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Sample records for abnormal lipid profile

  1. Characterization of the abnormal lipid profile in Chinese patients with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaowen; Lin, Kai; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. To characterize the lipid profile in Chinese, 86 patients with psoriasis and 84 healthy control subjects were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the fasting serum values of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) were lower in the patient group. Compared with vulgaris psoriasis, special types of psoriasis had even lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Considering the severity of psoriasis, the level of ApoA-I and HDL-C were also the only two serum lipid parameters decreased in the mild group compared to those in controls. In the moderate and the severe group, the values of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and ApoA-I were all decreased compared to healthy control group. Further analysis indicated that the values of HDL-C and ApoA-I were significantly lower in the severe group compared to the moderate group. Correlation analysis indicated that the levels of HDL-C but not ApoA-I was negatively associated with the severity of the disease. Interestingly, when psoriasis was improved by treatment, the serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C and ApoA-I were increased from the pre-treatment values. We conclude that abnormalities in serum lipid metabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with psoriasis. PMID:26823881

  2. Correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Alekhya, Katamreddy; Saisumanth, Kandula; Lakshmanrao, Nambaru; Komali, Kanagala

    2013-01-01

    Over a period of time, anthropometric parameters have evolved into reliable indicators for predicting the incidence of diabetes mellitus. A number of studies have shown correlations between anthropometry and lipid profiles in healthy volunteers. This study examined correlations between anthropometry and lipid profile in type 2 diabetics. The limited observations made in this study reveal that anthropometric parameters are not ideal for predicting lipid profile abnormalities in type 2 diabetics. PMID:23961494

  3. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  4. The apolipoprotein E4 allele is not associated with an abnormal lipid profile in a Native American population following its traditional lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C A; Talavera, G; Ordovas, J M; Barriguete, J A; Guillén, L E; Leco, M E; Pedro-Botet, J; Gonzalez-Barranco, J; Gómez-Pérez, F J; Rull, J A

    1999-02-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated in industrialized countries with an elevated LDL cholesterol concentration and an increased cardiovascular risk. Our purpose in this study was to assess the influence of the genetic variation at the APOE gene locus on the lipid profile of a Native American rural population. We examined plasma lipid levels and the common apo E alleles in 142 healthy randomly selected adults living in their native communities in western Mexico. Their age was 38+/-17 years and the BMI 25.7+/-4.5 kg/m2. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL C and HDL C were 165+/-29.6, 126+/-83, 98+/-26 and 42+/-12.7 mg/dl respectively. Ninety-one per cent of the subjects had Lp(a) concentrations below 20 mg/dl and 30% had levels lower than 2 mg/dl. The most common APOE genotype was E3/3 (63%), followed by E3/4 (30.1%). The prevalence of the E2 allele was very low (2.3%). No difference was observed in LDL C concentrations between the E3/E3 and E3/E4 subjects; however carriers of the E2/3 genotype had lower LDL C levels. Similar results were obtained for cholesterol and apo B levels. In summary, the increased LDL C levels associated with the E4 allele in previous studies were not observed in a population with non-westernized habits. Environmental factors, such as diet and lifestyle, could outweigh the hypercholesterolemic predisposition resulting from the presence of the apo E4 allele.

  5. Lipid abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A

    2003-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is the constellation of adverse metabolic and clinical effects of insulin resistance. Its high and increasing prevalence and its profound impact on the major diseases of the western world require that clinicians consider its diagnosis and management on a routine basis. Recently published guidelines on its definition now make convenient and reliable diagnosis possible. Also, there is new and better understanding of the complex dyslipidemias and other risk factors strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, which greatly increase the risk of clinical atherosclerotic events. Comprehensive clinical evaluation of these dyslipidemias and associated atherosclerosis risk factors can lead to their aggressive treatment, customized according to the circumstances of each patient. These steps are now more feasible and more clearly desirable than ever before. Statins alone greatly reduce atherosclerosis risk, but combination lipid therapy is often required for optimal dyslipidemia management and atheroprevention. PMID:12643148

  6. Lipid abnormalities in kidney disease and management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vishwam; Rao, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with kidney diseases continue to experience significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Although there are many important risk factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein and low/dysfunctional low high-density) represents one of the modifiable risk factors. Renal failure patients have unique lipid abnormalities which not only have complex role in pathogenesis of CVD but also cause relative resistance to usual interventions. Most of the randomized trials have been in hemodialysis population and data from CKD non-dialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant populations is extremely limited. Compared to general population, evidence of mortality benefit of lipid lowering medications in CKD population is scarce. Future research should be directed towards establishing long term benefits and side effects of lipid lowering medications, through randomized trials, in CKD population. PMID:25664249

  7. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract improves high fat diet-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism genes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Mina; Kwon, Oran; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis is a bamboo leaf that is only grown on Jeju Island in South Korea. It is used as a bamboo tea that is consumed for therapeutic purposes, particularly for its anti-diabetic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effect of S. quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on high fat-induced lipid abnormalities and regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in rats. SQE supplementation significantly decreased the levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as the atherogenic index. SQE restored levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which were lowered by a high fat diet. Plasma and cardiac resistin levels were also significantly decreased by SQE supplementation. In adipose tissue, mRNA levels of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were suppressed in the SQE group. SQE supplementation decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets, inflammatory cell infiltrations, levels of triglycerides, and total lipids in the liver and effectively down-regulated expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2). These results suggest that SQE may be a potential treatment for high fat-related disorders by improving lipid profiles and modulating lipid metabolism.

  8. LIPID ABNORMALITIES AND LIPID-BASED REPAIR STRATEGIES IN ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes atopic dermatitis (AD). We review here increasing evidence that the inflammation in AD results primarily from inherited abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins that impact permeability barrier function. We also will show that the barrier defect can be attributed to a paracellular abnormality due to a variety of abnormalities in lipid composition, transport and extracellular organization. Accordingly, we also review the therapeutic implications of this emerging pathogenic paradigm, including several current and potentially novel, lipid-based approaches to corrective therapy. PMID:24128970

  9. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Alexander; Ruf, Matthias; Kief, Christine; Demirakca, Traute; Bailer, Josef; Ende, Gabriele; Henn, Fritz A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Dressing, Harald

    2008-08-01

    Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10 male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a sexually non-explicit functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with images of men, women, boys or girls randomly embedded in neutral target/non-target geometrical symbols. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and SPSS 14 for image processing and analysis. While controls activated significantly less to pictures of children compared to adults, the activation profile was reversed in subjects with pedophilia, who exhibited significantly more activation to children than adults. The highest activation was observed for boys in the patient group, and for women in control participants. Our data show enhanced activation to children's pictures even in an incidental context and suggest the provocative hypothesis that a normally present mechanism for reduced emotional arousal for children relative to adults is reversed in pedophilia, suggesting a neural substrate associated with deviant sexual preference in this condition. More extensive research in this field would be of benefit for both the victims and the offenders.

  10. Pathogenesis of permeability barrier abnormalities in the ichthyoses: inherited disorders of lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Holleran, Walter M.; Jiang, Yan J.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many of the ichthyoses are associated with inherited disorders of lipid metabolism. These disorders have provided unique models to dissect physiologic processes in normal epidermis and the pathophysiology of more common scaling conditions. In most of these disorders, a permeability barrier abnormality “drives” pathophysiology through stimulation of epidermal hyperplasia. Among primary abnormalities of nonpolar lipid metabolism, triglyceride accumulation in neutral lipid storage disease as a result of a lipase mutation provokes a barrier abnormality via lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation within the extracellular matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). Similar mechanisms account for the barrier abnormalities (and subsequent ichthyosis) in inherited disorders of polar lipid metabolism. For example, in recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI), cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) accumulation also produces a permeability barrier defect through lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation. However, in RXLI, the desquamation abnormality is in part attributable to the plurifunctional roles of CSO4 as a regulator of both epidermal differentiation and corneodesmosome degradation. Phase separation also occurs in type II Gaucher disease (GD; from accumulation of glucosylceramides as a result of to β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency). Finally, failure to assemble both lipids and desquamatory enzymes into nascent epidermal lamellar bodies (LBs) accounts for both the permeability barrier and desquamation abnormalities in Harlequin ichthyosis (HI). The barrier abnormality provokes the clinical phenotype in these disorders not only by stimulating epidermal proliferation, but also by inducing inflammation. PMID:18245815

  11. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  12. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  13. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  14. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  15. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  16. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  17. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Baró, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; Núñez, M. C.; Jiménez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the values were expressed as relative percentages, cancer patients had significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid than controls. With regard to lipid fractions, cancer patients had higher proportions of oleic acid in plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and lower percentages of linoleic acid and its derivatives. On the other hand, alpha-linolenic acid was significantly lower in triglycerides from cancer patients and tended to be lower in phospholipids. Its derivatives also tended to be lower in phospholipids and triglycerides from cancer patients. Our findings suggest that colorectal cancer patients present abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles characterized by lower amounts of most saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives, especially members of the n-6 series, than their healthy age-matched counterparts. These changes are probably due to metabolic changes caused by the illness per se but not to malnutrition. PMID:9667678

  18. A Study to Evaluate Lipid Profile in Treatment Naïve HIV Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Devanath, Anitha; Ray, Somdattaa; Kumar, Ravi; Prarthana, B S

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with lipid abnormalities in treatment naïve patients. CD4 count is used for monitoring the HIV infection. Primary objective was to evaluate and correlate lipid profile and CD4 counts in HIV infection. Secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using Lipid profile to monitor the HIV infected treatment naïve patients instead of CD4 counts. 112 patients were selected based on a criteria from ART center in tertiary care center. CD4 counts were assessed and Lipid profile was evaluated enzymatically. A correlation study was done between the lipid profile and the CD4 count and clinical stages of infection. Cholesterol showed no significant correlation in any stage. HDL-C showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) with stage 2 and 4 disease. LDL-C showed no significant correlation in any stage. TGL showed significant correlation (p < 0.05) at stage 4 disease. Hence, HDL-C and TGL can be used as indicators of lipid status and for infection progression in treatment naive HIV patients, while Cholesterol and LDL-C has no role to play.

  19. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  20. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  1. Nutritional Status and Lipid Profile in HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, M; Feliu, M S; Cassetti, L I; Slobodianik, N H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, there have been many reports of HIV infection and abnormalities in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims at describing the nutritional status of HIV-infected adults and its relation to lipid profile through traditional [total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (LDL)] and other parameters [Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), fibrinogen, and high sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)]. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and references were taken from WHO. TC, HDL, TG and glucose were determined and non-HDL cholesterol and LDL were calculated. ApoB and fibrinogen were determined by quantitative radial immunodiffusion on agar plates (Diffuplate,Biocientífica SA,Argentina) and hs-CRP by immunoturbidimetric test. Qualitative variables were compared with the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Quantitative variables were compared applying parametrics or nonparametric tests. Pearson test for correlations. Software SPSS 17.0. 97 patients were analyzed: 69.1% were men. 80% were on antiretroviral treatment. Average (SD) BMI was 24.3 (4.1) kg/m(2). 29.4% were overweight and 5.9% obese. Patients with a BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) presented significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB and glycemia than well-nourished people [246.1(169.0) vs. 142.9(78.4) mg/dL;p=0.029, 198.6(69.3) vs. 126.4(50.6) mg/dL;p=0.01 and 100 (3.2) vs. 90.2 (6.9) mg/dL;p=0.008 resp.] and a significantly decreased HDL [37.2(1.5) vs. 49.8(10.4) mg/dL;p<0.01]. No statistically significant correlation was found between ApoB and non-HDL (p=0,063). There was no evidence that there is a direct relation between Apo B and the other lipid parameters. The potential increase in CVD in this group of patients, would be related to the higher levels of TG, ApoB and overweight/obesity. Nutritional education is needed to promote a healthy weight to warn against the risk of

  2. Lipid profiling of lipoprotein X: Implications for dyslipidemia in cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Susanne; Boettcher, Alfred; Kaul, Harald; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Lipoprotein X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein that may typically be formed in intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis and potentially interfere with lipid analysis in the routine lab. To gain insight into lipid class and species composition, Lp-X, LDL and HDL from cholestatic and control serum samples were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis including phospholipids (PL), sphingolipids, free cholesterol (FC), cholesteryl esters (CE) and bile acids. Our analysis of Lp-X revealed a content of 46% FC, 49% PL with 34% phosphatidylcholine (PC) as main PL component. The lipid species pattern of Lp-X showed remarkable high fractions of mono-unsaturated species including PC 32:1 and PC 34:1 and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 32:1 and 34:1. LDL and HDL lipid composition in the same specimens strongly reflected the lipid composition of Lp-X with increased PC 32:1, PC 34:1, PE 32:1, PE 34:1 and FC accompanied by decreased CE compared to controls. Comparison of Lp-X and biliary lipid composition clearly indicates that Lp-X does not originate from a sole release of bile lipids. Moreover, these data present evidence for increased hepatic fatty acid and PL synthesis which may represent a reaction to high hepatic FC level observed during cholestasis.

  3. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  4. An overview of lipid abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Agouridis, Aris P.; Elisaf, Moses; Milionis, Haralampos J.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder which encompasses two forms of intestinal inflammation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. It is reported that inflammation, carotid intima media thickness, homocysteine and insulin resistance, parameters that are all associated with atherosclerosis, are increased in IBD. On the contrary, it seems that IBD patients exhibit low levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. This review highlights the lipid profiles that occur in IBD patients and summarizes data of studies using regimens that may affect lipid metabolism in these patients. PMID:24713706

  5. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  6. Lipid mediator profile in vernix caseosa reflects skin barrier development

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio; Holm, Tina; Sjödin, Marcus O. D.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Alm, Johan; Scheynius, Annika; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Vernix caseosa (VC) is a protective layer that covers the skin of most human newborns. This study characterized the VC lipid mediator profile, and examined its relationship to gestational period, gender of the newborn and maternal lifestyle. VC collected at birth from 156 newborns within the ALADDIN birth cohort was analyzed and 3 different groups of lipid mediators (eicosanoids and related oxylipin analogs, endocannabinoids and sphingolipids) were screened using LC-MS/MS. A total of 54 compounds were detected in VC. A number of associations between lipid mediators and the gestational period were observed, including increases in the ceramide to sphingomyelin ratio as well as the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Gender-specific differences in lipid mediator levels were observed for all 3 lipid classes. In addition, levels of the linoleic acid oxidation products 9(10)-epoxy-12Z-octadecenoic and 12(13)-epoxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (EpOMEs) as well as 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (DiHOME) were increased in VC of children from mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle. Accordingly, VC was found to be rich in multiple classes of bioactive lipid mediators, which evidence lifestyle, gender and gestational week dependencies. Levels of lipid mediators in VC may therefore be useful as early stage non-invasive markers of the development of the skin as a protective barrier. PMID:26521946

  7. Hypoglycaemia, Abnormal Lipids, and Cardiovascular Disease among Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijun; Mu, Yiming; Ji, Qiuhe; Huang, Qin; Kuang, Hongyu; Ji, Linong; Yang, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    We recruited a group of 6713 consecutive Chinese patients with T2D but normal renal and liver function who were admitted to one of 81 top tertiary care hospitals in China. Mild hypoglycaemia was defined as having symptomatic hypoglycaemia in one month before hospitalization. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in three months before hospitalization. Prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) was defined as having coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of 6713 patients, 80 and 304 had severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes, respectively, and 561 had CVD. Patients with severe and mild hypoglycaemia episodes were more likely to have prior CVD (32.5% versus 16.5% versus 7.7%, P < 0.0001). Both mild and severe hypoglycaemia were associated with increased risk of CVD (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 2.64, 95% CI: 1.85–3.76 for mild hypoglycaemia; 6.59, 95% CI: 3.79–11.45 for sever hypoglycaemia) than those patients free of hypoglycaemia. Further adjustment for lipid profile did not change these two ORs. In the same way, the ORs of lipid profile for CVD were similar before and after adjustment for hypoglycaemia. We concluded that hypoglycaemia and lipid profile were independently associated with increased risk of CVD. PMID:26504840

  8. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  9. Lipid Profile among Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ali A Muttalib

    2014-12-01

    Associations between hearing and blood lipids have been the focus of scientific inquiry for more than 50 years. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between hyperlipidaemia among patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss compared to normal controls. A case control study concerned with 22 patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who underwent lipid profile evaluation. The lipid profile of these patients was compared with corresponding results of 55 age matched persons (volunteers) with normal hearing. These patients were collected from the Out Patient Department of ENT at Al-Jamhory Teaching Hospital, Mosul/Iraq and private clinic of the author for the period from February 2011 to July 2013. The average age of patients was 44.7 years with a range of 26-65 years. The peak age incidence was in the 5(th) decade of life. The study included 11 male patients (50 %) and 11 females (50 %). Meanwhile, the average age of the control group was 41.7 years with 25 (45.5 %) males and 30 (54.5 %) females. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference between the means of lipid profile and blood sugar of the patients and the control group apart from HDL where there was no significant difference. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia seems to be significantly associated with the occurrence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss according to this study.

  10. The effect of omega-3 on serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hamid Reza; Pasdar, Yahya; Raisi, Daryosh; Najafi, Farid; Esfandiari, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major complications in hemodialysis patients is cardiovascular disease. Lipid abnormality is an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To investigate the effect of omega-3 supplementation on serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study included 2 groups of patients: those who received omega-3 supplementation (experimental group; 30 cases) and those who received placebo (control group; 30 cases). They received these for 10 weeks and serum lipid profile (triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C], and total cholesterol) was assessed 2 times, first before initiating supplementation and then at the end of 10-week study period. Results: Mean (±SD) serum total cholesterol levels at the beginning was 163 (±47) mg/dL in experimental group and 143 (±25) mg/dL in control group (P> 0.05). These values decreased to 124 mg/dL and 132 mg/dL in control and experimental groups (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference of HDL-C, LDL-C, or triglyceride levels between experimental and control groups after 10 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplementation in hemodialysis patients only showed significant decrease of serum total cholesterol level, but not other lipids. PMID:26468477

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Detergent Resistant Membranes (Lipid Rafts) of Prostasomes.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Louise; Ronquist, Karl K Göran; Ek, Bo; Ronquist, Gunnar; Larsson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Prostasomes are exosomes derived from prostate epithelial cells through exocytosis by multivesicular bodies. Prostasomes have a bilayered membrane and readily interact with sperm. The membrane lipid composition is unusual with a high contribution of sphingomyelin at the expense of phosphatidylcholine and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are dominant. Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered domains that are more tightly packed than the surrounding nonraft phase of the bilayer. Lipid rafts are proposed to be highly dynamic, submicroscopic assemblies that float freely within the liquid disordered membrane bilayer and some proteins preferentially partition into the ordered raft domains. We asked the question whether lipid rafts do exist in prostasomes and, if so, which proteins might be associated with them. Prostasomes of density range 1.13-1.19g/ml were subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation in sucrose fabricated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% Triton X-100 with capacity for banding at 1.10 g/ml, i.e. the classical density of lipid rafts. Prepared prostasomal lipid rafts (by gradient ultracentrifugation) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The clearly visible band on top of 1.10g/ml sucrose in the Triton X-100 containing gradient was subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem MS and more than 370 lipid raft associated proteins were identified. Several of them were involved in intraluminal vesicle formation, e.g. tetraspanins, ESCRTs, and Ras-related proteins. This is the first comprehensive liquid chromatography-tandem MS profiling of proteins in lipid rafts derived from exosomes. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002163.

  12. Glycaemia Status, Lipid Profile and Renal Parameters in Progressive Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Debahuti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Existence of systemic co-morbidities in DPN patients has not been studied much, especially in Indian population. Aim To evaluate glycaemic status, lipid profile, renal parameters and blood count to assess occurrence of co-morbidities as severity of DPN progresses. Materials and Methods A case control study involving 104 DPN patients and 43 controls of age 31-70years were selected. Patients were categorized into stage 0, 1, 2 and 3 of severity as per Dyck system of classification. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS), Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), Lipid profile, Vitamin B12, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Urea, Creatinine and Complete blood counts were assessed along with baseline characteristics. Results Glycosylated haemoglobin was in uncontrolled range for DPN patients (9.03±2.09) FBS and PPBS were significantly more with progress of severity of DPN (p<0.001). HDL decreased (p<0.001) as severity progressed and Triglyceride increased in DPN cases. Mean urea values increased (p=0.008) while haemoglobin levels and RBC count decreased (p<0.001) as severity of DPN progressed. Conclusion Abnormal lipid profile, increased urea and decreased RBC levels point to co-existence of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities as severity of DPN progressed. PMID:27790428

  13. [Clinical Application of Methods for the Qualitative Evaluation of Lipid Abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Recent lifestyle and social environment changes in Japan have been accompanied by increasing incidencerates of metabolic disorders, such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. Therefore, the rates of cardiovascular disease due to the progression of atherosclerosis are also increasing, and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in Japan. In particular, dyslipidemia, represented by hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, is closely related to the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol have been used as quantitative markers of lipids to evaluate cardiovascular risks. However, these markers are not sufficient to fully assess the risks. Therefore, we focused on qualitative markers that represent lipid abnormalities, and examined the utility of qualitative lipids evaluation as clinical markers of atherosclerotic disorders. Previously, we reported that HDL and LDL subclasses and sterol markers are clinically important for evaluating the pathogenesis and risks of cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, lipoprotein subclasses may be useful as therapeutic markers for cardiovascular disorders, and oxysterols may also be useful as diagnostic markers for dementing disorders and diseases of the central nervous system. These issues remain to befully elucidated in the future. PMID:27311287

  14. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX. PMID:27630835

  15. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. PMID:26811546

  16. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm.

  17. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  18. Choroideremia Is a Systemic Disease With Lymphocyte Crystals and Plasma Lipid and RBC Membrane Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Yang; Mysore, Naveen; Vali, Hojatollah; Koenekoop, Jamie; Cao, Sang Ni; Li, Shen; Ren, Huanan; Keser, Vafa; Lopez-Solache, Irma; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Khan, Ayesha; Mui, Jeannie; Sears, Kelly; Dixon, Jim; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Majewski, Jacek; Braverman, Nancy; Koenekoop, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor neuronal degenerations are common, incurable causes of human blindness affecting 1 in 2000 patients worldwide. Only half of all patients are associated with known mutations in over 250 disease genes, prompting our research program to identify the remaining new genes. Most retinal degenerations are restricted to the retina, but photoreceptor degenerations can also be found in a wide variety of systemic diseases. We identified an X-linked family from Sri Lanka with a severe choroidal degeneration and postulated a new disease entity. Because of phenotypic overlaps with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, which was recently found to have systemic features, we hypothesized that a systemic disease may be present in this new disease as well. Methods For phenotyping, we performed detailed eye exams with in vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography. For genotyping, we performed whole exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmations and cosegregation. Systemic investigations included electron microscopy studies of peripheral blood cells in patients and in normal controls and detailed fatty acid profiles (both plasma and red blood cell [RBC] membranes). Fatty acid levels were compared to normal controls, and only values two standard deviations above or below normal controls were further evaluated. Results The family segregated a REP1 mutation, suggesting choroideremia (CHM). We then found crystals in peripheral blood lymphocytes and discovered significant plasma fatty acid abnormalities and RBC membrane abnormalities (i.e., elevated plasmalogens). To replicate our discoveries, we expanded the cohort to nine CHM patients, genotyped them for REP1 mutations, and found the same abnormalities (crystals and fatty acid abnormalities) in all patients. Conclusions Previously, CHM was thought to be restricted to the retina. We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that CHM is a systemic condition with prominent crystals in lymphocytes and

  19. Lipid profile in patients with fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ozgocmen, S; Ardicoglu, O

    2000-10-01

    In this study serum lipid profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were investigated and compared with healthy controls. Thirty women who had FMS and 32 women who had MPS with the characteristic trigger points (TrP), especially on the periscapular region were included in this study. Thirty one age matched healthy women were assigned as a control group. All of the subjects were sedentary healthy housewives. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not significantly different between the FMS and control groups. On the other hand the MPS group had total cholesterol (198.7 vs 172.9 mg/dL, p=0.003), triglyceride (124.7 vs 87.6 mg/dL, p=0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (127.5 vs 108.4 mg/dL, p=0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) (24.9 vs 17.3 mg/dL, p=0.008) levels, which were significantly higher than the controls. There was no significant difference between the lipid profiles in the FMS and MPS groups. Tissue compliance, which was measured from trigger points in the MPS group, correlated significantly with total cholesterol and LDL-c levels. In conclusion, a significant difference was found between the lipid levels of patients with MPS and the controls. More extensive investigation of lipid and lipoprotein levels is required to determine whether high lipid levels are the cause or result of MPS.

  20. Variations in the lipid profile of patients with chronic renal failure treated with pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    de Gómez Dumm, Nelva T; Giammona, Ana M; Touceda, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia and lipid abnormalities are commonly found in patients with chronic renal failure; both are recognized as risk factors for atherosclerosis. The homocysteine-lowering effect of pyridoxine is controversial. This study was performed to determine the effect of a high dose of pyridoxine (300 mg i.v. three times a week) on plasma and red blood cell lipid profile and plasma homocysteine concentration in twelve chronic renal failure patients on regular hemodialysis. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study (basal 1), after 30 and 60 days of treatment and 4 months after withdrawal (basal 2). Results Pyridoxine supplementation induced a significant decrease in total plasma homocysteine level and also a lowering effect in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides. These biochemical data increased when the samples were taken at basal 2, reaching the levels obtained at the beginning of the experiment. LDL cholesterol increased whereas HDL cholesterol was reduced during the treatment. In erythrocyte membranes vitamin B6 therapy enhanced the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio as well as the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl-hexatriene. Conclusions We conclude that high doses of pyridoxine represent an effective strategy to ameliorate both plasma homocysteine levels and lipid profiles in chronic renal failure patients, protecting them from atherosclerosis. Further research using a long-term treatment would be necessary in an attempt to restore the fatty acid pattern and the fluidity of red cell membranes. PMID:14575530

  1. Nutritional and lipid profiles in marine fish species from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Estevam; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; Ribeiro, Marisilda de Almeida; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Filho, Artur Bibiano de Melo

    2014-10-01

    Centesimal composition and lipid profiles were evaluated in muscle tissue of four species of Brazilian fish using the Kjeldahl and Bligh & Dyer gravimetric methods and gas chromatography, respectively. The moisture, protein, total lipid, and ash values (g/100g) ranged from 71.13 to 78.39; 18.10 to 19.87; 1.05 to 9.03; and 1.03 to 1.73, respectively. Palmitic acid was prevalent among the saturated fatty acids (10.89-20.38%) and oleic acid was the main monounsaturated acid identified (4.26-15.77%). The eicosapentaenoic-EPA (6.41-10.66%) and docosahexaenoic-DHA (9.12-30.20%) acids were the most prevalent polyunsaturated acids. The average values, which are indicative of nutritional quality, were: Polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) (1.11-1.47), ω6/ω3 (0.08-0.21), hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic acid ratios (HH) (0.87-2.43), atherogenicity index (IA) (0.26-0.60), and thrombogenicity index (IT) (0.20-0.44). These results demonstrated that the lipid profiles of the studied species are of nutritional quality.

