients with uterine cancer].

    PubMed

    Antipova, S V

    2000-10-01

    The state of peroxydal oxidation of lipids, system of antioxidant defense and content of prostanoids in patients with cancer of the corpus uteri were investigated. Syndrome of endogenous intoxication with lowering of antioxidant potential and dysbalance of cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandines was established. The severity of above-cited disorders increased significantly after operation and during conduction of radiotherapy. This demanded administration of antioxidant and detoxicational therapy in complex of preoperative preparation.

  14. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  15. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg de Gaudry, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Kluth, Jessica; Hübschle, Tobias; Fritzsche, Jonas; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Pletschen, Lars; Schilli, Karin; Hodina, Arwen; Griffith, Lee S; Breul, Jürgen; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented. PMID:27351011

  16. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg de Gaudry, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Kluth, Jessica; Hübschle, Tobias; Fritzsche, Jonas; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Pletschen, Lars; Schilli, Karin; Hodina, Arwen; Griffith, Lee S; Breul, Jürgen; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented.

  17. Effects of Marine Phospholipids Extract on the Lipid Levels of Metastatic and Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lenka A.; Kluth, Jessica; Hübschle, Tobias; Fritzsche, Jonas; Hildenbrand, Bernd; Pletschen, Lars; Schilli, Karin; Hodina, Arwen; Griffith, Lee S.; Breul, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    High intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) from fish has shown to reduce metastatic progression of prostate cancer. This clinical trial investigated the influence of high n-3 FA intake (marine phospholipids, MPL) on the FA composition of blood lipids, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and on lipoproteins in prostate cancer patients and elderly men without prostate cancer. MPL supplementation resulted in a significant increase of n-3 FAs (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) in blood lipids, while arachidonic acid (n-6 FA) decreased significantly. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly, but the LDL increase was observed only in subjects with an inactive tumour. Similarly, LPC plasma concentration increased significantly only in patients without tumour. The missing increase of LDL and LPC after MPL supplementation in patients with actively growing (metastasizing) prostate cancer suggests that tumour cells have an elevated demand for LDL and LPC. Due to the MPL-induced increase of n-3 FAs in these blood lipids, it can be assumed that especially actively growing and metastasizing prostate cancer cells are provided with elevated amounts of these antimetastatic n-3 FAs. A hypothetic model explaining the lower incidence of metastatic progression in prostate cancer patients with high fish consumption is presented. PMID:27351011

  18. Correlation between Serum Lipid Levels and Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caixia; Ye, Zengchun; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Qiong; Lou, Tanqi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dyslipidemia is often detected in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies of the relationship between lipid profiles and kidney function have yielded variable results. We aimed to investigate the correlation between serum lipid levels and kidney function evaluated by measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) in Chinese patients with CKD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2036 Chinese CKD patients who had mGFR. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between different serum lipid levels and mGFR, while logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between CKD stages and the risk of different types of dyslipidemia. Results The mean age was 55 years and the mean mGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73m2. After adjusting for some confounders (age, gender, body mass index, a history of diabetes, fasting glucose, a history of hypertension, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking status, hemoglobin, serum potassium, serum albumin, and serum uric acid), serum triglyceride level showed a negative correlation with mGFR (β = -0.006, P = 0.006) in linear regression analysis, and CKD stages were positively related to the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratios were 1.329, 1.868, 2.514 and P were 0.046, < 0.001, < 0.001 for CKD stage 2, 3, 4/5, respectively) in logistic regression anlysis. Conclusions Serum triglyceride level is independently association with mGFR. Patients with reduced kidney function are more likely to have higher serum triglyceride levels. Further longitudinal, multicenter and well-conducted studies are needed to provide more evidence. PMID:27695128

  19. Serum selenium and lipid levels: Associations observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen

    2015-07-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and due to its antioxidant activity, is hypothesized to be beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, the evidence for an association between selenium and health markers such as lipid levels has been mixed. This may be due to substantial variability in the level of selenium intake between populations and potential non-linearity of selenium-health outcome associations. We used the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between serum selenium and lipid levels among participants aged 12 years and older. Associations were evaluated using both linear regression models, as well as ordinal logistic regression and quantile regression models to allow for potential non-linear relationships. In all models, potential confounders of sex, age group, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and cotinine were included. Overall, 40% of participants had total cholesterol levels classified as borderline or elevated, and total cholesterol increased with increasing selenium (p=0.01). A similar pattern was seen for triglycerides (p=0.02). LDL cholesterol was also associated with selenium but not in a linear fashion; HDL cholesterol did not vary with selenium. Multivariate quantile regression showed significant associations between selenium and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The effect of selenium was stronger with increasing quantile for total cholesterol and for triglycerides. In contrast, for LDL cholesterol the association was positive in the 10th and 50th percentiles, but (non-significant and) negative in the 90th percentile. These results show that while selenium may impact cardiovascular health via effects on lipid levels, the associations may not be linear.

  20. Effect of L-thyroxine treatment versus a placebo on serum lipid levels in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Meng, Zhaowei; Jia, Qiang; Ren, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is a common disease and whether L-thyroxine replacement treatment improves serum lipid levels in affected patients remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to assess the effect of L-thyroxine therapy on serum lipid levels in sub-clinical hyperthyroidism. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing continuous data, published until July 2015 were retrieved from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Embase databases and subjected to meta-analysis using Review Manager software version 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Seven RCTs comprising 319 patients were included. The overall methodological quality of the RCTs was good. Statistical analysis revealed that serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased after L-thyroxine treatment [mean difference (MD): −0.23; 95% confidence interval: −0.44, −0.03; P=0.02], while changes of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were not significant (MD: −0.18, P=0.09; MD: −0.02, P=0.78; and MD: −0.06, P=0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the meta-analysis performed in the present study revealed that compared with placebo treatment, L-thyroxine significantly improved serum LDL-C levels in patients with sub-clinical hypothyroidism, while not significantly affecting TC, TG and HDL-C levels.

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  2. Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 polarizing cytokines and generating pruritus symptoms through release of histamine and tryptase. A link between MCs and skin barrier defects was recently uncovered, with histamine being found to profoundly contribute to the skin barrier defects. Palmitoylethanolamide and related lipid mediators are endogenous bioactive compounds, considered to play a protective homeostatic role in many tissues: evidence collected so far shows that the anti-inflammatory effect of palmitoylethanolamide depends on the down-modulation of MC degranulation. Based on this background, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to determine if the endogenous levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators are changed in the skin of AD dogs compared to healthy animals; (b) to examine if MC number is increased in the skin of AD dogs and, if so, whether it depends on MC in-situ proliferation. Results The amount of lipid extract expressed as percent of biopsy tissue weight was significantly reduced in AD skin while the levels of all analyzed bioactive lipid mediators were significantly elevated, with palmitoylethanolamide showing the highest increase. In dogs with AD, the number of MCs was significantly increased in both the subepidermal and the perifollicular compartments and their granule content was significantly decreased in the latter. Also, in situ proliferation of MCs was documented. Conclusions The levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators were shown to increase in AD skin compared to healthy samples, leading to the hypothesis that they may be part of the body’s innate mechanisms to

  3. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  4. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. PMID:27180144

  5. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.

  6. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

  7. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  8. Changes in lipid levels after 48 weeks of dual versus triple therapy observed in the GARDEL study

    PubMed Central

    Cahn, Pedro; Andrade Villanueva, Jaime; Arribas, Jose; Gatell, Jose; Lama, Javier; Norton, Michel; Patterson, Patricia; Sierra Madero, Juan; Sued, Omar; Ines Figueroa, Maria; Jose Rolón, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogues frequently leads to rises in lipids, which might increase the cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to describe changes in lipid levels among HIV positive patients participating in the GARDEL study. Materials and Methods The GARDEL study compared the efficacy and safety of a dual therapy (DT) combination of LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC 150 mg BID to a triple therapy (TT) with LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+3TC or FTC and a third investigator-selected NRTI in fixed-dose combination among HIV+ treatment naïve patients. We compared changes in lipid levels from baseline to week 48 in both arms. Results Patient's characteristics were well balanced regarding mean baseline total cholesterol (157 mg/dL DT, 154 mg/dL TT), triglycerides (142 mg/dL DT, 139 mg/Dl TT), LDL-C (94 mg/dL DT, 91 mg/dL TT) and HDL-C (36 mg/dL DT, 35 mg/dL TT). Changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in DT arm, compared to TT (32% DT vs 26% TT for cholesterol; 25% DT vs 16% TT for LDL and 33% DT vs 28% TT for HDL). Increase in triglycerides was higher in TT compared to DT (55% DT vs 92% TT) (Table 1). In TT arm LDL-C and total cholesterol elevations were lower among patients receiving TDF compared to those treated with ZDV or ABC. Conclusion Changes in lipid parameters were observed in both arms. Albeit the increase was numerically higher for cholesterol (total and LDL-C) in DT arm while TT arm had higher increases in TG; no difference was observed when week 48 values were compared with the NCEP ATP III goals for cardiovascular risk reduction [1]. So, the DT strategy, even missing the lipid-lowering effect observed with tenofovir, does not seem to add significant risk to patients treated with this novel strategy. PMID:25394061

  9. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. Conclusions The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and

  10. Characterization of oleaginous yeasts accumulating high levels of lipid when cultivated in glycerol and their potential for lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Polburee, Pirapan; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Limtong, Savitree

    2015-12-01

    This study attempted to identify oleaginous yeasts and selected the strain that accumulated the largest quantity of lipid for lipid production from glycerol. Two-step screening of 387 yeast strains revealed 23 oleaginous strains that accumulated quantities of lipid higher than 20 % of their biomass when cultivated in glycerol. These strains were identified to be four ascomycetous yeast species i.e. Candida silvae, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma caribbica, and Pichia manshurica, and five basidiomycetous yeast species i.e. Cryptococcus cf. podzolicus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodotorula taiwanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 accumulated the highest quantity of lipid equal to 65.2 % of its biomass (3.9 g L(-1) lipid and 6.0 g L(-1) biomass) by shaking flask cultivation in crude glycerol. The main fatty acids in the accumulated lipid of this strain consisted of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. Therefore, R. fluviale DMKU-RK253 has potential for producing lipid for biodiesel manufacturing using crude glycerol as a feedstock.

  11. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences.

  12. Experimental and modeling studies showing the effect of lipid type and level on flavor release from milk-based liquid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Deborah D; Pollien, Philippe; Watzke, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study two key parameters of the lipid phase that influence flavor release-lipid level and lipid type-and to relate the results to a mass balance partition coefficient-based mathematical model. Release of 10 volatile compounds from milk-based emulsions at 10, 25, and 50 degrees C was monitored by 1-min headspace sampling with a solid-phase microextraction fiber, followed by GC-MS analysis. As compared to the observations for milk fat, changing to a lipophilic lipid (medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) and adding a monoglyceride-based surfactant did not influence the volatiles release. However, increasing the solid fat content was found to increase the release. At 25 degrees C, and even more so at 10 degrees C, concurrent with an increase in their solid fat content, hydrogenated palm fat emulsions showed increased flavor release over that observed for emulsions made with coconut oil, coconut oil with surfactant, milk fat, and MCT. However, at 50 degrees C, when hydrogenated palm fat emulsions had zero solid fat content, there was no difference in flavor release from that observed for milk fat emulsions. Varying milk fat at nine levels between 0 and 4.5% showed a systematic dependence of the release on the lipid level, dependent on compound lipophilicity. Close correlations were found between the experimental and model predictions with lipid level and percent liquid lipid as variables. PMID:12502406

  13. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL.

  14. Severe Alterations in Lipid Composition of Frontal Cortex Lipid Rafts from Parkinson’s Disease and Incidental Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabelo, Noemí; Martín, Virginia; Santpere, Gabriel; Marín, Raquel; Torrent, Laia; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains that provide a highly saturated and viscous physicochemical microenvironment to promote protein–lipid and protein–protein interactions. We purified lipid rafts from human frontal cortex from normal, early motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and incidental Parkinson’s disease (iPD) subjects and analyzed their lipid composition. We observed that lipid rafts from PD and iPD cortices exhibit dramatic reductions in their contents of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (22:6-n3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Also, saturated fatty acids (16:0 and 18:0) were significantly higher than in control brains. Paralleling these findings, unsaturation and peroxidability indices were considerably reduced in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Lipid classes were also affected in PD and iPD lipid rafts. Thus, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were increased in PD and iPD, whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides and plasmalogen levels were considerably diminished. Our data pinpoint a dramatic increase in lipid raft order due to the aberrant biochemical structure in PD and iPD and indicate that these abnormalities of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex occur at early stages of PD pathology. The findings correlate with abnormal lipid raft signaling and cognitive decline observed during the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21717034

  15. Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah R; Glé, Corine; Abbriano, Raffaela M; Traller, Jesse C; Davis, Aubrey; Trentacoste, Emily; Vernet, Maria; Allen, Andrew E; Hildebrand, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. To characterize the transcript level component of metabolic regulation, genome-wide changes in transcript abundance were documented in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana on a time-course of silicon starvation. Growth, cell cycle progression, chloroplast replication, fatty acid composition, pigmentation, and photosynthetic parameters were characterized alongside lipid accumulation. Extensive coordination of large suites of genes was observed, highlighting the existence of clusters of coregulated genes as a key feature of global gene regulation in T. pseudonana. The identity of key enzymes for carbon metabolic pathway inputs (photosynthesis) and outputs (growth and storage) reveals these clusters are organized to synchronize these processes. Coordinated transcript level responses to silicon starvation are probably driven by signals linked to cell cycle progression and shifts in photophysiology. A mechanistic understanding of how this is accomplished will aid efforts to engineer metabolism for development of algal-derived biofuels. PMID:26844818

  16. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention. PMID:18361907

  17. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  18. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  19. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  20. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  1. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  2. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Trabka, Bartosz; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Latosik, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program. PMID:25414748

  3. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  4. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  5. [Fatty acid composition of lipids of vegetative organs of Nigella at different levels of environment salinization].

    PubMed

    Gogue, D O; Sidorov, R A; Tsydendambaev, V D; Kholodova, V P; Kuznetsov, V V

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the tolerance of two species of medicinal plants of the genus Nigella (N. damascene L. and N. sativa L.) to salt stress was performed. It is shown that growing of plants in the presence of 70 or 110 mM NaCl suppressed the growth and accumulation of dry weight of leaves and roots in both species studied and that this suppression was more pronounced at the higher NaCl concentration. It is established that the salt stress leads to the accumulation of proline in leaves and to a change in the fatty acids composition of lipids in the vegetative parts of plants. It is noted that N. sativa has a higher salt tolerance (70-100 mM NaCl) than N. damascena. It is found that the removal of NaCI from the culture medium and subsequent cultivation of plants exposed to salt stress in a salt-free medium led to a gradual recovery of both Nigella species studied. N. sativa plants showed a high ability for recovery (regeneration) after a strong salt stress.

  6. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid of newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients exhibits abnormal levels of selenium species including elevated selenite

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Marco; Solovyev, Nikolay; Mandrioli, Jessica; Crespi, Catherine M.; Bonvicini, Francesca; Arcolin, Elisa; Georgoulopoulou, Eleni; Michalke, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to selenium, and particularly to its inorganic forms, has been hypothesized as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fast progressing motor neuron disease with poorly understood etiology. However, no information is known about levels of inorganic and some organic selenium species in the central nervous system of ALS patients, and recent observations suggest that peripheral biomarkers of exposure are unable to predict these levels for several Se species including the inorganic forms. Using a hospital-referred cases-control series and advanced selenium speciation methods, we compared the chemical species of selenium in cerebrospinal fluid from thirty-eight ALS patients to those of thirty-eight reference neurological patients matched on age and gender. We found that higher concentrations of inorganic selenium in the form of selenite and of human serum albumin-bound selenium were associated with increased ALS risk (relative risks 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2–11.0) and 1.7 (1.0–2.9) for 0.1µg/l increase). Conversely, lower concentrations of selenoprotein P-bound selenium were associated with increased risk (relative risk 0.2 for 1µg/l increase, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.8). The associations were stronger among cases age 50 years or older, who are postulated to have lower rates of genetic disease origin. These results suggest that excess selenite and human serum albumin bound-selenium and low levels of selenoprotein P-bound selenium in the central nervous system, which may be related, may play a role in ALS etiology. PMID:23732511

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid of newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients exhibits abnormal levels of selenium species including elevated selenite.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Solovyev, Nikolay; Mandrioli, Jessica; Crespi, Catherine M; Bonvicini, Francesca; Arcolin, Elisa; Georgoulopoulou, Eleni; Michalke, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to selenium, and particularly to its inorganic forms, has been hypothesized as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fast progressing motor neuron disease with poorly understood etiology. However, no information is known about levels of inorganic and some organic selenium species in the central nervous system of ALS patients, and recent observations suggest that peripheral biomarkers of exposure are unable to predict these levels for several Se species including the inorganic forms. Using a hospital-referred case-control series and advanced selenium speciation methods, we compared the chemical species of selenium in cerebrospinal fluid from 38 ALS patients to those of 38 reference neurological patients matched on age and gender. We found that higher concentrations of inorganic selenium in the form of selenite and of human serum albumin-bound selenium were associated with increased ALS risk (relative risks 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-11.0) and 1.7 (1.0-2.9) for 0.1μg/L increase). Conversely, lower concentrations of selenoprotein P-bound selenium were associated with increased risk (relative risk 0.2 for 1μg/L increase, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.8). The associations were stronger among cases age 50 years or older, who are postulated to have lower rates of genetic disease origin. These results suggest that excess selenite and human serum albumin bound-selenium and low levels of selenoprotein P-bound selenium in the central nervous system, which may be related, may play a role in ALS etiology. PMID:23732511

  9. Sucrose controls storage lipid breakdown on gene expression level in germinating yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Borek, Sławomir; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2011-10-15

    This study revealed that cytosolic aconitase (ACO, EC 4.2.1.3) and isocitrate lyase (ICL, EC 4.1.3.1, marker of the glyoxylate cycle) are active in germinating protein seeds of yellow lupine. The glyoxylate cycle seems to function not only in the storage tissues of food-storage organs, but also in embryonic tissue of growing embryo axes. Sucrose (60mM) added to the medium of in vitro culture of embryo axes and cotyledons decreased activity of lipase (LIP, EC 3.1.1.3) and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH, EC 1.4.1.2). The opposite effect was caused by sucrose on activity of cytosolic ACO, ICL as well as NADP(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.42) and NAD(+)-dependent (EC 1.1.1.41) isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH and NAD-IDH, respectively); activity of these enzymes was clearly stimulated by sucrose. Changes in the activity of LIP, ACO, NADP-IDH, and NAD-IDH caused by sucrose were based on modifications in gene expression because corresponding changes in the enzyme activities and in the mRNA levels were observed. The significance of cytosolic ACO and NADP-IDH in carbon flow from storage lipid to amino acids, as well as the peculiar features of storage lipid breakdown during germination of lupine seeds are discussed.