  2. Distinct urinary lipid profile in children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueheng; Setchell, Kenneth; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for the majority of new-onset end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during adolescence. FSGS treatment is a great challenge for pediatric nephrologists due to intertwined molecular pathways underlining its complex pathophysiology. There is emerging evidence showing that perturbed lipid metabolism plays a role in the pathophysiology of FSGS. Methods We postulate that the nephrotic milieu in FSGS differs from minimal change disease (MCD) and that urinary lipidomics can be used as a tool for early diagnosis of FSGS. We explored the urinary lipid profile of patients with FSGS and MCD using an unbiased metabolomics approach. Results We discovered a unique lipid signature characterized by increased concentration of fatty acid (FA) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) and a decrease in urinary concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in patients with FSGS. These findings indicate increased metabolism of membrane phospholipid PC by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), resulting in higher urinary concentrations of LPC and FA. Conclusions We propose that increased PC by-products can be used as a biomarker to diagnose FSGS and shed light on the mechanism of tubular and podocyte damage. Validation of identified urinary lipids as a biomarker in predicting the diagnosis and progression of FSGS in a larger patient population is warranted. PMID:26537928

  3. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  4. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  5. Serum metabolic profiling of abnormal savda by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peiyuan; Mohemaiti, Patamu; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Xinjie; Lu, Xin; Yimiti, Adilijiang; Upur, Halmurat; Xu, Guowang

    2008-08-15

    Abnormal savda is a special symptom in Uigur medicine. The understanding of its metabolic origins is of great importance for the subsequent treatment. Here, a metabonomic study of this symptom was carried out using LC-MS based human serum metabolic profiling. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) was used for the classification and prediction of abnormal savda. Potential biomarkers from metabonomics were also identified for a metabolic understanding of abnormal savda. As a result, our OSC-PLS-DA model had a satisfactory ability for separation and prediction of abnormal savda. The potential biomarkers including bilirubin, bile acids, tryptophan, phenylalanine and lyso-phosphatidylcholines indicated that abnormal savda could be related to some abnormal metabolisms within the body, including energy metabolism, absorption of nutrition, metabolism of lecithin on cell membrane, etc. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of abnormal savda based on serum metabolic profiling. The LC/MS-based metabonomic platform could be a powerful tool for the classification of symptoms and for the development of this traditional medicine into an evidence-based one.

  6. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  7. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  8. Effect of Silybin on Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolaemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asirvatham, Sylvia Santhakumari; Janarthanam, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipidemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis associated conditions, such as Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), ischaemic cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. Though there are hypolipidemic drugs available, the search for a more efficacious hypo lipidemic agent was always going on. Aim To study the effect of Silybin on lipid profile in Hypercholesterolaemic rats. Materials and Methods After grant of permission from animal ethics committee, the animals were divided into four groups of eight each (normal control, Experimental control with High cholesterol diet, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 300mg, High cholesterol diet + Silybin 600mg). At the end of 60 days the animals in all the groups were subjected to overnight fasting followed by plasma and liver biochemical analyses. Statistical Analysis The data were analysed by ANNOVA followed by Duncan’s multi range test and the value of p≤0.05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance. Results The rats fed on high cholesterol diet showed significant increase in serum total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C and VLDL-C. Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased serum total cholesterol (24%), Triglycerides (21%), LDL-C (24%) in a dose dependent manner. Rats treated with Silybin (300 and 600 mg/kg) showed significant increase in hepatic HDL –C and decrease in other lipid profiles. Conclusion Treatment with Silybin significantly decreased both serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C and increased HDL-C at both doses. PMID:27190826

  9. Effect of selenium supplementation on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Hamidreza; Golmohamadi, Sima; Pasdar, Yahya; Jasemi, Kambiz; Almasi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major causes of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis is premature atherosclerosis. Selenium, a trace element involved in important enzymatic activities inside the body, has protective effects against lipid oxidation and inhibits cholesterol accumulation in blood vessels. Objectives: To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial which lasted for 3 months, 84 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental group (received selenium supplementation) or control group (received placebo). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and selenium level were measured before and after the study. Results: Mean (±SD) serum LDL-C level significantly increased in experimental group from 85.66 (±31.12) to 109.12 (±32.29) mg/dl (P<0.001). Likewise, in control group serum LDL-C significantly increased from 80.55 (±21.13) to 97.05 (±28.07) mg/dl (P<0.001). However, with control of LDL-C effect before and after the study, it was revealed that LDL-C change was not statistically significant (P=0.21). Similarly, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not show significant changes before and after the study in any group. Conclusion: Selenium supplementation had no beneficial effect on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27689119

  10. The impact of steroid withdrawal on the development of lipid abnormalities and obesity in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lake, K D; Reutzel, T J; Pritzker, M R; Jorgensen, C R; Emery, R W

    1993-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and obesity are common problems after heart transplantation, which may increase the risk of chronic graft atherosclerosis. The intent of this study was to (1) determine the impact of a history of hyperlipidemia on the occurrence of lipid abnormalities after transplantation, (2) compare lipid profiles of those patients being treated with triple-drug immunosuppression versus those patients weaned from prednisone therapy, and (3) identify any factors that would predict which patients are at highest risk for the development of hyperlipidemia after transplantation. Of 89 patients who lived for more than 12 months, 35 patients had a history of hyperlipidemia before heart transplantation (cholesterol level of more than 240 mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of more than 160 mg/dl). The most dramatic rise in cholesterol level was observed in patients with no history of hyperlipidemia who were treated with triple-drug immunosuppression, in whom a 64% increase occurred versus a 24% increase in patients receiving steroid-free immunosuppression (p < 0.001). In patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, cholesterol level increased by 20% with triple-drug immunosuppression versus 14% with steroid-free immunosuppression (p = 0.613); however, 83% of the patients in the triple-drug group and 92% in the steroid-free group had elevated cholesterol levels. Multiple regression analysis revealed that significant independent and additive (p < 0.00001) contributions with respect to percent change in cholesterol level were evident for (1) a negative history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.005), (2) triple-drug immunosuppression (p = 0.0021), and (3) female sex (p = 0.0113). A negative history of hyperlipidemia was predictive of the percent change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (p = 0.0049), and triple-drug immunosuppression administration predicted the percent change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0119). Patients with a positive history

  11. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  12. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  13. Stimation of reference interval of lipid profile in Assamese population.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhumita; Saikia, Mauchumi

    2009-04-01

    12hrs fasting samples of 1485 apparently healthy, Assamese population in the age group of 20-80 yrs., mostly from the urban area of Assam were tested for serum lipid profile that includes total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) over a period of three years. The values (median and range in mg/dl) obtained were 170 (93-263); 110 (40-256); 40 (23-73); 103 (40-173) and 22 (8-51) respectively. After grouping these subjects according to the age and sex no significant difference were observed between most of the groups. Median and upper range of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were found to be higher in women than in men in all the age groups. But triacylglycerol and VLDL-C concentrations were observed to be higher in the men than women except in age group of 61-70 yrs. It can be suggested that lipid values obtained in this study can be used as the reference value, based on which clinical correlation can be made. PMID:23105831

  14. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  15. Differential human urinary lipid profiles using various lipid-extraction protocols: MALDI-TOF and LIFT-TOF/TOF analyses.

    PubMed

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)-(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)-(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)-(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine. PMID:27646409

  16. Differential human urinary lipid profiles using various lipid-extraction protocols: MALDI-TOF and LIFT-TOF/TOF analyses

    PubMed Central

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)–(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)–(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)–(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine. PMID:27646409

  17. Serum lipid profile and clinical characteristics of patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum*

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Hossein; Ebrahimi, Ali; Rezaei, Mansour; Ramezani, Mazaher; Najafi, Behnaz; Kavoussi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many factors are involved in the etiology of xanthelasma palpebrum, lipid disorder is strongly associated with its induction. Xanthelasma palpebrum, the most common type of xanthoma, usually presents in middle-aged females and results in aesthetic problems. Objective To evaluate thelipid profile and important clinical aspects of xanthelasma palpebrum patients. Methods In this descriptive study, we enrolled 42xanthelasma palpebrumpatients, and 42 cases of non-inflammatory skin disorders as thecontrol group, matched for age and gender.The clinical characteristics of the patients and fasting serum lipid profile were recorded for both groups. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS-16. Results Xanthelasma palpebrum was found more commonly in middle-aged females with disease onset of less than 1 year, and without significant familial history of xanthoma. Furthermore,xanthelasma lesionswere most often seen in the upper lid with mild extension and was rarely associated with systemic disease. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups regarding hypertriglyceridemia (p= 0.231) and hypercholesterolemia (p= 0.302). The mean serum levels of cholesterol (221.51±60.4 mg/dl), triglyceride (185.98±71.1 mg/dl) and VLDL (37.7±17.6 mg/dl) were significantly higher and themedian HDL (36.2 (31, 41) mg/dl) level was lower in thepatient group. Conclusion In our study, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia did not reveal a significant difference between thepatient and control groups; however, mean serum values for cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and HDL showed a significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, in addition to lipid abnormality, other factors could be involved in the pathogenesis of xanthelasma palpebrum. PMID:27579742

  18. [Abnormal of tear lipid layer and recent advances in clinical study of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin-Ye; Liu, Zu-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Dry eye is a common disease in the ophthalmological clinic, which is related to the dysfunction of tear film. The tear film is composed of lipid layer, aqueous layer and mucin layer (or lipid layer, aqueous/mucin layer). The lipid of the outmost layer derived from Meibomian gland and distributed on the tear film after blinking can decrease the evaporation and stabilize the tear film. The thickness, quality, and distribution of lipid layer are impaired in many dry eye patients, hence restoring the physiological function of lipid layer may be crucial for the treatment of this kind of dry eye. The lipid artificial tears manifest great effects on increasing lipid layer thickness, stabilizing tear film, improving Meibomian gland dysfunction, and promoting tear film distribution.

  19. α-Synuclein dimerization in erythrocytes of Gaucher disease patients: correlation with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Moraitou, Marina; Dermentzaki, Georgia; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Monopolis, Ioannis; Dekker, Nick; Aerts, Hans; Stefanis, Leonidas; Michelakakis, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Several observations suggest that disturbed homeostasis of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) may provide a link between Gaucher disease (GD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported increased dimerization of α-Syn in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane of patients with GD. Several studies indicate a crucial relationship between lipids, oxidative stress and α-Syn status. Here we investigated the relationship between the observed increased dimerization of α-Syn in the cell membranes of RBCs, cells devoid of lysosomes and lacking lysosomal enzyme synthesis, and the lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress already described in GD. Correlation studies showed that in GD the α-Syn dimer/monomer ratio is positively correlated with the levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and the glucosylceramide/ceramide (GlcCer/Cer) ratio and negatively with the levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and plasmalogens. In conclusion, we have shown that the increased tendency of α-Syn to form dimers in the RBC membrane of patients with GD, is correlated with both the level of lipids, including GlcCer, the primary lipid abnormality in GD, and the increased oxidative stress observed in this disorder. The study of other tissues, and in particular brain, will be important in order to elucidate the significance of these findings regarding the link between GD and PD. PMID:26708635

  20. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons.

    PubMed

    Cenzano, Ana M; Cantoro, Renata; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa; Abdala, Guillermina I; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-01-11

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  1. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    PubMed Central

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  2. Tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism: abnormal profile interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lainez, C; Aguilar-Lemus, J J; Vela-Amieva, M; Ibarra-González, I

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry was introduced in 1990's and is widely used around the world. In contrast to conventional screening methods, tandem mass spectrometry does not measure single analytes but identifies and quantifies metabolite profiles; one single blood spot analyzed provides information of about 60 metabolites including amino acids, acylcarnitines and related ratios that enable the diagnosis of approximately 50 different diseases. However, the interpretation of these profiles can become quite complex. The aim of this work is to present in an easy and practical manner a comprehensive compilation of information needed for tandem mass neonatal screening profile interpretation, and basic actions for immediate follow up of abnormal results, including the tests that are required for confirmatory purposes. Other conditions not attributable to metabolic disorders which can lead to an abnormal profile of these markers are also described as well as a series of general recommendations which would be useful for health professionals who are beginning newborn screening for inborn errors of intermediary metabolism using tandem mass spectrometry.

  3. Lipid Profiles in Wheat Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Tan Spot and the Effect of Disease on the Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwon; Jeannotte, Richard; Welti, Ruth; Bockus, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid profiles in wheat leaves and the effects of tan spot on the profiles were quantified by mass spectrometry. Inoculation with Pyrenophora tritici-repentis significantly reduced the amount of leaf lipids, including the major plastidic lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), which together accounted for 89% of the mass spectral signal of detected lipids in wheat leaves. Levels of these lipids in susceptible cultivars dropped much more quickly during infection than those in resistant cultivars. Furthermore, cultivars resistant or susceptible to tan spot displayed different lipid profiles; leaves of resistant cultivars had more MGDG and DGDG than susceptible ones, even in non-inoculated plants. Lipid compositional data from leaves of 20 non-inoculated winter wheat cultivars were regressed against an index of disease susceptibility and fitted with a linear model. This analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between resistance and levels of plastidic galactolipids and indicated that cultivars with high resistance to tan spot uniformly had more MGDG and DGDG than cultivars with high susceptibility. These findings suggest that lipid composition of wheat leaves may be a determining factor in the resistance response of cultivars to tan spot. PMID:23035632

  4. Effect of meditation on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Rashmi; Dikshit, Nirupama

    2002-10-01

    In this study, respiratory functions, cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile of those practicing Raja Yoga meditation (short and long term meditators) were compared with those of nonmediators. Vital capacity, tidal volume and breath holding were significantly higher in short and long term meditators than nonmeditators. Long term mediators had significantly higher vital capacity and expiratory pressure than short term meditators. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in both short and long term meditators as compared to nonmeditators. Heart rate was significantly lower in long term meditators than in short term meditators and nonmeditators. Lipid profile showed a significant lowering of serum cholesterol in short and long term meditators as compared to nonmeditators. Lipid profile of short and long term meditators was better than the profile of nonmeditators inspite of similar physical activity. This shows that Raja Yoga meditation provides significant improvements in respiratory functions, cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile.

  5. Comparative evaluation of raloxifene versus estrogen: Progestin on symptomatology, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Dogiparthi, Anuradha; Aggarwal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Malhotra, Sarla

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of raloxifene and estrogen progesterone (E + P) combination on symptoms, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled and allocated to three groups namely E + P, raloxifene, and controls. These groups were given 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone, 60 mg raloxifene and no therapy, respectively. Symptomatology and lipid profile were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months. Endometrial thickness was evaluated at 6 and 12 months, and endometrial biopsy was repeated at 12 months. The demographic profile of the women in the three different groups was comparable. In addition, the symptomatology, lipid profile, mean endometrial thickness, and endometrial biopsy categorization were comparable. E + P and raloxifene were equally effective in improving the postmenopausal symptoms and lipid profile. E + P had stimulatory effect on the endometrium, whereas raloxifene was found to be neutral. PMID:21799632

  6. Standard short-term diet ameliorates the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Cambri, L T; Ghezzi, A C; Arsa, G; Botezelli, J D; de Mello, M A R

    2015-08-01

    Markers of metabolic abnormalities are commonly found in rodents fed a fructose-rich diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of a short-term standard diet to rats is able to improve the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet. The male pups, immediately after birth, were divided in three groups according to the diet for 90 days. Standard diet: a standard diet for the whole experimental period; fructose (60% fructose-rich diet): fructose-rich diet during the entire experimental period; fructose/standard (FS): fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period up to 60 days of age and standard diet from 60 to 90 days of age. A fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period to 60 days reduced weight gain (P<0.05), as well as the weight of adipose tissues in all the regions analyzed (epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and posterior subcutaneous), and it altered the lipid profile (elevation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol; P<0.05). When a standard diet was administered after the fructose-rich diet, it was able to partially reverse changes to the lipid profile, as total cholesterol levels were significantly different in all the groups (P<0.05), and triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were similar between the control and FS group. In summary, a fructose-rich diet altered the lipid profile, and a standard diet can partially reverse the changed parameters in short term.

  7. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thurberg, Beth L; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Jones, Simon A; Schiano, Thomas D; Cox, Gerald F; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  8. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Jones, Simon A.; Schiano, Thomas D.; Cox, Gerald F.; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  9. Improved cardiac management with a disease management program incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    McAna, John F; Goldfarb, Neil I; Couto, Joseph; Henry, Michelle A; Piefer, Gary; Rapier, George M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improved effectiveness of a disease management treatment protocol incorporating comprehensive lipid profiling and targeted lipid care based on lipid profile findings in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) or congestive heart failure (CHF) enrolled in a managed care plan. This retrospective cohort study, conducted over a 2-year period, compared outcomes between patients with a standard lipid profile to those evaluated with a comprehensive lipid profile. All adult members of the WellMed Medical Management, Inc. managed care health plan diagnosed with IHD or CHF, and continuously enrolled between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2008, were included in the study. Cases were defined as those who had at least 1 comprehensive lipid test (the VAP [vertical auto profile] ultracentrifuge test) during this period (n=1767); they were compared to those who had no lipid testing or traditional standard lipid testing only (controls, n=289). Univariate statistics were analyzed to describe the groups, and bivariate t tests or chi-squares examined differences between the 2 cohorts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounders. The results show that the case group had lower total costs ($4852.62 vs. $7413.18; P=0.0255), fewer inpatient stays (13.1% vs. 18.3% of controls; P=0.0175) and emergency department visits (11.9% vs. 15.6% of controls; P=0.0832). Prescription use and frequency of lipid measurement suggested improved control resulting from a targeted approach to managing specific dyslipidemias. A treatment protocol incorporating a comprehensive lipid profile appears to improve care and reduce utilization and costs in a disease management program for cardiac patients.

  10. Characterizing Exposures of Fish to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent: An Integrated Metabolite and Lipid Profiling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolite and lipid profiling are well established techniques for studying chemical-induced alterations to normal biological function in numerous organisms. These techniques have been used successfully to identify biomarkers of chemical exposure, screen for chemical potency, or ...

  11. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Manjareeka, Magna; Nanda, Sitikantha; Mishra, Jayanti; Mishra, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables with lipid parameters in healthy subjects and to assess the anthropometric variable which best reflects the altered lipid profile. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted after the Institutional Ethical Committee Clearance. Included participants (1187) were subjected to anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference using standard procedures on the same morning of the day, as the blood sample was collected after overnight fast and estimated for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: There is a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI) and lipid parameters. Among all the anthropometric variables studied, WC is best correlated to lipid parameters. The mean values of lipid parameters were not significantly different in BMI <25 and BMI ≥25 groups. Conclusions: WC remains one of the simple and reliable variables which best reflects the lipid profile. In a developing country like India, where measurement of cardiovascular risk factors such as body fat saturation and lipid profile remains difficult in the rural population, WC may be used as an effective tool, without being used as a substitute. PMID:26903756

  12. Lipidomic profiling in Crohn's disease: Abnormalities in phosphatidylinositols, with preservation of ceramide, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine composition

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Gavin W.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Han, Xianlin; Koster, Grielof; Bielawski, Jacek; Goss, Victoria; Smith, Philip J.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Vega, Roser; Bloom, Stuart L.; Walker, Ann P.; Postle, Anthony D.; Segal, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition. PMID:22728312

  13. Potential Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sevoflurane Exposure on Developing Monkey Brain: From Abnormal Lipid Metabolism to Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Rainosek, Shuo W; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Patterson, Tucker A; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng; Han, Xianlin

    2015-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that has been widely used in general anesthesia, yet its safety in pediatric use is a public concern. This study sought to evaluate whether prolonged exposure of infant monkeys to a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane is associated with any adverse effects on the developing brain. Infant monkeys were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 9 h, and frontal cortical tissues were harvested for DNA microarray, lipidomics, Luminex protein, and histological assays. DNA microarray analysis showed that sevoflurane exposure resulted in a broad identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the monkey brain. In general, these genes were associated with nervous system development, function, and neural cell viability. Notably, a number of DEGs were closely related to lipid metabolism. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that critical lipid components, (eg, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) were significantly downregulated by prolonged exposure of sevoflurane. Luminex protein analysis indicated abnormal levels of cytokines in sevoflurane-exposed brains. Consistently, Fluoro-Jade C staining revealed more degenerating neurons after sevoflurane exposure. These data demonstrate that a clinically relevant concentration of sevoflurane (2.5%) is capable of inducing and maintaining an effective surgical plane of anesthesia in the developing nonhuman primate and that a prolonged exposure of 9 h resulted in profound changes in gene expression, cytokine levels, lipid metabolism, and subsequently, neuronal damage. Generally, sevoflurane-induced neuronal damage was also associated with changes in lipid content, composition, or both; and specific lipid changes could provide insights into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and may be sensitive biomarkers for the early detection of anesthetic-induced neuronal damage.

  14. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  15. Heparin-binding defective lipoprotein lipase is unstable and causes abnormalities in lipid delivery to tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, E. Peer; Merkel, Martin; Kako, Yuko; Melford, Kristan; Radner, Herbert; Breslow, Jan L.; Bensadoun, André; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2001-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is hypothesized to stabilize the enzyme, localize LpL in specific capillary beds, and route lipoprotein lipids to the underlying tissues. To test these hypotheses in vivo, we created mice expressing a human LpL minigene (hLpLHBM) carrying a mutated heparin-binding site. Three basic amino acids in the carboxyl terminal region of LpL were mutated, yielding an active enzyme with reduced heparin binding. Mice expressing hLpLHBM accumulated inactive human LpL (hLpL) protein in preheparin blood. hLpLHBM rapidly lost activity during a 37°C incubation, confirming a requirement for heparin binding to stabilize LpL. Nevertheless, expression of hLpLHBM prevented the neonatal demise of LpL knockout mice. On the LpL-deficient background hLpLHBM expression led to defective targeting of lipids to tissues. Compared with mice expressing native hLpL in the muscle, hLpLHBM transgenic mice had increased postprandial FFAs, decreased lipid uptake in muscle tissue, and increased lipid uptake in kidneys. Thus, heparin association is required for LpL stability and normal physiologic functions. These experiments confirm in vivo that association with HSPGs can provide a means to maintain proteins in their stable conformations and to anchor them at sites where their activity is required. PMID:11342582

  16. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations. PMID:24940081

  17. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  18. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  19. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  20. Profiling over 1500 lipids in induced lung sputum and the implications in studying lung diseases.

    PubMed

    t'Kindt, Ruben; Telenga, Eef D; Jorge, Lucie; Van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Sandra, Pat; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Sandra, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Induced lung sputum is a valuable matrix in the study of respiratory diseases. Although the methodology of sputum collection has evolved to a point where it is repeatable and responsive to inflammation, its use in molecular profiling studies is still limited. Here, an in-depth lipid profiling of induced lung sputum using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS) is described. An enormous complexity in lipid composition could be revealed. Over 1500 intact lipids, originating from 6 major lipid classes, have been accurately identified in 120 μL of induced sputum. By number and measured intensity, glycerophospholipids represent the largest lipid class, followed by sphingolipids, glycerolipids, fatty acyls, sterol lipids, and prenol lipids. Several prenol lipids, originating from tobacco, could be detected in the lung sputum of smokers. To illustrate the utility of the methodology in studying respiratory diseases, a comparative lipid screening was performed on lung sputum extracts in order to study the effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on the lung barrier lipidome. Results show that sphingolipid expression in induced sputum significantly differs between smokers with and without COPD.

  1. Phospho-mTOR: a novel target in regulation of renal lipid metabolism abnormality of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jun; Zhu, Lin; Li, Fan; Liu, Qingjuan; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Shuxia; Xing, Lingling; Feng, Xiaojuan; Duan, Huijun

    2013-08-15

    The activation of Akt has been proved to involve in the lipogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it's still not clear whether mTOR, another main gene in PI3K/Akt pathway, is also involved in the renal lipogenesis of diabetes. In the present study, it was revealed that the phosphorylation of mTOR was up-regulated in the renal tubular cells of diabetic rats, followed by the over-expression of SREBP-1, ADRP and lipogenesis. Again, high glucose increased the expression of phospho-mTOR accompanied with SREBP-1 and ADRP up-regulation and lipid accumulation in HKC cells. Rapamycin, known as mTOR inhibitor, was used to inhibit the activation of mTOR, which prevented effectively high glucose-induced SREBP-1 up-regulation and lipogenesis in HKC cells. Furthermore, high glucose-stimulated HKC cells transfected with wild-type mTOR vector showed the enhanced SREBP-1 and lipid droplets, however, TE mTOR vector (kinase dead)-transfected HKC cells presented resistance to high glucose and decreased SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis. These above data suggested that phospho-mTOR mediated lipid accumulation in renal tubular cells of diabetes and might be the potential targets for treating lipogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23827786

  2. Abnormal lipid processing but normal long-term repopulation potential of myc−/− hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Lia R.; Otero, P. Anthony; Sharma, Lokendra; D'souza, Sonia; Dolezal, James M.; David, Sherin; Lu, Jie; Lamm, Lauren; Basantani, Mahesh; Zhang, Pili; Sipula, Ian J.; Li, Lucy; Zeng, Xuemei; Ding, Ying; Ding, Fei; Beck, Megan E.; Vockley, Jerry; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Kershaw, Erin E.; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kratz, Lisa E.; Yates, Nathan A.; Goetzman, Eric P.; Scott, Donald; Duncan, Andrew W.; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing c-Myc's (Myc) role in liver regeneration has proven difficult particularly since the traditional model of partial hepatectomy may provoke an insufficiently demanding proliferative stress. We used a model of hereditary tyrosinemia whereby the affected parenchyma can be gradually replaced by transplanted hepatocytes, which replicate 50-100-fold, over several months. Prior to transplantation, livers from myc−/− (KO) mice were smaller in young animals and larger in older animals relative to myc+/+ (WT) counterparts. KO mice also consumed more oxygen, produced more CO2 and generated more heat. Although WT and KO hepatocytes showed few mitochondrial structural differences, the latter demonstrated defective electron transport chain function. RNAseq revealed differences in transcripts encoding ribosomal subunits, cytochrome p450 members and enzymes for triglyceride and sterol biosynthesis. KO hepatocytes also accumulated neutral lipids. WT and KO hepatocytes repopulated recipient tyrosinemic livers equally well although the latter were associated with a pro-inflammatory hepatic environment that correlated with worsening lipid accumulation, its extracellular deposition and parenchymal oxidative damage. Our results show Myc to be dispensable for sustained in vivo hepatocyte proliferation but necessary for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. myc−/− livers resemble those encountered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and, under sustained proliferative stress, gradually acquire the features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27105497

  3. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  4. Effects of bioactive components of sea cucumber on the serum, liver lipid profile and lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Qian; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhao-Jie; Wang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Jia-Hui; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Several studies had indicated that the whole body of sea cucumber had beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. However, little information has been known on the individual functions of its bioactive components, and this study was undertaken to compare the different effects on improving lipid metabolism. The rats were assigned to seven groups: control, whole sea cucumber, saponins, polysaccharides, collagen peptides, dregs and non-saponin residues. After 28 d of feeding, the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and hepatic lipid concentrations were examined. The results indicated that a dietary saponin supplement significantly suppressed adipose accumulation, and reduced serum and hepatic lipids. Saponin proved to be more effective than the other isolated components, so is considered to be the main lipid-lowering component in sea cucumber. The possible mechanism by which saponins improved lipid metabolism was also investigated. The saponins of sea cucumber suppressed and delayed TG and TC absorption which could be related to the pancreatic lipase inhibiting effect of saponins. This may be an important mechanism to explain its lipid-lowering effect on rats.