  10. Multivitamin supplementation of adult omnivores and lactovegetarians: circulating levels of vitamin A, D and E, lipids, apolipoproteins and selenium.

    PubMed

    Kumpusalo, E; Karinpää, A; Jauhiainen, M; Laitinen, M; Lappeteläinen, R; Mäenpää, P H

    1990-01-01

    Serum levels of fat-soluble vitamins, lipids, apolipoproteins, total protein, hemoglobin, iron, and selenium were determined in healthy Finnish adults during a 7-month period beginning in January and ending in August. The subjects were either omnivores or established lactovegetarians, who had consumed their respective diets for at least 6 months prior to the study. Half of the subjects in both groups received daily multivitamin supplementation and the other half served as controls. In the beginning, the lactovegetarians differed from the omnivores in having lower serum levels of protein, apolipoproteins A-I and C-II, and higher levels of standardized alpha-tocopherol. During the study, serum retinol and standardized alpha-tocopherol (in March and May), as well as apolipoproteins A-I and C-II, and selenium decreased in the omnivores and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol/cholesterol ratio increased. Apolipoprotein B decreased and then increased. In the lactovegetarians, serum selenium and protein decreased during the study, whereas retinol and alpha-tocopherol stayed higher than in the omnivores. Consumption of the lactovegetarian diet was accompanied by lower circulating levels of cholesterol and selenium and higher levels of retinol and standardized alpha-tocopherol than the mixed diet. Multivitamin supplementation may have value especially for omnivores in northern countries, like Finland, in providing better retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin D, and selenium status in late winter and early spring.

  11. [Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level of Perna viridis].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie-fang; Chen, Hai-gang; Cai, Wen-gui; Yang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-ping

    2011-07-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level presented by malondialdehyde (MDA) in visceral mass and mantle of green mussel (Perna viridis) after exposure to 0.5- 62.5 mg x L(-1) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 15 days, and to study the change characteristics of these biochemical indicators after the green mussel released into DBP-free seawater for 10 days. During exposure period, the SOD activity in visceral mass was inhibited first and then reached the level of the control at 0.5 and 2.5 mg x L(-1) of DBP, but inhibited significantly (P< 0.01) at 12.5 and 62.5 mg L(-1) of DBP. The CAT activity in visceral mass was inhibited at all test concentrations of DBP, while the LPO level was obviously induced. During the chronic DBP exposure, the SOD and CAT activities in the mantle were induced significantly but had no regular pattern, and the LPO level was also obviously induced. After the exposed green mussel was released into clean seawater, the SOD and CAT activities in the visceral mass in 12.5 and 62.5 mg DBP x L(-1) groups recovered much slowly, but the LPO level gradually recovered to control level. During the recovery period, the SOD activity in the mantle showed an increasing trend with time, but the CAT activity and LPO level reached gradually to the level of the control.

  12. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  13. Lipids of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described.

  14. Association of rs5888 SNP in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 598 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 585 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower but ApoB was higher in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequencies of C and T alleles were 78.3% and 21.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 73.7% and 26.3% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes were 60.0%, 36.6% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 54.2%, 39.0% and 6.8% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The subjects with TT genotype in both ethnic groups had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the subjects with TT genotype in Bai Ku Yao had lower HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the subjects with CC or CT genotype (P < 0.05 for all), and the T allele carriers had higher TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels in females than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all). The participants with TT genotype in Han also had a lower tendency of HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males than the participants with CC or CT genotype, but the difference did not reach statistically significant (P = 0.063 and P = 0.086; respectively). The association of serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels and genotypes was confirmed by

  15. Physicochemical effects of the lipid phase and protein level on meat emulsion stability, texture, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

    2010-03-01

    The effects of beef fat (25%) substitution with rendered beef fat, canola oil, palm oil, or hydrogenated palm oil at varying meat protein levels (8%, 11%, and 14%) were studied in emulsified beef meat batters. There was no significant difference in fat loss among meat batters made with beef fat, rendered beef fat, or palm oil. Hydrogenated palm oil provided the most stable batters at all protein levels. Increasing meat protein to 14% resulted in high fat loss in batters prepared with canola oil, which did not occur in the other formulations. This indicates that the physicochemical characteristics of fat/oil affect emulsion stability. Cooked batter hardness was higher (P < 0.05) when protein level was raised; highest in hydrogenated palm oil batters when compared at similar protein levels. As protein level was raised springiness values were increased in all the meat treatments. Springiness was higher in the canola oil treatments. Light microscopy revealed fat globule coalescence in canola oil meat batters prepared with 14% protein, as well as the development of fat channels and more protein aggregation; both seem to result in lower emulsion stability. Hydrogenated palm oil batters showed fat particles with sharp edges as opposed to the round ones seen in all other treatments.

  16. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  17. Crucial Roles of Systemic and Tissue Lipid Peroxidation Levels and Anti-Oxidant Defences Following Contrast Agent Application

    PubMed Central

    Sitar, Gungor; Kucuk, Mehmet; Erinc Sitar, Mustafa; Yasar, Ozgur; Aydin, Seval; Yanar, Karolin; Cakatay, Ufuk; Buyukpınarbasili, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most important side effects of contrast pharmaceutical agents, which are used very common in routine radiology practice, is contrast induced nephropathy. Even ischemia, oxidative stress and osmolality related cytotoxic effects are considered, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology have not been identified completely yet. Objectives The aim of the current study was to reveal the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defence mechanisms in the aetiopathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy. We also studied possible alleviating effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to obtain extra information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Materials and Methods This is an clinical-experimental study, This study was conducted of Istanbul/Turkey between September 15, 2012 and April 15, 2013. Three groups of male rats were randomly set up as a control group (C), a 100 mg/kg intraperitoneal NAC + 7 mL/kg contrast agent group (N + CIN) and a 7 mL/kg intraperitoneal contrast agent group (CIN). They were placed in individual metabolic cages 48 hours after agent administration to obtain 24-hour urine samples. Renal function tests (albumin, urea, creatinine, total protein) were conducted, oxidative stress parameters (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity - Cu, Zn-SOD; advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP; protein carbonyls - PCO; total thiol groups - T-SH; and lipid hydroperoxides -LHP) were measured and tissues were analysed histopathologically. Results Compared with the control group, groups CIN and N + CIN had significantly higher urea and LHP levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly lower Cu, Zn-SOD activity and creatinine clearance (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in PCO or AOPP levels despite differences in descriptive statistics. Conclusions Contrast-agent-induced nephropathic changes are more closely related to

  18. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (< 6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL

  19. Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Blood Lipid Traits Measured in Three Pig Populations Reveals a Substantial Level of Genetic Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Xiaochang; Zeng, Zhijun; Zhang, Wanchang; Liu, Chenlong; Fang, Shaoming; Huang, Lusheng; Chen, Congying

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipids are associated with myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in humans. Here we dissected the genetic architecture of blood lipid traits by applying genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,256 pigs from Laiwu, Erhualian and Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) populations, and a meta-analysis of GWAS in more than 2,400 pigs from five diverse populations. A total of 22 genomic loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were detected on 11 pig chromosomes (SSC) for six blood lipid traits. Meta-analysis of GWAS identified 5 novel loci associated with blood lipid traits. Comparison of GWAS loci across the tested populations revealed a substantial level of genetic heterogeneity for porcine blood lipid levels. We further evaluated the causality of nine polymorphisms nearby or within the APOB gene on SSC3 for serum LDL-C and TC levels. Of the 9 polymorphisms, an indel showed the most significant association with LDL-C and TC in Laiwu pigs. But the significant association was not identified in the White Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population, in which the QTL for LDL-C and TC was also detected on SSC3. This indicates that population-specific signals may exist for the SSC3 QTL. Further investigations are warranted to validate this assumption.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Blood Lipid Traits Measured in Three Pig Populations Reveals a Substantial Level of Genetic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Xiaochang; Zeng, Zhijun; Zhang, Wanchang; Liu, Chenlong; Fang, Shaoming; Huang, Lusheng; Chen, Congying

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipids are associated with myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in humans. Here we dissected the genetic architecture of blood lipid traits by applying genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,256 pigs from Laiwu, Erhualian and Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) populations, and a meta-analysis of GWAS in more than 2,400 pigs from five diverse populations. A total of 22 genomic loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were detected on 11 pig chromosomes (SSC) for six blood lipid traits. Meta-analysis of GWAS identified 5 novel loci associated with blood lipid traits. Comparison of GWAS loci across the tested populations revealed a substantial level of genetic heterogeneity for porcine blood lipid levels. We further evaluated the causality of nine polymorphisms nearby or within the APOB gene on SSC3 for serum LDL-C and TC levels. Of the 9 polymorphisms, an indel showed the most significant association with LDL-C and TC in Laiwu pigs. But the significant association was not identified in the White Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population, in which the QTL for LDL-C and TC was also detected on SSC3. This indicates that population-specific signals may exist for the SSC3 QTL. Further investigations are warranted to validate this assumption. PMID:26121138

  1. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  2. Oral vitamin C and E combination modulates blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidant vitamin levels in maximal exercising basketball players.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Kilinç, Fatih; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Celik, Omer; Bal, Ramazan; Butterworth, Peter J; Baydar, Metin Lütfi

    2010-06-01

    Oxidative stress occurs during maximal exercise, perhaps as a result of increased consumption of oxygen. Vitamins C and E can overcome the effects of antioxidants in exercise. We investigated the effects of supplementation with a combination of vitamin C and E (VCE) on blood lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidant levels following maximal training in basketball players.Blood samples were taken from 14 players (group A) and divided into two subgroups namely maximal training (group B) and maximal training plus VCE groups (group C). Group B maximally exercised for 35 days. VCE was supplemented to group C for 35 days and blood samples were taken from group B and C. Plasma and hemolyzed erythrocyte samples were obtained from the players.Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and plasma vitamin E concentration were lower in group B than in group A, whereas plasma and erythrocyte LP levels were higher in group B than in group A. Plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and reduced glutathione (GSH) values were higher in group C than in groups A and B although LP levels in plasma and erythrocytes were lower in group C than in group A and B. beta-Carotene values did not change in the three groups.In conclusion, VCE supplementation in maximal exercising basketball players may strengthen the antioxidant defense system by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  3. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  4. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  5. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

  6. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  7. Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder that affects a large percentage of patients. High blood glucose causes fatty deposits in the liver which is likely to increase in SGOT and SGPT activities. Significant increase in SGOT/SGPT and low HDL levels is observed in patients with diabetes. Serum fructosamine concentration reflects the degree of blood glucose control in diabetic patients. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of supplementation of Boswellia serrata in type2 diabetic patients. Methods 60 type 2 diabetic patients from both sexes (30 males and 30 females) were dedicated to the control and intervention groups (30 subjects per group). Boswellia serrata gum resin in amount of 900 mg daily for 6 weeks were orally administered (as three 300 mg doses) in intervention group and the control group did not receive anything. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Blood levels of fructosamine, lipid profiles as well as hepatic enzyme in type 2 diabetic patients were measured. Results Treatment of diabetic patient with Boswellia serrata was caused to significant increase in blood HDL levels as well as a remarkable decrease in cholesterol, LDL, fructosamine (p < 0.05) SGPT and SGOT levels after 6 weeks (p < 0.01). In spite of reduction of serum triglyceride, VLDL levels in intervention group, we did not detect a significant difference after 6 weeks. Conclusion This study showed that Boswellia serrata supplementation can be beneficial in controlling blood parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its use can be useful in patients with medicines. PMID:24495344

  8. Manganese protects against heart mitochondrial lipid peroxidation in rats fed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Malecki, E A; Greger, J L

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency depressed Mn concentrations in most tissues and consistently depressed Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels in heart. To examine the functional consequences of these effects, we fed weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12/diet) diets containing 20% (wt/wt) corn oil or 19% menhaden oil + 1% corn oil by weight and 0.75 or 82 mg Mn/kg diet for 2 mo (the fish oil mixture was supplemented with (+)-(mixed)-alpha-tocopherol to the level in corn oil). Heart and liver Mn concentrations in the Mn-deficient rats were 56% of those in Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.0001), confirming Mn deficiency. The Mn-deficient rats had more conjugated dienes in heart mitochondria than Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.001); rats fed fish oil had more conjugated dienes than those fed corn oil (P < 0.001). The MnSOD activity was inversely correlated with conjugated dienes (r = -0.71, P < 0.005), and Mn-deficient rats had 37% less MnSOD activity in the heart than did Mn-adequate rats (P < 0.0001). The dietary treatments did not affect heart microsomal conjugated diene formation, possibly because of compensation by copper-zinc (CuZn) SOD activity; CuZnSOD activities were 35% greater in the hearts of Mn-deficient animals (P < 0.01). Liver was less sensitive to Mn deficiency than was the heart as judged by MnSOD activity and conjugated diene formation. This work is the first to demonstrate that dietary Mn protects against in vivo oxidation of heart mitochondrial membranes. PMID:8558311

  9. The association between lipid levels and major adverse cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis compared to non-RA

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Katherine P.; Liu, Jun; Lu, Bing; Solomon, Daniel H.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) may be associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We studied whether the complex relationship between LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with CV risk is different in RA compared to non-RA. Methods Using data from a US health insurance plan (2003–2012), we conducted a cohort study that included RA and non-RA patients matched on age, sex and index date. Non-linearity between lipid levels and major adverse CV events (MACE) was tested. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to examine for an interaction between lipids and RA on the risk of MACE, adjusting for CV risk factors. Results We studied 16,085 RA and 48,499 non-RA subjects with mean age 52.6 years and 78.6% women. The relationship between LDL-C and MACE was non-linear and similar between RA and non-RA (p for interaction=0.72). We observed no significant increase in CV risk between the lowest LDL-C quintile (<91.g/dL) and successive quintiles until the highest quintile (>190.0mg/dL) was compared; hazard ratio (HR) 1.40,95%CI 1.17,1.68). The relationship between HDL and MACE was also non-linear and similar in RA and non-RA (p for interaction=0.39). Compared to the lowest HDL-C quintile, each successive quintile was associated with reduced risk of MACE [lowest (<43.0mg/dL) vs highest quintile (>71.0mg/dL), HR 0.45,95%CI 0.48,0.72]. Conclusions The complex relationship between LDL-C, HDL-C and MACE was non-linear in RA and also not statistically different from an age- and sex-matched non-RA cohort. PMID:25917955

  10. Simvastatin Efficiently Lowers Small LDL-IgG Immune Complex Levels: A Therapeutic Quality beyond the Lipid-Lowering Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ferstl, Ulrika; Ledinski, Gerhard; Binder, Josepha; Cvirn, Gerhard; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Trauner, Michael; Koidl, Christoph; Tafeit, Erwin; Amrein, Karin; Scharnagl, Hubert; Jürgens, Günther; Hallström, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a polyethylene glycol non-precipitable low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction targeted by IgG and the influence of statin therapy on plasma levels of these small LDL-IgG-immune complexes (LDL-IgG-IC). LDL-subfractions were isolated from 6 atherosclerotic subjects and 3 healthy individuals utilizing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Cholesterol, apoB and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in each fraction by enzymatic testing, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The levels of LDL-IgG-IC were quantified densitometrically following lipid electrophoresis, particle size distribution was assessed with dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. The influence of simvastatin (40 mg/day for three months) on small LDL-IgG-IC levels and their distribution among LDL-subfractions (salt gradient separation) were investigated in 11 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). We demonstrate that the investigated LDL-IgG-IC are small particles present in atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects. In vitro assembly of LDL-IgG-IC resulted in particle density shifts indicating a composition of one single molecule of IgG per LDL particle. Normalization on cholesterol levels revealed MDA values twice as high for LDL-subfractions rich in small LDL-IgG-IC if compared to dominant LDL-subfractions. Reactivity of affinity purified small LDL-IgG-IC to monoclonal antibody OB/04 indicates a high degree of modified apoB and oxidative modification. Simvastatin therapy studied in the CAD patients significantly lowered LDL levels and to an even higher extent, small LDL-IgG-IC levels without affecting their distribution. In conclusion simvastatin lowers levels of small LDL-IgG-IC more effectively than LDL-cholesterol and LDL-apoB levels in atherosclerotic patients. This antiatherogenic effect may additionally contribute to the known beneficial

  11. Beneficial Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Chokeberry Juice Consumption on Blood Pressure Level and Lipid Status in Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Milovanović, Branislav; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Mutavdžin, Slavica; Gligorijević, Tatjana; Spasić, Slavica

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between intake of foods rich in antioxidants and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease development. Polyphenols are considered the most abundant and important dietary antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice consumption on 24-h ambulatory monitored blood pressure (BP) level in subjects with no pharmacologically treated high normal BP or grade I hypertension. Twenty-three subjects (12 men and 11 women) aged 33-67 were enrolled and instructed to consume 200 mL of juice daily for 4 weeks. Participants were divided in two groups, based on prevalence of sympathetic or parasympathetic activity. Measurements of biochemical parameters and heart rate variability analysis were also applied. At the end of the intervention period, average 24-h and awake systolic and diastolic BP were significantly decreased (P<.05). This was more pronounced in the group with prevalence of sympathetic activity. Significant reduction in triglyceride level (P<.05) and a reducing effect on total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also found. Obtained results indicate a positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on BP and lipid status in pharmacologically untreated hypertensive subjects. PMID:25973889

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A; Wang, Rebecca F; Stevenson, Mary C; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E

    2014-03-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies.

  13. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A; Wang, Rebecca F; Stevenson, Mary C; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E

    2014-03-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A.; Wang, Rebecca F.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Threadgill, David W.; Russell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  16. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations. PMID:27087348

  17. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-03

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli.

  18. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoko; Kushiro, Masayo; Tachibana, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi

    2004-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids exert a potent serum lipid-lowering effect in rodents mainly by affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. However, it has been observed that fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester do not lower serum lipid levels in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout (Apoetm1Unc) mice generated by gene targeting. To test the hypothesis that apoE expression is required for n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism, we examined the effect of fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the activity and gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis using an alternative apoE-deficient mouse model with the BALB/c genetic background (BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl). ApoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing 9.4% palm oil, fish oil, or 5.4% palm oil and 1% EPA plus 3% DHA ethyl esters for 15 days. In contrast to the reported data on apoE-knockout mice, fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters greatly decreased serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels in the Apoeshl mice. The decreases were greater with fish oil than with ethyl esters. The alterations by dietary n-3 fatty acids of serum lipid levels were accompanied by parallel changes in the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. The reason for the discrepancy between the results of the current study and previous studies is unknown. However, our study at least indicates that a lack of apoE expression does not necessarily accompany deficits in the n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  20. Effects of a soybean nutrition bar on the postprandial blood glucose and lipid levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Noda, Tsuneyuki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Iwashita, Soh; Hamada, Koichiro; Sugimoto, Motonobu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the influence of a soybean nutrition bar made from whole soy powder on the blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels in comparison with a test cookie with the same amount of energy in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the cross-over designed study, meal tolerance tests using the soybean nutrition bar and test cookie were performed. Two kinds of test meals were used: Study 1 80 kcal, Study 2 592 kcal. The blood glucose response was significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Studies 1 and 2, p < 0.001). The blood insulin response was also significantly lower in the soybean nutrition bar trial than in the cookie trial (Study 2, p < 0.001). The blood triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid responses were not significantly different between the two trials, nor were the changes in breath H₂ enrichment (Study 2). The soybean nutrition bar did not induce postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients unlike the isoenergetic test cookies.

  1. Effects of macromolecular crowding on a small lipid binding protein probed at the single-amino acid level.

    PubMed

    Pérez Santero, Silvia; Favretto, Filippo; Zanzoni, Serena; Chignola, Roberto; Assfalg, Michael; D'Onofrio, Mariapina

    2016-09-15

    Macromolecular crowding is a distinctive feature of the cellular interior, influencing the behaviour of biomacromolecules. Despite significant advancements in the description of the effects of crowding on global protein properties, the influence of cellular components on local protein attributes has received limited attention. Here, we describe a residue-level systematic interrogation of the structural, dynamic, and binding properties of the liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in crowded solutions. Two-dimensional NMR spectral fingerprints and relaxation data were collected on LFABP in the presence of polymeric and biomolecular crowders. Non-interacting crowders produced minimal site-specific spectral perturbations on ligand-free and lipid-bound LFABP. Conformational adaptations upon ligand binding reproduced those observed in dilute solution, but a perturbation of the free oleate state resulted in less favorable uptake. When LFABP engaged in direct interactions with background molecules, changes in local chemical environments were detected for residues of the internal binding pocket and of the external surface. Enhanced complexity was introduced by investigating LFABP in cell lysates, and in membrane-bounded compartments. LFABP was able to capture ligands from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell lysates, and from artificial cells (water-in-oil emulsion droplets). The data suggest that promiscuous interactions are a major factor influencing protein function in the cell. PMID:27457417

  2. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. PMID:24910383

  3. [Regulation of lipid metabolism in blood of weaving shop workers (noise level of about 90 dB A) by alpha-tocopherol acetate].

    PubMed

    Melkonian, M M

    1993-01-01

    alpha-Tocopherol acetate, used for repeated treatment within a year of weavers working under highly uncomfortable conditions (the level of noise up to 90 dB), was shown to exhibit the regulating effect on the rate of lipid peroxidation and on content of alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol in blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes as well as on the ratios alpha-tocopherol acetate/total lipids, alpha-tocopherol acetate/cholesterol in blood plasma and cholesterol/alpha-tocopherol acetate in erythrocyte membranes. The vitamin decreased distinctly the atherogenicity coefficient; these data suggest that treatment with tocopherol is essential for prophylaxis of noise-produced impairments.

  4. Hematological and lipid profile changes in sea-level natives after exposure to 3550-m altitude for 8 months.

    PubMed

    Siqués, Patricia; Brito, Julio; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Barrios, Luis; De La Cruz, Juan José; López, Vasthi; Herruzo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to determinate the effects on hematological and lipid profile in a young group of newcomers to altitude after being exposed chronically for 8 months to 3550 m (n = 50), age 17.8 +/- 0.7; and not overweight, BMI 22.9 +/- 0.5). Readings taken at altitude on day 1 and on month 8 were hematocrit (Hct, %), hemoglobin (Hb, g/dL), Sa(O(2)), total leukocyte and subset count (mm(3), %), and lipid profile (mg/dL). The same measurements were taken in a comparative group (CG) at sea level (SL). At altitude, elevations of Hct (44.6 +/- 0.4; 51.2 +/- 0.4) and Hb (15.5 +/- 0.1; 17.3 +/- 0.1) were seen (p < 0.001) and none with Hb >/= 21 g/dL. No correlation was observed between Hb and Sa(O(2)), r = 0.11, p > 0.05. Total leukocyte count showed no changes (6037 +/- 74; 6002 +/- 43), but a relative neutropenia (55.2 + -1.5; 50.6 + -1.3) and lymphocytosis (34.2 + 1; 42.4 + 1, p < 0.001) between periods were found and also when compared to SL. Also, an inverse relationship between Sa(O(2)) and total leukocytes on month 8 (r = 0.46; r(2) = 0.204), suggesting a probable representation of a hypoxia effect. Total cholesterol (153.8 +/- 4.5; 157.3 +/- 5.1; p, ns) showed no changes, but a mild decrease of LDL-cholesterol (88.4 +/- 3.3; 81.0 +/- 3.9; p < 0.05), and a rise in triglycerides (121.6 +/- 10.9; 178.8 +/- 11.7; p < 0.001) was found. Changes observed in leukocytes subset count and triglycerides could suggest a contributory role of hypoxic conditions, raising some future epidemiological concerns regarding immune system and fatty acid behaviour at altitude.

  5. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26880924

  6. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  7. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  8. Meta-analysis of comparative efficacy of increasing dose of Atorvastatin versus Rosuvastatin versus Simvastatin on lowering levels of atherogenic lipids (from VOYAGER).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Brandrup-Wognsen, Gunnar; Palmer, Mike; Barter, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Statins are the most commonly prescribed agents for lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Although dose-dependent reductions in levels of atherogenic lipids are observed with all statins, the impact of increasing dose has not been fully elucidated. An individual patient data pooled analysis was performed of 32,258 patients in studies comparing the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of atorvastatin or simvastatin. The impact of increasing dose on lowering LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B was investigated. Doubling the dose of each statin was accompanied by a 4% to 7% greater degree of lowering of all atherogenic lipids. A stronger correlation was observed between changes in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol (r = 0.92, p <0.001) or apolipoprotein B (r = 0.76, p <0.001) than triglycerides (r = 0.14, p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, baseline lipid level (p <0.0001) and increasing statin dose (p <0.0001) were strong predictors of achieving treatment goals in high-risk patients. Increasing age was a strong independent predictor of achieving goal for all atherogenic lipids (p <0.0001). Achieving LDL cholesterol goals was also more likely in women (p <0.0001), patients with diabetes (p <0.0001), and patients without atherosclerotic disease (p = 0.0002). In contrast, normal triglyceride levels were more often observed in men (p <0.0001) and patients without diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03). In conclusion, doubling statin dose was associated with greater lowering of LDL cholesterol by 4% to 6% and non-HDL cholesterol by 3% to 6%. Greater lipid goal achievement with increasing dose supports the use of high-dose statin therapy for more effective cardiovascular prevention.

  9. Effects of different media and nitrogen sources and levels on growth and lipid of green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to find an optimum culture medium for green microalga Botryococcus braunii KMITL and investigate its biodiesel properties based on fatty acid composition. Four different media were tested. Chlorella medium was the best medium for lipid yield. Among four nitrogen sources tested, KNO3 produced the highest lipid yield. When varied the nitrogen concentrations, this strain gave the highest lipid yield at the highest nitrogen level. When cultivated in the best medium and nitrogen source and level for 30 days, and then cultivated further for 14 days in the medium with no nitrogen, the highest lipid content and yield were 49.94±0.82% and 2.71±0.02 g L(-1), respectively. C16:0 fatty acid was the major fatty acid found. Fatty acid profiles of B. braunii KMITL cultivated in Chlorella medium with 1.25 g L(-1) KNO3 gave the best biodiesel properties with the lowest iodine value, maximum cetane number, and lowest degree of unsaturation.

  10. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  11. Lipid droplets maintain lipid homeostasis during anaphase for efficient cell separation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Lin; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Wang, Chao-Wen; Chen, Rey-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutral lipids steryl ester and triacylglycerol (TAG) are stored in the membrane-bound organelle lipid droplet (LD) in essentially all eukaryotic cells. It is unclear what physiological conditions require the mobilization or storage of these lipids. Here, we study the budding yeast mutant are1Δ are2Δ dga1Δ lro1Δ, which cannot synthesize the neutral lipids and therefore lacks LDs. This quadruple mutant is delayed at cell separation upon release from mitotic arrest. The cells have abnormal septa, unstable septin assembly during cytokinesis, and prolonged exocytosis at the division site at the end of cytokinesis. Lipidomic analysis shows a marked increase of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, the precursors for TAG, in the mutant during mitotic exit. The cytokinesis and separation defects are rescued by adding phospholipid precursors or inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, which both reduce DAG levels. Our results suggest that converting excess lipids to neutral lipids for storage during mitotic exit is important for proper execution of cytokinesis and efficient cell separation. PMID:27307588

  12. Association of the TRIB1 tribbles homolog 1 gene rs17321515 A>G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs17321515 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near TRIB1 gene and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs17321515 SNP and several environmental factors on serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 639 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 644 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the TRIB1 rs17321515 A>G SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two ethnic groups (P > 0.05). High- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), the subjects with AG/GG genotypes had higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA genotype. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels in Han males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), the G carriers had higher TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels than the G noncarriers. HDL-C levels in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G carriers had lower HDL-C levels than the G noncarriers. Serum HDL-C and LDL-C levels in both ethnic groups and TG levels in Han were correlated with the genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.01). TG and HDL-C levels in Mulao males and TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.001). TG and ApoA1 levels in Han females were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The associations of

  13. The influence of a ten-week Nordic walking training-rehabilitation program on the level of lipids in blood in overweight and obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Hagner-Derengowska, Magdalena; Kałużny, Krystian; Hagner, Wojciech; Kochański, Bartosz; Plaskiewicz, Anna; Borkowska, Alina; Bronisz, Agata; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a ten-week Nordic Walking (NW) rehabilitation program on chosen anthropometric parameters and the level of basic lipids in overweight and obese postmenopausal women’s blood. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 32 women aged 50–68 (average: 59.7 ± 5.9 years). The study was carried out following a non-randomized model and entailed NW rehabilitation 5 times a week, which lasted for 10 weeks, as well as a low-calorie 1,500 kcal diet. The therapeutic results of the study were measured through changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The results were subjected to a statistical analysis. [Results] After 10 weeks of NW rehabilitation it was observed that participants lost weight and their body mass index dropped. Additionally, whereas levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides dropped, and the level of HDL increased. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation carried out according to the NW model resulted in statistically significant changes in basic lipids in blood which, considerably increased the percentage of persons who achieved the recommended level of blood lipids. Obese persons were characterised by a smaller rehabilitation weight loss. More intense workouts and cooperation with a dietician are required. PMID:26644639

  14. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile salmon exposed to waterborne levels of the organophosphate compounds tris(2-butoxyethyl)- and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphates.

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine; Carteny, Camilla Catarci; Eggen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the toxicological, physiological, and molecular effects attributed to organophosphate (OP) compounds currently used as flame retardants or additives in consumer products. This study investigated the effects on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in juvenile Atlantic salmon liver and brain samples after exposure to two OP compounds, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). In this study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed using a semistatic experimental protocol over a 7-d period to 3 different concentrations (0.04, 0.2, or 1 mg/L) of TBOEP and TCEP. When toxicological factors such as bioaccumulation and bioconcentration, and chemical structural characteristics and behavior, including absorption to solid materials, are considered, these concentrations represent environmentally relevant concentrations. The concentrations of the contaminants were derived from levels of their environmental occurrence. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress-glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST)-and to lipid peroxidation-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-were determined using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of PPAR proteins was also investigated using immunochemical methods. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in liver were used as a measure of lipid peroxidation. Overall, our data show an increase in lipid peroxidation, and this was associated with an augmented expression of genes from the glutathione family of responses. Interestingly, PPAR expression in liver after exposure to TBOEP and TCEP was consistently decreased compared to controls, while expression in brain did not show a similar trend. The results suggest that OP contaminants may induce oxidative stress and thus production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS), and modulate lipid peroxidation processes

  15. [Correlation of thyroid status with indices of lipid metabolism and the level of psycho-physiologic development of children with latent hypothyrosis].

    PubMed

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M

    2008-01-01

    Clinic and physiologic examination of 35 children with latent hypothyrosis has been carried out. It has been established that in children with early stages of thyroid hypofunction a mental development is altered (intellect is decreasing) and psycho-motor reactions suffer (resistance, intensity of attention, speed of sensorimotor reactions are altered). Following progression of pathology, the indexes of lipid metabolism change (content of cholesterol is increasing, level of beta-lipoproteins is decreasing in blood serum). Pointed above violations in scholars have reversible character and under good correction by potassium iodide (iodide-100 drug). Correlation link between the level of thyroid hormones and indexes of lipid metabolism has been discovered. As a result of multiple correlation-regression analysis a mathematic model is proposed that gives possibility to predict the presence of hypotyroxinemia and iodine deficiency at decreasing of intellectual quotient. PMID:18763581

  16. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  17. Glucose and lipid metabolism in the pancreas of rainbow trout is regulated at the molecular level by nutritional status and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Seiliez, Iban; Soengas, Jose Luis; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-05-01

    Glucose and lipid metabolism in pancreatic islet organs is poorly characterized. In the present study, using as a model the carnivorous rainbow trout, a glucose-intolerant fish, we assessed mRNA expression levels of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (including ATP-citrate lyase; carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 isoforms, CPT; the mitochondrial isoform of the phosphoenolpyrutave carboxykinase, mPEPCK and pyruvate kinase, PK) and glucosensing (glucose transporter type 2, Glut2; glucokinase, GK and the potassium channel, K(ATP)) in Brockmann bodies. We evaluated the response of these parameters to changes in feeding status (food deprived vs. fed fish) as well as to changes in the amount of carbohydrate (dextrin) in the diet. A general inhibition of the glycolytic (including the glucosensing marker GK) and β-oxidation pathways was found when comparing fed versus food-deprived fish. When comparing fish feeding on either low- or high-carbohydrate diets, we found that some genes related to lipid metabolism were more controlled by the feeding status than by the carbohydrate content (fatty acid synthase, CPTs). Findings are discussed in the context of pancreatic regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fish, and show that while trout pancreatic metabolism can partially adapt to a high-carbohydrate diet, some of the molecular actors studied seem to be poorly regulated (K(ATP)) and may contribute to the glucose intolerance observed in this species when fed high-carbohydrate diets.

  18. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  19. Vitamin D3 Effects on Lipids Differ in Statin and Non-Statin-Treated Humans: Superiority of Free 25-OH D Levels in Detecting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Lynn; Moore, Kelly; Lütjohann, Dieter; Bikle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Context: Inverse associations between 25-OH vitamin D levels and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been reported. Objectives: Our goals were to 1) investigate effects of correcting inadequate D status on lipids, 2) determine whether free 25-OH D is better correlated with lipids than total 25-OH D. Design: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Setting: Participants resided in the general community. Participants: Adults with inadequate D status were randomized to D3: 14 men, 12 women, age 60 ± 8 years (mean ± SD) or placebo: 12 men, 11 women: 59 ±12 years. Intervention: Responses to 12-week oral vitamin D3 titrated (1000–3000 IU/d) to achieve 25-OH D levels ≥25 ng/mL were compared to placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Measurements were 25-OH D (tandem mass spectometry), free 25-OH D (direct immunoassay), lipids (directly measured triglyceride, cholesterol, and subfractions; plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis precursors), and safety labs before and after 6 and 12 weeks D3 or placebo. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression. Results: Vitamin D3 was titrated to 1000 IU/d in 15/26 (58%), to 2000 IU/d in 10, and 3000 IU/d in one patient. D3 had no effect on cholesterol or cholesterol subfractions except for trends for decreases in atorvastatin-treated patients (cholesterol, P = .08; low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, P = .05). Decreased campesterol concentrations (P = .05) were seen with D3 but not placebo in statin-treated patients. Relationships between total 25-OH D and lipids were not detected, but inverse linear relationships were detected between free 25-OH D and triglycerides (P = .03 for all participants [n = 49], P = .03 in all statin-treated [n = 19], and P = .0009 in atorvastatin-treated [n = 11]), and between free 25-OH D and LDL cholesterol (P = .08 overall, P = .02 in all statin-treated, and P = .03 for atorvastatin-treated), and total cholesterol (P = .09 overall; P = .04

  20. Growth, Oxygen Consumption, and Behavioral Responses of Danio rerio to Variation in Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    O'Brine, Timothy M; Vrtělová, Jana; Snellgrove, Donna L; Davies, Simon J; Sloman, Katherine A

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the welfare of ornamental fish. Diet can significantly impact the welfare of fish, which can manifest as changes in the fish's physical health and behavior. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a popular ornamental species; however, little is known about their nutritional requirements with possible implications for their welfare. Here, we investigated the effect of diets with increasing crude protein (iso-caloric diets) and lipid (iso-nitrogenous diets) on the growth performance, oxygen consumption, and behavior of zebrafish. We found no significant effects of crude protein (32%-75%) or lipid (8%-16%) on the specific growth rate or oxygen consumption of fish fed 5% of their body mass (BM)/day, although the highest crude protein and lipid diet resulted in an increase in condition factor. Furthermore, the crude protein diets did not affect zebrafish behavior when fed a 2% BM ration, once a day. This study has shown that a diet with 32% crude protein and a diet with 8% crude lipid, when fed at a 5% BM ration, were sufficient to meet the growth requirements of our zebrafish. These diets supported the fish's physical health and thus benefited their welfare. PMID:26134575

  1. Association of gene variants with lipid levels in response to fenofibrate is influenced by metabolic syndrome status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fenofibrate therapy reduces serum triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and thus addresses the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our hypothesis is that genetic factors contribute to the variability of lipid response to fenofib...