  5. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kadavanu, Tony Mathew; Green, Siva Ranganathan; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Hemachandar, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandrappa, Arun Kumar; Tiwari, Shashank Rakesh; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lipid abnormalities and increase in inflammatory markers are common among patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and it tends to persist/worsen even after initiating Intermittent Haemodialysis (IHD). The cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains significantly high in this population. Aim The present study was carried out to assess the pattern of lipid abnormality in our population and to find its association with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study on ESRD patients undergoing Haemodialysis (HD) in comparison with age and sex matched healthy individuals in a tertiary care hospital. About 40 adult male and female patients aged >18 years, undergoing chronic HD for more than 6 months were enrolled in Group A. Patients who were alcoholics, tobacco consumers and those on steroids and hypolipidemic drugs were excluded. Group B consisted of healthy, age and sex matched controls. Serum lipid profile, lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and apo B/A1 ratio, serum uric acid, homocysteine, hs-CRP and testosterone levels were estimated among patients undergoing intermittent HD and healthy individuals. Chi-square/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Non-HDL High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in HD patients as compared to control group with all the three parameters attaining statistical significance (p<0.005). The mean lipoprotein A level was significantly higher (p=0.037), while Apo A1 was found to be significantly lower (p=0.001) in patients receiving HD. Inflammatory markers like uric acid was high (p<0.005) and serum testotsterone level in male HD patient was significantly low (p<0.005). Conclusion The mean values of traditional serum lipid profile remained lower in HD patients than the control group. The

  6. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremanfard, Farahnaz; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Shahnazari, Banafsheh; Gholami, Golnaz; Mehdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease), as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian). With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL) in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5). No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis. PMID:26421116

  7. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  8. Lipid Profiling of In Vitro Cell Models of Adipogenic Differentiation: Relationships With Mouse Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V; Siviski, Matthew E; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Rosen, Clifford J; Baker, Paul R S; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P H

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MS(ALL) . Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-derived BAT-C1 cells were also characterized. Over 3000 unique lipid species were quantified. Principal component analysis showed that perirenal versus inguinal white adipose tissues varied in lipid composition of triacyl- and diacylglycerols, sphingomyelins, glycerophospholipids and, notably, cardiolipin CL 72:3. In contrast, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins distinguished brown from white adipose. Adipocyte differentiation models showed broad differences in lipid composition among themselves, upon adipogenic differentiation, and with adipose tissues. Palmitoyl triacylglycerides predominate in 3T3-L1 differentiation models, whereas cardiolipin CL 72:1 and SM 45:4 were abundant in brown adipose-derived cell differentiation models, respectively. MS/MS(ALL) data suggest new lipid biomarkers for tissue-specific lipid contributions to adipogenesis, thus providing a foundation for using in vitro models of adipogenesis to reflect potential changes in adipose tissues in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2182-2193, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, D R S; Nakachima, L; Biagioni, R B; Nakazone, M A; Pinhel, M A S; Trindade, D M; Mafra, V T; Tácito, L H B; Martin, J F V; Pinheiro Júnior, S; Brandão, A C

    2007-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE - e2, e3, e4 alleles) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the e4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking). Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the e3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87) and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099), followed by the e4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158). The e3/3 (76 and 78%) and e3/4 (16 and 23%) were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), independently of the e4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232). The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05), but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in e4 carriers. In conclusion, the e4 allele is not associated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. However, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the e4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account. PMID:17273655

  10. The type of fat ingested at breakfast influences the plasma lipid profile of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ruiz, J M; Delgado-Alarcon, J M; Rubio-Perez, J M; Albaladejo Oton, M D

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  11. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  12. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  13. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  14. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C

    1996-03-01

    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p < 0.05). In view of the close association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  15. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  16. An implicit solvent coarse-grained lipid model with correct stress profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodt, Alex J.; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    We develop a coarse-grained parametrization strategy for lipid membranes that we illustrate for a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. Our coarse-graining approach eliminates the high cost of explicit solvent but maintains more lipid interaction sites. We use a broad attractive tail-tail potential and extract realistic bonded potentials of mean force from all-atom simulations, resulting in a model with a sharp gel to fluid transition, a correct bending modulus, and overall very reasonable dynamics when compared with experiment. We also determine a quantitative stress profile and correct breakdown of contributions from lipid components when compared with detailed all-atom simulation benchmarks, which has been difficult to achieve for implicit membrane models. Such a coarse-grained lipid model will be necessary for efficiently simulating complex constructs of the membrane, such as protein assembly and lipid raft formation, within these nonaqueous chemical environments.

  17. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat.

  18. Lipid complex effect on fatty acid profile and chemical composition of cow milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Bodkowski, R; Czyż, K; Kupczyński, R; Patkowska-Sokoła, B; Nowakowski, P; Wiliczkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of administration of lipid complex (LC) on cow milk and cheese characteristics was studied. Lipid complex was elaborated based on grapeseed oil with synthesized conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Atlantic mackerel oil enriched in n-3 fatty acids. The 4-wk experiment was conducted on 30 Polish Holstein Friesian cows. The experimental group cow diet was supplemented with 400 g/d of LC (containing 38% CLA, and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in a relative amount of 36.5%) on a humic-mineral carrier. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk and rennet cheese from raw fresh milk were analyzed. Lipid complex supplementation of the total mixed ration had no effect on milk yield and milk composition, except fat content, which decreased from 4.6 to 4.1%, a 10.9% decrease. Milk from cows treated with LC had greater relative amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lesser relative amounts of saturated fatty acids. Lipid complex addition changed milk fat fatty acid profile: C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomer (CLA) contents increased by 278 and 233%, respectively, as did eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) contents. Milk fat fatty acid profile changes were correlated with the modifications in rennet cheese fatty acid profile. Lipid complex supplementation of dairy cows produced considerable changes in the biological value of milk and cheese fat. PMID:26506539

  19. Short-term menhaden oil rich diet changes renal lipid profile in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Denninghoff, Valeria C; Uceda, Ana M; Díaz, Maria L; Uicich, Raúl; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2015-01-01

    Weanling male Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient diet develop acute kidney injury. Menhaden oil, which is a very important source of omega-3 fatty acids, has a notorious protective effect. The mechanism of this protection is unknown; one possibility could be that menhaden oil changes renal lipid profile, with an impact on the functions of biological membranes. The aim of this work was to study the renal lipid profile in rats fed a choline-deficient diet with menhaden oil or vegetable oil as lipids. Rats were divided into 4 groups and fed four different diets for 7 days: choline-deficient or choline-supplemented diets with corn and hydrogenated oils or menhaden oil. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid were analyzed. Renal lipid profile, as well as the fatty acid composition of the three oils, was measured. Choline-deficient rats fed vegetable oils showed renal cortical necrosis. Renal omega-6 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a cholinedeficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with vegetable oils, while renal omega-3 fatty acids were higher in rats fed a choline-deficient diet and a choline-supplemented diet with menhaden oil. Rats fed menhaden oil diets had higher levels of renal eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Renal myristic acid was increased in rats fed menhaden oil. The lipid renal profile varied quickly according to the type of oil present in the diet.

  20. Dietary quality among Tehranian adults in relation to lipid profile: findings from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseni-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Mehran, Mahya; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidaemia has been increasing in developing countries that are undergoing nutrition transition. However, the association of diet quality and lipid profile has not been well-understood in these countries. The aim of the current study was to compare the ability of three diet quality indices--the Mediterranean diet scale (MDS), healthy eating index-2005 (HEI-2005), and diet quality index-international (DQI-I) in relation to changes in lipid profile between baseline and 6.7 years of follow-up. Baseline data from two 24-hour dietary recalls provided by 469 adults with mean age of 38.7 +/- 12.3 years, who were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were analyzed to describe dietary intakes. Data on anthropometry, sociodemography, physical activity, and other lifestyle variables were recorded, and a comparison of baseline and follow-up data revealed changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-G), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A general linear model was used in assessing changes in lipid profile depending on adherence to diet quality indices at baseline, after adjustment for age, smoking status, waist-circumference, body mass index, physical activity, and energy intake. A significant interaction was observed between scores and sex, and upon stratification, males in the highest quartile score of the HEI-2005 had significantly lower TG changes than those in the lowest quartile, after adjusting for confounders (-8.8 vs 2.9, p = 0.038). No association was apparent in females (-0.2 vs 11.2, p = 0.297). In addition, a positive association was found between DQI-I and HDL-C (Q1-0.6 vs Q4 = -2.0, p = 0.044) in males. In both sexes, all these indices were weakly associated with TC while none was associated with LDL-C. It is concluded: adherence to the HEI-2005 recommendations was weakly associated with reduced TG concentration in an urban Iranian adult

  1. Chromium (D-phenylalanine)3 alleviates high fat-induced insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kandadi, Machender Reddy; Unnikrishnan, M K; Warrier, Ajaya Kumar Sankara; Du, Min; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    High-fat diet has been implicated as a major cause of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dietary-supplementation of chromium (D-phenylalanine)(3) [Cr(D-Phe)(3)] on glucose and insulin tolerance in high-fat diet fed mice. C57BL/6-mice were randomly assigned to orally receive vehicle or Cr(D-Phe)(3) (45 μg of elemental chromium/kg/day) for 8-weeks. High-fat-fed mice exhibited impaired whole-body-glucose and -insulin tolerance and elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to normal chow-fed mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose up-take in the gastrocnemius muscles, assessed as 2-[(3)H-deoxyglucose] incorporation was markedly diminished in high-fat fed mice compared to control mice. Treatment with chromium reconciled the high-fat diet-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Treatment of cultured, differentiated myotubes with palmitic acid evoked insulin resistance as evidenced by lower levels of insulin-stimulated Akt-phosphorylation, elevated JNK-phosphorylation, (assessed by Western blotting), attenuation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase activity (determined in the insulin-receptor substrate-1-immunoprecipitates by measuring the extent of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by γ-(32)P-ATP), and impairment in cellular glucose up-take, all of which were inhibited by Cr(d-Phe)(3). These results suggest a beneficial effect of chromium-supplementation in insulin resistant conditions. It is likely that these effects of chromium may be mediated by augmenting downstream insulin signaling.

  2. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    PubMed

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  3. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lipid Abnormalities: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Huang, Chien-Jung; Huang, Lin-Huang; Chen, I-Ju; Chiu, Jung-Peng; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of green tea extract on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities on glycemic and lipid profiles, and hormone peptides by a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 92 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities randomized into 2 arms, each arm comprising 46 participants. Of the participants, 39 in therapeutic arm took 500 mg green tea extract, three times a day, while 38 in control arm took cellulose with the same dose and frequency to complete the 16-week study. Anthropometrics measurements, glycemic and lipid profiles, safety parameters, and obesity-related hormone peptides were analyzed at screening and after 16-week course. Within-group comparisons showed that green tea extract caused a significant decrease in triglyceride and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index after 16 weeks. Green tea extract also increased significantly high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The HOMA-IR index decreased from 5.4±3.9 to 3.5±2.0 in therapeutic arm only. Adiponectin, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B100 increased significantly in both arms, but only glucagon-like peptide 1 increased in the therapeutic arm. However, only decreasing trend in triglyceride was found in between-group comparison. Our study suggested that green tea extract significantly improved insulin resistance and increased glucagon-like peptide 1 only in within-group comparison. The potential effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 warrant further investigation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01360567 PMID:24614112

  4. Somatosensory Profiles but Not Numbers of Somatosensory Abnormalities of Neuropathic Pain Patients Correspond with Neuropathic Pain Grading

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of a specific diagnostic tool for neuropathic pain, a grading system to categorize pain as ‘definite’, ‘probable’, ‘possible’ and ‘unlikely’ neuropathic was proposed. Somatosensory abnormalities are common in neuropathic pain and it has been suggested that a greater number of abnormalities would be present in patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of somatosensory abnormalities by means of Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain and correlated the number of sensory abnormalities and sensory profiles to the different grades. Of patients who were clinically diagnosed with neuropathic pain, only 60% were graded as ‘definite’ or ‘probable’, while 40% were graded as ‘possible’ or ‘unlikely’ neuropathic pain. Apparently, there is a mismatch between a clinical neuropathic pain diagnosis and neuropathic pain grading. Contrary to the expectation, patients with ‘probable’ and ‘definite’ grades did not have a greater number of abnormalities. Instead, similar numbers of somatosensory abnormalities were identified for each grade. The profiles of sensory signs in ‘definite’ and ‘probable’ neuropathic pain were not significantly different, but different from the ‘unlikely’ grade. This latter difference could be attributed to differences in the prevalence of patients with a mixture of sensory gain and loss and with sensory loss only. The grading system allows a separation of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain based on profiles but not on the total number of sensory abnormalities. Our findings indicate that patient selection based on grading of neuropathic pain may provide advantages in selecting homogenous groups for clinical research. PMID:22927981

  5. Cholesterol forms and traditional lipid profile for projection of atherogenic dyslipidemia: lipoprotein subfractions and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Bostan, Mehmet; Atak, Mehtap; Yılmaz, Adnan; Demir, Adem; Akçan, Buket; Sümer, Fatih; Baltaş, Nimet; Karadağ, Zakir; Uğurlu, Yavuz; Orem, Asım

    2014-02-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by abnormal changes in plasma lipid profile such as low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased triglyceride (TG) levels is strongly associated with atherosclerotic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the levels of pro- and antiatherogenic lipids and erythrocyte membrane cholesterol (EMC) content in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects to investigate whether EMC content could be a useful marker for clinical presentation of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL and their subfraction levels and erythrocyte lipid content were determined in 64 normolipidemic (NLs), 42 hypercholesterolemic (HCs) and 42 mixed-type dyslipidemic subjects (MTDs). Plasma atherogenic lipid indices [small-dense LDL (sdLDL)/less-dense HDL (LHDL), TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and Apo B/AI] were higher in MTDs compared to NLs (p < 0.001). The highest sdLDL level was observed in HCs (p < 0.01). Despite a slight increase in EMC level in dyslipidemic subgroups, the difference was not statistically significant. A significant negative correlation, however, was observed between EMC and sdLDL/LHDL in HCs (p < 0.035, r = -0.386). Receiver operating characteristic curves to predict sdLDL level showed that TG and EMC levels had higher area under curve values compared to other parameters in HCs. We showed that diameters of larger LDL and HDL particles tend to shift toward smaller values in MTDs. Our results suggest that EMC content and TG levels may be a useful predictor for sdLDL level in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  6. Lipoprotein and lipid profiles of elite athletes in Olympic sports.

    PubMed

    Tsopanakis, C; Kotsarellis, D; Tsopanakis, A D

    1986-12-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain an insight into the influence exerted upon plasma lipid parameters by high quality physical training in different specialties of nine Olympic sports. We compared the concentrations of serum cholesterol (TC), total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL, VLDL, and % distribution of HDL, LDL, and VLDL of elite athletes (n = 127, age = 22.0 +/- 3.2 yrs) participating in regular training for over 3 years (2-4 h/day), separated into 11 groups of athletic specialties, with those obtained from a group of selected sedentary controls (n = 26, age = 25.3 +/- 4.5 yrs). We also compared the lipoprotein ratio factor (RF) values TC/HDL and LDL/HDL. The athletic disciplines examined were football, basketball, volleyball, boxing, wrestling, judo, sailing, skiing (slalom), track (two groups), and throwing-jumping. Football, volleyball, judo, SD and LD running, and the total sum of athletes had significantly higher HDL than the controls. Football, basketball, volleyball and all the disciplines taken together showed significantly lower LDL. Boxing, judo, and LD running had significantly lower VLDL and volleyball, SD, and LD running significantly lower %VLDL. Volleyball had significantly lower TL, boxing and volleyball lower TC, while judo, boxing, SD and LD running had lower TG. Sailing had significantly lower %HDL and higher %LDL and TL than the controls; wrestling, skiing, and throwing-jumping did not differ. In all the athletes taken together, VO2 max or relative body weight, with respect to HDL and TC/HDL, were found to be slightly correlated (r = 0.30, P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Cardiomyocyte-specific loss of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) reproduces the abnormalities in lipids found in severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Trent, Chad M; Fang, Xiang; Son, Ni-Huiping; Jiang, HongFeng; Blaner, William S; Hu, Yunying; Yin, Yu-Xin; Farese, Robert V; Homma, Shunichi; Turnbull, Andrew V; Eriksson, Jan W; Hu, Shi-Lian; Ginsberg, Henry N; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J

    2014-10-24

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis, the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) to triglyceride. Dgat1(-/-) mice exhibit a number of beneficial metabolic effects including reduced obesity and improved insulin sensitivity and no known cardiac dysfunction. In contrast, failing human hearts have severely reduced DGAT1 expression associated with accumulation of DAGs and ceramides. To test whether DGAT1 loss alone affects heart function, we created cardiomyocyte-specific DGAT1 knock-out (hDgat1(-/-)) mice. hDgat1(-/-) mouse hearts had 95% increased DAG and 85% increased ceramides compared with floxed controls. 50% of these mice died by 9 months of age. The heart failure marker brain natriuretic peptide increased 5-fold in hDgat1(-/-) hearts, and fractional shortening (FS) was reduced. This was associated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and cluster of differentiation 36. We crossed hDgat1(-/-) mice with previously described enterocyte-specific Dgat1 knock-out mice (hiDgat1(-/-)). This corrected the early mortality, improved FS, and reduced cardiac ceramide and DAG content. Treatment of hDgat1(-/-) mice with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exenatide also improved FS and reduced heart DAG and ceramide content. Increased fatty acid uptake into hDgat1(-/-) hearts was normalized by exenatide. Reduced activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα), which is increased by DAG and ceramides, paralleled the reductions in these lipids. Our mouse studies show that loss of DGAT1 reproduces the lipid abnormalities seen in severe human heart failure.

  8. A simple desalting method for direct MALDI mass spectrometry profiling of tissue lipids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hay-Yan J; Liu, Cheng Bin; Wu, Hsuan-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Direct MALDI-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) profiling of tissue lipids often observes isobaric phosphatidylcholine (PC) species caused by the endogenous alkali metal ions that bias the relative abundance of tissue lipids. Fresh rat brain cryosections were washed with 70% ethanol (EtOH), water (H₂O), or 150 mM ammonium acetate (NH₄Ac), and the desalting effectiveness of each fluid was evaluated by MALDI-MS profiling of PC and sphingomyelin (SM) species in tissue and in the washing runoff. The results indicated that EtOH and H₂O only partially desalted the tissue lipids, yet both substantially displaced the tissue lipids to the washing runoffs. On the other hand, NH₄Ac effectively desalted the tissue lipids and produced a runoff containing no detectable PCs or SMs. NH₄Ac wash also unveiled the underlying changes of PCs and SMs in the infarcted rat cortex previously masked by edema-caused increase of tissue sodium. The MS/MS of an isobaric PC in the infarcted cortex revealed the precursor change as the result of NH₄Ac wash and confirmed the desalting effectiveness of such wash. Other than desalting, NH₄Ac wash also removes contaminants in tissue, enhances the overall spectral quality, and benefits additionally in profiling of biological molecules in tissue. PMID:21266365

  9. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds), pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute). Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile) and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:23111146

  10. Dietary Lipid and Cholesterol Induce Ovarian Dysfunction and Abnormal LH Response to Stimulation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Charlotte; Tarrade, Anne; Picone, Olivier; Larcher, Thibaut; Dahirel, Michèle; Poumerol, Elodie; Mandon-Pepin, Béatrice; Lévy, Rachel; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Excess of fat intake is dramatically increasing in women of childbearing age and results in numerous health complications, including reproductive disorders. Using rabbit does as a biomedical model, the aim of this study was to evaluate onset of puberty, endocrine responses to stimulation and ovarian follicular maturation in females fed a high fat high cholesterol diet (HH diet) from 10 weeks of age (i.e., 2 weeks before normal onset of puberty) or a control diet (C diet). Methodology/Principal Findings Three experiments were performed, each including 8 treated (HH group) and 8 control (C group) does. In experiment 1, the endocrine response to Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was evaluated at 13, 18 and 22 weeks of age. In experiment 2, the follicular population was counted in ovaries of adult females (18 weeks of age). In experiment 3, the LH response to mating and steroid profiles throughout gestation were evaluated at 18 weeks of age. Fetal growth was monitored by ultrasound and offspring birth weight was recorded. Data showed a significantly higher Luteinizing hormone (LH) response after induction of ovulation at 13 weeks of age in the HH group. There was no difference at 18 weeks, but at 22 weeks, the LH response to GnRH was significantly reduced in the HH group. The number of atretic follicles was significantly increased and the number of antral follicles significantly reduced in HH does vs. controls. During gestation, the HH diet induced intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Conclusion The HH diet administered from before puberty onwards affected onset of puberty, follicular growth, hormonal responses to breeding and GnRH stimulation in relation to age and lead to fetal IUGR. PMID:23690983

  11. Comparative lipid profiling of the cnidarian Aiptasia pallida and its dinoflagellate symbiont.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Teresa A; Schmeitzel, John L; Klein, Joshua A; Hwang, Janice J; Schwarz, Jodi A

    2013-01-01

    Corals and other cnidarians house photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts within membrane-bound compartments inside gastrodermal cells. Nutritional interchanges between the partners produce carbohydrates and lipids for metabolism, growth, energy stores, and cellular structures. Although lipids play a central role in the both the energetics and the structural/morphological features of the symbiosis, previous research has primarily focused on the fatty acid and neutral lipid composition of the host and symbiont. In this study we conducted a mass spectrometry-based survey of the lipidomic changes associated with symbiosis in the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida, an important model system for coral symbiosis. Lipid extracts from A. pallida in and out of symbiosis with its symbiont Symbiodinium were prepared and analyzed using negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Through this analysis we have identified, by exact mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS), several classes of glycerophospholipids in A. pallida. Several molecular species of di-acyl phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine as well as 1-alkyl, 2-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidycholine were identified. The 1-alkyl, 2-acyl PEs are acid sensitive suggestive that they are plasmalogen PEs possessing a double bond at the 1-position of the alkyl linked chain. In addition, we identified several molecular species of phosphonosphingolipids called ceramide aminoethylphosphonates in anemone lipid extracts by the release of a characteristic negative product ion at m/z 124.014 during MS/MS analysis. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), an anionic lipid often found in photosynthetic organisms, was identified as a prominent component of Symbiodinium lipid extracts. A comparison of anemone lipid profiles revealed a subset of lipids that show dramatic differences in abundance when anemones are in the symbiotic state as compared to the non

  12. Effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile and histopathological changes in hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheraji, S H; Amin, I; Azlan, A; Manap, M Y; Hassan, F A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on lipid profile, liver and kidney function, and body fat in hypercholesterolaemic rats. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The negative control group received a standard diet. The positive control group received a cholesterol-enriched diet, whereas the intervention groups received a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with B. longum BB536 alone or in combination with inulin or Mangifera pajang fibrous polysaccharides. After 8 weeks, plasma lipids, and liver and kidney function were tested. Intake of the cholesterol-enriched diet increased total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, liver weight, adipose tissue weight, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size. B. longum BB536 supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol, liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size, and positively affected liver and kidney function. These effects were significantly increased in the presence of inulin and M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides.

  13. Lipid profiling of cancerous and benign gallbladder tissues by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jayalakshmi, Kamaiah; Sonkar, Kanchan; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay K; Sinha, Neeraj

    2011-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative (1) H NMR analysis of lipid extracts of gallbladder tissue in chronic cholecystitis (CC, benign) (n = 14), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC, intermediate) (n = 9) and gallbladder cancer (GBC, malignant) (n = 8) was carried out to understand the mechanisms involved in the transformation of benign gallbladder tissue to intermediate and malignant tissue. The results revealed alterations in various tissue lipid components in gallbladder in CC, XGC and GBC. The difference in the nature of lipid components in benign and malignant disease may aid in the identification of the biological pathways involved in the etiopathogenesis of GBC. This is the first study on lipid profiling of gallbladder tissue by (1) H NMR spectroscopy, and has possible implications for the development of future diagnostic approaches. PMID:22945290

  14. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are associated to overweight and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Cano-García, Francisco J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Fernández-Riejo, Patricia; Moreno Fernández, Ana M; Fernández-Rodríguez, Ana; De Miguel, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    In order to analyze the association between body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and clinical symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia, we assessed BMI levels, lipid profile and its association with clinical symptoms in 183 patients with fibromyalgia. The patients were evaluated using tender points, FIQ and Visual Analogue Scales of pain (VAS). Serum lipid profile analysis (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL), and biochemical parameters were measured in the biochemistry laboratory. The BMI distribution of the nonobese, overweight and obese patients' groups were relatively even with 37.7, 35.5 and 26.8%, respectively, with a mean BMI of 27.3 ± 4.9. The number of tender points showed significantly positive correlation with higher BMI (P < 0.05). A total of 57.9% of patients showed increased levels of total cholesterol, 63.4 % increased levels of LDL cholesterol and 19.9% high levels of triglycerides. BMI, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed high association with some clinical parameters. Overweight and lipid profile could be associated with fibromyalgia symptoms. A treatment program with weight loss strategies, and control in diet and increased physical activity is advised to patients.

  15. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  16. The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Jalali, Mahmoud; Heshmat, Ramin; Chamary, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    Many studies have been done on the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic yoghurt. The results, however, are not conclusive. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on the lipid profile in women. In a randomised trial, ninety female volunteers aged 19-49 years were assigned to three groups. Subjects consumed daily 300 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g conventional yoghurt or no yoghurt for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples, 3 d dietary records and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline (T1), end of week 3 (T2) and end of week 6 (T3). Lipid profile parameters were determined by enzymic methods. Results showed no significant difference in lipid profile within any group throughout the study. Comparing mean differences (T1 - T3) among the three groups showed: no difference in TAG and LDL-cholesterol, a decrease in cholesterol in both conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.005) compared with the control group, a decrease in total:HDL-cholesterol ratio for conventional (P < 0.05) and probiotic yoghurt groups (P < 0.001) compared with the control group, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the probiotic yoghurt group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Positive changes in lipid profile were observed in both yoghurt groups. Any added effect, therefore, is due to the consumption of fermented milk products. PMID:20100374

  17. Monoolein-based cubosomes affect lipid profile in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Murgia, Sergio; Putzu, Danilo; Meli, Valeria; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2015-10-01

    Monoolein-based cubosomes are promising drug delivery nanocarriers for theranostic purposes. Nevertheless, a small amount of research has been undertaken to investigate the impact of these biocompatible nanoparticles on cell lipid profile. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore changes in lipid components occurring in human carcinoma HeLa cells when exposed to short-term treatments (2 and 4h) with monoolein-based cubosomes stabilized by Pluronic F108 (MO/PF108). A combination of TLC and reversed-phase HPLC with DAD and ELSD detection was performed to analyze cell total fatty acid profile and levels of phospholipids, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. The treatments with MO/PF108 cubosomes, at non-cytotoxic concentration (83μg/mL of MO), affected HeLa fatty acid profile, and a significant increase in the level of oleic acid 18:1 n-9 was observed in treated cells after lipid component saponification. Nanoparticle uptake modulated HeLa cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of oleic acid in the phospholipid and triacylglycerol fractions, whereas no changes were observed in the cellular levels of free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate. Moreover, cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplet content were assessed on cubosome-treated cells with an alternative technique using Nile red staining. A significant increase in the amount of the intracellular membranes and mostly in the cytoplasmic lipid droplets was detected, confirming that monoolein-based cubosome treatment influences the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of lipid droplets.