  2. Effects of Endurance Training on Lipid Metabolism and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Streptozotocin-induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats on a High-fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Heo, Myoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been recognized as a simple and economical therapeutic modality that effectively benefits patients with diabetes, for instance, increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. However, thus far, no studies have examined the effect of endurance training exercises on type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study examined the effect of endurance training exercise regimens on body weight, glucose and insulin levels, lipid profiles, and HbA1c levels in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high-fat diet. HbA1c was considered an indicator of glucose control during endurance training. [Methods] A total of 36 rats were included in this study. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ to 2 groups of 12 rats each, and, the remaining 12 rats were classified as the normal group. Biochemical parameters were measured 28 days later, and included: serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin levels. [Results] A significant decrease in serum TC and TG levels, and an increase in HDL cholesterol level were observed in the endurance training group. Moreover, blood glucose and HbA1c levels after 28 days of exercising were significantly lower in the endurance training group than in the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] These results indicate that endurance training affects body weight and, lipid profiles, as well as fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels, in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high- fat diet. We suggest that endurance training exercises may exhibit therapeutic, preventative, and protective effects against diabetes mellitus through improving lipid metabolism, glycemic control, and HbA1c levels.

  3. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  4. Birth weight and blood lipid levels in Spanish adolescents: Influence of selected APOE, APOC3 and PPARgamma2 gene polymorphisms. The AVENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Martí, Amelia; Nova, Esther; Fuentes, Miguel García; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Martínez, J Alfredo; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence indicating that genes involved in certain metabolic processes of cardiovascular diseases may be of particular influence in people with low body weight at birth. We examined whether the apolipoprotein (APO) E, APOC3 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-2 (PPARγ2) polymorphisms influence the association between low birth weight and blood lipid levels in healthy adolescents aged 13–18.5 years. Methods A cross-sectional study of 502 Spanish adolescents born at term was conducted. Total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein (apo) A and B, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA were calculated. Results Low birth weight was associated with higher levels of TC, LDLc, apoB, Lp(a), TC-HDLc, TC/HDLc and apoB/apoA in males with the APOE ε3ε4 genotype, whereas in females, it was associated with lower HDLc and higher TG levels. In males with the APOC3 S1/S2 genotype, low birth weight was associated with lower apoA and higher Lp(a), yet this association was not observed in females. There were no associations between low birth weight and blood lipids in any of the PPARγ2 genotypes. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight has a deleterious influence on lipid profile particularly in adolescents with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype. These findings suggest that intrauterine environment interact with the genetic background affecting the lipid profile in later life. PMID:19000312

  5. Sex-specific association of rs16996148 SNP in the NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs16996148 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels is inconsistent. Furthermore, little is known about the association of rs16996148 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. We therefore aimed to detect the association of rs16996148 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 712 subjects of Mulao nationality and 736 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the rs16996148 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.001). The frequencies of G and T alleles were 87.2% and 12.8% in Mulao, and 89.9% and 10.1% in Han (P <0.05); respectively. The frequencies of GG, GT and TT genotypes were 76.0%, 22.5% and 1.5% in Mulao, and 81.2%, 17.4% and 1.4% in Han (P <0.05); respectively. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in both ethnic groups. The levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Mulao were different between the GG and GT/TT genotypes in males but not in females (P < 0.01 for all), the subjects with GT/TT genotypes had higher serum levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype. The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB in Han were different between the GG and GT/TT genotypes in males but not in females (P < 0.05-0.001), the T allele carriers had higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes in males (P < 0.05-0.01) but not in females. The levels of TC, TG, HDL

  6. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  7. Associations of Rs3744841 and Rs3744843 Polymorphisms in Endothelial Lipase Gene with Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Lipid Levels in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunyan; Shi, Ganwei; Weng, Weijin; Xue, Sheliang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the 2037T/C and 2237G/A polymorphisms in the EL gene and the risk of CAD and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Methods A case-control study including 706 patients with CAD and 315 controls was performed. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to identify the genotypes. Results The EL 2037 T/C polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and HDL-C levels. No significant differences were found between the EL 2237 G/A genotypes and CAD risk and lipid levels in the whole population. However, carriers of the 2237 A allele had higher Apo A1 levels than those with the 2237 GG genotype and in the CAD subgroup (P = 0.044). The CAD cases have a significantly lower frequency of the C-G haplotypes than the controls, and the T-A haplotype was significantly more common in the CAD patients than in the controls. Conclusions Our study concluded that the EL 2037 T/C polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and HDL-C levels, and that the C allele might be a protective factor against CAD in the Chinese Han population. In addition, the EL 2237 A allele might be associated with an increased Apo A1 level in CAD subjects. PMID:27612170

  8. Rotavirus Increases Levels of Lipidated LC3 Supporting Accumulation of Infectious Progeny Virus without Inducing Autophagosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Arnoldi, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giuditta; Mano, Miguel; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Wild, Peter; Eichwald, Catherine; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Replication of many RNA viruses benefits from subversion of the autophagic pathway through many different mechanisms. Rotavirus, the main etiologic agent of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, has been recently described to induce accumulation of autophagosomes as a mean for targeting viral proteins to the sites of viral replication. Here we show that the viral-induced increase of the lipidated form of LC3 does not correlate with an augmented formation of autophagosomes, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The LC3-II accumulation was found to be dependent on active rotavirus replication through the use of antigenically intact inactivated viral particles and of siRNAs targeting viral genes that are essential for viral replication. Silencing expression of LC3 or of Atg7, a protein involved in LC3 lipidation, resulted in a significant impairment of viral titers, indicating that these elements of the autophagic pathway are required at late stages of the viral cycle. PMID:24736649

  9. The Study of Hemodialysis Effectiveness on the Change Rate of Lipid Peroxidation and L-Carnitine Level in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a small molecule widely present in all cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic. It is an important element in β-oxidation of fatty acids. Carnitine is a scavenger of oxygen free radicals in mammalian tissues. Lack of carnitine in a hemodialysis patient can lead to carnitine deficiency. Oxidation of fatty acids and lipid metabolism are severly affected by carnitine deficiency. Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between formation of free radicals and antioxidative defense mechanisms. It has been proposed to play a role in many disease states. In hemodialysis patients multiple factors can lead to a a high susceptibility to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine hemodialysis effectiveness on the change rate of serum L-carnitine and lipid peroxidation. 27 patients with chronic renal failure (24-80 yrs) who undergo hemodialysis for 6-12 months were selected (M= 17, F= 10). Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation was measured colorimetrically with a standard thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. L-carnitine was measured with enzymatic UV method (ROCHE, Spectronic Genesis 2, 340 nm). The weight mean of L-carnitine before and after hemodialysis was 7.67±3.6 mg/l and 2.07±1.6 mg/l, respectively (P<0.001). The weight mean of pre-hemodialysis MDA was 4.17±1.24 µmol/l, following hemodialysis -4.98±1.2 µmol/l (P<0.001). Results showed that 55.6% of patients suffered from carnitine defciency. Serum carnitine was found to be decreased markedly after hemodialysis (P<0.001). Our findings indicated that oxidative stress in these patients is further exacerbated by hemodialysis, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. The relationship between serum L-carnitine and MDA before and after hemodialysis was observed (r=0.82; p<0.001; r=0.75; p<0.001).

  10. Stomatocytosis, abnormal platelets and pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G W; O'Brien, H; Morris, S A; Owen, J S; Lloyd, J K; Ames, J A

    1987-04-01

    A 13-yr-old girl with congenital haemolytic anaemia associated with pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia is described. The erythrocyte morphology showed 50-80% stomatocytes, but no abnormality of membrane lipid or protein composition or of cation transport was detected. The platelets were reduced in number, abnormally large and showed reduced adhesion. Successful treatment of the hypercholesterolaemia did not influence the stomatocytosis.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  12. Properties of lipid electropores II: Comparison of continuum-level modeling of pore conductance to molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Rems, Lea; Tarek, Mounir; Casciola, Maura; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-12-01

    Electrical conductance of an aqueous pore in the lipid bilayer has an important role in the process of membrane electroporation, i.e., formation of pores induced by electric pulses. In our present study we compare the pore conductance as predicted by a theoretical model based on the continuum Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory to the pore conductance obtained with molecular dynamics simulations (Casciola et al., Bioelectrochemistry 109:108-116, 2016). Our analysis demonstrates that the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model is able to quantitatively predict the dependence of the pore conductance on the pore radius when considering the toroidal shape of the pore. In order to correctly describe the difference in the pore conductance for Cl and Na ions (the pore selectivity), however, it is necessary to take into account the electric double layer next to the lipid-water interface and the electroosmotic flow through the pore. We further show that simplified analytical descriptions of pore conductance can lead to incorrect predictions of the pore size extracted from experimental measurements, and can affect the predictions of electroporation models. Overall, this study demonstrates that continuum modeling can be efficiently used as complementary method to molecular scale models for investigating lipid pores.

  13. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  14. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  15. Influence of the interaction between the adiponectin G276T polymorphism and body mass index on lipid levels in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Riestra, Pía; García-Anguita, Alicia; Lasunción, Miguel A; Mangas, Alipio; de Oya, Manuel; Garcés, Carmen

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific hormone which is inversely associated with metabolic alterations related to atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene (AdipoQ) have been related to low adiponectin levels as well as several cardiovascular risk factors, but this association remains controversial. In our study we investigated the relationship between the AdipoQ T45G (rs: 2241766) and G276T (rs: 1501299) polymorphisms and adiponectin concentrations, blood pressure, and lipid and insulin levels, in a population-based sample of 12- to 16-year-old children. The study included 815 healthy Spanish children (388 boys and 427 girls). Plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard methods. Insulin concentrations were measured by RIA, and serum adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA. The AdipoQ T45G and AdipoQ G276T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan(®) allelic discrimination assays. ANOVA or t test allowed for comparison of the studied parameters across genotypes or genotype groups, respectively. A linear regression analysis was performed to examine the independent relationships of the lipid variables with BMI (body mass index), AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and the interaction between the two. When independently comparing the effect of these polymorphisms in normal-weight and overweight children, we observed that overweight boys carriers of the minor allele T had significantly lower TC, LDL-C and apo A-I levels than non-carriers, but these differences were not apparent in normal-weight boys. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated that interaction between the BMI and the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism is a significant factor explaining the variations of TC and LDL-C levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between the AdipoQ G276T polymorphism and lipid levels in overweight boys alone, thereby suggesting that the influence of the AdipoQ polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk factors may be

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Tarek

    2015-06-01

    Menopause may increase risk of hypertension and abnormal lipid profile. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of morning and afternoon aerobic exercises on hypertension and lipids in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. Forty five women aged from 49 to 60 years were randomly assigned into three groups. Group (A) 15 patients received medicine, (B) 15 patients performed morning aerobic exercises and received medicine, and group (C) 15 patients performed afternoon aerobic exercises and received medicine. Blood pressure measurement and lipid profile tests were performed before and after the study. The results showed that there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, favoring group C. Also there was a statistical significant difference among all groups in lipid levels, favoring group C. Therefore, it can be concluded that morning aerobic exercises were more effective in reducing the blood pressure and lipids than afternoon exercises in overweight hypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:26171380

  17. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  18. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  19. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  20. Association of the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Li, Hui; Wang, Yi-Ming; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Yang, De-Zhai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 subjects of Mulao and 844 subjects of Han Chinese were included. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoA1 in Mulao, and triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 and the ratio of ApoA1/ApoB in Han were different among the three genotypes of the rs1801690 SNP (P < 0.05-0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and ApoA1 in Mulao males; ApoA1 in Mulao females; TC, TG, HDL-C and ApoB and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han males; and HDL-C, ApoA1 and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han females were associated with the genotypes of rs1801690 (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.001). The Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene was associated with some serum lipid parameters in the two ethnic groups, but the trends of association suggest that the Trp316Ser variant (rs1801690) near the apolipoprotein H (β2-glycoprotein-I) gene might have racial/ethnic-and/or gender-specificity. PMID:26261630

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis via fatty acyl elongase and Δ4-desaturase and its modulation by dietary lipid level and fatty acid composition in a marine vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sofia; Mourente, Gabriel; Martínez, Almudena; Gras, Noélia; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-05-01

    The present study presents the first "in vivo" evidence of enzymatic activity and nutritional regulation of a Δ4-desaturase-dependent DHA synthesis pathway in the teleost Solea senegalensis. Juvenile fish were fed diets containing 2 lipid levels (8 and 18%, LL and HL) with either 100% fish oil (FO) or 75% of the FO replaced by vegetable oils (VOs). Fatty acyl elongation (Elovl5) and desaturation (Δ4Fad) activities were measured in isolated enterocytes and hepatocytes incubated with radiolabeled α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Tissue distributions of elovl5 and Δ4fad transcripts were also determined, and the transcriptional regulation of these genes in liver and intestine was assessed at fasting and postprandially. DHA biosynthesis from EPA occurred in both cell types, although Elovl5 and Δ4Fad activities tended to be higher in hepatocytes. In contrast, no Δ6Fad activity was detected on (14)C-ALA, which was only elongated to 20:3n-3. Enzymatic activities and gene transcription were modulated by dietary lipid level (LL>HL) and fatty acid (FA) composition (VO>FO), more significantly in the liver than in the intestine, which was reflected in tissue FA compositions. Dietary VO induced a significant up-regulation of Δ4fad transcripts in the liver 6h after feeding, whereas in fasting conditions the effect of lipid level possibly prevailed over or interacted with FA composition in regulating the expression of elovl5 and Δ4fad, which were down-regulated in the liver of fish fed the HL diets. Results indicated functionality and biological relevance of the Δ4 LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in S. senegalensis.

  2. Differential changes in antioxidants, proteases, and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat genotypes under different levels of water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Amjad; Bibi, Noreen; Akhter, Javed; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2011-02-01

    Changes in enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury were evaluated in flag leaves of seven wheat genotypes under well watered (WW), medium watered (MW), low watered (LW) and soil stored moisture (SSM) conditions maintained in lysimeters through neutron moisture prob. Genotypes behaved differentially in terms of antioxidant response and stress induced injury under above indicated water deficit levels. In general, antioxidant enzymes were rarely enhanced under MW condition, often increased under LW condition while remained unchanged, elevated or diminished under SSM condition (severe stress). Higher CAT and POD activities were observed in NR-234 and in Pfau followed by FD-83 respectively under LW conditions. Under SSM condition, APX and POD increased significantly in Nesser and Pfau and CAT in NR-234, Nesser and Pfau, while remained at control level or decreased in other genotypes. In NR-234, SOD activity enhanced only under LW condition. However, SOD rose in Nesser, FD-83 and Sarsabz while remained unaffected in NR-241, Sitta and Pfau under all water deficit conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased significantly in FD-83 only under MW condition along with raised protease activity and protein contents. However, peroxidation of lipids was significantly enhanced in all genotypes under LW and SSM conditions. It was concluded that response of genotypes vary under different levels of water deficit. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging system was more actively involved in detoxification of oxidative stress induced by water deficit. Raised antioxidants (CAT, POD) resulting in comparatively lower lipid peroxidation in Pfau under SSM condition and in Sitta under LW condition confer stress tolerance in these genotypes.

  3. Optimal strategies for monitoring lipid levels in patients at risk or with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review with statistical and cost-effectiveness modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Rafael; McFadden, Emily; McLellan, Julie; Lung, Tom; Clarke, Philip; Pérez, Teresa; Fanshawe, Thomas; Dalton, Andrew; Farmer, Andrew; Glasziou, Paul; Takahashi, Osamu; Stevens, John; Irwig, Les; Hirst, Jennifer; Stevens, Sarah; Leslie, Asuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Deshpande, Gautam; Urayama, Kevin; Shine, Brian; Stevens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Various lipid measurements in monitoring/screening programmes can be used, alone or in cardiovascular risk scores, to guide treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because some changes in lipids are due to variability rather than true change, the value of lipid-monitoring strategies needs evaluation. OBJECTIVE To determine clinical value and cost-effectiveness of different monitoring intervals and different lipid measures for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. DATA SOURCES We searched databases and clinical trials registers from 2007 (including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Clinical Trials Register, the Current Controlled Trials register, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) to update and extend previous systematic reviews. Patient-level data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and St Luke's Hospital, Japan, were used in statistical modelling. Utilities and health-care costs were drawn from the literature. METHODS In two meta-analyses, we used prospective studies to examine associations of lipids with CVD and mortality, and randomised controlled trials to estimate lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin doses. Patient-level data were used to estimate progression and variability of lipid measurements over time, and hence to model lipid-monitoring strategies. Results are expressed as rates of true-/false-positive and true-/false-negative tests for high lipid or high CVD risk. We estimated incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS A total of 115 publications reported strength of association between different lipid measures and CVD events in 138 data sets. The summary adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation of total cholesterol (TC) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.35) for CVD in a primary prevention population but heterogeneity was high (I (2) = 98%); similar results

  4. Optimal strategies for monitoring lipid levels in patients at risk or with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review with statistical and cost-effectiveness modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Rafael; McFadden, Emily; McLellan, Julie; Lung, Tom; Clarke, Philip; Pérez, Teresa; Fanshawe, Thomas; Dalton, Andrew; Farmer, Andrew; Glasziou, Paul; Takahashi, Osamu; Stevens, John; Irwig, Les; Hirst, Jennifer; Stevens, Sarah; Leslie, Asuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Deshpande, Gautam; Urayama, Kevin; Shine, Brian; Stevens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Various lipid measurements in monitoring/screening programmes can be used, alone or in cardiovascular risk scores, to guide treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because some changes in lipids are due to variability rather than true change, the value of lipid-monitoring strategies needs evaluation. OBJECTIVE To determine clinical value and cost-effectiveness of different monitoring intervals and different lipid measures for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. DATA SOURCES We searched databases and clinical trials registers from 2007 (including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Clinical Trials Register, the Current Controlled Trials register, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) to update and extend previous systematic reviews. Patient-level data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and St Luke's Hospital, Japan, were used in statistical modelling. Utilities and health-care costs were drawn from the literature. METHODS In two meta-analyses, we used prospective studies to examine associations of lipids with CVD and mortality, and randomised controlled trials to estimate lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin doses. Patient-level data were used to estimate progression and variability of lipid measurements over time, and hence to model lipid-monitoring strategies. Results are expressed as rates of true-/false-positive and true-/false-negative tests for high lipid or high CVD risk. We estimated incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS A total of 115 publications reported strength of association between different lipid measures and CVD events in 138 data sets. The summary adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation of total cholesterol (TC) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.35) for CVD in a primary prevention population but heterogeneity was high (I (2) = 98%); similar results