  18. Plasma lipid profiling in a large population-based cohort[S

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Christopher K.; Greeve, Melissa A.; Kowalczyk, Adam; Almasy, Laura; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Mahaney, Michael C.; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.; Shaw, Jonathan; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Meikle, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed plasma lipid profiling using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry on a population cohort of more than 1,000 individuals. From 10 μl of plasma we were able to acquire comparative measures of 312 lipids across 23 lipid classes and subclasses including sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycerolipids, and cholesterol esters (CEs) in 20 min. Using linear and logistic regression, we identified statistically significant associations of lipid classes, subclasses, and individual lipid species with anthropometric and physiological measures. In addition to the expected associations of CEs and triacylglycerol with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), ceramide was significantly higher in males and was independently associated with age and BMI. Associations were also observed for sphingomyelin with age but this lipid subclass was lower in males. Lysophospholipids were associated with age and higher in males, but showed a strong negative association with BMI. Many of these lipids have previously been associated with chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and may mediate the interactions of age, sex, and obesity with disease risk. PMID:23868910

  19. Searching for Linear Dependencies between Heart Magnetic Resonance Images and Lipid Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Söderlund, Hans; Heliö, Tiina; Orešič, Matej

    Information derived from "omics" data in life science research are frequently limited by specific spatial or temporal scales these data describe. As a case study of integrating physiological and molecular data in human, here we study associations between the heart magnetic resonance images and serum lipidomic profiles. In the best case, such associations could help infer the physiologic state of the heart from a blood serum sample without need to use expensive imaging techniques. Strong marginal and partial correlations are found between the lipid profiles and parameters derived from the heart images. Regression analyses are applied to study these dependencies in more detail. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mapping lipid profiles to heart images, and thus combining information from two very different scales, small molecules and macroscopic physiologic features. Such mappings could be generalized to other "omics" data as well to complete our picture of the holistic function of a living organism.

  20. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  1. Obesity-Related Alterations in Cardiac Lipid Profile and Nondipping Blood Pressure Pattern during Transition to Diastolic Dysfunction in Male db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ford, David A.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Aroor, Annayya R.; Johnson, Megan S.; Habibi, Javad; Ma, Lixin; Yang, Ming; Albert, Carolyn J.; Lally, John W.; Ford, Caleb A.; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Hayden, Melvin R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Sowers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and a nondipping circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern are associated with diastolic dysfunction. Ectopic lipid accumulation is increasingly recognized as an important metabolic abnormality contributing to diastolic dysfunction. However, little is known about the contribution of different lipids and the composition of lipid analytes to diastolic dysfunction. We have performed functional and structural studies and analyzed cardiac lipid profile at two time points during progression to diastolic dysfunction in a genetic model of obesity. Serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and telemetric measures of BP between 12 and 15 wk of age in obese male db/db mice indicated a nondipping circadian BP pattern and normal diastolic function at 12 wk that progressed to a deteriorating nondipping pattern and onset of diastolic dysfunction at 15 wk of age. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated elevated fatty acids and ceramides in db/db at 12 wk, but their levels were decreased at 15 wk, and this was accompanied by persistent mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities in concert with evidence of increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Triacylglyceride and diacylglyceride levels were elevated at both 12 and 15 wk, but their composition changed to consist of more saturated and less unsaturated fatty acyl at 15 wk. An increase in the lipid droplets was apparent at both time points, and this was associated with increases in phosphatidycholine. In conclusion, a distinct pattern of myocardial lipid remodeling, accompanied by oxidative stress, is associated with the onset of diastolic dysfunction in obese, insulin-resistant db/db mice. PMID:23142808

  2. Lipid profiles within the SABRE trial of anastrozole with and without risedronate.

    PubMed

    Van Poznak, Catherine; Makris, Andreas; Clack, Glen; Barlow, David H; Eastell, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Lipid profiles in women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole with or without risedronate were examined within an international Phase III/IV study to assess for possible treatment related changes. Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were assigned to 1 of 3 strata by risk of fragility fracture. Patients with the highest risk for fracture received anastrozole plus risedronate (A + R). Moderate-risk patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to A + R or anastrozole and placebo (A + P). Lower-risk patients received anastrozole (A) alone. Serial fasting blood samples were assessed for changes in lipid parameters relative to baseline after 12 months of treatment with anastrozole with or without risedronate. Samples were centrally analyzed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Analysis was performed as primary analysis population for lipids (A plus A + P), lipid intention to treat population and secondary population (A + R). Of the 119 patients treated with A plus A + P, there were 66 patients eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis population. Of the 115 patients treated with secondary population (A + R) there were 65 patients eligible for lipid profiling. For LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TC and TG there were no significant changes between the baseline and 12 months assessments to suggest that any of these therapies have a negative impact on the lipid profile. In this study of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole with or without risedronate, there was no adverse effect on LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TC or TG values over the 12 months monitoring period.

  3. Lipid Profiles within the SABRE Trial of Anastrozole with and without Risedronate

    PubMed Central

    Van Poznak, Catherine; Makris, Andreas; Clack, Glen; Barlow, David H.; Eastell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lipid profiles in women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole with or without risedronate were examined within an international Phase III/IV study to assess for possible treatment related changes. Methods Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were assigned to 1 of 3 strata by risk of fragility fracture. Patients with the highest risk for fracture received anastrozole plus risedronate (A+R). Moderate-risk patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to anastrozole and risedronate (A+R) or anastrozole and placebo (A+P). Lower-risk patients received anastrozole (A) alone. Serial fasting blood samples were assessed for changes in lipid parameters relative to baseline after 12 months of treatment with anastrozole with or without risedronate. Samples were centrally analyzed for low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Analysis was performed as primary analysis population for lipids (A plus A+P), lipid intention to treat population and secondary population (A+R). Results Of the 119 patients treated with A plus A+P, there were 66 patients eligible for inclusion in the primary analysis population. Of the 115 patients treated with secondary population (A+R) there were 65 patients eligible for lipid profiling. For LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC and TG there were no significant changes between the baseline and 12 month assessments to suggest that any of these therapies have a negative impact on the lipid profile. Conclusions In this study of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole with or without risedronate, there was no adverse effect on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TC or TG values over the 12 month monitoring period. PMID:22763465

  4. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  5. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  6. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  7. Serial measurement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Harsh Vardhan; Raizada, Arun; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins changes during the course of acute coronary syndrome as a consequence of the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the levels of lipid profile and inflammatory markers. We investigated 400 patients with AMI who were admitted within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined by standard enzymatic methods along with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay) and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (quantitative ''sandwich'' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicate a trend of reduced TC, LDL, and HDL, and elevated TG levels, along with pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (p < 0.001), between day 1 and the day 2 serum samples of AMI patients. However, corrections in the serum levels have been observed at day 7. Our results demonstrate significant variations in the mean lipid levels and inflammatory markers between days 1, 2 and 7 after AMI. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum lipids should be assessed within 24 hours after infarction. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. Exact knowledge regarding baseline serum lipids and lipoprotein levels as well as their varying characteristics can provide a rational basis for clinical decisions about lipid lowering therapy. PMID:26535040

  8. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  9. Forensic identification of seal oils using lipid profiles and statistical models.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret H; Seaborn, Gloria T; Schwacke, John H

    2013-03-01

    Seal blubber oils are used as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Canada but prohibited in the United States and (FA) European Union. Thus, a reliable method is needed to identify oils originating from seals versus fish. Two lipid profiling methods, fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, were applied with statistical models to discriminate commercial oils and blubber samples harvested from marine fish and seals. Significant differences were observed among FA profiles, and seal samples differed from each of the fish oils (p ≤ 0.001). FA and TAG profiles were used to discriminate sample groups using a random forest classifier; all samples were classified correctly as seals versus fish using both methods. We propose a two-step method for the accurate identification of seal oils, with preliminary identification based on FA profile analysis and confirmation with TAG profiles.

  10. Study of lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E in pregnancy induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Suchanda; Abraham, Rebecca; Vedavalli, R; Daniel, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common medical complication of pregnancy with a high incidence. The study comprised of 30 normal and 30 PIH cases in their third trimester of pregnancy and the following estimations were done: Serum Malondialdehyde level (MDA), Vitamin E, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C. The PIH cases had significant rise in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (P=<0.0001). There was a significant rise in the fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in PIH (P=<0.0001). MDA was twice in the cases and Vitamin E was half the levels that of controls (P=<0.0001). The level of rise of serum lipids did not significantly correlate with the rise or fall in MDA. In PIH cases there was a negative correlation of diastolic BP with MDA (P<0.05). Early detection of these parameters is going to aid in better management of PIH cases.

  11. Effects of endurance training on blood lipid profiles in adolescent female distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mitsuzono, Ryoichi; Ube, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of endurance training on the relationships of body composition, blood lipid profiles and sex hormones in adolescent female distance-runners. We cross-sectionally compared body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones of non-athletes (n=7) and distance-runners (n=8), with the similar lower level of BMI (17.1 kg/m(2) vs. 18.7 kg/m(2), respectively). After the cross sectional comparison on the influence of endurance training, body composition, blood lipid profiles and blood sex hormones were examined at pre- and post-one year endurance training in the distance-runners (n=6) to determine longitudinal effects. %Fat in distance-runners revealed a tendency to be lower than that in non-athletes (23.8+/-3.5 vs 27.3+/-2.5%). Both groups showed good blood lipid profiles, such as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), HDL-2c, and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). However, the estrogen (E(2)) level of distance-runners was less than one third of that in non-athletes (30.5+/-11.3 vs 112.9+/-66.2 pg/ml, p<0.01). In addition, the blood E(2) levels (pg/ml) were significantly associated with the internal fat mass (IF, kg) in all subjects (r=-0.613, p<0.05, n=15). On the other hand, the overall body composition and good blood lipid profiles in the longitudinal comparison were maintained to a constant level for one year endurance training, except for significant elevations in the two enzyme activities and E(2) level (LPL activity: from 145.3+/-40.8 to 362.2+/-65.8 ng/ml, HTGL activity: from 0.054+/-0.020 to 0.173+/-0.080 micromole/ml/min, E(2): from 30.7+/-13.2 to 65.6+/-24.2 pg/ml, p<0.05). These results suggest that the lipid profiles such as HDL-c and Apo A-I in adolescent female distance-runners could be rather affected by endurance training, despite the low level of E(2) for a long term.

  12. Metabolite and Lipid Profiling of Biobank Plasma Samples Collected Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Ärlestig, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is desirable to install treatment to prevent disease progression and joint destruction. Autoantibodies and immunological markers pre-date the onset of symptoms by years albeit not all patients will present these factors, even at disease onset. Additional biomarkers would be of high value to improve early diagnosis and understanding of the process, leading to disease development. Methods Plasma samples donated before the onset of RA were identified in the Biobank of Northern Sweden, a collection within national health survey programs. Thirty samples from pre-symptomatic individuals and nineteen from controls were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) metabolite and lipid profiling. Lipid and metabolite profiles discriminating samples from pre-symptomatic individuals from controls were identified after univariate and multivariate OPLS-DA based analyses. Results The OPLS-DA models including pre-symptomatic individuals and controls identified profiles differentiating between the groups that was characterized by lower levels of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, with higher levels of lysophospatidylcholines (LPCs) and metabolites from tryptophan metabolism in pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls. Lipid profiling showed that the majority of phospholipids and sphingomyelins were at higher levels in pre-symptomatic individuals in comparison with controls. Conclusions Our LCMS based approach demonstrated that there are changes in small molecule and lipid profiles detectable in plasma samples collected from the pre-symptomatic individuals who subsequently developed RA, which point to an up-regulation of levels of lysophospatidylcholines, and of tryptophan metabolism, perturbation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and increased oxidative stress in pre-symptomatic individuals’ years before onset of symptoms. PMID:27755546

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid profile of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

    PubMed

    Niyas, Zareena; Variyar, Prasad S; Gholap, Achyut S; Sharma, Arun

    2003-10-22

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid constituents of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) was examined at radiation doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol, the major lipid component, was found to be made up of myristic (90%), palmitic (6%), lauric (3%), petroselinic (0.13%), and stearic acids (0.5%) as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A dose-dependent decrease in the triacylglycerol content and a concomitant increase in free fatty acids characterized the lipid profile of the irradiated spice. This suggested a breakdown of acylglycerols during radiation processing, resulting in the release of free fatty acids. These changes were found to be significant at doses above 5 kGy. The impact of the above changes on the flavor of the spice is discussed. These studies suggest that radiation processing of nutmeg should be limited to a dose of 5 kGy.

  14. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  15. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Kia, Mahsa; Soleimani, Alireza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. The current study was done to determine the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with DN. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients with DN were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg of selenium supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 weeks. Blood sampling was performed for the quantification of glycemic indicators and lipid profiles at the onset of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention. Selenium supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (HOMA-B) (P = 0.009) and a significant rise in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Taking selenium supplements had no significant effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and lipid profiles compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 12 weeks among patients with DN had beneficial effects on plasma GPx, serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B, while it did not affect FPG, QUICKI, and lipid profiles. PMID:26686847

  16. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Methods Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. Results A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal

  17. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2006-11-01

    Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk.

  18. Sage Tea Drinking Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Defences in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Carla M.; Ramos, Alice A.; Azevedo, Marisa F.; Lima, Cristovao F.; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (common sage) is a plant with antidiabetic properties. A pilot trial (non-randomized crossover trial) with six healthy female volunteers (aged 40–50) was designed to evaluate the beneficial properties of sage tea consumption on blood glucose regulation, lipid profile and transaminase activity in humans. Effects of sage consumption on erythrocytes’ SOD and CAT activities and on Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes were also evaluated. Four weeks sage tea treatment had no effects on plasma glucose. An improvement in lipid profile was observed with lower plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels as well as higher plasma HDL cholesterol levels during and two weeks after treatment. Sage tea also increased lymphocyte Hsp70 expression and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities. No hepatotoxic effects or other adverse effects were observed. PMID:19865527

  19. Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2006-11-01

    Tree nuts have a fatty acid profile that favourably affects blood lipids and lipoproteins. They are low in saturated fat and high in unsaturated fatty acids and are rich sources of other nutrients. An extensive database consistently shows total and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in unsaturated fat provided by a variety of tree nuts. Collectively, a summary of studies conducted to date shows that tree nuts reduce LDL cholesterol by 3-19 % compared with Western and lower-fat diets. Nuts also contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds that appear to contribute to the favourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins--these include plant sterols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. Because of their unique nutrient profile, nuts can be part of a diet that features multiple heart-healthy foods resulting in a cholesterol lowering response that surpasses that of cholesterol-lowering diets typically used to reduce CVD risk. PMID:17125536

  20. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  1. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  2. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  3. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  4. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  5. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  6. Improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbit by supplementation of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2011-07-27

    It is imperative that there be a diet designed specifically to improve lipid profile in order to impede the progress of atherosclerosis. Because rice is a staple food in Asia, it will be chosen as the diet of interest. This study sets out to discover whether consumption of different processed rice diets may result in a change of the lipid profile. The experiment was done on male New Zealand white rabbits after 10 weeks of treatment with diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. The experimental diets include white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). Among them, rabbits fed a GBR diet demonstrated significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, and atherogenic index (AI) and a higher level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results from atherosclerotic plaque assessment further support the findings. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which acts as an indicator for oxidative stress, was also reduced by GBR diet. The positive change in lipid profile in the rabbits fed GBR appeared to correspond with the higher amounts of γ-oryzanol, tocopherol, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content. PMID:21682316

  7. Maternal and Fetal Lipid and Adipokine Profiles and Their Association with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Paredes, Mario; Espino y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Ortega-Castillo, Veronica; Rodriguez-Bosch, Mario; Bravo-Flores, Eyerahi; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Gaona-Estudillo, Rubí; Martinez-Bautista, Nancy; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal metabolic changes impact fetal metabolism resulting in a higher risk for developing chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal and fetal adipokine and lipid profiles, as well as the influence of maternal weight on this association. Methods. Healthy pregnant women at term who delivered by C-section were enrolled. Maternal and fetal glucose, lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were analyzed by obesity and maternal weight gain. Statistics included descriptives, correlations, and mean differences (SPSS v20.0). Results. Adiponectin and resistin concentrations were higher in fetal blood, while leptin was lower (p < 0.05). A significant inverse association between maternal resistin and fetal LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.327; p = 0.022) was observed. A positive correlation was found between maternal and fetal resistin (r = 0.358; p = 0.013). Women with excessive weight gain had higher leptin levels and their fetuses showed higher LDL-C levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Maternal resistin showed an inverse association with fetal LDL-C, suggesting that maternal adiposity status may play an active role in the regulation of fetal lipid profile and consequently, in fetal programming. Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy may exert an effect over metabolic mediators in both mother and newborn. PMID:27190514

  8. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Cheung, Stanley K K; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Leung, Vivian P Y; Hui, Elsie; Ng, Chelsia C Y; Chow, Moses; Ho, Ping C; Lam, Sherry; Woo, Jean; Chiu, Helen F K; Goggins, William; Zee, Benny; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Hazel; Cheng, William K F; Fong, Carmen; Lee, Jenny S W; Chan, Ming-Houng; Szeto, Samuel S L; Lui, Victor W C; Tsoh, Joshua; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Iris H S; Lam, Christopher W K

    2007-12-01

    Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

  9. Impact of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein E on Lipid Profile in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gregório, Michele L.; Pinhel, Marcela A. S.; Sado, Caroline L.; Longo, Gabriela S.; Oliveira, Fábio N.; Amorim, Gisele S.; Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Florim, Greiciane M.; Mazeti, Camila M.; Martins, Denise P.; Tognola, Waldir A.; Brandão, Antonio C.; Júnior, Sidney Pinheiro; de Godoy, Moacir F.; Souza, Dorotéia R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) seems to involve genetic susceptibility to neurodegeneration. APOE gene has been considered a risk factor for PD. This study aimed to evaluate the association of APOE polymorphism with PD and its influence on lipid profile. We studied 232 PD patients (PD) and 169 individuals without the disease. The studied polymorphism was analyzed by PCR/RFLP. The Fisher's exact test, chi-square, ANOVA, and t-test (P < 0.05) were applied. The APOE3/3 genotype was prevalent in PD patients and Controls (P = 0.713) followed by APOE3/4 (P = 0.772). Both groups showed recommended values for lipid profile, with increase in the values of total cholesterol and LDLc, as well as decreased values of triglycerides in PD patients compared with Controls (P < 0.05 for all of them). Increased levels of HDLc, in PD patients, were associated with the APOE3/3 versus APOE-/4 genotypes (P = 0.012). The APOE polymorphism does not distinguish PD patients from Controls, as opposed to the lipid profile alone or in association with APOE. Furthermore, a relationship between increase of HDLc levels and APOE3 in homozygous was found in PD patients only. PMID:24175296

  10. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  11. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  12. Pollen Lipidomics: Lipid Profiling Exposes a Notable Diversity in 22 Allergenic Pollen and Potential Biomarkers of the Allergic Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Lui, Jan Hsi; Palnivelu, Ravishankar; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. Conclusions/Significance Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Pollen

  13. Lipid Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in ... carries it to the liver for removal. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in ...

  14. Gender Associated Lipid and Apolipoprotein Profile in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Majkic-Singh, Nada T.; Stankovic, Sanja S.; Kosanovic-Jakovic, Natalija G.; Zoric, Lepsa D.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandra P.; Terzic, Dragana D.; Stojanovic, Jecka Z.

    2011-01-01

    The role of lipid parameters disorder in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze lipid profile in these patients and to test the influence of gender on lipid profile of AMD patients, especially in the early and late form of the disease. 82 patients with AMD (mean age 70.3 yrs) and 80 age-matched control subjects were included in this study. Serum lipid and apolipoproteiin levels were determined using standardized methods. AMD patients had significantly higher values of total cholesterol (P=0.000), HDL-cholesterol (P=0.0003) and LDL-cholesterol (P=0.000) compared to control group. Significantly higher values of apo A1 (P=0.039), apo E (P=0.002), total-cholesterol (P=0.000), LDL-chol. (P=0.026), total HDL-chol (P=0.000), HDL3-chol. (P=0.005) and non-HDL-cholesterol (P=0.029) were found in female AMD patients compared to males with AMD. Females with the advanced form of the disease had significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.006), HDL-C (P=0.004), non HDL-C (P=0.05) and apo E (P=0.014) compared to males with the same form of the disease. There is a significant disorder of lipid parameters in AMD patients especially in females. More severe forms of AMD are followed by the increase of atherogenic lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, and females have higher values of these parameters compared to males with the same form of AMD.

  15. Observational study of lipid profile and LDL particle size in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in plasma triglycerides, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), and the prevalence of small, dense-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) particles. The aim of this study was to establish the importance of LDL particle size measurement by gender in a group of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) attending at a Cardiovascular Risk Unit in Primary Care and their classification into phenotypes. Subjects and methods One hundred eighty-five patients (93 men and 92 women) from several areas in the South of Spain, for a period of one year in a health centre were studied. Laboratory parameters included plasma lipids, lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein size and several atherogenic rates were determinated. Results We found differences by gender between anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and glucose measures by MS status. Lipid profile was different in our two study groups, and gender differences in these parameters within each group were also remarkable, in HDLc and Apo A-I values. According to LDL particle size, we found males had smaller size than females, and patients with MS had also smaller than those without MS. We observed inverse relationship between LDL particle size and triglycerides in patients with and without MS, and the same relationship between all atherogenic rates in non-MS patients. When we considered our population in two classes of phenotypes, lipid profile was worse in phenotype B. Conclusion In conclusion, we consider worthy the measurement of LDL particle size due to its relationship with lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. PMID:21936888

  16. Total Homocysteine, Diet, and Lipid Profiles in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Chao, Wei-Hsun; Kamath, Savitri K.; Quinn, Laurie; Fritschi, Cynthia; Maggiore, Jack A.; Williams, Robert H.; Reynolds, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Limited research is available on the possible differences in the cardiovascular risk factors of total homocysteine (tHcy), dietary energy, and lipids among adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), type 2 DM, or healthy controls. This study’s primary aim was to compare the dietary energy and the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12, as well as lipids and tHcy for adolescents with type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and healthy non-DM controls. Subjects and Methods This secondary analysis of the merging of 2 datasets included the following adolescents: 50 with type 1 DM, 14 with type 2 DM, and 53 controls. Mean ages for those with type 1 versus type 2 DM were 15.2 ± 1.9 versus 16.1 ± 1.9 years, respectively. Mean age for the controls was 16.5 ± 1.0 years. Variables included fasting tHcy and lipids, and 24-hour dietary recalls for macronutrients and micronutrients. Hemoglobin A1c was obtained for those with DM. Statistical analyses included one-way analyses of variance, Pearson correlations, and stepwise regression. Results and Conclusions Adolescents with type 1 DM had the lowest tHcy values (P < .05), which were reflective of the limited extant research with this population. Lipid profiles and dietary energy did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. Hemoglobin A1c was related to total cholesterol and triglycerides in those with type 1 DM, confirming the importance of promoting better metabolic control in lipid management for these youth. Future research should continue to explore the validity of tHcy and lipids as predictors of CV risks for youth with type 1 and type 2 DM. PMID:16407737

  17. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  18. Assessment of BMI, Serum Leptin Levels and Lipid Profile in Patients with Skin Tags

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin tags (ST) are benign lesions composed of loose fibrous tissue, associated with obesity and atherogenic profile. Thus help in the follow up by considering ST as a useful cutaneous sign for the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Aim: To evaluate the association of skin tags with BMI, serum leptin and lipid profile. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 cases with ST and 40 age and gender matched controls. Subjects on oral contraceptives and systemic drugs especially lipid lowering agents, pregnant women, cases with medical history of endocrine disease, acute infection, erythroderma and psoriasis, cases with a drug history of isotretinoin use in last six months were excluded from the study. Blood samples were collected. Serum lipids and serum leptin were estimated. Result: The acrochordons group showed significantly higher values of BMI, total cholesterol (TC) and TC/HDL ratio. 60% of the patients with ST were overweight and 10% were obese. There was no statistical significant difference in leptin levels between the groups. Leptin showed a positive significant correlation with BMI in the acrochordons group. Conclusion: All the above derangements confirm that ST is cutaneous findings frequently associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. Thus follow-up of these patients with regard to the development of diseases associated with atherosclerosis may be beneficial. PMID:25386426

  19. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-09-29

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0-12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7-40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7-41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term.

  20. Ectopic lipid deposition and the metabolic profile of skeletal muscle in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kathryn C.; Wohlers, Lindsay M.; Lovering, Richard M.; Schuh, Rosemary A.; Maher, Amy C.; Bonen, Arend; Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Thomson, David M.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptions of ovarian function in women are associated with increased risk of metabolic disease due to dysregulation of peripheral glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Our previous evidence suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism coupled with altered mitochondrial function may also develop. The objective of this study was to use an integrative metabolic approach to identify potential areas of dysfunction that develop in skeletal muscle from ovariectomized (OVX) female mice compared with age-matched ovary-intact adult female mice (sham). The OVX mice exhibited significant increases in body weight, visceral, and inguinal fat mass compared with sham mice. OVX mice also had significant increases in skeletal muscle intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) compared with the sham animals, which corresponded to significant increases in the protein content of the fatty acid transporters CD36/FAT and FABPpm. A targeted metabolic profiling approach identified significantly lower levels of specific acyl carnitine species and various amino acids in skeletal muscle from OVX mice compared with the sham animals, suggesting a potential dysfunction in lipid and amino acid metabolism, respectively. Basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates were significantly impaired in skeletal muscle fibers from OVX mice compared with sham animals. Collectively, these data indicate that loss of ovarian function results in increased IMCL storage that is coupled with alterations in mitochondrial function and changes in the skeletal muscle metabolic profile. PMID:23193112

  1. Anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile in prepubertal children born early, full, or late term

    PubMed Central

    Derraik, José G. B.; Savage, Tim; Miles, Harriet L.; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in growth and metabolism in prepubertal children born early term, full term, and late term. We retrospectively studied 294 prepubertal children aged 7.3 years (range 3.0–12.1 years). Children were separated into those born early term (37 0/7–38 6/7 weeks of gestation; n = 68), full term (39 0/7–40 6/7 weeks; n = 179), and late term (41 0/7–41 6/7 weeks; n = 47). Clinical assessments included anthropometry, DXA-derived body composition, fasting lipids, and glucose homeostasis. Statistical models accounted for important confounding factors, such as gender, age, birth weight SDS, birth order, and parental variables. When birth weight was adjusted for sex and gestational age (birth weight SDS), late terms were heavier than both early (p = 0.034) and full (p = 0.020) terms. Early term children were shorter than both full (p = 0.010) and late (p = 0.049) term children, but differences in height disappeared following correction for parents' heights. There were no differences in glucose homeostasis, BMI SDS, adiposity, or fat distribution between groups. Lipid profiles were also similar. When important confounding factors were accounted for, there were no meaningful differences in anthropometry, glucose homeostasis, and lipid profile among children born early term, full term, or late term. PMID:25263327

  2. Associations of three lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms, lipid profiles and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    DAOUD, MOHAMED S.; ATAYA, FARID S.; FOUAD, DALIA; ALHAZZANI, AMAL; SHEHATA, AFAF I.; AL-JAFARI, ABDULAZIZ A.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing the core triglycerides (TGs) of circulating chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The effects of LPL polymorphisms on lipid levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) have been inconsistent among studies and populations. To assess the lipid profiles and distributions of three LPL gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients with CAD, the HindIII, PvuII and Ser447Ter polymorphisms in the LPL gene were analyzed in 226 patients with CAD and 110 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect LPL gene polymorphisms. The plasma lipid profiles of the patients were determined using standard enzymatic methods. Patients in the CAD group had significantly higher triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than controls irrespective of the HindIII, PvuII or Ser447Ter genotype. Compared to the findings in controls, the HindIII TT, PvuII TC and Ser447Ter CC genotypes were associated with significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in patients with CAD (P<0.0001). In summary, there are associations between LPL gene variants and high plasma TG, TC and LDL-C levels as well as low HDL-C levels. PMID:24648989

  3. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  4. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  5. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency.

  6. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  7. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  8. Reduced coenzyme Q10 in female smokers and its association with lipid profile in a young healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices. PMID:22328876

  9. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the risk factors in two isolated Chinese minorities

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Juan; Xie, Rui-Bin; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Dai-Xun; Huang, Jian; Huang, Feng; Li, Hui; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Both Jing and Mulao nationalities are the isolated minorities in China. Little is known about the prevalence of dyslipidemia between the two ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the differences in serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors between the Jing and Mulao populations. A cross-sectional study of dyslipidemia was conducted in Dongxing city, Guangxi, China, during Dec 2011 and Jan 2012. A total of 1254 subjects of Jing and 1251 participants of Mulao were surveyed by a stratified randomized sampling. Information on demography, diet and lifestyle was collected with standardized questionnaire. Serum lipid levels were detected using the commercially available kits. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower but the levels of ApoB were higher in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (32.38% vs. 24.38%), high ApoB (35.25% vs. 15.35%) and low ApoA1/ApoB ratio (22.65% vs. 16.87%) was higher and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.48% vs. 2.16%), high LDL-C (17.54% vs. 40.53%) and low ApoA1 (5.98% vs. 11.43%) was lower in Jing than in Mulao (P < 0.001 for all). The risk factors for serum lipid parameters and hyperlipidemia were different between the two ethnic groups. Serum lipid profiles, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and their risk factors are different between the Jing and Mulao populations. These differences may result from the combined effects of different diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. PMID:26770556

  10. The Relationships between Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone with Lipid Profile in Euthyroid Men

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population. Methods: A total of 708 Chinese and Malay men aged 20 years and above were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Their blood was collected for the determination of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels. The association was analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, ethnicity, body mass index and FT4/FT3/TSH levels. Results: In multiple regression models, TSH was positively and significantly associated with TG (p<0.05). Free T4 was positively and significantly associated with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C (p<0.05). Free T3 was negatively and significantly associated with HDL-C (p<0.05). In binary logistic models, an increase in TSH was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TG in the subjects (p<0.05), while an increase in FT4 was significantly associated with higher prevalence of elevated TC but a lower prevalence of subnormal HDL in the subjects (p<0.05). Free T3 was not associated with any lipid variables in the logistic regression (p>0.05). Conclusions: In euthyroid Malaysian men, there are positive and significant relationships between TSH level and TG level, and between FT4 level and cholesterol levels. PMID:24578612

  11. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals.

  12. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  13. The effect of consumption of soy foods on the blood lipid profile of women: a pilot study from Qwa-Qwa.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna; Egal, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the long-term effect of 40-g daily whole bean soy consumption for a period of 18 mo on blood lipid levels of women. A single-system design was used and 90 women randomly selected in peri-urban Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. Measurements included dietary intake (24-h recall), anthropometric (weight and height) and biochemical lipid parameters with venous blood samples. The respondents were divided into a hypercholesterolemic and normo-cholesterolemic (NC) group and data analyses included descriptive statistics and t-tests on SPSS, version 21.0. The results showed that a large percentage (40%) of the women was hypercholesterolemic. The hypercholesterolemic group showed abnormal mean values for all the lipid parameters at baseline whereas the NC group showed total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) values in the normal range, but abnormally low mean HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (0.9±0.6) and high mean triglyceride (TG) (2.3±0.8) levels. At follow-up, the hypercholesterolemic group had significantly improved HDL-C (p=0.000), LDL-C (p=0.032) and TG (p=0.000) levels, but with significantly increased TC (p=0.01). A similar trend was observed in the NC group; however, no significantly improved HDL-C or TG values were observed. It can be concluded that dyslipidemia and obesity were prevalent amongst this group of women. The daily consumption of 40 g of whole soybean, had no significant positive effect on TC, but had a beneficial effect on LDL-C in the women in Qwa-Qwa. The HDL:LDL ratio was also improved in the in the hypercholesterolemic group, thus reducing the risk for CVD. The consumption of whole soybean thus had a beneficial effect on the lipid profile of the women in Qwa-Qwa.

  14. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, Pinteraction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; Pinteraction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, Pinteraction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; Pinteraction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  15. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Pollin, Toni I; Isakova, Tamara; Jablonski, Kathleen A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S; Delahanty, Linda M; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Goldberg, Ronald B; Florez, Jose C; Franks, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5)-1 10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5), P(interaction) = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction) = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction) = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction) = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  16. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Oestradiol in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kilim, Srinivas; Chandala, Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the menopausal status and related hormonal variation of oestradiol with plasma lipid concentrations. Material and Methods: Fifty premenopausal women and fifty postmenopausal women subjects were selected. Data was collected through clinical evaluation from questionnaires and laboratory investigations. Plasma oestradiol and lipid profile determinations were done by using competitive binding immunoassay methods and enzymatic methods respectively. Student’s T test and Pearson’s test of correlation were used for the statistical analysis. P-values of < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels in post-menopausal women. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased in post-menopausal women. The calculated atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio) was significantly increased in post-menopausal women as compared to that in premenopausal women. Oestradiol concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in post-menopausal women. Discussion: Oestrogen changes the vascular permeability by increasing nitrous oxide production. It maintains a healthy lipoprotein profile. It stabilizes the endothelial cells, enhances antioxidant effect and alters fibrinolysis protein. All these cardioprotective mechanisms are lost in menopause. Postmenopausal women develop an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Menopause leads to changes in lipid profile by reducing HDL, and elevating Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, thus increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These changes are caused by reduced oestrogen concentrations which are seen in menopause. PMID:24086849

  17. Serum lipid profiles are associated with disability and MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, elevated LDL and reduced HDL may increase progression by activating inflammatory processes at the vascular endothelium. Objective To assess the associations of serum lipid profile variables (triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) and total cholesterol) with disability and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This study included 492 MS patients (age: 47.1 ± 10.8 years; disease duration: 12.8 ± 10.1 years) with baseline and follow-up Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) assessments after a mean period of 2.2 ± 1.0 years. The associations of baseline lipid profile variables with disability changes were assessed. Quantitative MRI findings at baseline were available for 210 patients. Results EDSS worsening was associated with higher baseline LDL (p = 0.006) and total cholesterol (p = 0.001, 0.008) levels, with trends for higher triglyceride (p = 0.025); HDL was not associated. A similar pattern was found for MSSS worsening. Higher HDL levels (p < 0.001) were associated with lower contrast-enhancing lesion volume. Higher total cholesterol was associated with a trend for lower brain parenchymal fraction (p = 0.033). Conclusions Serum lipid profile has modest effects on disease progression in MS. Worsening disability is associated with higher levels of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher HDL is associated with lower levels of acute inflammatory activity. PMID:21970791

  18. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metagenomic Signatures and Lipid Profiles After Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wilkins, M.; Daly, R. A.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas formations represent understudied deep biosphere ecosystems with important implications to terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and global energy resources. Recent 16S rRNA gene studies examining temporal microbial community dynamics of returned fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale indicate ecosystem changes from aerobic, low-salt associated microbes in injected fluids to anaerobic, halophilic taxa in produced fluids several months after fracturing. To further characterize changes in the ecology, functional potential and biosignatures of observed taxa, we sequenced genomic DNA from three key time points after fracturing (T7, T82, and T328; Tn, n = days) and analyzed their lipid signatures. The metagenomic profiles verify 16S rRNA gene trends, revealing strain-type changes in dominant Bacteria of Marinobacter, Halomonas, and Halanaerobium and the Archaeal genus Methanolobus through time. Novel species within the γ-Proteobacteria were also observed. Reconstructed genomes show as bioavailable N decreases through time, genes associated with N2 fixing and obtaining N from organic pools (ncd2, nit1, and eutCB) increase in T82 and T328 samples after oxidized nitrogen species (NO3) are depleted. Further, S oxidizing genes were only detected in the T7 sample with incomplete pathways for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR). Later time points showed an increase in abundance of sulfonate importer genes and the anaerobic DSR gene, asrA, suggesting the use of sulfite and sulfonates for S acquisition after sulfate is depleted. Lipid analyses confirmed distinct profiles between T82 and T328 and revealed differences in 16 and 18 C monounsaturated fatty acids, indicative of gram (-) bacteria. The lipid profile from T328 was markedly less diverse than that of T82 and indicated a very limited community, as supported by the 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic data. This research integrates metagenomic data with lipid profiles to characterize temporal

  19. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D.; Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Hess, Dean R.; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined “specialized proresolving mediators” (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae–infected (n = 5–6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200–300 ppm for 60–90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM–SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid–derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution. PMID:25568926

  20. The Regulation of Proresolving Lipid Mediator Profiles in Baboon Pneumonia by Inhaled Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Jesmond; Kraft, Bryan D; Colas, Romain A; Shinohara, Masakazu; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Hess, Dean R; Chiang, Nan; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Choi, Augustine M; Piantadosi, Claude A; Serhan, Charles N

    2015-09-01

    Strategies for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia beyond traditional antimicrobial therapy have been limited. The recently discovered novel genus of lipid mediators, coined "specialized proresolving mediators" (SPMs), which orchestrate clearance of recruited leukocytes and restore epithelial barrier integrity, have offered new insight into the resolution of inflammation. We performed lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomic profiling and identification of LMs on peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma from a baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Leukocytes and plasma were isolated from whole blood of S. pneumoniae-infected (n = 5-6 per time point) and control, uninfected baboons (n = 4 per time point) at 0, 24, 48, and 168 hours. In a subset of baboons with pneumonia (n = 3), we administered inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) at 48 hours (200-300 ppm for 60-90 min). Unstimulated leukocytes from control animals produced a proresolving LM signature with elevated resolvins and lipoxins. In contrast, serum-treated, zymosan-stimulated leukocytes and leukocytes from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia produced a proinflammatory LM signature profile with elevated leukotriene B4 and prostaglandins. Plasma from baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia also displayed significantly reduced LM-SPM levels, including eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins (RvE) and lipoxins. CO inhalation increased levels of plasma RvE and lipoxins relative to preexposure levels. These results establish the leukocyte and plasma LM profiles biosynthesized during S. pneumoniae pneumonia in baboons and provide evidence for pneumonia-induced dysregulation of these proresolution programs. Moreover, these SPM profiles are partially restored with inhaled low-dose CO and SPM, which may shorten the time to pneumonia resolution.

  1. Lipid profiling of developing Jatropha curcas L. seeds using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Annarao, Sanjay; Sidhu, O P; Roy, Raja; Tuli, Rakesh; Khetrapal, C L

    2008-12-01

    Seed development in Jatropha curcas L. was studied with respect to phenology, oil content, lipid profile and concentration of sterols. Seeds were collected at various stages of development starting from one week after fertilization and in an interval of five days thereafter till maturity. These were classified as stage I to stage VII. Moisture content of the seeds ranged from 8.8 to 90.3%; the lowest in mature seeds in stage VII and highest in stage I. The seed area increased as the seed grew from stage I to stage VI (0.2-10.2mm(2) per seed), however, the seed area shrunk at stage VII. Increase in seed area corresponded to increase in fresh weight of the seeds. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of hexane extracts made at different stages of seed development revealed the presence of free fatty acids (FFA), methyl esters of fatty acids (FAME) and triglycerol esters (TAG), along with small quantity of sterols. The young seeds synthesized predominantly polar lipids. Lipid synthesis was noticed nearly three weeks after fertilization. From the fourth week the seeds actively synthesized TAG. Stage III is a turning point in seed development since at this stage, the concentration of sterols decreased to negligible, there was very little FAME formation, accumulation of TAG increased substantially, and there was a sudden decrease in FFA concentration. The findings can be helpful in understanding the biosynthesis and in efforts to improve biosynthesis of TAG and reduce FFA content in the mature seeds. PMID:18534845

  2. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria. PMID:27461878

  3. Changes in serum lipid profile in the acute and convalescent Plasmodium vivax malaria: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Teresinha C; Martin, Thamires G O; Alves, Eduardo R; Mello, Marcia B C; Nery, Andreia F; Gomes, Luciano T; Fontes, Cor Jesus F

    2016-11-01

    Although serum lipids are known to be altered in Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, little is known about such changes due to Plasmodium vivax infection. This cohort study assessed serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 164 patients in the acute phase of malaria caused by P. vivax and characterized these changes in the convalescent phase after treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Compared to reference values, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were lower and triglyceride levels were higher in the acute phase. Moreover, the parasite density was negatively correlated with LDL (r=-0,189; p=0.027) and HDL (r=-0,256; p=0.001) serum levels. Eighty patients returned for clinical and laboratory revaluation 7-12days after treatment initiation. All patients showed parasite clearance and the absence of symptoms during the convalescent phase. Analysis of the serum lipids of these 80 patients showed significant increases in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL (p<0.0001), and HDL (p<0.0001) as well as a significant reduction in triglycerides (p=0.004), indicating a trend towards a return to normal levels. This transient change in lipid profile between the acute and convalescent stages may be useful for the clinical monitoring of patients treated for vivax malaria.

  4. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets. PMID:22898616

  5. Black soybean extract improves lipid profiles in fenofibrate-treated type 2 diabetics with postprandial hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Masataka; Sato, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Tsutsui, Hideyo; Nakamura, Takao; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2015-06-01

    Black soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are known to be rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, and they have been consumed since ancient times for their beneficial effects on health. In addition, it has been reported that black soybean (BS) seed coat may ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we administered BS extract to type 2 diabetics for 2 months to investigate the effects of BS on glycemic control and lipid metabolism parameters. In addition, we administered BS and antihyperlipidemic agent, fenofibrate, to patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by postprandial hyperlipidemia for 2 months and assessed the combined effects of fenofibrate and BS on serum lipid profile. The results showed that administration of the BS alone had no effect on the blood glucose or lipid levels, but that administration of fenofibrate alone and fenofibrate in combination with the BS significantly lowered their serum triglyceride (TG) level at fasting state, and the percent decrease in the serum TG level after combined administration was significantly higher than in the subjects who received fenofibrate alone. Furthermore, the serum LDL cholesterol concentration, which did not decrease when fenofibrate was administered alone, decreased significantly when the BS and fenofibrate were administered in combination. These results suggest that combined administration of the BS with fenofibrate enhanced the antihyperlipidemic action of fenofibrate, and the results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the BS in clinical practice. PMID:25651043

  6. Effects of phylloquinone supplementation on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Sousan; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an excess mortality from cardiovascular disease which is likely attributed to an atherogenic lipid profile. Among nutritional factors vitamin K has been recently focused as a pivotal nutrient in improvement of lipid related markers. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin K on lipid profile in this disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty eight patients with definitive RA were participated in the present double blind placebo controlled study. They were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K1 as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] (n = 30) or placebo pills (n = 28), for eight weeks. In order to control the effects of probable confounders dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements including weight and height, clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28), physical activity and anxiety status were evaluated at baseline. Moreover, serum levels of lipid related markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. After adjusting for some relevant confounders, in comparison between two groups, we observed no significant changes in lipid related markers at the end of intervention. Also, there was no significant difference between before and after intervention values within groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Function of vitamin K1 in lipid profile modification remains still controversial. This study showed that vitamin K1 has no effect on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to determine the effects of vitamin K on atherogenic lipid profile. PMID:25861426

  7. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewa; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Kempa, Katarzyna; Fredyk, Artur; Małecki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the role of ANGPTL3, a liver-secreted glycoprotein, in serum lipid turnover, led us to hypothesize that this protein may be involved in modification of the lipid profile induced by exercise-training. Given the lack of data regarding this issue, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of regular participation in a recreational physical activity program on serum ANGPTL3 and selected lipid profile measures in young, apparently healthy female and male adults. We compared serum ANGPTL3, lipid profile measures, common lipid ratios, the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and glucose in fasting blood samples derived from 22 active physical education students including active females (AF, N=6) and males (AM, N=16) with samples from 28 relatively sedentary age-matched peers, including female (SF, N=9) and male (SM, N=19) individuals not involved in any regular physical conditioning program. Despite high inter-individual variability of serum ANGPTL3, there was a general tendency toward higher serum ANGPTL3 and HDL-C in women compared to men, but without significant differences related to their physical activity status. Based on both routine lipid profile measures and lipid ratios, all participants had normal lipid profiles, normal glycemia, as well as favorable anthropometric indices not suggesting increased cardiometabolic risk. However, lower levels of the TG/HDL-C ratio and AIP in physically active compared to relatively sedentary participants, reflecting the predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles, strongly support the view of beneficial health-promoting effects of regular participation in recreational sport activities. PMID:26839611

  8. Study on Glycaemic Status and Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh.

    PubMed

    Tabazzum, R; Mia, A R; Haq, R U; Epsi, E Z

    2016-07-01

    Recent increases in the incidence of diabetes in developing countries have been associated with complications resulting in mortality and morbidity. A case control study of 120 subjects attending out patient department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh was done with an aim to evaluate alteration of serum lipid profile and HbA1c in type 2 diabetic patients and compare with age matched healthy control. Of the total cases, 60 were Type 2 diabetic patients and 60 were apparently healthy persons recruited for the study. These patients and control subjects were classified as male (50%) and female (50%). Fasting lipid profile and HbA1c% were measured by following the standard laboratory methods. The study subjects had relatively poor glycemic control. The mean HbA1c was 9.21±1.19% in diabetes patient and 4.71±0.60% was in control. The mean fasting blood glucose level was 10.18±1.56mmol/L in diabetes patient and 4.51±0.48mmol/L in control. The mean total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL-C & LDL-C were 211.93±11.83mg/dl, 156.90±7.96mg/dl, 35.20±3.17mg/dl & 133.20±3.99mg/dl in diabetes patient accordingly and the mean total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL-C & LDL-C were 159.72±4.89mg/dl, 117.45±12.97mg/dl, 44.23±2.75mg/dl & 92.15±5.67mg/dl in control group accordingly. The study revealed that the most common abnormality seen was decreased serum HDL-Cholesterol levels (91.67%). Hypertriglyceridaemia present in 81.67% patients, 78.34% had high LDL-Cholesterol and 73.34% had hypercholesteromia. Diabetic males had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol compared to diabetic females and diabetic females had significantly lower levels of HDL-Cholesterol compared to diabetic males. It was concluded from the results of this study that, diabetic patients are more prone to develop dyslipidaemia. Thus early diagnosis of dyslipidemia and good glycaemic control can be used as a preventive measure for the development of cardiovascular

  9. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  10. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Duck; Youn, Yeo Kyu; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid, has antioxidant activity as well as many positive effects, such as anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults in Korea. In total, 27 subjects with body mass index >25.0 kg/m(2) were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups administered astaxanthin or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were measured before and after intervention. Malondialdehyde (MDA), isoprostane (ISP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), as oxidative stress biomarkers, were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. LDL cholesterol and ApoB were significantly lower after treatment with astaxanthin, compared with the start of administration, whereas none of the lipid profiles was changed in the placebo group. At the baseline, all four biomarkers were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with the placebo group, MDA and ISP were significantly lower, but TAC was significantly higher in the astaxanthin group at 12 weeks. These results suggest that supplementary astaxanthin has positive effects by improving the LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and oxidative stress biomarkers.

  11. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Colpo, Elisângela; Vilanova, Carlos Dalton de Avila; Brenner Reetz, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria; Farias, Iria Luiza Gomes; Irineu Muller, Edson; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Moraes Flores, Erico Marlon; Wagner, Roger; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  12. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian university athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Oyelola, O O; Rufai, M A

    1993-01-01

    The fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles were determined in 14 healthy Nigerian male athletes and controls matched for sex and anthropometric parameters. The mean levels of total cholesterol (P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) AII and E were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the athletes than in the controls. However, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the mean values of the plasma triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, apo AI, B, Lp(a), LpA1 and CIII:NonB respectively for the athletes and controls. A priori, the potential effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was also compared using three predictor ratios - total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL), LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol and apo B:AI. The mean of the three ratios was lower in the athletes than in the controls; however, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Based on our data, exercise appears to decrease the TC:HDL ratio in the athletes by lowering LDL-cholesterol, while the HDL-cholesterol is unaffected. We conclude that physical activity has salutary effects on the lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles of healthy Nigerian men. PMID:8130968

  13. Effect of Abdominoplasty in the Lipid Profile of Patients with Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Pérez Verdin, Ana; Fuentes, Miguel; Godínez Gutiérrez, Sergio; Ambriz-Plascencia, Ana Rosa; González-García, Ignacio; Gómez-Fonseca, Sonia Mericia; Madrigal, Rosalio; González-Reynoso, Luis Iván; Figueroa, Sandra; Toscano Igartua, Xavier; Jiménez Gutierrez, Déctor Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Dyslipidemia like other chronic degenerative diseases is pandemic in Latin America and around the world. A lot of patients asking for body contouring surgery can be sick without knowing it. Objective. Observe the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, before and three months after an abdominoplasty. Methods. Patients candidate to an abdominoplasty without morbid obesity were followed before and three months after the surgery. We compared the lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and HOMA (cardiovascular risk marker) before and three months after the surgery. We used Student's t test to compare the results. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. Twenty-six patients were observed before and after the surgery. At the third month, we found only statistical differences in LDL and triglyceride values (P 0.04 and P 0.03). The rest of metabolic values did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. In this group of patients with dyslipidemia, at the third month, only LDL and triglyceride values reached statistical significances. There is no significant change in glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, VLDL, or HDL. PMID:23956856

  14. Distribution of paraoxonase PON1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican populations. Its role in the lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Ricardo; Zamora, José; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Fragoso, José Manuel; Cardoso, Guillermo; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2006-02-01

    Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms (PON1-55 and PON1-192) were determined in four Mexican populations (Mestizos, Nahuas, Teenek and Mayos) belonging to different ethnic groups. The role of these polymorphisms in the lipid profile in the Mestizo group was also analyzed. PON1 polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison among Mexican populations showed increased frequencies of PON1-55 L allele and LL genotype and decreased frequencies of M allele and LM genotype in the three Amerindian populations when compared to Mestizos (P < 0.05). Mexicans together with Asian populations (from Japan and China) presented the highest frequencies of PON1-55 L allele (P < 0.05 when compared to Caucasian populations). Heterogeneous data were noted when PON1-192 polymorphism comparison was made. In summary, distribution frequencies of PON1 showed that Mexican populations are more related to Asians than Caucasians. This confirms previous studies with other genetic markers indicating that Native Americans have stronger genetic affinities to the Paleolithic people of North-East Asia than to other major world populations. In Mexican Mestizos, lack of correlation between PON1 polymorphisms and lipid profile was found, corroborating previous data in other populations. The present data could be helpful to understand the distribution of these polymorphisms and its role as genetic and evolutive markers in the Amerindian populations.

  15. Changes in the lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer players after a match.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, N; Bogdanis, G C; Kostopoulos, N; Souglis, A; Papadopoulos, Ch

    2014-01-01

    The lipid profile of elite basketball and soccer athletes was evaluated and compared with that of inactive individuals. Total cholesterol (T-C), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentration were measured in the morning and after a soccer or a basketball match. All parameters of lipid profile measured at a fasted and resting state, except HDL-C, were lower in the athletes compared with the controls (p < 0.01). The soccer match resulted in a greater decrease in TG (78.3 ± 6.7 to 70.7 ± 6.3, p < 0.01), T-C (179.3 ± 10.7 to 171.6 ± 9.6, p < 0.01), LDL-C (110.9 ± 8.9 to 103.5 ± 7.5, p < 0.01) compared with the basketball match that resulted only in a decrease in LDL-C (126.8 ± 9.5 to 117.3 ± 9.1, p < 0.01) and an increase in HDL-C that was similar to that observed after the soccer match (9-12%). These findings support the beneficial effects of basketball and soccer on cardiovascular health.

  16. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies.

  17. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  18. Effects of synbiotic on anthropometry, lipid profile and oxidative stress in obese children.