  5. Antiretroviral drug levels and interactions affect lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in HIV-1 seronegative subjects: A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Susan L.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Para, Michael F.; Reichman, Richard C.; Morse, Gene D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral medications (ARVs) develop undesirable changes in lipid and glucose metabolism that mimic the metabolic syndrome and may be proatherogenic. Antiretroviral drug levels and their interactions may contribute to these metabolic alterations. Methods: Fifty-six HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, pharmacokinetic interaction study, and received a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz on days 1-21) plus a protease inhibitor (PI; amprenavir on days 11-21), with a second PI on days 15-21 (saquinavir, nelfinavir, indinavir, or ritonavir). Fasting triglycerides, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured on days 0, 14, 21, and 2-3 weeks after discontinuing drugs. Regression models were used to estimate changes in these parameters and associations between these changes and circulating levels of study drugs. Results: Short-term efavirenz and amprenavir administration significantly increased cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels. Addition of a second protease inhibitor further increased triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. Higher amprenavir levels predicted larger increases in triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol. Two weeks after all study drugs were stopped, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol remained elevated above baseline. Conclusions: ARV regimens that include a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus single or boosted PIs are becoming more common, but the pharmacodynamic interactions associated with these regimens can result in persistent, undesirable alterations in serum lipid/lipoprotein levels. Additional pharmacodynamic studies are needed to examine the metabolic effects of ritonavir-boosted regimens, with and without efavirenz. PMID:18007962

  6. Lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in obese and non-obese subjects undergoing non-surgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Zuza, Elizangela P; Barroso, Eliane M; Fabricio, Mariana; Carrareto, Ana Luiza V; Toledo, Benedicto E C; R Pires, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal treatment may improve the metabolic control of dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese and non-obese patients undergoing periodontal therapy. Patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were divided into obese (n = 28) and non-obese groups (n = 26). The periodontal parameters (visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing), anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat), and serum analyses (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and hs-CRP) were measured at baseline and 90 days after periodontal treatment. The results showed that the obese subjects presented alterations in triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP at baseline when compared with non-obese patients (P < 0.05). Periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters in both groups similarly (P > 0.05). Obese subjects showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and hs-CRP post-therapy (P < 0.05), while non-obese patients showed improvement only in hs-CRP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, periodontal treatment could improve the periodontal parameters and circulating hs-CRP in obese and non-obese subjects. Lipid profile was modified only in obese patients post-therapy. (J Oral Sci 58, 423-430, 2016). PMID:27665983

  7. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  9. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  10. Trends in serum lipid levels during 1980-1992 in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Porkka, K V; Raitakari, O T; Leino, A; Laitinen, S; Räsänen, L; Rönnemaa, T; Marniemi, J; Lehtimäki, T; Taimela, S; Dahl, M; Uhari, M; Akerblom, H K; Viikari, J S

    1997-07-01

    To assess secular trends in serum lipid levels in Finnish children and young adults, the authors examined a total of 3,517, 2,769, 2,392, 352, and 880 subjects who had complete data on serum lipids in 1980, 1983, 1986, 1989, and 1992, respectively, in a longitudinal follow-up study. Trend analyses were carried out among subjects aged 15 (n = 1,835) or 18 (n = 1,562) years to exclude the confounding effect of age on the study variables. Data on obesity, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use were available from each study year, and data on diet were available for the study years 1980, 1986, and 1992. Between 1980 and 1992, mean total cholesterol levels decreased from 4.88 to 4.47 mmol/liter (from 189 to 173 mg/dl), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased from 3.06 to 2.85 mmol/liter (from 119 to 110 mg/dl). The mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 19%, from 1.43 to 1.15 mmol/liter (55.2 to 44.6 mg/dl). During 1986-1992, triglyceride levels increased by 15%, from 0.88 to 1.01 mmol/liter (78.2 to 89.9 mg/dl). During 1980-1992, body mass index values increased from 20.8 to 21.8 kg/m2, parallel to increases in skinfold thickness. In the diet, the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids increased from 0.26 to 0.39. Alcohol and oral contraceptive use became more frequent, and the subjects tended to become less physically active. In conclusion, a change in the lipid profile in Finnish adolescents aged 15 and 18 years and young adults during 1980-1992 was observed, characterized by a decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and an increase in triglyceride level. Possible determinants for these changes include alterations in diet and a trend toward increased obesity.

  11. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  12. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins—LDL, high density lipoproteins—HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma–FRAP, non-protein thiols–NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl—DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders. PMID:27788267

  13. Apolipoprotein E isoforms 3/3 and 3/4 differentially interact with circulating stearic, palmitic, and oleic fatty acids and lipid levels in Alaskan Natives.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Tapia, Lyssia; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Ebbesson, Sven O E; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Lifestyle changes in Alaskan Natives have been related to the increase of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the last decades. Variation of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotype may contribute to the diverse response to diet in lipid metabolism and influence the association between fatty acids in plasma and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the interaction between Apo E isoforms and plasma fatty acids, influencing phenotypes related to metabolic diseases in Alaskan Natives. A sample of 427 adult Siberian Yupik Alaskan Natives was included. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A1, and Apo B plasma concentrations were measured using reference methods. Concentrations of 13 fatty acids in fasting plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography, and Apo E variants were identified. Analyses of covariance were conducted to identify Apo E isoform and fatty acid main effects and multiplicative interactions. The means for body mass index and age were 26 ± 5.2 and 47 ± 1.5, respectively. Significant main effects were observed for variation in Apo E and different fatty acids influencing Apo B levels, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Significant interactions were found between Apo E isoform and selected fatty acids influencing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and Apo B concentrations. In summary, Apo E3/3 and 3/4 isoforms had significant interactions with circulating levels of stearic, palmitic, oleic fatty acids, and phenotypes of lipid metabolism in Alaskan Natives.

  14. GLUT4 Expression in Adipocytes Regulates De Novo Lipogenesis and Levels of a Novel Class of Lipids With Antidiabetic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M; Saghatelian, Alan; Kahn, Barbara B

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) regulates systemic insulin sensitivity through multiple mechanisms, and alterations in de novo lipogenesis appear to contribute. Mice overexpressing GLUT4 in adipocytes (AG4OX) have elevated AT lipogenesis and enhanced glucose tolerance despite being obese and having elevated circulating fatty acids. Lipidomic analysis of AT identified a structurally unique class of lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy-fatty acids (FAHFAs), which were elevated in AT and serum of AG4OX mice. Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most upregulated FAHFA families in AG4OX mice. Eight PAHSA isomers are present in mouse and human tissues. PAHSA levels are reduced in insulin resistant people, and levels correlate highly with insulin sensitivity. PAHSAs have beneficial metabolic effects. Treatment of obese mice with PAHSAs lowers glycemia and improves glucose tolerance while stimulating glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin secretion. PAHSAs also reduce inflammatory cytokine production from immune cells and ameliorate adipose inflammation in obesity. PAHSA isomer concentrations are altered in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a tissue- and isomer-specific manner. The mechanisms most likely involve changes in PAHSA biosynthesis, degradation, and secretion. The discovery of PAHSAs reveals the existence of previously unknown endogenous lipids and biochemical pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation, two fundamental physiological processes. PMID:27288004

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Gender-specific association between the cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    WU, JIAN; YIN, RUI-XING; GUO, TAO; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; WU, JIN-ZHEN; YANG, DE-ZHAI; LIN, WEI-XIONG

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein 4 (PABPC4) is an RNA-processing protein which has an important role in regulating gene expression. The association of the PABPC4 rs4660293 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been studied in the Chinese population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 individuals of Mulao nationality and 729 individuals of Han nationality were randomly selected from stratified randomized samples from a previous study by our group. Genotypes of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and subsequently confirmed by direct sequencing. Serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in the Mulao group than those in the Han group (P<0.01 for each). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP were significantly different between males and females in the Mulao population (P<0.05 for each), while no significant difference was detected between those of males and females amongst the Han population. The frequency of the G allele was higher in Mulao males than in Mulao females (22.12 vs. 13.44%). The G allele carriers were found to have higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han females but not in Han males, and lower TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao females but not in Mulao males than those of the G allele non-carriers (P<0.05 for all). These associations were confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis (P<0.05–0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with multiple environmental factors (P<0.05–0.001). The PABPC4 rs4660293 SNP was associated with serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in these study

  17. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  18. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  19. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  20. Αcute Exercise Alters the Levels of Human Saliva miRNAs Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, A; Mougios, V; Sidossis, L S

    2016-06-01

    The response of micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression to exercise has not been studied in saliva, although saliva combines non-invasive collection with the largest number of miRNA species among biological fluids and tissues. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on the expression of 8 human saliva miRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. 19 healthy, physically active men (VO2max, 40.9±1.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), mean±se) performed a 50-min interval exercise program on stationary bicycle (spinning). Saliva samples were collected before and after exercise for miRNA expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant (p<0.05) changes after exercise were found in 2 of the 8 miRNAs, namely, hsa-miR-33a (fold change, 7.66±2.94; p=0.012), which regulates cholesterol homeostasis and fatty acid metabolism in the liver, and hsa-miR-378a (fold change 0.79±0.11, p=0.048), which regulates energy homeostasis and affects lipogenesis and adipogenesis. These alterations may contribute to our understanding of physiological responses to exercise and the therapeutic potential of exercise against cardiovascular disease, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, our findings open the possibility of noninvasively studying miRNAs that regulate the function of specific organs. PMID:27116339

  1. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  2. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  3. Effects of dietary arginine levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on mRNA expression of growth-related hormones in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naisong; Jin, Lina; Zhou, Hengyong; Qiu, Xiaojie

    2012-10-01

    Utilizing the tissue samples and growth data collected from our two preceding researches in largemouth bass (LMB), we have investigated effects of dietary arginine (Arg) levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO/LIP) ratios on the GH, IGF-I and insulin expression in related tissues to find possible relationships between the nutrient intake, growth performance and transcript level. Hepatic IGF-I and pituitary GH mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by lower dietary Arg levels from 1.94% to 3.01% and by higher levels from 2.76% to 3.01%, respectively, while Brockmann body (BB)-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression was not affected. Dietary CHO/LIP ratios ranging from 0.32 to 5.17 (w/w) affected pituitary GH, liver IGF-I and BB-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression in a ratio-specific pattern. The lower ratios from 0.32 to 2.36 significantly up-regulated GH and insulin transcript levels, but significantly down-regulated IGF-I transcript levels; the higher ratios did no longer exert any further effects on them. Meanwhile, two strong positive correlations (r=0.892, r=0.885) between hepatic IGF-I transcript levels and specific growth rates of tested fish were observed with varying dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios, respectively. These findings indicate that in LMB dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios regulate differentially the endocrine system of GH, IGF-I and insulin at transcription level; this system, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the nutrient metabolism and somatic growth; and that hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance should be a more reliable index to assess growth and nutritional fitness than the others, at least in LMB. PMID:22906421

  4. Effects of dietary arginine levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on mRNA expression of growth-related hormones in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naisong; Jin, Lina; Zhou, Hengyong; Qiu, Xiaojie

    2012-10-01

    Utilizing the tissue samples and growth data collected from our two preceding researches in largemouth bass (LMB), we have investigated effects of dietary arginine (Arg) levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO/LIP) ratios on the GH, IGF-I and insulin expression in related tissues to find possible relationships between the nutrient intake, growth performance and transcript level. Hepatic IGF-I and pituitary GH mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by lower dietary Arg levels from 1.94% to 3.01% and by higher levels from 2.76% to 3.01%, respectively, while Brockmann body (BB)-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression was not affected. Dietary CHO/LIP ratios ranging from 0.32 to 5.17 (w/w) affected pituitary GH, liver IGF-I and BB-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression in a ratio-specific pattern. The lower ratios from 0.32 to 2.36 significantly up-regulated GH and insulin transcript levels, but significantly down-regulated IGF-I transcript levels; the higher ratios did no longer exert any further effects on them. Meanwhile, two strong positive correlations (r=0.892, r=0.885) between hepatic IGF-I transcript levels and specific growth rates of tested fish were observed with varying dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios, respectively. These findings indicate that in LMB dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios regulate differentially the endocrine system of GH, IGF-I and insulin at transcription level; this system, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the nutrient metabolism and somatic growth; and that hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance should be a more reliable index to assess growth and nutritional fitness than the others, at least in LMB.

  5. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei-Li; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF), a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb) pulp (AqSF-P) or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY), on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. Methods Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were fed on a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w) diet (HCBD) containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w) with or without AqSF-P (0.3%−9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w) or BY (0.025%, w/w) for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and glucose levels, were measured. Results Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79%) in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67%) and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%), when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was enhanced (up to 19%) by AqSF-P cosupplementation in both normal and HCL mice. FF supplementation enhanced the excretion of fecal TC (by 75%) in mice fed with HCBD. Fecal TC contents were increased by 14%/9% in the combination therapy with FF and AqSF-P in ND-/HCBD-fed mice. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 45% in HCBD-fed mice. FF caused a significant increase in ALT activity by 198% and 120% in normal and HCL mice, respectively. BY markedly attenuated the ALT activity by 54% in mice fed with ND supplemented with 0.1% FF and by 42% in mice fed with HCBD supplemented with 0.03% FF

  6. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  7. Lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians and its association with cardiovascular disease: Current state and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Ozlem; Kamal, Ayeesha; Virani, Salim S

    2016-01-01

    South Asians have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and suffer from early-onset CHD compared to other ethnic groups. Conventional risk factors may not fully explain this increased CHD risk in this population. Indeed, South Asians have a unique lipid profile which may predispose them to premature CHD. Dyslipidemia in this patient population seems to be an important contributor to the high incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. The dyslipidemia in South Asians is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated lipoprotein(a) levels, and a higher atherogenic particle burden despite comparable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with other ethnic subgroups. HDL particles also appear to be smaller, dysfunctional, and proatherogenic in South Asians. Despite the rapid expansion of the current literature with better understanding of the specific lipid abnormalities in this patient population, studies with adequate sample sizes are needed to assess the significance and contribution of a given lipid parameter on overall cardiovascular risk in this population. Specific management goals and treatment thresholds do not exist for South Asians because of paucity of data. Current treatment recommendations are mostly extrapolated from Western guidelines. Lastly, large, prospective studies with outcomes data are needed to assess cardiovascular benefit associated with various lipid-lowering therapies (including combination therapy) in this patient population. PMID:27022456

  8. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute). Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:23111146

  9. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-09-01

    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( < 0.001) for RC than for grass. For both forage species, 18:3-3 and TFA content decreased linearly ( < 0.001) with advancing growth stage, with the highest abundance at the vegetative stage. Most of lipid in fresh RC and grass herbage (97%) was esterified, whereas NEFA accounted for 71% of TFA in both silages. Ensiling resulted in marginal increases in TFA content and the amounts of individual fatty acids compared with fresh herbages. Herbage total PPO activity was higher ( < 0.001) for RC than grass (11 vs. 0.11 μkatal/g leaf fresh weight). Net lipolysis during ensiling was extensive for both forage species (660 to 759 g/kg fatty acid for grass and 563 to 737 g/kg fatty acid for RC). Formic acid application (0 vs. 6 L/t) resulted in a marked decrease ( = 0.026) in net lipolysis during the ensiling of RC, whereas the opposite was true ( = 0.026) for grass

  10. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Effects of pH and NaCl levels in a beef marinade on physicochemical states of lipids and proteins and on tissue microstructure.

    PubMed

    Sharedeh, Diaa; Gatellier, Philippe; Astruc, Thierry; Daudin, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    Meat slices were incubated for 24h at 10°C in marinade solutions so that their pH reached 6.5, 5.4, or 4.3, and their NaCl contents 0.9% or 2%. The histological modifications were assessed by image analysis using two parameters: mean fibre cross section area (FCSA, μm(2)) and the ratio of the extra-cellular space (ECS, % area). The changes in lipids and proteins were evaluated through oxidation, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein aggregation by granulometry (size and shape of particles). ANOVA showed that FCSA decreased linearly while ECS increased when pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.3 at either low or high NaCl salt content. Decreasing pH significantly increased TBARS and carbonyl groups, while increasing NaCl level had a significant protective effect on lipids. No marinating effect was observed on free thiols. Protein surface hydrophobicity and aggregation increased significantly with decreasing pH, but were unaffected by NaCl. The effect of these physicochemical changes on the nutritional value of meat is discussed.

  12. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Puangsomlee Wangsomnuk, Preeya; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides. PMID:27137377

  13. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  14. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  15. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  16. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  17. Recent Research Progress in Natural Bioactive Constituents against Lipid Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lirong; Song, Hang; He, Ai; Yao, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolic disorder refers to the dyslipidemia in the plasma. Abnormal working or lipid metabolism process leads to supernormal increase of one or multi kinds of lipids in plasma. It is a significant risk factor for many diseases and has become a serious danger to the mankind health. The clinical drugs adjusting lipid levels have a great variety in the market, side effects and adverse reactions. Meanwhile, many Chinese herbal medicines and natural medicines have the unnegligible role of regulating lipid metabolism, which become the research focus of medical workers in past decades. With advantages of fewer side effects, abundant resources and multi-target functions, terrestrial and marine bioactive constituents are proved as one of the important sources of the lead compounds in drug discovery and have been widely applied in the treatment and prevention of lipid metabolic diseases. In this paper, the recent advancements and current status of natural medicinal ingredients mainly based on lipid-lowering activities were reviewed in detail. Moreover, their bioactivity screening and important mechanisms in hyperlipemia progression were summarized and compared. It was also selectively introduced about related structural modification and new drug development on the basis of promising lead compounds. Finally, the current problems and possible prospects of natural constituents against lipid metabolism disorder in the future were discussed. PMID:27086784

  18. Lipids in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  19. Lipids in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-03-28

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  20. Association of inflammatory sialoproteins, lipid peroxides and serum magnesium levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children of South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, G; Anitha, D; Srinivasan, A R; Velu, V Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C; Babu, M Sathish; Ramesh, R; Saha, S

    2014-06-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (≥95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  1. Association of Inflammatory Sialoproteins, Lipid Peroxides and Serum Magnesium Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Children of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Niranjan, G.; Anitha, D.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C.; Babu, M. Sathish; Ramesh, R.; Saha, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (≥95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  2. Muscular cholinesterase activities and lipid peroxidation levels as biomarkers in several Mediterranean marine fish species and their relationship with ecological variables.