    PubMed

    Ipar, N; Aydogdu, S Durmus; Yildirim, G Kilic; Inal, M; Gies, I; Vandenplas, Y; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested some beneficial effects of probiotics and/or prebiotics on obesity in adults; such experience is limited in children and adolescents. This study was an open-label, randomised, controlled study including children with primary obesity. The first group was treated with a standard method with a reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity. The second group received add-on daily synbiotic supplementation during one month. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of a synbiotic on anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters. One month of supplementation of the synbiotic resulted in a significant reduction of weight (P<0.001) and body mass index (P<0.01). Changes (% reduction comparing to baseline) in anthropometric measurements, were significantly higher in the children receiving the additional synbiotic supplement (P<0.05). The percentage of children with weight loss was higher in the synbiotic group, but not statistically significant (71.4 vs 64.2%, P>0.05). At the 30(th) day of synbiotic intervention, serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total oxidative stress levels significantly declined (P<0.05). Changes in serum lipid levels were significantly higher in the synbiotic group (P<0.05). Changes in serum total oxidative stress levels before and after the intervention period, were significant in synbiotic group (P<0.01). In our study, changes in weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold thickness were higher in the group receiving the one month synbiotic supplement thin in the standard method group. The supplement tested also had a beneficial effect on lipid profile and total oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of synbiotics on oxidative stress in obese patients with an additional effect on weight loss regarding to previous studies. PMID:26259892

  19. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  20. Effects of Sesame Seed Supplementation on Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khadem Haghighian, Mahdieh; Alipoor, Beitollah; Eftekhar Sadat, Bina; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Moghaddam, Abdolvahab; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effect of sesame seed on lipid profile and oxidative stress biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods: Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups receiving 40 g of sesame seed daily along with standard medical therapy (n=25) or stan­dard treatment (n=25) for two months. Serum total antioxidant capacity, ma­londialdehyde (MDA) and lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured. Results: After the intervention period two months of study, serum TC, LDL-cholesterol and MDA decreased significantly in the sesame group (P<0.05), while no significant difference in serum values of lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters was seen in the control group (P>0.05). There was no signifi­cant difference in pre and post-treatment values of lipid profile and oxidative parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current study showed a positive effect of sesame seed in improv­ing lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame seed might be of help to reduce oxidative stress in OA patients. PMID:25097842

  1. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. RESULTS Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Results from the present study suggest that Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism. PMID:26425278

  2. Fatty acid profiling during microbial lipid production under varying pO2 and impeller tip speeds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Ubaid; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Pandey, Ashok; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2008-12-01

    The fatty acid profile study was undertaken to study the effect of impeller tip speed-associated shear stress and dissolved oxygen saturation (DO) on the fatty acid composition variation and on total lipid content of the cells. The study was undertaken in a 5-l stirred tank bioreactor using Mucor sp. RRL001. To study the interaction of parameters and their effects, a central composite design was used. The fatty acid profiling during the course of study suggested that oleic acid and palmitic acid were two major components with their composition varying between 34-47% and 29-39.1%, respectively, of the total lipid content. The GLA content varied between 3% and 9% of the total lipid. The lipid profile study also revealed the presence of a minor amount of fatty acids of chain length C:12, C:20, C:22, and C:24. The modeling of lipid accumulation suggested that it follows a quadratic model with both impeller tip speed (p = 0.0166) and dissolved oxygen concentration (p = 0.0098) following the quadratic order of effect. The fermenter run based on the optimum production zone in response surface plot resulted in the maximum 4.8 g l(-1) lipid compared with the model-predicted value of 4.49 g l(-1). The present study suggests that dissolved oxygen saturation is a more significant contributor to total lipid accumulation. However, the study also suggests that the fatty acid profile of fungal lipid is not directly associated with the shear stress or oxygen availability in Mucor sp. RRL001. PMID:18581265

  3. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  4. Identification and signature profiles for pro-resolving and inflammatory lipid mediators in human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Romain A.; Shinohara, Masakazu; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process locally controlled by a novel genus of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) that orchestrate key resolution responses. Hence, it is of general interest to identify individual bioactive mediators and profile their biosynthetic pathways with related isomers as well as their relation(s) to classic eicosanoids in mammalian tissues. Lipid mediator (LM)-SPM levels and signature profiles of their biosynthetic pathways were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)-based LM metabololipidomics. LM and SPM were identified using ≥6 diagnostic ions and chromatographic behavior matching with both authentic and synthetic materials. This approach was validated using the composite reference plasma (SRM1950) of 100 healthy individuals. Using targeted LM metabololipidomics, we profiled LM and SPM pathways in human peripheral blood (plasma and serum) and lymphoid organs. In these, we identified endogenous SPM metabolomes, namely, the potent lipoxins (LX), resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD), and maresins (MaR). These included RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, MaR1, and NPD1/PD1, which were identified in amounts within their bioactive ranges. In plasma and serum, principal component analysis (PCA) identified signature profiles of eicosanoids and SPM clusters. Plasma-SPM increased with omega-3 and acetylsalicylic acid intake that correlated with increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli in whole blood. These findings demonstrate an approach for identification of SPM pathways (e.g., resolvins, protectins, and maresins) in human blood and lymphoid tissues that were in amounts commensurate with their pro-resolving, organ protective, and tissue regeneration functions. LM metabololipidomics coupled with calibration tissues and physiological changes documented herein provide a tool for functional phenotypic profiling. PMID:24696140

  5. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C

    2005-09-01

    The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  6. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus's growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: -0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: -0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = -0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: -0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: -0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: -0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  7. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  8. A systematic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C

    2005-09-01

    The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50-100 g/d), 2 peanut (35-68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40-84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50-100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of approximately 50-100 g (approximately 1.5-3.5 servings) of nuts > or = 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of approximately 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals. PMID:16140880

  9. Lipid Profile Remodeling in Response to Nitrogen Deprivation in the Microalgae Chlorella sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) and Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Ian L. D.; Bergamin, Amanda; Shears, Melanie J.; Dias, Daniel A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Scales, Peter J.; Botté, Cyrille Y.; Callahan, Damien L.

    2014-01-01

    Many species of microalgae produce greatly enhanced amounts of triacylglycerides (TAGs), the key product for biodiesel production, in response to specific environmental stresses. Improvement of TAG production by microalgae through optimization of growth regimes is of great interest. This relies on understanding microalgal lipid metabolism in relation to stress response in particular the deprivation of nutrients that can induce enhanced TAG synthesis. In this study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in response to nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation) was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress. As expected, an increase in TAGs and an overall decrease in polar lipids were observed. However, while most membrane lipid classes (phosphoglycerolipids and glycolipids) were found to decrease, the non-nitrogen containing phosphatidylglycerol levels increased considerably in both algae from initially low levels. Of particular significance, it was observed that the acyl composition of TAGs in Nannochloropsis sp. remain relatively constant, whereas Chlorella sp. showed greater variability following N-deprivation. In both algae the overall fatty acid profiles of the polar lipid classes were largely unaffected by N-deprivation, suggesting a specific FA profile for each compartment is maintained to enable continued function despite considerable reductions in the amount of these lipids. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were due primarily to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study provides the most detailed lipidomic information on two different microalgae with utility in biodiesel production and nutraceutical industries and proposes the mechanisms for this rearrangement. This research also highlights the usefulness of the latest MS-based approaches for microalgae lipid research. PMID:25171084

  10. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  11. Zinc protection against aluminium induced altered lipid profile and membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Zinc (Zn) supplementation on lipid profile and fluidity of cerebrum and cerebellum membranes of rats treated with aluminium (Al). Sprague dawley male rats were divided into four different treatment groups viz: Control, aluminium treated, zinc treated and aluminium+zinc treated. Aluminium (AlCl3) was administered orally at a dose of 100mg/kgb.wt./day (dissolved in drinking water). Zinc as zinc sulphate was supplemented to rats at a dose of 227mg/l in drinking water. A significant decrease in the levels of total lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides contents were observed in both the cerebrum and cerebellum following Al exposure, which were found to be significantly increased following Zn supplementation. On the contrary, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the formation of conjugated dienes, which were observed to be reduced on Zn co-treatment. Further, Al treatment significantly elevated the fluorescence polarization, anisotropy and order parameter, which however were normalized upon Zn co-administration. Hence, the present study depicts the potential of Zn in moderating the changes caused by Al on membrane composition and fluidity in rat brain.

  12. Characterization of hepatic lipid profiles in a mouse model with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kosuke; Uebanso, Takashi; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Taguchi, Ryo; Nammo, Takao; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Udagawa, Haruhide; Fujii, Masato; Shibazaki, Yuichiro; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kazuki; Saito, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major health problem since it often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of NASH development and subsequent fibrosis have yet to be clarified. We compared comprehensive lipidomic profiles between mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and STAM mice with NASH and subsequent fibrosis. The STAM mouse is a model that demonstrates NASH progression resembling the disease in humans: STAM mice manifest NASH at 8 weeks, which progresses to fibrosis at 12 weeks, and finally develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Overall, 250 lipid molecules were detected in the liver using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that STAM mice with NASH presented a significantly higher abundance of sphingolipids and lower levels of triacylglycerols than the HFD-fed control mice. The abundance of certain fatty acids in phospholipid side chains was also significantly different between STAM and control mice, although global levels of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were comparable. Finally, increase in levels of acylcarnitines and some diacylglycerols was observed in STAM mice toward the fibrosis stage, but not in age-matched control mice. Our study provides insights into the lipid status of the steatotic, NASH, and fibrotic liver that would help elucidate the molecular pathophysiology of NASH progression. PMID:26289793

  13. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients.

    PubMed

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E; Conover, Cheryl A; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin; Overgaard, Michael T; Nyegaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5-3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6-0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  14. Abnormal IGF-Binding Protein Profile in the Bone Marrow of Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Brohus, Malene; Kristensen, Ida B.; Abildgaard, Niels; Bøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans E.; Conover, Cheryl A.; De Bruyne, Elke; Vanderkerken, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling plays a key role in homing, progression, and treatment resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). In the extracellular environment, the majority of IGF molecules are bound to one of six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6), leaving a minor fraction of total IGF free and accessible for receptor activation. In MM, high IGF-receptor type 1 expression levels correlate with a poor prognosis, but the status and role of IGF and IGFBPs in the pathobiology of MM is unknown. Here we measured total IGF1, IGF2, and intact IGFBP levels in blood and bone marrow samples from MM (n = 17), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 37), and control individuals (n = 15), using ELISA (IGFs) and 125I-IGF1 Western Ligand Blotting (IGFBPs). MGUS and MM patients displayed a significant increase in intact IGFBP-2 (2.5–3.8 fold) and decrease in intact IGFBP-3 (0.6–0.5 fold) in the circulation compared to control individuals. Further, IGFBP-2 as well as total IGFBP levels were significantly lower in bone marrow compared to circulation in MM and MGUS only, whereas IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP-3 were equally distributed between the two compartments. In conclusion, the profound change in IGFBP profile strongly suggests an increased IGF bioavailability in the bone marrow microenvironment in MGUS and MM, despite no change in growth factor concentration. PMID:27111220

  15. Effect of oral magnesium sulfate administration on blood pressure and lipid profile in streptozocin diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Manssor; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-04-10

    Approximately one-third of patients with type 1 diabetes develop a variety of complications as a result of mechanisms that are not completely understood. However, insufficient metabolic control seems to play a major role. Other factors such as magnesium (Mg) could also be of importance. We designed this study to elucidate the effect of oral magnesium administration on plasma lipid profile and mesenteric fat in male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups (n=10 in each group): one group served as control, while the other groups were made diabetic with a single i.v. injection of 40 mg/kg streptozocin. Animals in which the diabetic state lasted for 10 days were referred as acute diabetic rats, whereas those in which the diabetes lasted for 8 weeks were defined as chronic diabetics. Mg-treated chronic diabetic received 10 g/l of MgSO(4) added to the drinking water (0.46 g/24 h) for eight weeks following which the left common carotid artery was cannulated for continuous recording of blood pressure. Blood glucose, magnesium and lipid profiles levels were also determined. Diabetes induction caused plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations to increase, however plasma Mg level was decreased. Administration of MgSO(4) for eight weeks caused the return of the above factors to their normal levels. Mg concentrations also increased but failed to reach normal levels. Diabetes induction caused mesenteric fat/body weight ratio to increase, but administration of MgSO(4) reduced the ratio to normal levels. In addition, Mg administration returned systolic blood pressure to the normal level. Our results support the hypothesis that Mg may play a part in the management of diabetes and the prevention of its vascular complications in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and it may be useful in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in diabetic case. PMID:17292879

  16. [Effect of partially refined palm oil in lipid profile in rats].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Nancy; Márquez, Mercedes; Sutil, Rosalía; Pacheco, Emperatriz; Muñoz, Marielena; Gómez, Maria Esther

    2008-03-01

    Palm oil is rich in carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. This oil is refined for its human consumption bringing as a consequence an alteration of their properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partially refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD red) on the lipid profile and levels of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha tocopherol) in 4 groups of rats: B (commercial food Protinal for laboratory animals: ST + 5% egg yolk powder); C (ST + 5% egg yolk powder + 14 RBD red) both groups with induced hyperlipidemia; and D (ST + 14% RBD red), as compared with a control A (ST) during 35 days. The results were: the RBD red induced significative decreases of TC (total cholesterol) in groups C and D (81 +/- 11 mg/dL and 77 + 7 mg/dL), respectively, when compared with the control group (99 +/- 11 mg/dL) for 35 days experimentation. Additionally, an increment of the HDL-C (53 +/- 4 mg/dL) in the C group and in the D group (53 +/- 5 mg/dL) were observed when compared with group B (44 +/- 3 mg/dL), resulting in a lower ratio of TC/HDL-C (1.5 +/- 0.1). In the groups C and D, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in the serum concentrations of retinol (26 +/- 5 microg/dL and 58 +/- 18 microg/dL) and a tocopherol (165 +/- 58 microg/dL) and 445 +/- 65 microg/dL). These results allow to conclude that the supplementation with RBD red diminishes the TC, improving the ratio TC/HDL-C. The presence of a monosaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the high concentrations of micronutrients (a tocopherol and retinol) in RBD red palm oil, influence favorably the lipid profile of rats with induced hyperlipidemia.

  17. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Karen L.; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  18. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  19. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that regular intake of nuts may be associated with reduction of all-cause mortality, especially cardiovascular deaths. Among all types of nuts, pistachio displays the most favorable dietary composition. Therefore, we searched Medline and ISI Web of Science to identify interventional studies which evaluated changes of conventional blood lipids after replacing part of normal caloric intake with pistachio nuts in humans. Overall, 9 studies were finally included in our systematical literature review (4 randomized crossover, 3 randomized controlled and 3 prospective). In 6/9 (67%) interventional studies total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased. In all studies total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (7/7; 100%) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (6/6; 100%) decreased after replacing caloric intake with pistachio nuts for not less than 3 weeks. A significant reduction of triglycerides could only be observed in 2 out of 8 studies (25%). Even more importantly, in no interventional study the intake of pistachio nuts was associated with unfavorable changes of the lipid profile. The results of our literature search provide solid evidence that intake of pistachio nuts may exerts favorable effects on the traditional blood profile, provided that their consumption does not increase the habitual or recommended daily caloric intake. It seems also reasonable to suggest that further studies aimed to investigate the favorable effects of nuts on human diseases should distinguish between one type and the others, since the different nuts exhibit unique dietary composition and may hence produce distinctive biological effects in humans. PMID:27163889

  20. Effect of iron and zinc supplementation and its discontinuation on lipid profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Joanna; Madej, Dawid

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether combined iron/zinc supplementation is more beneficial than iron supplementation alone from the perspective of the lipid profile in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week male Wistar rats in 3 stages: (1) 4-week adaptation to the diets: C (AIN-93M) and D (mineral mix without iron); (2) 4-week supplementation: 10-times more iron or iron and zinc compared to C; (3) 2-week post-supplementation period (the same diets as in the first stage). The iron and zinc content in serum was measured using ASA. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined. After 4-week supplementation (stage II) and post-supplementation (stage III) periods combined iron/zinc supplementation decreased HDL-C and increased non-HDL-C concentrations in control rats, and in contrast to iron supplementation alone TG concentration decreased. After stage II combined iron/zinc supplementation did not result in increased non-HDL-C and TG concentrations in iron deficient rats in contrast to iron supplementation alone. After stage III both iron and simultaneous iron/zinc supplementation were the cause of TC increase which was the result of the increase of non-HDL-C but not HDL-C concentration in iron deficient rats. In conclusion, there were no beneficial effects of simultaneous iron and zinc supplementation on the lipid profile of rats fed control and iron deficient diets. Combined iron and zinc supplementation may contribute to lower HDL-C and higher non-HDL-C concentrations.

  1. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects. PMID:24173620

  2. Troxerutin suppresses lipid abnormalities in the heart of high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Yogalakshmi, Baskaran; Sreeja, S; Bhavani, K; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2014-02-01

    The reversal effect of troxerutin (TX) on obesity, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, oxidative damage, and hypertension induced in the high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome was investigated. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD. Each group was divided into two and treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o.) from the 16th day. Assays were done in plasma and heart after 30 and 60 days of the experimental period. Significant increase in the levels of glucose and insulin, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress were observed after 30 days of HFFD feeding as compared to control. Animals fed HFFD for 60 days developed more severe changes in the above parameters compared to those fed for 30 days. Hearts of HFFD-fed mice registered downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, carnitine palmitoyl transferse-1b and AMP-activated protein kinase; and upregulation of cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid-binding protein-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c after 60 days. TX administration restricted obesity (as seen by Lee's index); improved whole body insulin sensitivity; reduced BP, lipid accumulation, and oxidative damage; upregulated fatty acid (FA) oxidation; and downregulated FA transport and lipogenesis. Histology of heart revealed that TX diminishes inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty degeneration in HFFD-fed mice. The antioxidant property of TX and its ability to influence lipid regulatory genes could be the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects.

  3. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  4. Aspirin insensitive thrombophilia: Transcript profiling of blood identifies platelet abnormalities and HLA restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Payam; Katz, Richard; Toma, Ian; Li, Ranyang; Reiner, Jonathan; VanHouten, Kiersten; Carpio, Larry; Marshall, Lorraine; Lian, Yi; Bupp, Sujata; Fu, Sidney W.; Rickles, Frederick; Leitenberg, David; Lai, Yinglei; Weksler, Babette B.; Rebling, Frederik; Yang, Zhaoqing; McCaffrey, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin is the most widely used antiplatelet agent because it is safe, efficient, and inexpensive. However, a significant subset of patients does not exhibit a full inhibition of platelet aggregation, termed ‘aspirin resistance’ (AR). Several major studies have observed that AR patients have a 4-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and other thrombotic events. Arachidonic acid-stimulated whole blood aggregation was tested in 132 adults at risk for ischemic events, and identified an inadequate response to aspirin therapy in 9 patients (6.8%). Expression profiling of blood RNA by microarray was used to generate new hypotheses about the etiology of AR. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were decreases in several known platelet transcripts, including clusterin (CLU), glycoproteins IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B/3), lipocalin (LCN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and the thrombopoetin receptor (MPL), but with increased mRNA for the T-cell Th1 chemokine CXCL10. There was a strong association of AR with expression of HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DQA1. Similar HLA changes have been linked to autoimmune disorders, particularly antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), in which autoantibodies to phospholipid/protein complexes can trigger platelet activation. Consistent with APS, AR patients exhibited a 30% reduction in platelet counts. Follow-up testing for autoimmune antibodies observed only borderline titers in AR patients. Overall, these results suggest that AR may be related to changes in platelet gene expression creating a hyperreactive platelet, despite antiplatelet therapy. Future studies will focus on determining the protein levels of these differential transcripts in platelets, and the possible involvement of HLA restriction as a contributing factor. PMID:23454623

  5. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    PubMed

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

  6. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into four groups (n=10): GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control), GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control), GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV, respectively, and an

  7. Lipid Profile in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Deja, Grazyna; Gawlik, Aneta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Klimek, Katarzyna; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. The study aim was to evaluate whether hyperandrogenemia in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may adversely influence lipid profile. Design and Participants. Lipid levels in 16 diabetic girls with biochemical hyperandrogenemia (T1DM-H) aged 16.3 ± 1.2 years were compared to 38 diabetic girls with normal androgen levels (T1DM-N) aged 15.8 ± 1.2 years. 15 healthy girls served as controls (CG). In all patients, anthropometric measurements were done, and androgens and SHBG were assessed. Results. In T1DM-H, total cholesterol (TC) and low density cholesterol (LDL-ch) were significantly higher than in CG (196.1 ± 41.2 versus 162.7 ± 31.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01; 117.3 ± 33.1 versus 91.3 ± 27.8 mg/dL, p = 0.01, resp.). Their LDL-ch, non-high density cholesterol (non-HDL-ch) concentrations, and LDL/HDL ratio were also significantly higher than in T1DM-N (117.3 ± 33.1 versus 97.7 ± 26.7 mg/dL, p = 0.03; 137.3 ± 42.9 versus 113.3 ± 40.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04; 2.8 ± 3.7 versus 1.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.04, resp.). In stepwise multiple linear regression, free androgen index (FAI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with TC (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0006), non-HDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0003), and LDL-ch (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.0008). Triglycerides and LDL/HDL ratio were (R2 = 0.7, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.6, p < 0.0003 resp.) related to testosterone, FAI, WHR, and mean HbA1c. Conclusion. Lipid profile in diabetic adolescent girls is adversely influenced by the androgens level, particularly in the group with higher WHR and poorer glycemic control. PMID:27239195

  8. Comparative proteomics reveals abnormal binding of ATGL and dysferlin on lipid droplets from pressure overload-induced dysfunctional rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Li, Linghai; Zhang, Huina; Wang, Weiyi; Hong, Yun; Wang, Jifeng; Zhang, Shuyan; Xu, Shimeng; Shu, Qingbo; Li, Juanfen; Yang, Fuquan; Zheng, Min; Qian, Zongjie; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Excessive retention of neutral lipids in cardiac lipid droplets (LDs) is a common observation in cardiomyopathy. Thus, the systematic investigation of the cardiac LD proteome will help to dissect the underlying mechanisms linking cardiac steatosis and myocardial dysfunction. Here, after isolation of LDs from normal and dysfunctional Sprague-Dawley rat hearts, we identified 752 heart-associated LD proteins using iTRAQ quantitative proteomic method, including 451 proteins previously unreported on LDs. The most noteworthy finding was the identification of the membrane resealing protein, dysferlin. An analysis of dysferlin truncation mutants indicated that its C2 domain was responsible for its LD localization. Quantitative proteomic results further determined that 27 proteins were increased and 16 proteins were decreased in LDs from post pressure overload-induced dysfunctional hearts, compared with normal hearts. Notably, adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) was dramatically decreased and dysferlin was substantially increased on dysfunctional cardiac LDs. This study for the first time reveals the dataset of the heart LD proteome in healthy tissue and the variation of it under cardiac dysfunction. These findings highlight an association between the altered LD protein localization of dysferlin and ATGL and myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26795240

  9. Comparative proteomics reveals abnormal binding of ATGL and dysferlin on lipid droplets from pressure overload-induced dysfunctional rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linghai; Zhang, Huina; Wang, Weiyi; Hong, Yun; Wang, Jifeng; Zhang, Shuyan; Xu, Shimeng; Shu, Qingbo; Li, Juanfen; Yang, Fuquan; Zheng, Min; Qian, Zongjie; Liu, Pingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Excessive retention of neutral lipids in cardiac lipid droplets (LDs) is a common observation in cardiomyopathy. Thus, the systematic investigation of the cardiac LD proteome will help to dissect the underlying mechanisms linking cardiac steatosis and myocardial dysfunction. Here, after isolation of LDs from normal and dysfunctional Sprague-Dawley rat hearts, we identified 752 heart-associated LD proteins using iTRAQ quantitative proteomic method, including 451 proteins previously unreported on LDs. The most noteworthy finding was the identification of the membrane resealing protein, dysferlin. An analysis of dysferlin truncation mutants indicated that its C2 domain was responsible for its LD localization. Quantitative proteomic results further determined that 27 proteins were increased and 16 proteins were decreased in LDs from post pressure overload-induced dysfunctional hearts, compared with normal hearts. Notably, adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) was dramatically decreased and dysferlin was substantially increased on dysfunctional cardiac LDs. This study for the first time reveals the dataset of the heart LD proteome in healthy tissue and the variation of it under cardiac dysfunction. These findings highlight an association between the altered LD protein localization of dysferlin and ATGL and myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26795240

  10. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  11. Lipid profiling and transcriptomic analysis reveals a functional interplay between estradiol and growth hormone in liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  12. A study on blood lipid profiles, aluminum and mercury levels in college students

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eunim; Hyun, Whajin; Ro, Yoona; Lee, Hongmie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES College students are in a period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, in which proper dietary habits and balanced nutritional intake are very important. However, improper dietary habits and lifestyles can bring several health problems. This study was performed to investigate blood lipid profiles, blood aluminum and mercury in college students and the relationships among them. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) in Gyeonggi-do. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipids, SGOT, SGPT, and blood aluminum and mercury of the subjects were measured and analyzed, and their relationship was studied. RESULTS The BMI was significantly higher in males, 23.69 ± 3.20 kg/m2, than in females, 20.38 ± 2.37 kg/m2 (P < 0.001). The blood pressure was significantly higher in males with 128.93 ± 12.92 mmHg systolic pressure and 77.14 ± 10.31 mmHg diastolic pressure compared to females with 109.78 ± 11.97 mmHg and 65.95 ± 6.92 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). HDL cholesterol in males, 61.88 ± 13.06 mg/dl, was lower than 64.73 ± 12.16 mg/dl in females, but other blood lipid levels were higher in males. Blood aluminum was significantly higher in males, 9.12 ± 2.11 µg/L, than in females, 8.03 ± 2.14 µg/L (P < 0.05), and blood mercury was higher in males, 3.08 ± 1.55 µg/L, than in females, 2.64 ± 1.49 µg/L. The blood lipids showed positive correlation with obesity and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The degree of obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were higher in males, suggesting possible association with chronic disease incidence such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Thus, it is considered that a systematic health education is needed for college students, especially for males. PMID:27478552

  13. Maternal Early Pregnancy Serum Metabolomics Profile and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding as Predictors of Placental Abruption: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Sumner, Susan J.; McRitchie, Susan; Carlson, James E.; Ananth, Cande V.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Qiu, Chunfang; Sorensen, Tanya K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Placental abruption, an ischemic placental disorder, complicates about 1 in 100 pregnancies, and is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolomics holds promise for improving the phenotyping, prediction and understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms of complex clinical disorders including abruption. We sought to evaluate maternal early pregnancy pre-diagnostic serum metabolic profiles and abnormal vaginal bleeding as predictors of abruption later in pregnancy. Methods Maternal serum was collected in early pregnancy (mean 16 weeks, range 15 to 22 weeks) from 51 abruption cases and 51 controls. Quantitative targeted metabolic profiles of serum were acquired using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) and the Absolute IDQ® p180 kit. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history were abstracted from medical records. Stepwise logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the extent to which metabolites aid in the prediction of abruption. We evaluated the predictive performance of the set of selected metabolites using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC). Results Early pregnancy vaginal bleeding, dodecanoylcarnitine/dodecenoylcarnitine (C12 / C12:1), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C 38:1 (PC ae C38:1) strongly predict abruption risk. The AUC for these metabolites alone was 0.68, for early pregnancy vaginal bleeding alone was 0.65, and combined the AUC improved to 0.75 with the addition of quantitative metabolite data (P = 0.003). Conclusion Metabolomic profiles of early pregnancy maternal serum samples in addition to the clinical symptom, vaginal bleeding, may serve as important markers for the prediction of abruption. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate and validate these findings in other cohorts. PMID:27300725

  14. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  15. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  16. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment.

  17. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Li, Qinggang; Chamba, Yangzom; Zhang, Bo; Shang, Peng; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Changxin

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA sequences (from RNA-seq) and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq) from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP]) and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY]) were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO) terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46 genes and 18

  18. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  19. Effects of Water Extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on Blood Pressure, Fasting Glucose, and Lipid Profiles of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748. PMID:24371832

  20. Effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profiles of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Chen, Shu-Ju; Liu, Jen-Tzu; Tseng, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of water extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense (WGP, 4 g/d) on blood pressure, blood glucose level, and lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Participants with MS (n = 54) were randomly assigned to the placebo (n = 28) and WGP groups (n = 26), and the intervention was administered for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), lipid profiles (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)), and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Forty-two subjects completed the study (placebo, n = 19; WGP, n = 23). FG, SBP, and LDL-C levels were significantly lower and HDL-C level and antioxidant enzymes activities (CAT and SOD) were significantly higher after WGP supplementation. Blood pressure, FG, and lipid profiles were significantly correlated with antioxidant enzymes activities after supplementation (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles and an increase in antioxidant enzymes activities in subjects with MS after WGP supplementation. Taken together, the antioxidative capacity of WGP might exert a beneficial effect on MS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463748.