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Baena, Miguel; Arnau, Susana; Carrasson, Maite; Maynou, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E

    2010-02-01

    Muscular cholinesterase activities, as potential markers of neurotoxic exposure, and lipid peroxidation levels, indicative of oxidative stress damage, both currently used in early-warning pollution monitoring, were characterised in eighteen fish species of ecologic and/or economic importance. These species comprise five orders and eleven families of teleosts and two species of elasmobranchs, feed using different strategies (benthic, epibenthic, endobenthic and pelagic), belong to different trophic levels and express different swimming behaviour. Their habitat ranges from 50 to 60 m (shallow or continental shelf) and 600 to 850 m (middle continental slope). Sampling took place in front of the Barcelona coast (NW Mediterranean) during four seasonal cruises in 2007. In the summer sampling, another site potentially exposed to a different pollution load (Vilanova) was included for comparison. Species, seasonal and site differences were tested and discussed in relation to chemical analysis of the local sediment, systematic position, habitat depth, feeding strategy, trophic level and swimming activity. Greater inter species differences rather than seasonal or site trends were seen in accordance to little pollution fluctuations. Higher cholinesterase activities were recorded in suprabenthos feeders, regardless of depth habitat, whereas LP levels were similar in all species except for the shark Scyliorhinus canicula in which they were consistently elevated. This study confirms and broadens former observations carried out with a more reduced number of fish species (Solé et al., 2008a). PMID:20022635

  3. Cattle bile but not bear bile or pig bile induces lipid profile changes and fatty liver injury in mice: mediation by cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    Three types of animal bile preparation, bear bile (BB), cattle bile (CB) and pig bile (PB) differ in bile acid composition and are supposed to exert different pharmacotoxicological actions. Dietary supplementation with CB at 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks decreased triacylglycerol (TAG) level but increased total cholesterol (CHO) level in serum, which were associated with fatty liver injury in mice. The increased levels of cholesterol esters (CE) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the serum and liver were observed in the mice fed the CB-supplemented diet. Lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury observed in the mice fed the CB diet were not induced by the supplementation with BB and PB. The supplementation with cholic acid (CA), the most abundant bile acid in CB, could induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which were indistinguishable from those induced by CB supplementation. CB and CA supplementation induced similar changes in the expression levels of mRNAs in the liver. Thus, CB induced lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which can be attributed to the actions of CA contained in CB. The inabilities of BB and PB to induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury are supposed to be due to their limited contents of CA.

  4. Metabolic differentiation and classification of abnormal Savda Munziq's pharmacodynamic role on rat models with different diseases by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics

    PubMed Central

    Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Materials and Methods: Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Results: Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda. PMID:26600713

  5. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals. PMID:26190253

  6. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  9. The effect of kefir on glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in mice with colonic abnormal crypt formation (ACF) induced by azoxymethane (AOM).

    PubMed

    Cenesiz, S; Devrim, A K; Kamber, U; Sozmen, M

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of kefir on the levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) in the liver, stomach, spleen and colon of mice with colonic aberrant crypts formed by azoxymethane (AOM). Thirty 12 weeks old Swiss Albino mice averaging 31.5 g weight were used as experimental animals. The mice were separated into 3 groups. The first group was the control group, second group was the AOM and third group was the AOM+kefir group. We applied AOM to the second and third groups. Mice were fed ad libitum by laboratory rodent chow during the experiment period. Water was given to the first and second groups and third group received only kefir diluted with water (50%). AOM was injected subcutaneously to the second and third groups for 7 weeks (two times a week, 5 mg/kg). Six weeks after the final AOM treatment the animals were sacrificed and liver, stomach, spleen and colon samples were collected from all the groups. MDA level demonstrated an increase only in stomach for the third group (p < 0.001), while an elevation was observed for all of the four organs for the second group (spleen p < 0.001, liver p < 0.001, colon p < 0.01). GSH level showed an increase in the second group at stomach (p < 0.01) and colon (p < 0.001), while in the third group, a small increase was determined only at the colon (p < 0.05). NO level increased at all of the organs in the second group (spleen, liver, colon p < 0.001, stomach p < 0.05), but only at liver and colon in the third group 3 (p < 0.001). In conclusion these results showed that kefir plays an antioxidant role.

  10. Prolactin Levels Correlate with Abnormal B Cell Maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Like Disease

    PubMed Central

    Legorreta-Haquet, Maria Victoria; Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Hernández-González, Rafael; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice. These expression levels did not significantly change in response to hyperprolactinemia; however, populations of pro-B and immature cells from lupus-prone strains showed a decrease in the absolute numbers of cells with high PRL-receptor expression in response to PRL. Because immature self-reactive B cells are constantly being eliminated, we assessed the expression of survival factor BIRC5, which is more highly expressed in both pro-B and immature B-cells in response to PRL and correlates with the onset of disease. These results identify an important role of PRL in the early stages of the B-cell maturation process: PRL may promote the survival of self-reactive clones. PMID:24454471

  11. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  12. Three-dimensional arrangement of genes involved in lipid metabolism in nuclei of porcine adipocytes and fibroblasts in relation to their transcription level.

    PubMed

    Kociucka, B; Cieslak, J; Szczerbal, I

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional arrangement of chromosomes and genes within a nuclear space is considered to represent the level of transcriptional regulation. Understanding how the nuclear architecture of adipocyte cells contributes to gene expression has become the subject of great interest in the context of obesity research. In this study we investigated nuclear positioning of 3 gene loci involved in lipid metabolism in the pig (Sus scrofa, SSC) which is considered as an important animal model for obesity in humans. We found that the position of the SCD gene in the 3-dimensional space of the cell nucleus is not correlated with transcriptional activity. The gene locus as well as chromosome territory SSC14 occupied the same peripheral location in adipocyte and fibroblast cells, in spite of the fact that their transcription level differs significantly between both cell types. For the 2 other investigated genes, i.e. ACACA and SREBF1 and their chromosome territory (SSC12), slightly different nuclear locations were found. They occupied intermediate nuclear positions in fibroblast nuclei, while in adipocytes they were positioned in the nuclear interior. The more internal location of these genes corresponds to increased transcription levels in fat cells. Our results confirm the non-random position of genes and chromosome territories in nuclei of adult porcine cells and indicate that relationship between transcription activity and gene positioning exists only for some but not all genes.

  13. [Gender differences in parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants in groups of juveniles--the Evenks and the europeans].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Dolgikh, M I; Astakhova, T A; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    Comparative estimation of the mean parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants was performed in youths and girls of the indigenous (the Evenks) and newly arrived population of the north of the Irkutsk oblast and of the Oblast Center (the Europeans). Gender differences were revealed in the level of ChlHDLP in juveniles of the arrived population, in the glutathione status and content of fat-soluble vitamins in juveniles Evens and the arrived and in concentration of retinol in the Oblast Center juveniles. Adaptive changes in the AOD system were found in the Evenk girls (the higher concentrations of α-to- copherol, GSH, the GSH/GSSG index, and a decrease of GSSG relatively to the Evenk boys and the girls of the arrived populations, as well as an increase of the ca-tocopherol level relatively to the Europeans of the Oblast Center) and in boys of the arrived population (the higher GSH content and the GSH/GSSG index relatively to the Evenk boys).

  14. Manipulation of nitrogen levels and mode of cultivation are viable methods to improve the lipid, fatty acids, phytochemical content, and bioactivities in Chlorella minutissima.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Neményi, Miklós; Stirk, Wendy A; Ördög, Vince; van Staden, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N: low = 2% N or moderate = 10% N) levels and cultivation (photoautotrophic or mixotrophic) modes on the biochemicals in Chlorella minutissima was evaluated using a mass culture system. Moderate N and mixotrophic cultures had higher biomass, protein, carbohydrate content and photosynthetic pigments than the low N and photoautotrophic treatments. In contrast, lipid and fatty acid content of the low N and photoautotrophic treatments were higher than in the moderate N and mixotrophic cultures. More phytochemicals were accumulated in moderate N and mixotrophic cultures which corresponded to better antioxidant capacity in the extracts. The most potent (0.7 mg · mL(-1) ) acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was displayed by moderate N and mixotrophic treatment. Approximately 60% of the extracts exhibited a noteworthy antimicrobial activity regardless of the N levels and cultivation modes. Thus, moderate N level enhanced the phytochemicals and biological activities of C. minutissima cultured under a mixotrophic system. PMID:26986789

  15. Evaluation of the Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide among Diabetic Patients and its Correlation with Lipid Profile as well as Oxidative Stress in North Indian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Arvind; Verma, Neetu; Panwar, Ajay; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence, needs continue research for novel methods to both prevent and treat this disorder. Obesity and decreased physical activity are the major risk factor for the development of diabetes. Recently the emphasis is focused on oxidative stress in pathogenesis of this disease. Aim To assess the serum levels of Nitric Oxide (NO) among diabetic patients and its correlation with lipid profile as well as oxidative stress in north Indian setting. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes for more than 1 year and age between 30 to 50 years with hyperuricaemia were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: Group I- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia, Group II- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and normouricaemia and Group III- Type 2 diabetics with normolipidemia and normouricaemia. Results The nitric oxide level was significantly lower in Group I and Group II than Group III. The oxidative stress parameters had poor correlation with NO level in all the groups. Conclusion Our data suggests that there is definite role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in pathogenesis of type -2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia. PMID:27437271

  16. Association of APOE (E2, E3 and E4) gene variants and lipid levels in ischemic stroke, its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Das, Satrupa; Kaul, Subhash; Jyothy, Akka; Munshi, Anjana

    2016-08-15

    In the present study we evaluated the association of APOE (E2/E3/E4) polymorphism with ischemic stroke (n=620), its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke (n=250) in a South Indian population from Telangana. The genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP while lipid levels were measured using commercially available kits. We found significant difference in the genotypic distribution between hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls for certain genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3; E4/E4 vs.E2/E4 and E3 vs. E4]. However, no significant difference was observed in genotypic distribution between ischemic stroke patients and controls. On analysing the genotypic distribution between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, statistically significant difference was observed in specific genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3 and E4/E4 vs. E2/E4]. In ischemic stroke subtypes analysing for alleles E3 vs. E2 and E3 vs. E4, we found significant association with intracranial large artery (p=0.01), cardioembolic stroke (p=0.001 and p=0.0004) and lacunar stroke (p=0.02). Analysing the association of various genotypes with different lipid levels significant association was observed for VLDL (P=0.000) and for triglyceride (P=0.000) levels with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes in ischemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. In conclusion, our results suggest that APOE polymorphism does seem to play a role in hemorrhagic stroke and also in the development of specific subtypes of ischemic stroke. Further, in ischemic stroke VLDL and triglycerides levels were found to be significantly associated with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes. PMID:27329241

  17. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities.

  18. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  19. Silicon Reverses Lipid Peroxidation but not Acetylcholinesterase Activity Induced by Long-Term Exposure to Low Aluminum Levels in Rat Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Noremberg, Simone; Bohrer, Denise; Schetinger, Maria R C; Bairros, André V; Gutierres, Jessié; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Veiga, Marlei; Santos, Francielli W

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most widely distributed metal in the environment and is extensively used in daily life leading to easy exposure to human beings. Besides not having a recognized physiological role, Al may produce adverse effects through the interaction with the cholinergic system contributing to oxidative stress. The present study evaluated, in similar conditions of parenteral nutrition, whether the reaction of silicon (SiO2) with Al(3+) to form hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS) reduces its bioavailability and toxicity through intraperitoneal administrations of 0.5 mg Al/kg/day and/or 2 mg Si/kg/day in Wistar rats. Al and Si concentrations were determined in rat brain tissue and serum. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and blood. An increase in the Al concentration was verified in the Al + Si group in the brain. All the groups demonstrated enhanced Si compared to the control animals. Al(3+) increased LPO measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cerebellum and hippocampus, whereas SiO2 reduced it when compared with the control group. An increase of AChE activity was observed in the Al-treated group in the cerebellum whereas a decrease of this enzyme activity was observed in the cortex and hippocampus in the Al and Al + Si groups. Al and Si concentrations increased in rat serum; however, no effect was observed in blood TBARS levels and AChE activity. SiO2 showed a protective effect in the hippocampus and cerebellum against cellular damage caused by Al(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation. Thus, SiO2 may be considered an important protector in LPO induced by Al(3+).

  20. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  1. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement. PMID:25876088

  2. Association of structural variants of the gene of apolipoprotein B with coronary heart disease and serum lipid level

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, V.A.; Puzyrev, V.P.; Lemza, S.V.; Karpov, R.S.; Fedorov, A.Yu.

    1995-07-01

    Xba I and EcoR I polymorphism of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene was studied by PCR. A significant increase in the frequency of allele X{sup +} and haplotype X{sup +}E{sup +} was demonstrated in patients with coronarographically documented coronary heart disease (CHD) over that of the general population. Association of allele E{sup {minus}} with increased levels of serum triglycerides was found. The results provide evidence about the contribution of structural variants of the APOB gene to determining CHD. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Doxorubicin Induced Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Antioxidant Action

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Leena; Balaraman, R

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiovascular abnormalities. Green tea extract (GTE) is reported to possess antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (100 mg/kg / day p.o. for 28 days) on DOX induced (3 mg/kg, IP on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28) cardiovascular abnormalities in rat heart. DOX treatment led to significant increase in blood pressure, ST interval, serum levels of LDH, CK, SGOT, lipid peroxidation .The antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced-glutathione were decreased considerably in the heart of DOX treated rats as compared to the normal control. A combined treatment with GTE and DOX showed a considerable decrease in serum markers of cardiotoxicity such as LDH, CK, SGOT and lipid peroxides. There was significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and also showed improvement in hemodynamic parameters and ECG changes as compared to DOX treated animals. DOX treatment caused disorganization of myocardial tissue which was restored in animals treated with GTE along with DOX. Thus it can be concluded that GTE possesses an antioxidant activity and by virtue of this action it can protect the heart from DOX induced cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:24363686

  4. Level of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein is associated with cardiac markers and electrocardiographic abnormalities in type-2 diabetes with chronic kidney disease stage G1 and G2.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yoshiteru; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ishii, Junnichi; Sekiguchi-Ueda, Sahoko; Shibata, Megumi; Yoshino, Yasumasa; Asano, Shogo; Hayakawa, Nobuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Yasukazu; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Sakuishi, Toshiaki; Fujita, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ozaki, Yukio; Itoh, Mitsuyasu

    2015-05-01

    Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) reflects the degree of stress in proximal tubules of the kidney. We examined the level of L-FABP in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage G1 and G2, and its relationship with cardiac markers and electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. T2DM patients whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were recruited [n = 276 (165 males), mean age 64 years]. The median level of urinary L-FABP was 6.6 μg/gCr. Urinary L-FABP showed significant correlation with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). Median (25th-75th percentile) eGFR was 82 (72-95) mL/min/1.73 m2. We divided patients into four subgroups (group 1, L-FABP ≤8.4 μg/gCr and ACR ≤30 mg/gCr; group 2, L-FABP ≤8.4 μg/gCr and ACR >30 mg/gCr; group 3, L-FABP >8.4 μg/gCr and ACR ≤30 mg/gCr; group 4, L-FABP >8.4 μg/gCr and ACR >30 mg/gCr). Compared with group 1, group 4 was significantly higher in systolic blood pressure, and eGFR using standardized serum cystatin C, high-sensitivity troponin T, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Group 4 had significantly higher level of NT-proBNP than group 3. Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed more ECG abnormalities than group 1. These findings suggest that simultaneous measurement of urinary L-FABP and ACR should be useful to assess cardiovascular damage reflecting on the elevation of cardiac markers and ECG abnormalities in T2DM with CKD G1 and G2.

  5. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  6. The effect of CAPE on lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels in the plasma of rats following thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Hoşnuter, Mübin; Gürel, Ahmet; Babucçu, Orhan; Armutcu, Ferah; Kargi, Eksal; Işikdemir, Ahmet

    2004-03-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals rise in the plasma after thermal injury and participate in the pathogenesis of tissue damage. Hence, various antioxidant molecules have been used in treatment of burn injury both experimentally and clinically. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, is known to have potent antioxidant property. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CAPE on oxidative stress in plasma of burned rats. Experiment was designed in three groups of rats with 20% full-thickness burn: (a) sham burn (n = 7); (b) burn only (n = 22); (c) burn + treatment with CAPE (n = 22). Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were used as both bio-indicators of oxidant status and determinant of antioxidant effect of CAPE. They were assessed by biochemical methods at 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th post-burn days. In conclusion, CAPE was shown to possess antioxidant activity by saving SOD activity, preventing XO activity and decreasing the levels of MDA, and NO. Our study showed that CAPE may be beneficial in burn injury.

  7. Hypersensitivity of Cockayne's syndrome cells to camptothecin is associated with the generation of abnormally high levels of double strand breaks in nascent DNA.

    PubMed

    Squires, S; Ryan, A J; Strutt, H L; Johnson, R T

    1993-05-01

    We report that fibroblasts from individuals with Cockayne's Syndrome (CS), an autosomal recessive disease exhibiting hypersensitivity to UV, are also hypersensitive to the killing action of camptothecin (CPT). In normal and CS cell lines the level of the protein-linked single strand DNA breaks (SSBs) induced by equal doses of CPT is similar, and these DNA breaks disappear within minutes of the removal of CPT. Thus, the toxicity of CPT does not correlate with the primary DNA lesions induced by the drug, and the hypersensitivity of CS cells cannot be explained by excessive topoisomerase I activity or by a defect in the enzyme ligation step. We have reported that CPT toxicity in normal cells is closely associated with the generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), predominantly at sites of DNA replication. The hypersensitivity of CS cells to CPT correlates closely with the much higher level of DSBs in nascent DNA than in normal cells. These DSBs are long-lived in all cells, but in CS many more (about 10-fold) remain 24 h after CPT removal and are presumably responsible for the higher frequency of chromosome aberrations in these cells. In CS as in normal cells aphidicolin prevents the generation of replication-related DSBs, suggesting that the movement of the DNA polymerase is necessary for the induction by CPT of the cytotoxic DSBs. Resistance to CPT and UV is restored to wild type in proliferating hybrids constructed between CS lines from two different complementation groups as is the abundance of replication-related DSBs. On the basis of this complementation we conclude that the UV and CPT sensitivities are distinct phenotypic traits arising from mutations in the CS A and B genes. PMID:7683249

  8. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  9. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 6: effects of varying pancreatin and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Williams, Hywel D; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Carrière, Frédéric; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-11-01

    The impact of pancreatin and calcium addition on a wide array of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) during in vitro lipolysis, with regard to digestion rates and distribution of the model drug danazol, was investigated. Pancreatin primarily affected the extent of digestion, leaving drug distribution somewhat unaffected. Calcium only affected the extent of digestion slightly but had a major influence on drug distribution, with more drug precipitating at higher calcium levels. This is likely to be caused by a combination of removal of lipolysis products from solution by the formation of calcium soaps and calcium precipitating with bile acids, events known to reduce the solubilizing capacity of LBFs dispersed in biorelevant media. Further, during the digestion of hydrophilic LBFs, like IIIA-LC, the un-ionized-ionized ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged at physiological calcium levels. This makes the titration curves at pH 6.5 representable for digestion. However, caution should be taken when interpreting lipolysis curves of lipophilic LBFs, like I-LC, at pH 6.5, at physiological levels of calcium (1.4 mM); un-ionized-ionized ratio of FFA might change during digestion, rendering the lipolysis curve at pH 6.5 non-representable for the total digestion. The ratio of un-ionized-ionized FFAs can be maintained during digestion by applying non-physiological levels of calcium, resulting in a modified drug distribution with increased drug precipitation. However, as the main objective of the in vitro digestion model is to evaluate drug distribution, which is believed to have an impact on bioavailability in vivo, a physiological level (1.4 mM) of calcium is preferred. PMID:25274609

  10. Long-term treatment of N-3 PUFAS on plasma lipoprotein levels and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    PubMed

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Tanphaichitr, Vichai; Leelahagul, Preeya; Pakpeankitvatana, Varapat; Surapisitchart, Thitima; Komindr, Surat

    2005-02-01

    The low incidence of coronary heart disease in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishermen who have high consumption of fish and seafood has called the attention in the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA = 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA = 22: 6n-3) acids, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, in reducing cardiovascular risk. N-3 PUFAs may reduce serum lipids by promoting fatty acid oxidation and decrease VLDL producing from the liver, depress tissue arachidonate synthesis and alter the composition and tissue PUFAs. Plasma lipoprotein and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in 9 hypertriglyceridemic patients consisting of 4 males and 5 females aged 39-72 yr who attended the Nutrition Clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital were investigated. The study period consisted of 4 wks of dietary advice only followed by 48 wks of dietary advice with a daily intake of 6 g of fish oil capsules (FOC). Six grams of FOC provided 1080 mg of 2:5n-3 and 720 mg of 22:6n-3. Their plasma triglyceride (TG) levels at wk 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 were 356.7, 230.1, 209.7, 192.9, 22 7.4 mg/dL and M-particle (equivalent to very low density lipoprotein, VLDL) were 484.4, 354.8, 383.1, 349.7, 453.2 mg/dL respectively that decreased significantly, whereas their plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the same periods were 139.4, 164.9, 171.0, 157.1, 158.3 mg/dL that increased significantly. Serum and erythrocyte 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in these subjects were significantly higher than those at wk 0 throughout the study. These findings indicate the bioavailability of 20: 5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in TG lowering effect of FOC. Fatty acids from fish oil have a remarkable effect on the synthesis and clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, especially VLDL and chylomicrons. Though daily treatment with 6 g of FOC has a striking effect in increasing plasma LDL-C levels. PMID:15962668

  11. Neuroimaging of lipid storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly sensitive to lipid storage as the contents of the central nervous system must occupy uniform volume, and any increases in fluids or deposits will lead to pressure changes and interference with normal neurological function. In addition to primary lipid storage diseases, lysosomal storage diseases include the mucolipidoses (in which excessive amounts of lipids and carbohydrates are stored in the cells and tissues) and the mucopolysaccharidoses (in which abnormal glycosylated proteins cannot be broken down because of enzyme deficiency). Neurological dysfunction can be a manifestation of these conditions due to substrate deposition as well. This review will explore the modalities of neuroimaging that may have particular relevance to the study of the lipid storage disorder and their impact on elucidating aspects of brain function. First, the techniques will be reviewed. Next, the neuropathology of a few selected lipid storage disorders will be reviewed and the use of neuroimaging to define disease characteristics discussed in further detail. Examples of studies using these techniques will be discussed in the text.

  12. Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannosylphosphodolichol synthase-encoding gene in Trichoderma reesei results in an increased level of protein secretion and abnormal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Kruszewska, J S; Butterweck, A H; Kurzatkowski, W; Migdalski, A; Kubicek, C P; Palamarczyk, G

    1999-06-01

    Production of extracellular proteins plays an important role in the physiology of Trichoderma reesei and has potential industrial application. To improve the efficiency of protein secretion, we overexpressed in T. reesei the DPM1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding mannosylphosphodolichol (MPD) synthase, under homologous, constitutively acting expression signals. Four stable transformants, each with different copy numbers of tandemly integrated DPM1, exhibited roughly double the activity of MPD synthase in the respective endoplasmic reticulum membrane fraction. On a dry-weight basis, they secreted up to sevenfold-higher concentrations of extracellular proteins during growth on lactose, a carbon source promoting formation of cellulases. Northern blot analysis showed that the relative level of the transcript of cbh1, which encodes the major cellulase (cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I]), did not increase in the transformants. On the other hand, the amount of secreted CBH I and, in all but one of the transformants, intracellular CBH I was elevated. Our results suggest that posttranscriptional processes are responsible for the increase in CBH I production. The carbohydrate contents of the extracellular proteins were comparable in the wild type and in the transformants, and no hyperglycosylation was detected. Electron microscopy of the DPM1-amplified strains revealed amorphous structure of the cell wall and over three times as many mitochondria as in the control. Our data indicate that molecular manipulation of glycan biosynthesis in Trichoderma can result in improved protein secretion.

  13. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fogelman, Yacov; Gaitini, Diana; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL]) and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old) completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001) and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08), respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL) did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01) and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01) in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27113136

  14. Structure of single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes as a function of hydration level studied by neutron reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskowiec, A.; Schnase, P.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Dubey, M.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2012-02-01

    We have recently been investigating the diffusion of water on single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes at different levels of hydration, using high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS). To aid in the interpretation of these QNS studies, we have conducted neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on SPEAR at LANSCE to characterize the structure of similarly prepared samples. Protonated DMPC membranes were deposited onto SiO2-coated Si(100) substrates and characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at different levels of hydration. We find reasonable agreement between the membrane thickness determined by NR and AFM at room temperature. We also find consistency between the scattering length density (SLD) profile in the vicinity of the upper leaflet of the supported DMPC membrane and that found in a molecular dynamics simulation of a freestanding membrane at 303 K. However, the fit to the reflectivity curve can be improved by modifying the SLD profile near the leaflet closest to the SiO2 surface.

  15. Antioxidant status, lipid and color stability of aged beef from grazing steers supplemented with corn grain and increasing levels of flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Pouzo, L B; Descalzo, A M; Zaritzky, N E; Rossetti, L; Pavan, E

    2016-01-01

    Angus steers were grazed on unsupplemented pasture (CNTRL), pasture supplemented with 0.7% BW cracked corn (FLAX-0), FLAX-0 with 0.125% and 0.250% BW of whole flaxseed (FLAX-1 and FLAX-2). Six steers were grazed per treatment for 70 days, with start and finish weights of 458 and 508 kg. At 24 h post slaughter, longissimus thoracis were harvested, and steaks assigned to treatments of postmortem aging time under vacuum (PM; 3, 14 and 56 days) with or without five days of aerobic exposure (AE). Meat antioxidant status was higher (P<0.05) when feeding CNTRL and FLAX-1 than FLAX-0 and FLAX-2. Under AE, lipid oxidation was highest for FLAX-2 (P<0.05), and lowest for FLAX-1. Greatest TBARs and lowest antioxidant capacity and redness values were obtained with AE and the longer PM (P<0.05). Beef oxidative stability through AE improved by adding a low flaxseed level to supplemented corn grain, but deteriorated by adding a high flaxseed level or by extending PM.

  16. Tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules decrease reactive oxygen species levels and improve bovine embryonic development during in vitro oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Remião, Mariana Härter; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Domingues, William Borges; Haas, Cristina; Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Ourique, Aline; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols can be improved by adding chemical supplements to the culture media. Tretinoin is considered an important retinoid in embryonic development and its association with lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC) represents an innovative way of improving its solubility, and chemical stability, and reducing its toxicity. The effects of supplementing IVM medium with TTN-LNC was evaluated by analyzing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), S36-phosphorilated-p66Shc levels and caspase activity in early embryonic development, and expression of apoptosis and pluripotency genes in blastocysts. The lowest concentration tested (0.25μM) of TTN-LNC generated higher blastocyst rate, lower ROS production and S36-p66Shc amount. Additionally, expression of BAX and SHC1 were lower in both non-encapsulated tretinoin (TTN) and TTN-LNC-treated groups. Nanoencapsulation allowed the use of smaller concentrations of tretinoin to supplement IVM medium thus reducing toxic effects related with its use, decreasing ROS levels and apoptose frequency, and improving the blastocyst rates.

  17. Antioxidant status, lipid and color stability of aged beef from grazing steers supplemented with corn grain and increasing levels of flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Pouzo, L B; Descalzo, A M; Zaritzky, N E; Rossetti, L; Pavan, E

    2016-01-01

    Angus steers were grazed on unsupplemented pasture (CNTRL), pasture supplemented with 0.7% BW cracked corn (FLAX-0), FLAX-0 with 0.125% and 0.250% BW of whole flaxseed (FLAX-1 and FLAX-2). Six steers were grazed per treatment for 70 days, with start and finish weights of 458 and 508 kg. At 24 h post slaughter, longissimus thoracis were harvested, and steaks assigned to treatments of postmortem aging time under vacuum (PM; 3, 14 and 56 days) with or without five days of aerobic exposure (AE). Meat antioxidant status was higher (P<0.05) when feeding CNTRL and FLAX-1 than FLAX-0 and FLAX-2. Under AE, lipid oxidation was highest for FLAX-2 (P<0.05), and lowest for FLAX-1. Greatest TBARs and lowest antioxidant capacity and redness values were obtained with AE and the longer PM (P<0.05). Beef oxidative stability through AE improved by adding a low flaxseed level to supplemented corn grain, but deteriorated by adding a high flaxseed level or by extending PM. PMID:26318758

  18. Abnormal Changes of Brain Cortical Anatomy and the Association with Plasma MicroRNA107 Level in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yan; Jiang, Weixiong; Shen, Dinggang; Xiao, Shifu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA107 (Mir107) has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Twenty aMCI (20 aMCI) and 24 cognitively normal control (NC) subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and local gyrification index (LGI), were assessed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine plasma expression of Mir107, BACE1 mRNA. Thinner cortex was found in aMCI in areas associated with episodic memory and language, but with thicker cortex in other areas. SA decreased in aMCI in the areas associated with working memory and emotion. LGI showed a significant reduction in aMCI in the areas involved in language function. Changes in Mir107 and BACE1 messenger RNA plasma expression were correlated with changes in CT and SA. We found alterations in key left brain regions associated with memory, language, and emotion in aMCI that were significantly correlated with plasma expression of Mir107 and BACE1 mRNA. This combination study of brain anatomical alterations and gene information may shed lights on our understanding of the pathology of AD. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01819545. PMID:27242521

  19. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  20. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Duck; Seo, Joo-Young; Lee, Sang-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO), 5% linseed oil (LO), 5% soybean oil (SO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX), no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP), 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO), a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO), and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC), respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g) were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA) contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than that of other

  1. Parkin is a lipid-responsive regulator of fat uptake in mice and mutant human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kye-Young; Stevens, Mark V.; Akter, M. Hasina; Rusk, Sarah E.; Huang, Robert J.; Cohen, Alexandra; Noguchi, Audrey; Springer, Danielle; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Tomas L.; Suen, Der-Fen; Youle, Richard J.; Amar, Marcelo; Remaley, Alan T.; Sack, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that abnormalities in lipid biology contribute to degenerative brain diseases. Consistent with this, emerging epidemiologic evidence links lipid alterations with Parkinson disease (PD), and disruption of lipid metabolism has been found to predispose to α-synuclein toxicity. We therefore investigated whether Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase found to be defective in patients with early onset PD, regulates systemic lipid metabolism. We perturbed lipid levels by exposing Parkin+/+ and Parkin–/– mice to a high-fat and -cholesterol diet (HFD). Parkin–/– mice resisted weight gain, steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance. In wild-type mice, the HFD markedly increased hepatic Parkin levels in parallel with lipid transport proteins, including CD36, Sr-B1, and FABP. These lipid transport proteins were not induced in Parkin–/– mice. The role of Parkin in fat uptake was confirmed by increased oleate accumulation in hepatocytes overexpressing Parkin and decreased uptake in Parkin–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts and patient cells harboring complex heterozygous mutations in the Parkin-encoding gene PARK2. Parkin conferred this effect, in part, via ubiquitin-mediated stabilization of the lipid transporter CD36. Reconstitution of Parkin restored hepatic fat uptake and CD36 levels in Parkin–/– mice, and Parkin augmented fat accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that Parkin is regulated in a lipid-dependent manner and modulates systemic fat uptake via ubiquitin ligase–dependent effects. Whether this metabolic regulation contributes to premature Parkinsonism warrants investigation. PMID:21865652

  2. Glutathione redox system, GSH-Px activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in tadpoles of R.r.ridibunda and B.viridis.

    PubMed

    Cavas, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

    2003-03-01

    Total glutathione (t-GSH), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, t-GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were investigated during the development period of a predominantly aquatic amphibian R.r.ridibunda and a predominantly terrestrial amphibian B. viridis. While t-GSH and GSH showed a similar trend, GSSG concentration increased significantly (p<0.05) during the larval stages in R.r.ridibunda larvae. In contrast to R.r.ridibunda larvae, there was no significant (p>0.05) change between 1 and 5 weeks in the t-GSH and GSH concentrations of B. viridis. t-GSH and GSH concentrations of B. viridis larvae became sharply elevated after the fifth week, GSSG levels increased 3.25-fold during the metamorphosis. The t-GSH/GSSG ratio fluctuated and the lowest t-GSH/GSSG ratios were observed at the third week for both species. GSH-Px activities for both species increased significantly (p<0.05) during the growing period. The highest GSH-Px activities in R.r.ridibunda and B.viridis were observed at the eighth week and they were 3.45 +/- 0.17 and 4.1 +/- 0.21 IU mg(-1), respectively. The membrane LPO levels in the R.r.ridibunda and B. viridis tadpoles significantly (p<0.001) decreased from 206 +/- 10.3 to 146 +/- 7.3 and from 198 +/- 9.9 to 23 +/- 1.15 nmol MDA g(-1) w.w., respectively.

  3. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Ghasemi, Mohsen; Zendehbad, Bamdad; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Golshan, Alireza; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Al-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP) was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC) for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P<0.001), food intake reduction in male rats (P<0.05), LDL reduction in female rats (obese (P<0.05) and diabetic (P<0.001)), and glucose level decline in the female diabetic rats (P<0.001). However, total protein concentration, LFT (liver function tests), urea and creatinin concentrations among different groups did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Leptin caused some discrepant results, especially regarding the LDL and glucose levels in diabetic female rats. PMID:26949493

  4. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  5. Chlorophytum borivilianum Root Extract Maintains near Normal Blood Glucose, Insulin and Lipid Profile Levels and Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Male Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. Methods: C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. Results: C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes. PMID:25249786

  6. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential

  7. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  8. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  9. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  10. [Special recommendations for lipid-lowering treatment: efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Tania Leme da Rocha; Nascimento, Helena Maria do

    2005-10-01

    Pharmacologic lipid-lowering interventions should be monitored periodically to assess efficacy and safety parameters. Statins are usually well-tolerated drugs and major side effects include increased serum liver and muscle enzymes (AST, ALT, CK). Treatment should be stopped or diminished in case of significant increase of AST or ALT (> 3x ULN), or CK (> 10x ULN). Other lipid lowering agents may also produce hepatotoxicity or myositis, especially in association with statins (fibrates and nicotinic acid) or in presence of metabolic abnormalities (thyroid, liver or renal disorders). Nicotinic acid can also increase glucose and uric acid plasma levels. Laboratory tests might be performed prior to hypolipidemic drug treatment and should be repeated every three months during the first year and then at 6-mo intervals. Shorter intervals should be recommended in individual cases.

  11. Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy is associated with muscle carnitine deficiency and lipid storage.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C; Leon-Monzon, M E; Bernardini, I; Gahl, W A; Jay, C A

    1994-04-01

    The use of zidovudine (AZT) for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) induces a DNA-depleting mitochondrial myopathy, which is histologically characterized by the presence of muscle fibers with "ragged-red"-like features, red-rimmed or empty cracks, granular degeneration, and rods (AZT fibers). Because dysfunctioning muscle mitochondria may lead to defects of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, we examined the degree of neutral fat accumulation and muscle carnitine levels in the muscle biopsy specimens from 21 patients with AZT-induced myopathic symptoms of varying severity. Six patients with no AZT fibers had normal endomyofibrillar lipid deposits and muscle carnitine levels; 7 patients with fewer than 5 AZT fibers per field had a mild (+) to moderate (++) increase in lipid droplets, and reduced muscle carnitine levels (3 patients); and 8 patients with more than 5 AZT fibers had severe muscle changes, a ++ to marked ( ) increase in lipid droplets, and reduced muscle carnitine levels (6 patients). Serial sections showed lipid globules often within "cracks" or vacuoles of the abnormal muscle fibers. We conclude that the muscle mitochondrial impairment caused by AZT results in (1) accumulation of lipid within the muscle fibers owing to poor utilization of long-chain fatty acids, (2) reduction of muscle carnitine levels probably due to decreased carnitine uptake by the muscle, and (3) depletion of energy stores within the muscle fibers. The findings may have potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of AZT-induced myopathic symptoms using oral carnitine supplementation.