  1. Ameliorative potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumari, S.; Bhuvaneswari, P.; Rajeswari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most severe metabolic pandemic of the 21st century, affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every cell in the body. Indian literatures have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Coccinia grandis extract on serum and liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids in serum and liver) in streptozotocin induced diabetic animals. The experimental animals were treated with methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis and the levels of marker enzymes and lipid profile were estimated. The ALP, AST, ALT and LDH levels were increased in diabetic rats and restored to near normal levels after administration of plant extract. The lipid profile increased in diabetic group and after the treatment with the plant extract the levels were reverted to near normal. Thus the methanolic extract of Coccinia grandis has a potent ability to restore the marker enzymes and the lipid profile was reverted to near normal levels. PMID:22736887

  2. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  3. The Effects of Physical Training on Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, B. N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) participated in a 12-week exercise program to determine whether such training would bring about changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein profiles. The findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for individuals with IDDM. (MT)

  4. Serum chemistry and lipid profiles in neonatal beagle puppies fed homemade milk replacer formulas.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Miller, E; Olson, P N; Ralston, S L

    1993-04-01

    Milk replacer formulas based on cow's milk and egg yolks are frequently recommended for use in neonatal puppies. These formulas are lower in protein, kilocalories, calcium, and phosphorus than bitch's milk. In addition, the cholesterol content is greater than bitch's milk. The effect of feeding these formulas on serum chemistry profiles, lipid profiles, and alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme profiles of 5-week-old beagle puppies was studied. Three groups of beagle puppies were fed bitch's milk (control) (n = 18), a homemade milk-egg-oil formula (Formula 1) (n = 18), or a homemade milk-egg-oil formula supplemented with additional calcium and phosphorous (Formula 2) (n = 18). Concentrations of serum urea nitrogen, albumin, and total CO2 were lower (P < 0.05), and concentrations of serum phosphorus, globulins, sodium, chloride, and cholesterol were higher (P < 0.05) in formula-fed puppies than bitch-fed puppies. Serum potassium concentration was lower in the puppies fed Formula 1 than in the control puppies (P < 0.05), and serum potassium concentration in the puppies fed Formula 2 was not significantly different from that in puppies fed Formula 1 or the control puppies. Total triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein2 cholesterol (HDL2) concentrations were similar in all three groups of puppies but the combined high density lipoprotein1 (HDL1) plus low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in the formula-fed puppies and accounted for the majority of the increase in cholesterol. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) or bone-derived ALP (BALP) concentrations among the groups, however there was a higher (P < 0.05) serum concentration of liver-derived ALP (LALP) in the Formula 1-fed puppies. Feeding homemade egg and cow's milk-based puppy replacement formulas is not recommended for long term use. PMID:8467696

  5. Profiling the Essential Nature of Lipid Metabolism in Asexual Blood and Gametocyte Stages of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sonia; Ekland, Eric H.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Chan, Robin B.; Jayabalasingham, Bamini; Zhou, Bowen; Mantel, Pierre-Yves; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Spottiswoode, Natasha; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Hjelmqvist, Daisy; Worgall, Tilla S.; Marti, Matthias; Di Paolo, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY During its life cycle, Plasmodium falciparum undergoes rapid proliferation fueled by de novo synthesis and acquisition of host cell lipids. Consistent with this essential role, Plasmodium lipid synthesis enzymes are emerging as potential drug targets. To explore their broader potential for therapeutic interventions, we assayed the global lipid landscape during P. falciparum asexual blood stage (ABS) and sexual development. Using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, we analyzed 304 lipids constituting 24 classes in ABS parasites, infected red blood cell (RBC)-derived microvesicles, gametocytes, and uninfected RBCs. Ten lipid classes were previously uncharacterized in P. falciparum and 70–75% of the lipid classes exhibited changes in abundance during ABS and gametocyte development. Utilizing compounds that target lipid metabolism, we affirmed the essentiality of major classes, including triacylglycerols. These studies highlight the interplay between host and parasite lipid metabolism and provide a comprehensive analysis of P. falciparum lipids with candidate pathways for drug discovery efforts. PMID:26355219

  6. Effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2009-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important adult health problem in the world. Epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments have shown that fruit and vegetable consumption has protective effects against CVD. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of consumption of two kiwifruit per day on the lipid profile, antioxidants and markers of lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic adult men and women in Taiwan. Forty-three subjects who had hyperlipidemia, including 13 males and 30 females, participated in this study. They were asked to consume two kiwifruit per day for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were made. Before the intervention and at 4 and 8 weeks of the intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Additionally vitamin E and vitamin C, the malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal concentration, and the lag time of LDL oxidation were determined. No significant differences from baseline to 8 weeks of the intervention were detected for triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol. However, after 8 weeks of consumption of kiwifruit, the HDL-C concentration was significantly increased and the LDL cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio were significantly decreased. Vitamin C and vitamin E also increased significantly. In addition, the lag time of LDL oxidation and malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal had significantly changed at 4 and 8 weeks during the kiwifruit intervention. Regular consumption of kiwifruit might exert beneficial effects on the antioxidative status and the risk factors for CVD in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  7. Effects of Sitagliptin on Lipid Profiles in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Minhua; Li, Yuelan; Zhang, Shihong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sitagliptin has been reported to improve lipid profiles, but findings from these studies are conflicting. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin on serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We made a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP database until June 2015. Eligible studies were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that investigated the effect of sitagliptin on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Eleven RCTs with 2338 patients were identified. Compared with controls, sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG (weighted mean difference [WMD] −0.24 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.40 to −0.09; P = 0.002) and HDL-C (WMD 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.02–0.07; P < 0.001).However, no statistical significances were observed in LDL-C (WMD −0.07 mmol/L; 95% CI −0.22 to 0.08; P = 0.337) and TC (WMD −0.14; 95% CI −0.33 to 0.06; P = 0.177). Subgroup analyses revealed that sitagliptin alone achieved greater improvement in serum TG, TC, and HDL-C levels. These findings suggested that sitagliptin alone or in combination significantly improved serum TG and HDL-C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26765417

  8. Meta-Analysis: Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Lipid Profiles in Normal to Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. Objective To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Methods Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Results Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference –0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.27 to –0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference –0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.30 to –0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (>4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. Conclusions In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk

  9. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  10. LIPID PROFILE OF POLISH PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS AGED 35-55 YEARS LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF PLESZEW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolina; Matyjaszczyk, Piotr; Zaporowska-STACHOWIAK, Iwona; Kostrzewska, Magdalena; Piorunek, Tomasz; Minczykowskp, Andrzej; Bryl, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, more than half of the adult population suffers from lipid disorders. Among the 18 million Polish people with hypercholesterolemia, over 10.8 million are unaware of this problem. To estimate the lipid profile of selected primary care patients in the district of Pleszew (Western Poland), general practitioners (GPs) recruited 681 patients aged 35-55 years in 2011. Fasting serum lipids were evaluated. We found statistically significant differences in all lipid parameters between all younger (35-45 years) and older (46-55 years) patients, between all female and male subjects, between women and men ages 35-45 years; in total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) between younger and older female population; in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG between women and men ages 46-55 years. Dyslipidemia, both, newly detected and previously treated, was detected in 591 patients (86.8%): 322 females (84.3%) and 269 males (90.0%). The highest percentage of lipid disorders was found in males aged 46-55 years (91.9%) and the lowest among women aged 35-45 years (78.0%). Age and gender differences in the prevalence of dyslipidemia proved of statistical importance. Among 155 patients on lipid-lowering therapy, only 28 subjects (18.1%) reached the target value of serum lipids. The prevalence of lipid disorders among primary care patients aged 35-55 years in the district of Pleszew was significantly high, and it was proved that dyslipidemia is statistically prominent in males and older patients. Polish healthcare professionals should make more efforts to improve the detection and treatment of lipid disorders. PMID:27180447

  11. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid

  12. The functional role of some tomato products on lipid profile and liver function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hoda Salama; Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali; El-din, Maha Mohamed Essam

    2008-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the functional role of lycopene obtained from powder prepared from fresh tomato, tomato paste, and ketchup that contained equal amounts of lycopene based on levels of intake on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER), lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and liver enzymes of hyperlipidemic rats. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into two main groups: the first group (n = 6 rats) was kept on the basal diet as a normal control, while the second group (n = 42 rats) was fed a hyperlipidemic diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. The latter group was divided into seven subgroups: the first subgroup was the positive control group, while the others were supplemented with one of the tomato products at one of two levels (10 or 20 mg of lycopene/kg of diet). BWG, feed intake, and FER were calculated, and blood samples were collected to determine total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions, atherogenic index, and liver function in sera. Relative organ weights were also calculated. Results revealed that administration of various tomato products produced a significant reduction in feed intake except for the hyperlipidemic group that supplemented with the lower lycopene level from tomato paste. In addition, BWG and FER were not influenced by addition of tomato products at any level of intake. Hyperlipidemic rats supplemented with tomato powder, tomato paste, or ketchup showed significant improvement in almost all the parameters studied compared to the positive control group. Results showed that the higher lycopene level from tomato paste produced significant improvement in all lipid parameters, followed by 10 mg of lycopene/kg from tomato paste, which caused significant elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol comparable to that of the negative control group. The lowest atherogenic index was achieved by addition of the lower lycopene level from tomato paste followed by

  13. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05, respectively) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (-0.31 ± 0.64 vs. 0.07 ± 0.58, p < 0.05, respectively) were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p < 0.05, respectively). Decreases from the baseline in IL-6 (-0.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05, respectively) and TNF-α (-2.9 ± 4.7 pg/mL vs. 0.1 ± 3.6 pg/mL, p < 0.05, respectively) were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  14. Modulatory effects of curcumin and curcumin analog on circulatory lipid profiles during nicotine-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Rajasekharan, K N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic component of cigarette smoke, plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. In the present study, we have synthesized an analog of curcumin and biomonitored its influence over biochemical marker enzymes and lipid profiles on nicotine-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. The effects were compared with that of curcumin, a well-known antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks), and curcumin (80 mg/kg) was given simultaneously along with nicotine by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. Measurements of activities of the biochemical marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase and of plasma lipid profiles were used to monitor the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of curcuminoids. In nicotine-treated rats, enhanced plasma marker enzymes and lipid profiles were observed. Administration of curcumin or curcumin analog to nicotine-treated rats significantly reduced the activity of marker enzymes and plasma lipid levels. Thus, our findings suggest that curcumin and its analog exert an anti-hyperlipidemic effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity and may be a promising agent for treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  15. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function. PMID:27474222

  16. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile[S

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Dharuri, Harish K.; van den Berg, Sjoerd A. A.; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S.; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the “biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids” pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment. PMID:25320342

  17. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Komal; Balaraman, R; Amin, A H; Bafna, P A; Gulati, O D

    2003-06-01

    Rabbits were fed Moringa oleifera (200mg/kg/day, p.o.) or lovastatin (6mg/kg/day, p.o.) in banana pulp along with standard laboratory diet and hypercholesterolaemic diet for 120 days. Moringa oleifera and lovastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL ratio (HDL/HDL-total cholesterol) as compared to the corresponding control groups. Treatment with M. oleifera or lovastatin in normal rabbits decreased the HDL levels. However, HDL levels were significantly increased or decreased in M. oleifera- or lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, respectively. Lovastatin- or M. oleifera-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed decrease in lipid profile of liver, heart and aorta while similar treatment of normal animals did not produce significant reduction in heart. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of faecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidaemic effect. PMID:12738086

  18. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants. PMID:26402939

  19. The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Markers and Lipid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Tsai, Su-Shan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Ting, Hua; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and metabolic markers and whether the elevated risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 246 male bus drivers from one transportation company in Taiwan. Each participant was evaluated by a polysomnography (PSG) test and by blood lipids examination. Severity of OSA was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results The results showed that a 73.3% prevalence of MetS in OSA (AHI > 15) and a 80.0% prevalence of MetS in severe OSA (AHI > 30) were found. After adjusting for confounding variables, an increased level of Body-Mass Index (BMI) and two non-MetS cardiovascular risk factors, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with AHI in subjects with severe OSA. MetS was about three times to be present in subjects with severe OSA, even adjusted for BMI. Conclusions The findings showed a high prevalence of MetS in OSA among professional drivers, especially in the severe group category. BMI was the major contributing factor to OSA. However, the present study did not find a sensitive clinical marker of a detrimental metabolic profile in OSA patients. PMID:26115005

  20. [Physical activity and eating behavior: strategies for improving the serum lipid profile of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Halle, M; Bauer, S; Korsten-Reck, U; Keul, J

    1994-01-01

    Coronary risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinaemia and low physical fitness are often prevalent in childhood. In contrast, regular physical activity and healthy nutrition have been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. An increment in physical activity with concomitant weight loss has a profound influence on peripheral lipoprotein metabolism and has shown to improve the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. As risk factors often track from childhood into adulthood it seems inevitable to prevent or diminish risk factors as early as possible. Therefore, intervention programmes for prevention of coronary artery disease have to be conducted in childhood. Experience from an own intervention programme of obese children has shown that the combination of intensive dietary and physical education improves physical fitness, body composition as well as lipid metabolism. Whether short-term benefits will continue into adulthood and reduce coronary artery disease in midlife will have to be shown. Nonetheless, it seems out of question that children showing risk factors such as obesity or hypercholesterolaemia will benefit from early intervention programmes when changing dietary and exercise behaviours.

  1. Lipid profile, BMI, body fat distribution, and aerobic fitness in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, A; Di Daniele, N; Ceccobelli, M; Ficara, A; Girasoli, C; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are wellknown components of metabolic syndrome and are associated to increased cardiovascular morbidity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, body fat distribution, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors. A total of 22 untrained subjects affected by one or more features of metabolic syndrome and without clinical history of cardiovascular disease were studied. Nondiabetic subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for glucose and insulin measurement; fasting glucose and insulin were measured in diabetic patients. Complete lipid profile, thyroid hormones, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in all subjects. Basal energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured using a K4 analyzer. Cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) was assessed using a treadmill graded exercise test. Peak aerobic capacity ( VO(2max)/kg) was predicted by body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity index, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ( p<0.001). A significant relationship was found between cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) and body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity index, and LDL cholesterol ( r=0.60, p<0.05; r=0.66, p<0.01 and r=0.54, p<0.05, respectively). Data demonstrated that aerobic fitness is related to metabolic parameters and to body fat distribution, and suggest that its modification may improve well-known predictors of coronary artery disease.

  2. Wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid predominantly improve the lipid profile of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-11-20

    In response to recent assertions that synthetic antioxidants may have the potential to cause toxic effects and to consumers' increased attention to consuming natural products, the poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants, alone or in combination with synthetic antioxidants that are currently being used by the industry. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol, and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidant enzymes, fatty acid profile, and serum biochemical profile of broiler blood. One-day-old (180) broiler birds were fed six different feeds varying in their antioxidant content: no addition (T1), natural α-tocopherol (wheat germ oil, T2), synthetic α-tocopherol (T3), α-lipoic acid (T4), α-lipoic acid together with natural α-tocopherol (T5), and α-lipoic acid together with synthetic α-tocopherol (T6). The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the breast and leg meat was positively influenced by the different dietary supplements. The content of fatty acid was significantly greater in broilers receiving T2 both in breast (23.92%) and in leg (25.82%) meat, whereas lower fatty acid levels was found in broilers receiving diets containing T6 in the breast (19.57%) and leg (21.30%) meat. Serum total cholesterol (113.42 mg/dL) and triglycerides (52.29 mg/dL) were lowest in the group given natural α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid. Wheat germ oil containing natural α-tocopherol alone or with α-lipoic acid was more effective than synthetic α-tocopherol in raising levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase while lowering plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein and plasma protein significantly. It was concluded that the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid is helpful in improving the lipid profile of broilers. PMID:24191686

  3. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  4. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA. PMID:26149189

  5. Comparison of lipid profiles of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa and without clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Urszula; Siemieniuk, Magdalena; Pyrkowska, Aleksandra; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Bieganska, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Iwona; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Tylicki, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It becomes a problem also in medicine. It is considered that metabolic disorders as well as hormonal and immunological status of the host promote diseases caused by M. pachydermatis. Here we consider whether specific features of fungi could also favour infections. We checked whether there are differences in lipid profiles between strains obtained from dogs with otitis externa and strains obtained from healthy dogs. Lipid profiles were determined using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All analyses were carried out on 32 strains derived from dogs with otitis externa and 31 strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of disease. The results show that strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of otitis externa are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids. They contain significantly more behenic and lignoceric acids on medium without addition of lipids, and more oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids on medium with lipids supplementation. These strains have also a higher content of esters of ergosterol and triglycerides. Data obtained show differences which may be specific features of M. pachydermatis-specific strains related to the ability of infection, which could be not directly related of the host condition.

  6. Simultaneous tissue profiling of eicosanoid and endocannabinoid lipid families in a rat model of osteoarthritis[S

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Amy; Sagar, Devi R.; Ortori, Catharine A.; Kendall, David A.; Chapman, Victoria; Barrett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel LC method for the simultaneous and quantitative profiling of 43 oxylipins including eicosanoids, endocannabinoids, and structurally related bioactive lipids with modified acyl groups. The LC-MS/MS method uses switching at a defined time between negative and positive electrospray ionization modes to achieve optimal detection sensitivity for all the lipids. The validated method is linear over a range of 0.01–5 nmol/g (0.1–50 nmol/g for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) with intra- and interday precision and accuracy between 1.38 and 26.76% and 85.22 and 114.3%, respectively. The method successfully quantified bioactive lipids in different tissue types in the rat, including spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), knee joint, brain, and plasma. Distinct regional differences in the pattern of lipid measured between tissue types were observed using principle component analysis. The method was applied to analyze tissue samples from an established preclinical rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and showed that levels of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were significantly increased in the OA rat knee joint compared with controls, and that 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was significantly increased in the DRGs in the model of OA compared with controls. The developed LC-MS/MS method has the potential to provide detailed pathway profiling in tissues and biofluids where the disruption of bioactive oxylipins may be involved in disease states. PMID:25062663

  7. Chemical Profiles of Microalgae with Emphasis on Lipids: A Subcontract Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tornabene, T. G.; Hubbard, J. S.

    1984-09-01

    Well balanced cultivated cells that are healthy and unstressed produce the optimum cellular yield. All stress studies for lipids production should be conducted with the established cell mass and not be administered during active cultivation. Cells cultivated continually in suboptimum conditions produce lower cellular yields and continuous cultivation in suboptimum media and environmental conditions produce lower than normal lipid levels. Lipid triggers are preceded by a burst of carbohydrate synthesis and storage.

  8. Study of plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile in elite women boxers during a six weeks' training progamme.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Majumdar, P; Chatterjee, P

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an objective to frame out the lipid profile of Indian Women Boxers. Women boxing is a newly recognized game and no work has been reported on elite female boxers in India till date. The study was based on a sample of 45 women boxers (age 17 ~ 24 years) attending Senior National Women Boxing Camp at Sports Authority of India. Each subject was evaluated for Lipid Profile variables at the beginning and end of the six weeks training camp. Fasting blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein by venipuncture. Before the samples drawn the subjects were asked to take rest for ten minutes. The blood sample was analyzed by HITACHI UV-2000 spectrophotometer (Japan). Standard techniques and procedures were followed for all the estimation. Volume and intensity of different components of training was measured by observational and physiological methods. Data were subjected to statistical treatment like mean and standard deviation. Test of significance't' - test (for paired sample) was applied to asses the difference in pre & post-test. Results reveal that mean (+/-SD) Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, HDL - Cholesterol and Cholesterol / HDL Cholesterol ratio was 144.7 +/- 3.6 mg%, 59.7 +/- 17.5 mg% 81.4 +/- 21.1 mg% 51.3 +/- 8.2 mg% and 2.8 +/- 0.5 respectively as found in the pre-test. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed in Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol level in the post-test. The study concludes that women who practice sport of boxing on regular basis have a favorable lipid profile. A significant change in lipid profile of the boxers was observed after 6 weeks' training program. PMID:17721559

  9. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  10. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shiftmore » in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.« less

  11. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Aim So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile Materials and Methods Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Results Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. Conclusion The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile. PMID:27790463

  12. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  13. Therapeutic modulation of cannabinoid lipid signaling: metabolic profiling of a novel antinociceptive cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Wood, JodiAnne T.; Smith, Dustin M.; Janero, David R.; Zvonok, Alexander M.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    Aims AM-1241, a novel, racemic cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2) ligand, is the primary experimental agonist used to characterize the role of CB2-mediated lipid signaling in health and disease, including substance abuse disorders. In vivo pharmacological effects have been used as indirect proxies for AM-1241 biotransformation processes that could modulate activity. We report the initial pre-clinical characterization of AM-1241 biotransformation and in vivo distribution. Main methods AM-1241 metabolism was characterized in a variety of predictive in vitro systems (Caco-2 cells, mouse, rat and human microsomes) and in the mouse in vivo. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used to quantify AM-1241 tissue distribution and metabolic conversion. Key findings AM-1241 bound extensively to plasma protein/albumin. A pharmacological AM-1241 dose (25 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to mice for direct determination of its plasma half-life (37 min), following which AM-1241 was quantified in brain, spleen, liver, and kidney. After p.o. administration, AM-1241 was detected in plasma, spleen, and kidney; its oral bioavailability was ~21%. From Caco-2 permeability studies and microsomal-based hepatic clearance estimates, in vivo AM-1241 absorption was moderate. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of AM-1241 in vitro generated hydroxylation and demethylation metabolites. Species-dependent differences were discovered in AM-1241’s predicted hepatic clearance. Our data demonstrate that AM-1241 has the following characteristics: a) short plasma half-life; b) limited oral bioavailability; c) extensive plasma/albumin binding; d) metabolic substrate for hepatic hydroxylation and demethylation; e) moderate hepatic clearance. Significance These results should help inform the design, optimization, and pre-clinical profiling of CB2 ligands as pharmacological tools and medicines. PMID:22749867

  14. Evaluation of Body Mass Index and Plasma Lipid Profile in Boerboel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Rasheed Adetola; Ashogbon, Rashidat Oluwatobiloba; Adeniyi, Abisola Abosede

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW),height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while,body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained from the dogs for determinationof total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRIG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). Datawere presented as means ± standard deviation and results were compared using analysis of variance. Relationship betweenBW, H and WC was determined using regression analysis. Value was accepted significant at p < 0.05. There were nosignificant differences (P > 0.05) in BW, WC, BMI and GAS between male and female Boerboels, however, H wassignificantly (P < 0.05) higher in male (62.0 ± 1.6 cm) than female Boerboels (57.0 ± 1.5 cm). BMI and HDL weresignificantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels <23 months (112.4 ± 2.8 Kg/m2; 36.0 ± 2.4mg/dl) compared with those 24 - 47months (133.4 ± 1.8Kg/m2; 40.1 ± 2.2mg/dl) and >48 months (137.9 ± 1.6kg/m2; 45.8 ± 2.6mg/dl) respectively. However,there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in TC, TRIG, HDL and LDL between Boerboels with BCS > 5 compared tothose with BCS < 5. BMI linearly increased with decreasing H and WC in Boerboel dogs. It was concluded that BMI did notdiffer between sexes of Boerboel but differ between age categories. PMID:27574768

  15. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  16. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  17. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J P; Costa, Tamara G F; Silva, Lilian N D; Renó, Cristiane O; Oliveira, Eneida S; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Santos, Luciana L; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels.

  18. Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Joung; Jung, Ha Na; Kim, Ki Nam

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation. PMID:20126601

  19. Transcript profiling reveals mechanisms for lipid conservation during diapause in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Julie A.; Poelchau, Monica F.; Rahman, Zahra; Armbruster, Peter A.; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a medically important invasive species whose geographic distribution has expanded dramatically during the past 20 years, and one of the key elements of its success is its capacity to survive long distance transport as a diapausing pharate first instar larva, encased within the chorion of the egg. We report that pharate larvae entering diapause are larger and contain 30% more lipid than their nondiapausing counterparts. To improve our understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism during diapause, we assessed the relative mRNA abundance of 21 genes using qRT-PCR. Elevated expression of lipid storage droplet protein 2 during embryonic development likely contributes to the higher amounts of lipid we noted in diapausing individuals. The conservation of lipids during diapause is reflected in downregulation of genes involved in lipid catabolism, including lipase 2, lipase 3, lipase 4, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 4, and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Two genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and modification, Δ(9)-desaturase, and fatty acyl-CoA elongase, were both upregulated in diapausing pharate larvae, suggesting roles for their gene products in generating unsaturated fatty acids to enhance membrane fluidity at low temperatures and generating precursors to the surface hydrocarbons needed to resist desiccation, respectively. Together, the results point to substantial distinctions in lipid metabolism within the embryo as a consequence of the diapause program, and these differences occur both before the actual onset of diapause as well as during the diapause state. PMID:22579567

  20. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a

  1. A versatile ultra-high performance LC-MS method for lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Weberhofer, Bernd P; Eichmann, Thomas O; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2014-03-01

    A new UPLC-based untargeted lipidomic approach using a qTOF hybrid mass spectrometer is introduced. The applied binary gradient enables separations of lipid species including constitutional isomeric compounds and low abundant lipid classes such as phosphatidic acid (PA). Addition of phosphoric acid to the solvents improves peak shapes for acidic phospholipids. MS(E) scans allow simultaneous acquisition of full scan data and collision induced fragmentation to improve identification of lipid classes and to obtain structural information. The method was used to investigate the lipidome of yeast. PMID:24548922

  2. A versatile ultra-high performance LC-MS method for lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Weberhofer, Bernd P; Eichmann, Thomas O; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2014-03-01

    A new UPLC-based untargeted lipidomic approach using a qTOF hybrid mass spectrometer is introduced. The applied binary gradient enables separations of lipid species including constitutional isomeric compounds and low abundant lipid classes such as phosphatidic acid (PA). Addition of phosphoric acid to the solvents improves peak shapes for acidic phospholipids. MS(E) scans allow simultaneous acquisition of full scan data and collision induced fragmentation to improve identification of lipid classes and to obtain structural information. The method was used to investigate the lipidome of yeast.