  12. Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Kun Ling; Ruan, Xiong Zhong; Liu, Bi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is a negative feedback system that plays important roles in the regulation of plasma and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. To maintain a cholesterol homeostasis, LDLR expression is tightly regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in transcriptional level and by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in posttranscriptional level. The dysregulation of LDLR expression results in abnormal lipid accumulation in cells and tissues, such as vascular smooth muscle cells, hepatic cells, renal mesangial cells, renal tubular cells and podocytes. It has been demonstrated that inflammation, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, and hyperglycemia induce the disruption of LDLR pathway, which might contribute to lipid disorder-mediated organ injury (atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, kidney fibrosis, etc). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical mediator in the disruption of LDLR pathway caused by pathogenic factors. The mTOR complex1 activation upregulates LDLR expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, consequently resulting in lipid deposition. This paper mainly reviews the mechanisms for the dysregulation of LDLR pathway and its roles in lipid disorder-mediated organ injury under various pathogenic conditions. Understanding these mechanisms leading to the abnormality of LDLR expression contributes to find potential new drug targets in lipid disorder-mediated diseases. PMID:27019638

  13. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  14. The effect of angiotensin II microinjection into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on serum lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolite levels

    PubMed Central

    Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overactivity of renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathophysiology of renal and cardiovascular diseases. It is suggested that endothelial cells can release nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species in response to angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor of Ang II has been found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). BST is involved in autonomic function. This study was performed to find the role of central Ang II in serum lipid peroxidation product and in releasing NO into circulation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one catheterized rats were placed in stereotaxic instrument. A hole was drilled above BST. In the control group, saline 0.9% (100 nl) was microinjected into the BST. In the second group, Ang II (100 μM, 100–150 nl) was microinjected into the BST. In the third group losartan (an AT1 antagonist) was microinjected (100 μM, 200 nl) before Ang II into the BST. Systolic blood pressure was recorded. The NO metabolite (nitrite) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the rat's serum. Results: The data indicated that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response (P < 0.0001). It also increased MDA and nitrite levels of the serum significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). Pretreatment with losartan before Ang II microinjection attenuated serum's levels of MDA and nitrite (P < 0.001, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that central effect of Ang II on blood pressure is accompanied with increased levels of MDA and nitrite in the circulation. PMID:27376045

  15. Effects of protein level, methionine supplementation and carbohydrate type of the diet on liver lipid and plasma free threonine contents in the lactating rat.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J; Chanussot, B; Miller, M L; Poisson, J P; Belleville, J

    1989-01-01

    Eight groups of 13-15 female rats were fed purified diets after littering. Four groups received a low protein (8% casein) diet (groups 8) and the others, a normal protein (20% casein) diet (groups 20). Carbohydrates were supplied either as starch (groups S) or as starch plus 40% fructose (groups F). Half the animals received a 0.4% methionine supplementation (groups M). Four or five dams per group were sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 14 after littering. The diet intake was increased by methionine supplementation, substitution of starch for fructose and increased protein content, mainly during the second week of lactation. This influenced weight variation of the dams and litter growth. On all days, the plasma levels of cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids were positively correlated with the dietary protein level. On days 7 and 14, the liver neutral lipid content was increased in rats fed the low protein diets supplemented with methionine (groups 8SM and 8FM) and the normal protein diets containing 40% fructose (groups 20F and 20FM). The plasma free threonine content was positively correlated with the protein level in the diet. On day 14, rats fed a low protein diet had a threonine deficiency, except those in groups 8S and 8F. The plasma free threonine content of these rats was not reduced, possibly due to an impaired utilization of this amino acid. The liver lipidosis observed during lactation, in contrast to that observed during growth with a low protein diet, was not due to a threonine deficiency.

  16. Effects of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins among Mexican-Americans in Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hanis, C L; Hewett-Emmett, D; Douglas, T C; Bertin, T K; Schull, W J

    1991-01-01

    Genetic variability has been implicated as a significant contributor to the variation in levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins (apos) through a variety of direct and indirect investigations. Among the direct investigations, apo E has been shown to be polymorphic and to explain a small but statistically significant proportion of the variability in cholesterol. The apo E polymorphism was typed in 964 randomly selected Mexican-Americans from Starr County, Tex., and its effects determined on levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, subfractions (HDL2 and HDL3), alpha- and beta-lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apos A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, and E. Effects are reported for the entire sample and in each of three groups, namely, premenopausal females, postmenopausal women, and males. In the entire sample, significant effects were observed on cholesterol, beta-lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL, apo B, and apo E. There is evidence for significant physiological interaction of the apo E polymorphism effect in females by menopausal status. This is most evident for apo E levels, in which 5.9% of the variability in the entire sample is explained by the apo E polymorphism. In premenopausal females, however, the polymorphism accounts for 27.5% of the variability. In postmenopausal women and males, there is no significant effect. It is shown that the apo E polymorphism can be treated as a two-locus, two-allele system. Doing so identifies substitutions in amino acid position 158 as the mediators of most of the observed effects of this polymorphism. PMID:1998654

  17. Expression of uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 mRNA is induced by an adenocarcinoma-derived lipid-mobilizing factor

    PubMed Central

    Bing, C; Russell, S T; Beckett, E E; Collins, P; Taylor, S; Barraclough, R; Tisdale, M J; Williams, G

    2002-01-01

    The abnormalities of lipid metabolism observed in cancer cachexia may be induced by a lipid-mobilizing factor produced by adenocarcinomas. The specific molecules and metabolic pathways that mediate the actions of lipid-mobilizing factor are not known. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 are suggested to play essential roles in energy dissipation and disposal of excess lipid. Here, we studied the effects of lipid-mobilizing factor on the expression of uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 in normal mice. Lipid-mobilizing factor isolated from the urine of cancer patients was injected intravenously into mice over a 52-h period, while vehicle was similarly given to controls. Lipid-mobilizing factor caused significant reductions in body weight (−10%, P=0.03) and fat mass (−20%, P<0.01) accompanied by a marked decrease in plasma leptin (−59%, P<0.01) and heavy lipid deposition in the liver. In brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein-1 mRNA levels were elevated in lipid-mobilizing factor-treated mice (+96%, P<0.01), as were uncoupling proteins-2 and -3 (+57% and +37%, both P<0.05). Lipid-mobilizing factor increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA in both skeletal muscle (+146%, P<0.05) and liver (+142%, P=0.03). The protein levels of uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-2 in liver were also increased with lipid-mobilizing factor administration (+49% and +67%, both P=0.02). Upregulation by lipid-mobilizing factor of uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 in brown adipose tissue, and of uncoupling protein-2 in skeletal muscle and liver, suggests that these uncoupling proteins may serve to utilize excess lipid mobilized during fat catabolism in cancer cachexia. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 612–618. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600101 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11870545

  18. GRAF1a is a brain-specific protein that promotes lipid droplet clustering and growth, and is enriched at lipid droplet junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lucken-Ardjomande Häsler, Safa; Vallis, Yvonne; Jolin, Helen E.; McKenzie, Andrew N.; McMahon, Harvey T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipid droplets are found in all cell types. Normally present at low levels in the brain, they accumulate in tumours and are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling their homeostasis in the brain. We found that GRAF1a, the longest GRAF1 isoform (GRAF1 is also known as ARHGAP26), was enriched in the brains of neonates. Endogenous GRAF1a was found on lipid droplets in oleic-acid-fed primary glial cells. Exclusive localization required a GRAF1a-specific hydrophobic segment and two membrane-binding regions, a BAR and a PH domain. Overexpression of GRAF1a promoted lipid droplet clustering, inhibited droplet mobility and severely perturbed lipolysis following the chase of cells overloaded with fatty acids. Under these conditions, GRAF1a concentrated at the interface between lipid droplets. Although GRAF1-knockout mice did not show any gross abnormal phenotype, the total lipid droplet volume that accumulated in GRAF1−/− primary glia upon incubation with fatty acids was reduced compared to GRAF1+/+ cells. These results provide additional insights into the mechanisms contributing to lipid droplet growth in non-adipocyte cells, and suggest that proteins with membrane sculpting BAR domains play a role in droplet homeostasis. PMID:25189622

  19. Modifications in Lipid Levels Are Independent of Serum TNF-α in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of an Observational 24-Week Cohort Study Comparing Patients Receiving Etanercept Plus Methotrexate or Methotrexate as Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Garcia-Gonzalez, Carlos E.; Ayala-Lopez, Karina Patricia; Trujillo-Hernandez, Benjamin; Aguilar-Chavez, Erika Anita; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Vasquez-Jimenez, Jose Clemente; Olivas-Flores, Eva; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Varon-Villalpando, Evangelina; Cota-Sanchez, Adolfo; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Gamez-Nava, Jorge I.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare the modifications in lipids between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving etanercept plus methotrexate (ETA + MTX) versus methotrexate (MTX) and their relationship with serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Methods. In an observational cohort study, we compared changes in lipid levels in patients receiving ETA + MTX versus MTX in RA. These groups were assessed at baseline and at 4 and 24 weeks, measuring clinical outcomes, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TNF-α. Results. Baseline values for lipid levels were similar in both groups. HDL-C levels increased significantly only in the ETA + MTX group (from 45.5 to 50.0 mg/dL at 4 weeks, a 10.2% increase, P < 0.001, and to 56.0 mg/dL at 24 weeks, a 25.1% increase, P < 0.001), while other lipids underwent no significant changes. ETA + MTX also exhibited a significant increase in TNF-α (44.8 pg/mL at baseline versus 281.4 pg/mL at 24 weeks, P < 0.001). The MTX group had no significant changes in lipids or TNF-α. Significant differences in HDL-C between groups were observed at 24 weeks (P = 0.04) and also in TNF-α  (P = 0.01). Conclusion. HDL-C levels increased significantly following treatment with ETA + MTX, without a relationship with decrease of TNF-α. PMID:25243145

  20. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  1. Effects of Increasing Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Within the Guidelines of the AHA Step 1 Diet on Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels in Normal Males

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Henry N.; Karmally, Wahida; Barr, Susan Learner; Johnson, Colleen; Holleran, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to ascertain the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids by conducting two studies in normal young men, in which monounsaturated fats were replaced by polyunsaturated fats within the guidelines of the American Heart Association step 1 diet. Study A employed a randomized parallel design in which subjects first consumed an average American diet (AAD) containing 37% of calories as fat (saturated fat, 16% calories; monounsaturated fat, 14% calories; and polyunsaturated fat, 7% calories). After 3 weeks, one third of the subjects continued with the AAD, one third switched to a step 1 diet in which total fat calories were reduced to 30% by replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate, and one third switched to a polyunsaturated fat-enriched (Poly) diet with the same 30% fat calories and a reduction of monounsaturated fat from 14% to 8% and an increase of polyunsaturated fat from 7% to 13% of calories. The randomized period lasted 6 weeks. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels on the step 1 and Poly diets were reduced compared with levels on the AAD (P < .001). Total and LDL cholesterol did not differ between the step 1 and Poly diets, although comparison between the two diets is limited by the small study groups. Serum apolipoprotein (apo) B levels fell on the Poly diet compared with the AAD. Total high-density lipoprotein (HDL), HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol levels were not significantly affected by the diets. Postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations did not significantly differ either. In study B, a randomized crossover design was used in which all subjects ate the step 1 and Poly diets for 5 weeks each with a 4-day break between diets. In the eight subjects studied, the values for fasting plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; apoB; and apoA-I were essentially identical at the end of each diet period. Postprandial triglyceride areas obtained after ingestion of a large, standard fat load were also the same. Finally

  2. Cognitive Function and Brain Structure in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After Intensive Lowering of Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Jeff D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Bryan, R. Nick; Coker, Laura H.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Murray, Anne M.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Horowitz, Karen R.; Ding, Jingzhong; Marcovina, Santica; Lovato, Laura; Lovato, James; Margolis, Karen L.; Davatzikos, Christos; Barzilay, Joshua; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Linz, Peter E.; Miller, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for decline in cognitive function, reduced brain volume, and increased white matter lesions in the brain. Poor control of blood pressure (BP) and lipid levels are risk factors for T2DM-related cognitive decline, but the effect of intensive treatment on brain function and structure is unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intensive therapy for hypertension and combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate reduces the risk of decline in cognitive function and total brain volume (TBV) in patients with T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A North American multicenter clinical trial including 2977 participants without baseline clinical evidence of cognitive impairment or dementia and with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels less than 7.5% randomized to a systolic BP goal of less than 120 vs less than 140 mm Hg (n = 1439) or to a fibrate vs placebo in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels less than 100 mg/dL (n = 1538). Participants were recruited from August 1, 2003, through October 31, 2005, with the final follow-up visit by June 30, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cognition was assessed at baseline and 20 and 40 months. A subset of 503 participants underwent baseline and 40-month brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess for change in TBV and other structural measures of brain health. RESULTS Baseline mean HbA1c level was 8.3%; mean age, 62 years; and mean duration of T2DM, 10 years. At 40 months, no differences in cognitive function were found in the intensive BP-lowering trial or in the fibrate trial. At 40 months, TBV had declined more in the intensive vs standard BP-lowering group (difference, −4.4 [95% CI, −7.8 to −1.1] cm3; P = .01). Fibrate therapy had no effect on TBV compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In participants with long-standing T2DM and at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive BP control and fibrate therapy in the presence of

  3. Lipid classification, structures and tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21704189

  4. Effects of Cyclo-His-Pro-enriched yeast hydrolysate on blood glucose levels and lipid metabolism in obese diabetic ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Young; Hong, Yang Hee; Park, Chung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES We examined the hypoglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of yeast hydrolysate (YH) enriched with Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) in the C57BL/6J ob/ob mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Mice were separated into 4 groups (8 mice/group) on the basis of blood glucose and body weight: WT control, lean mice given vehicle; ob/ob control, ob/ob mice given vehicle; YH-1, ob/ob mice given 0.5 g/kg of YH; YH-2, ob/ob mice given 1 g/kg of YH. YH in saline or vehicle was administered orally in the same volume every day for 3 weeks. RESULTS Mice treated with YH (0.5 and 1 g/kg) for 3 weeks displayed a significant reduction in overall body weight gain and perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue weight compared to the ob/ob control group. Additionally, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, and atherogenic indexes were significantly decreased in the blood of YH-1 and YH-2 groups compared to the ob/ob control. In ob/ob mice, YH administration significantly improved glucose tolerance and blood insulin levels. These data indicate that YH treatment produces potent hypoglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects by controlling body weight, fat mass, blood lipid, insulin levels, and glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION YH could potentially be used as a treatment option for diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The CHP-enriched YH may be a promising strategy in the development of hypoglycemic peptide nutraceuticals. PMID:27087898

  5. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Li, Wan-Fen; Chen, Chien-Jen; Prineas, Ronald J; Chen, Wei J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure >14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water >21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  6. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms of paraoxonase gene cluster and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y.-T.; Li, W.-F.; Chen, C.-J.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Chen, Wei J.; Zhang Zhuming; Sun, C.-W.; Wang, S.-L.

    2009-09-01

    Arsenic has been linked to increased prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the long-term impact of arsenic exposure remains unclear. Human paraoxonase (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids and is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis, but evidence remains limited to case-control studies. Only recently have genes encoding enzymes responsible for arsenic metabolism, such as AS3MT and GSTO, been cloned and characterized. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic interaction of genetic factors and arsenic exposure on electrocardiogram abnormality. A total of 216 residents from three tap water implemented villages of previous arseniasis-hyperendemic regions in Taiwan were prospectively followed for an average of 8 years. For each resident, a 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and coded by Minnesota Code standard criteria. Eight functional polymorphisms of PON1, PON2, AS3MT, GSTO1, and GSTO2 were examined for genetic susceptibility to ECG abnormality. Among 42 incident cases with ECG deterioration identified among 121 baseline-normal subjects, arsenic exposure was significantly correlated with incidence of ECG abnormality. In addition, polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes were also found associated with the incidence of ECG abnormality. A haplotype R-C-S constituted by polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, -108C/T and PON2 C311S was linked to the increased risk. Subjects exposed to high levels of As (cumulative As exposure > 14.7 ppm-year or drinking artesian well water > 21 years) and carrying the R-C-S haplotype had significantly increased risks for ECG abnormality over those with only one risk factor. Results of this study showed a long-term arsenic effect on ECG abnormality and significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions linked to the incidence of CVD. This finding might have important implications for a novel and potentially useful

  7. Lipid nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  8. Lipid Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  9. Lipids and Membrane Lateral Organization

    PubMed Central

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creation of these levels of order. In the late 1980s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically) popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts). Today, a PubMed search using the key word “lipid rafts” returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, “ceramide” returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews), and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as “lipid raft-dependent.” However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells has been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasizes multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompass their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes. PMID:21423393

  10. Alteration of Lipid Parameters in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; War, Fayaz Ahmad; Shah, Sonaullah; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Kumar Kotwal, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but conflicting results regarding the degree of lipid changes in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) exist. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess differences in lipid profile parameters between subjects with and without SCH in a north Indian population. Patients and Methods: Serum lipid parameters of 70 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100 age and sex matched euthyroid controls were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Results: Mean serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). Mean TC, TG and low-density cholesterol (LDL) concentrations were higher in patients with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 10 mU/L than those with serum TSH equal to or less than 10 mU/L, but this difference was not statistically significant. No association was found between serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and serum TSH level. Conclusions: High TC, TG and VLDL were observed in our patients with SCH. PMID:25237326

  11. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Salil; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH. PMID:27683603

  12. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Salil; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH.

  13. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH. PMID:27683603

  14. Role of oxidized lipids in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ruffenach, Grégoire; Umar, Soban; Motayagheni, Negar; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial disease characterized by interplay of many cellular, molecular, and genetic events that lead to excessive proliferation of pulmonary cells, including smooth muscle and endothelial cells; inflammation; and extracellular matrix remodeling. Abnormal vascular changes and structural remodeling associated with PAH culminate in vasoconstriction and obstruction of pulmonary arteries, contributing to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. The complex molecular mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of PAH are the limiting factors in the development of potential therapeutic interventions for PAH. Over the years, our group and others have demonstrated the critical implication of lipids in the pathogenesis of PAH. This review specifically focuses on the current understanding of the role of oxidized lipids, lipid metabolism, peroxidation, and oxidative stress in the progression of PAH. This review also discusses the relevance of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides and microRNA-193, which are known to regulate the levels of oxidized lipids, as potential therapeutics in PAH.

  15. Lipids in cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  16. Causes of dysregulation of lipid metabolism in chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.

    2010-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and premature death from cardiovascular disease. These events are driven by oxidative stress inflammation and lipid disorders. ESRD-induced lipid abnormalities primarily stem from dysregulation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative modification of lipoproteins. In this context, production and plasma concentration of Apo-I and Apo-II are reduced, HDL maturation is impaired, HDL composition is altered, HDL anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions are depressed, clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their atherogenic remnants is impaired, their composition is altered, and their plasma concentration is elevated in ESRD. The associated defect in HDL maturation is largely caused by acquired lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency while its triglyceride enrichment is due to hepatic lipase deficiency. Hyper-triglyceridemia, abnormal composition, and impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants are mediated by down-regulation of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, VLDL receptor, and LDL receptor-related protein (LRP), relative reduction of ApoC-II/ApoC-III ratio, upregulation of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and elevated plasma level of cholesterol ester-poor pre-beta HDL. Impaired clearance and accumulation of oxidation- prone VLDL and chylomicron remnants and abnormal LDL composition in the face of oxidative stress and inflammation favors their uptake by macrophages and resident cells in the artery wall. The effect of heightened influx of lipids is compounded by impaired HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport leading to foam cell formation which is the central event in atherosclerosis plaque formation and subsequent plaque rupture, thrombosis and tissue damage. PMID:20017835

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  18. [Congenital foot