  3. Purity matters: A workflow for the valid high-resolution lipid profiling of mitochondria from cell culture samples

    PubMed Central

    Kappler, Lisa; Li, Jia; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weigert, Cora; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Hoene, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipidomics is a novel field of research that requires the careful combination of several pre-analytical and analytical steps. To define a reliable strategy for mitochondrial lipid profiling, we performed a systematic comparison of different mitochondria isolation procedures by western blot analyses and comprehensive high-resolution lipidomics. Using liver-derived HepG2 cells, we compared three common mitochondria isolation methods, differential centrifugation (DC), ultracentrifugation (UC) and a magnetic bead-assisted method (MACS). In total, 397 lipid species, including 32 cardiolipins, could be quantified in only 100 μg (by protein) of purified mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated by UC showed the highest enrichment in the mitochondria-specific cardiolipins as well as their precursors, phosphatidylglycerols. Mitochondrial fractions obtained by the commonly used DC and the more recent MACS method contained substantial contaminations by other organelles. Employing these isolation methods when performing lipidomics analyses from cell culture mitochondria may lead to inaccurate results. To conclude, we present a protocol how to obtain reliable mitochondria-specific lipid profiles from cell culture samples and show that quality controls are indispensable when performing mitochondria lipidomics. PMID:26892142

  4. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  5. Computer simulation of the distribution of hexane in a lipid bilayer: spatially resolved free energy, entropy, and enthalpy profiles.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Justin L; Tieleman, D Peter

    2006-01-11

    The partitioning behavior of small molecules in lipid bilayers is important in a variety of areas including membrane protein folding and pharmacology. However, the inhomogeneous nature of lipid bilayers on a nanometer length scale complicates experimental studies of membrane partitioning. To gain more insight in the partitioning of a small molecule into the lipid bilayer, we have carried out atomistic computer simulations of hexane in a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine model membrane. We have been able to obtain spatially resolved free energy, entropy, enthalpy, and heat capacity profiles based on umbrella sampling calculations at three different temperatures. In agreement with experiment, hexane partitions preferentially to the center of the bilayer. This process is driven almost entirely by a favorable entropy change, consistent with the hydrophobic effect. In contrast, partitioning to the densest region of the acyl chains is dominated by a favorable enthalpy change with a small entropy change, which is consistent with the "nonclassical" hydrophobic effect or "bilayer" effect. We explain the features of the entropy and enthalpy profiles in terms of density and free volume in the system. PMID:16390139

  6. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  7. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  9. Improvement of lipid profile by probiotic/protective cultures: study in a non-carcinogenic small intestinal cell model.

    PubMed

    Gorenjak, Mario; Gradišnik, Lidija; Trapečar, Martin; Pistello, Mauro; Kozmus, Carina Pinto; Škorjanc, Dejan; Skok, Pavel; Langerholc, Tomaž; Cencič, Avrelija

    2014-01-01

    Plasma lipid levels are important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Previous findings have shown that probiotic bacteria exert positive effects on hypercholesterolemia by lowering serum cholesterol and improving lipid profile that, in turn, leads to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Most of these studies were carried out with tumoral cell lines that have a metabolism quite different from that of normal cells and may thus respond differently to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the beneficial effects of some probiotics on cholesterol levels and pathways in normal small intestinal foetal epithelial tissue cells. The results show that Lactobacillus plantarum strain PCS 26 efficiently removes cholesterol from media, exhibits bile salt hydrolase activity, and up-regulates several genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. This study suggests that Lactobacillus plantarum PCS 26 might act as a liver X receptor agonist and help to improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic patients or even dislipidemias in complex diseases such as the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24284391

  11. Spatiotemporal lipid profiling during early embryo development of Xenopus laevis using dynamic ToF-SIMS imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hua; Fletcher, John S.; Thuret, Raphael; Henderson, Alex; Papalopulu, Nancy; Vickerman, John C.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging has been used for the direct analysis of single intact Xenopus laevis embryo surfaces, locating multiple lipids during fertilization and the early embryo development stages with subcellular lateral resolution (∼4 μm). The method avoids the complicated sample preparation for lipid analysis of the embryos, which requires selective chemical extraction of a pool of samples and chromatographic separation, while preserving the spatial distribution of biological species. The results show ToF-SIMS is capable of profiling multiple components (e.g., glycerophosphocholine, SM, cholesterol, vitamin E, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol) in a single X. laevis embryo. We observe lipid remodeling during fertilization and early embryo development via time course sampling. The study also reveals the lipid distribution on the gamete fusion site. The methodology used in the study opens the possibility of studying developmental biology using high resolution imaging MS and of understanding the functional role of the biological molecules. PMID:24852167

  12. Lipid profiles of oil from trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads, spines and viscera: trout by-products as a possible source of omega-3 lipids?

    PubMed

    Fiori, L; Solana, M; Tosi, P; Manfrini, M; Strim, C; Guella, G

    2012-09-15

    Lipid profiles of fish oil extracted from trout heads, spines and viscera using supercritical carbon dioxide and Randall extraction with hexane were measured. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids (as a percentage of total fatty acids) was within the range of 72.6-75.3% in all the substrates. A significant presence of the most important omega-3 fatty acids was detected. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in oil from spines, heads and viscera resulted to be 8.7% and 7.3%, 7.9% and 6.3%, and 6.4% and 6.0%, respectively. A low (≈3%), but worth noting, presence of lipids with omega-1 polyunsaturated fatty chains was observed in all the oils. Finally, significant differences were noticed in the relative amounts of triacylglycerides (TAG), diacylglycerides (DAG) and free fatty acids (FFA). Whereas oil from heads and spines was essentially composed of TAG (≈98%), in viscera oil the molar distribution ratio became TAG:DAG:FFA=87:8:5.

  13. Lipidomic profiling of bioactive lipids by mass spectrometry during microbial infections

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive lipid mediators play crucial roles in promoting the induction and resolution of inflammation. Eicosanoids and other related unsaturated fatty acids have long been known to induce inflammation. These signaling molecules can modulate the circulatory system and stimulate immune cell infiltration into the site of infection. Recently, DHA- and EPA-derived metabolites have been discovered to promote the resolution of inflammation, an active process. Not only do these molecules stop the further infiltration of immune cells, they prompt non-phlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, stimulating the tissue to return to homeostasis. After the rapid release of lipid precursors from the plasma membrane upon stimulation, families of enzymes in a complex network metabolize them to produce a large array of lipid metabolites. With current advances in mass spectrometry, the entire lipidome can be accurately quantified to assess the immune response upon microbial infection. In this review, we discuss the various lipid metabolism pathways in the context of the immune response to microbial pathogens, as well as their complex network interactions. With the advancement of mass spectrometry, these approaches have also been used to characterize the lipid mediator response of macrophages and neutrophils upon immune stimulation in vitro. Lastly, we describe the recent efforts to apply systems biology approaches to dissect the role of lipid mediators during bacterial and viral infections in vivo. PMID:24084369

  14. Factors Associated with Adiposity, Lipid Profile Disorders and the Metabolic Syndrome Occurrence in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Rębak, Dorota; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the dependencies between a woman’s menopausal status and adiposity, lipid profile and metabolic syndrome occurrence, as well as finding out whether the correlations between the socio-demographic profile and lifestyle elements and adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS are the same before and after menopause. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3636 women, aged between 40–59, which involved a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples, on the basis of which the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose was estimated. Before menopause, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.08; %BFβ = 0.07; WCβ = 0.06) was characteristic for women living in a stable relationship than for single women. Women who smoked in the past were characterized by a higher BMI (β = 0.09) and WC (β = 0.06) in comparison with women who have never smoked, while after menopause a greater adiposity (%BFβ = 0.12) and a worse lipid profile (TCβ = 0.08; LDLβ = 0.07; HDLβ = -0.05; TGβ = 0.14) were present in women currently smoking, in comparison to women who have never smoked. After menopause, in women who had two or more children, a greater adiposity (BMIβ = 0.07 and 0.09; %BFβ = 0.05 and 0.07) and a higher risk of MetS (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.03–1.44) was observed compared to nulliparous women, than before menopause. In women with a higher level of education, the risk of MetS after menopause was significantly lower compared with women with a lower level of education (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.61–0.90). Physical activity after menopause had a higher influence on the decrease in the women’s adiposity (BMIβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; %BFβ = -0.11 v. -0.06; WCβ = -0.14 v. -0.08), than before menopause. In women not undergoing hormone replacement therapy, some of the socio-demographic factors and lifestyle elements affected adiposity, lipid profile and the risk of MetS differently before and after

  15. Cattle bile but not bear bile or pig bile induces lipid profile changes and fatty liver injury in mice: mediation by cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    Three types of animal bile preparation, bear bile (BB), cattle bile (CB) and pig bile (PB) differ in bile acid composition and are supposed to exert different pharmacotoxicological actions. Dietary supplementation with CB at 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks decreased triacylglycerol (TAG) level but increased total cholesterol (CHO) level in serum, which were associated with fatty liver injury in mice. The increased levels of cholesterol esters (CE) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the serum and liver were observed in the mice fed the CB-supplemented diet. Lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury observed in the mice fed the CB diet were not induced by the supplementation with BB and PB. The supplementation with cholic acid (CA), the most abundant bile acid in CB, could induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which were indistinguishable from those induced by CB supplementation. CB and CA supplementation induced similar changes in the expression levels of mRNAs in the liver. Thus, CB induced lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury, which can be attributed to the actions of CA contained in CB. The inabilities of BB and PB to induce lipid abnormalities and fatty liver injury are supposed to be due to their limited contents of CA.

  16. Evaluation of glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic Wistar rats treated with Malpighia emarginata juice.

    PubMed

    Barbalho, Sandra M; Damasceno, Débora C; Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Palhares, Miréia; Martuchi, Karla Aparecida; Oshiiwa, Marie; Sazaki, Viviane; da Silva, Vanessa Sellis

    2011-01-01

    Knowing that maternal diabetes is related to hyperglycemia and fetal hyperinsulinemia, which affect the lipid metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malpighia emarginata (acerola) juice on the glycemic and lipid profile of offspring of diabetic and nondiabetic Wistar rats. The adult offspring of non-diabetic dams and of dams with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided into groups: G1, offspring (of control dams) treated with water, G2, offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with water, G3, male offspring (of control dams) treated with acerola juice, and G4, male offspring (of diabetic dams) treated with acerola juice. The offspring of diabetic dams treated with acerola juice showed significantly decreased levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and increased HDL-c. The use of acerola juice is a potential strategy to aid in the prevention of DM and dyslipidemia and its complications or to act as an auxiliary in the treatment of these diseases.

  17. Lipase genes in Mucor circinelloides: identification, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling during growth and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Tang, Xin; Chu, Linfang; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2016-10-01

    Lipases or triacylglycerol hydrolases are widely spread in nature and are particularly common in the microbial world. The filamentous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a potential lipase producer, as it grows well in triacylglycerol-contained culture media. So far only one lipase from M. circinelloides has been characterized, while the majority of lipases remain unknown in this fungus. In the present study, 47 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides WJ11 and 30 potential lipase genes in M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 were identified by extensive bioinformatics analysis. An overview of these lipases is presented, including several characteristics, sub-cellular location, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the lipase genes during growth and lipid accumulation. All of these proteins contained the consensus sequence for a classical lipase (GXSXG motif) and were divided into four types including α/β-hydrolase_1, α/β-hydrolase_3, class_3 and GDSL lipase (GDSL) based on gene annotations. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that class_3 family and α/β-hydrolase_3 family were the conserved lipase family in M. circinelloides. Additionally, some lipases also contained a typical acyltransferase motif of H-(X) 4-D, and these lipases may play a dual role in lipid metabolism, catalyzing both lipid hydrolysis and transacylation reactions. The differential expression of all lipase genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression profiling were analyzed to predict the possible biological roles of these lipase genes in lipid metabolism in M. circinelloides. We preliminarily hypothesized that lipases may be involved in triacylglycerol degradation, phospholipid synthesis and beta-oxidation. Moreover, the results of sub-cellular localization, the presence of signal peptide and transcriptional analyses of lipase genes indicated that four lipase in WJ11 most likely belong to extracellular lipases with a signal peptide. These findings provide a platform

  18. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-hong; Mahemuti, Amina; Zhang, Xue-hua; Wang, Ya-ping; Hu, Po; Jiang, Ju-bo; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jian-an

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated that Tai Chi exercise improves blood lipid level with inconsistent results. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of Tai Chi on blood lipid profiles in humans. Methods: We screened the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Central), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score more than 3 points up to June 2015. Six studies involving 445 subjects were included. Most trials applied 12-week Tai Chi intervention courses. Results: In comparison with the control group, blood triglyceride (TG) level difference between follow-up and baseline was statistically significantly lower in the Tai Chi practicing group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −16.81 mg/dl; 95% confidence intervals (CI) −31.27 to −2.35 mg/dl; P=0.02). A trend to improving total cholesterol (TC) reduction was found with Tai Chi (WMD −7.96 mg/dl; 95% CI −17.30 to 1.39 mg/dl; P=0.10). However, no difference was found in blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Conclusions: Tai Chi exercise lowered blood TG level with a trend to decrease blood TC level. Our data suggest that Tai Chi has the potential to implement meaningful blood lipid modification and serve as an adjunctive exercise modality. The relationship between Tai Chi exercise regimen and lipid profile change might have a scientific priority for future investigation. PMID:27487809

  19. Effect of Spirulina Intervention on Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status, and Lipid Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Md.; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. Methods. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. Results. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163). PMID:25685791

  20. Lipids in the diet and the fatty acid profile in beef: a review and recent patents on the topic.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Machado Neto, Otavio R; Chizzotti, Mario L; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chalfun Junior, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to report how the use of lipid sources in diets for ruminants can affect the fatty acid profile of beef. In addition, recent patents that can be utilized to alter the fatty acid profile in the meat, or which concern the synthesis of conjugated fatty acids will be reviewed. The industrial production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has already started and the commercial products present isomers cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11; and trans-10, cis-12. Patents on the biological synthesis of isomer C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 from the linoleic acid have also been published. However, the economic production of CLA in industrial scale is a difficult process. Most of the patents published for CLA production utilize bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Lipid supplementation, with the objective to improve the fatty acid profile of beef, can be done through the use of patented products, such as genetically modified oilseeds and calcium soaps of fatty acids.

  1. Rapana venosa consumption improves the lipid profiles and antioxidant capacities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Leontowicz, Maria; Leontowicz, Hanna; Namiesnik, Jacek; Apak, Resat; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Moncheva, Snejana; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-07-01

    In the recent years, the consumption of seafood has increased. There are no results on the studies of Rapana venosa (Rv) as a supplementation to the diets. We hypothesized that Rv would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids, based on the composition of bioactive compounds and fatty acids. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo actions of Rv from contaminated (C) and non-C (NC) regions of collection on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and enzyme activities in serum of rats fed an atherogenic diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each and named control, cholesterol (Chol), Chol/RvC and Chol/RvNC. Rats of all 4 groups were fed the basal diet, which included wheat starch, casein, soybean oil, cellulose, vitamin (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals vitamin mixtures), and mineral mixtures (American Institute of Nutrition for laboratory animals mineral mixtures). During 28 days of the experiment, the rats of the control group received the basal diet only, and the diets of the other 3 groups were supplemented with 1% of Chol, 1% of Chol, and 5% of Rv dry matter from C and NC areas. Dry matter from C and NC areas supplemented diets slightly hindered the rise in serum lipids vs. Chol group: total Chol, 13.18% and 11.63% and low-density lipoprotein Chol, 13.57% and 15.08%, respectively. Cholesterol significantly decreased the value of total antioxidant capacity. The supplementation of Rv to the Chol diet significantly affected the increase of antioxidant capacity in serum of rats, expressed by the 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) method. The water extracts of Rv exhibited high binding properties with bovine serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, atherogenic diets supplemented with Rv from C and NC areas hindered both the rise in serum lipids levels and the decrease in the antioxidant capacity. Based on fluorescence and

  2. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on ... related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. ...

  3. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients.

  4. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  5. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  6. Spironolactone in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on clinical features, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Zulian, E; Sartorato, P; Benedini, S; Baro, G; Armanini, D; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical trial was designed to assess the effects of a long-term therapy with spironolactone, with and without dietary-induced weight-loss, on clinical features, lipid profile and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-five patients (range of age 16-32 yr; 13 lean and 12 overweight) fulfilling formal diagnostic criteria for PCOS (oligomenorrhea and/or amenorrhea, biochemical and/or clinical evidence of hyperadrogenism) were studied at baseline and then received oral spironolactone (100 mg/die) for 12 months; association with lifestyle modifications was recommended to all over-weight patients. Clinical, endocrine and metabolic parameters [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile] were measured at baseline and at the end of the antiandrogen treatment. The therapy was associated with a significant average decline of triglycerides in overweight subjects and with increased HDL-cholesterol levels in lean patients. The insulin levels at 60 min during OGTT, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and area under curve of insulin were significantly lowered in overweight women after 12 months of spironolactone and weight loss and no negative changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity were observed in PCOS women after pharmacological treatment alone. The efficacy of spironolactone on the androgenic clinical aspects of PCOS has been confirmed in this study. Furthermore, our data show that long-term treatment with spironolactone exerts no negative effects on lipoprotein profile and glucose metabolism; more relevant beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were observed when the antiandrogen was associated with weight loss in overweight PCOS women. PMID:15816371

  7. Feeding milk replacer instead of whole milk affects blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk re- placer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system. PMID:25928915

  8. In situ characterizing membrane lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition in cell membrane is closely associated with cell characteristics. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to in situ determine membrane components of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10 A) and six different breast cancer cell lines (i.e., BT-20, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-361) without any lipid extraction and separation. Partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that changes in the levels of these membrane lipids were closely correlated with the types of breast cell lines. Elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids in MCF-10 A cells relative to six breast cancer cells and in BT-20 cells relative to other breast cancer cell lines were detected. The Western blotting assays indicated that the expression of five lipogenesis-related enzymes (i.e., fatty acid synthase 1(FASN1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5), choline kinase α (CKα), and sphingomyelin synthase 1) was associated with the types of the breast cells, and that the SCD1 level in MCF-7 cells was significantly increased relative to other breast cell lines. Our findings suggest that elevated expression levels of FASN1, SCD1, SCD5, and CKα may closely correlated with enhanced levels of saturated and monounsaturated lipids in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26061164

  9. Quantitative Profiling of Brain Lipid Raft Proteome in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Castillo, Catherine; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, arises from transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP can regulate the expression of approximately 4% of brain transcripts through its role in regulation of mRNA transport, stability and translation, thus providing a molecular rationale for its potential pleiotropic effects on neuronal and brain circuitry function. Several intracellular signaling pathways are dysregulated in the absence of FMRP suggesting that cellular deficits may be broad and could result in homeostatic changes. Lipid rafts are specialized regions of the plasma membrane, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involved in regulation of intracellular signaling. Among transcripts targeted by FMRP, a subset encodes proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis, dysregulation of which could affect the integrity and function of lipid rafts. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of Fmr1 knockout mice, an animal model of Fragile X syndrome, and identified candidate proteins that are differentially represented in Fmr1 knockout mice lipid rafts. Furthermore, network analysis of these candidate proteins reveals connectivity between them and predicts functional connectivity with genes encoding components of myelin sheath, axonal processes and growth cones. Our findings provide insight to aid identification of molecular and cellular dysfunctions arising from Fmr1 silencing and for uncovering shared pathologies between Fragile X syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25849048

  10. Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, A S M Maruf; Rayhan, Israt; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Hasnat, Abul

    2006-04-01

    Fruits of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for their effects on lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body weight in human subjects. Dried and pulverized pulp of T. indica fruits, at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, was found to reduce total cholesterol level (p = 0.031) and LDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.004) to a significant extent. Though the fruits exerted no conspicuous effect on body weight and systolic blood pressure, it significantly reduced the diastolic pressure as confirmed by independent sample t-test at 5% significance level.

  11. Evaluation of Usefulness of Serum Insulin as Sensitive Predictor of Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Obese Individuals with Normal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bavikar, Jayashree S.; Asegaonkar, Shilpa B.; Bardapurkar, Jayashree S.; Domple, Vijay; Rai, Pooja SK; Pawar, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of obesity and its subsequent cardiometabolic complications is on exponential rise. Hyperinsulinemia develops in obese individuals long before other metabolic derangements of obesity take place and may be a common pathophysiological factor tying together various components of cardiometabolic dysfunction. Aim: Present study was aimed at evaluating the role of insulin as a sensitive and independent cardiovascular risk marker in apparently healthy overweight and obese individuals with normal lipid profile. Settings and design: This was an opd based case Control study including 100 overweight and obese individuals with normal lipid profile & 100 age and sex matched normal weight healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants were evaluated based on detailed history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Blood samples were collected after overnight fast. Serum insulin was estimated by chemiluminescence method, glucose and lipid profile (CHOLESTEROL, HDL, TG, LDL) by chemical assays on a fully automated analyser system. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed by unpaired t-test, p-value was determined & Correlation coefficient was calculated amongst various parameters. Results: Significant difference was noted in mean values of BMI (29.69±1.28 VS 23.47±1.09), waist / hip ratio (0.91±0.07 VS 0.79±0.05) and serum insulin (10.54±2.5 VS 5.94±1.53) (p<0.01) in cases as compared to controls respectively. Glucose levels were high in cases (89.58±8.0 mg/dl) as compared to controls (88.8±7.56 mg/dl) but the difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.11). Hyperinsulinemia was observed in 41 cases & 4 controls. Serum insulin highly correlated with Waist/ hip ratio (R=0.53) than BMI (R=0.26). Conclusion: Study suggests Insulin; a simple, sensitive & independent cardiovascular risk predictor in obesity even with normal lipid profile with a potential to reveal hidden burden of metabolic dysfunction and offers a hope that

  12. Profiling Lipid Metabolites Yields Unique Information on Sex- and Time-dependent Responses of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) Exposed to 17α-Ethynylestradiol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alterations in hepatic lipid profiles of fathead minnows (FHM) exposed to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were determined using 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling. The exposures were conducted using either 10 ng/l or 100 ng/l EE2 via a continuous flo...

  13. Maternal Blood Lipid Profile during Pregnancy and Associations with Child Adiposity: Findings from the ROLO Study

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Alberdi, Goiuri; O’Sullivan, Elizabeth J.; O’Brien, Eileen C.; Crosbie, Brenda; Twomey, Patrick J.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The in-utero environment affects fetal development; it is vital to understand how maternal diet during pregnancy influences childhood body composition. While research indicates that triglycerides in hyperglycaemic women may increase birth weight, little is known about this relationship in euglycemic women. This study examines the relationship between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity up to 2 years of age. Methods Data from 331 mother-child pairs from the ROLO longitudinal birth cohort study was analysed. Maternal dietary intakes were recorded and fasting blood lipids, leptin and HOMA were measured in early and late pregnancy and cord blood. Infant anthropometric measurements and skin-fold thicknesses were recorded at birth, 6 months and 2 years. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore associations between maternal blood lipid status and infant adiposity. Results All maternal blood lipids increased significantly during pregnancy. Maternal dietary fat intake was positively associated with total cholesterol levels in early pregnancy. Late pregnancy triglycerides were positively associated with birth weight (P = 0.03) while cord blood triglycerides were negatively associated with birth weight (P = 0.01). Cord HDL-C was negatively associated with infant weight at 6 months (P = 0.005). No other maternal blood lipids were associated with infant weight or adiposity up to 2 years of age. Conclusion Maternal and fetal triglycerides were associated with birth weight and cord HDL-C with weight at 6 months. Thus, maternal lipid concentrations may exert in-utero influences on infant body composition. There may be potential to modulate infant body composition through alteration of maternal diet during pregnancy. PMID:27560495

  14. Non-linear imaging techniques visualize the lipid profile of C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Meropi; Petanidou, Barbara; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Fotakis, Costas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Filippidis, George

    2015-07-01

    The non-linear techniques Second and Third Harmonic Generation (SHG, THG) have been employed simultaneously to record three dimensional (3D) imaging and localize the lipid content of the muscular areas (ectopic fat) of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Simultaneously, Two-Photon Fluorescence (TPEF) was used initially to localize the stained lipids with Nile Red, but also to confirm the THG potential to image lipids successfully. In addition, GFP labelling of the somatic muscles, proves the initial suggestion of the existence of ectopic fat on the muscles and provides complementary information to the SHG imaging of the pharynx. The ectopic fat may be related to a complex of pathological conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The elucidation of the molecular path leading to the development of metabolic syndrome is a vital issue with high biological significance and necessitates accurate methods competent of monitoring lipid storage distribution and dynamics in vivo. THG microscopy was employed as a quantitative tool to monitor the lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues in the pharyngeal muscles of 12 unstained specimens while the SHG imaging revealed the anatomical structure of the muscles. The ectopic fat accumulation on the pharyngeal muscles increases in wild type (N2) C. elegans between 1 and 9 days of adulthood. This suggests a correlation of the ectopic fat accumulation with the aging. Our results can provide new evidence relating the deposition of ectopic fat with aging, but also validate SHG and THG microscopy modalities as new, non-invasive tools capable of localizing and quantifying selectively lipid accumulation and distribution.

  15. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P < 0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH2 asymmetric stretching peak height, CH2 symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  16. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH(3) asymmetric, CH(2) asymmetric, CH(3) symmetric and CH(2) symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (CC) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (CO) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P<0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH(2) asymmetric stretching peak height, CH(2) symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH(2) to CH(3) symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH(2) to CH(3) symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  17. Lipids in liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  18. Lipids in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H

    2016-03-28

    Hyperlipidemia is very common after liver transplantation and can be observed in up to 71% of patients. The etiology of lipid disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and nutrition. Due to recent improvements in survival of liver transplant recipients, the prevention of cardiovascular events has become more important, especially as approximately 64% of liver transplant recipients present with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Management of dyslipidemia and of other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and smoking, has therefore become essential in these patients. Treatment of hyperlipidemia after liver transplantation consists of life style modification, modifying the dose or type of immunosuppressive agents and use of lipid lowering agents. At the start of administration of lipid lowering medications, it is important to monitor drug-drug interactions, especially between lipid lowering agents and immunosuppressive drugs. Furthermore, as combinations of various lipid lowering drugs can lead to severe side effects, such as myopathies and rhabdomyolysis, these combinations should therefore be avoided. To our knowledge, there are no current guidelines targeting the management of lipid metabolism disorders in liver transplant recipients. This paper therefore recommends an approach of managing lipid abnormalities occurring after liver transplantation. PMID:27022213

  19. Volatile profile, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of irradiated ready-to-eat cured turkey meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xi; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation had little effects on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products, while it increased protein oxidation at 4.5 kGy. The volatile profile analyses indicated that the amount of sulfur compounds increased linearly as doses increased in RTE turkey meat products. By correlation analysis, a positive correlation was found between benzene/ benzene derivatives and alcohols with lipid oxidation, while aldehydes, ketones and alkane, alkenes and alkynes were positively correlated with protein oxidation. Principle component analysis showed that irradiated meat samples can be discriminated by two categories of volatile compounds: Strecker degradation products and radiolytic degradation products. The cluster analysis of volatile data demonstrated that low-dose irradiation had minor effects on the volatile profile of turkey sausages (<1.5 kGy). However, as the doses increased, the differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated cured turkey products became significant.

  20. Manipulating membrane lipid profiles to restore T-cell function in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kirsty E; Jury, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    Plasma membrane lipid rafts are heterogeneous cholesterol and glycosphingolipid (GSL)-enriched microdomains, within which the tight packing of cholesterol with the saturated-acyl chains of GSLs creates a region of liquid-order relative to the surrounding disordered membrane. Thus lipid rafts govern the lateral mobility and interaction of membrane proteins and regulate a plethora of signal transduction events, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling. The pathways regulating homoeostasis of membrane cholesterol and GSLs are tightly controlled and alteration of these metabolic processes coincides with immune cell dysfunction as is evident in atherosclerosis, cancer and autoimmunity. Indeed, membrane lipid composition is emerging as an important factor influencing the ability of cells to respond appropriately to microenvironmental stimuli. Consequently, there is increasing interest in targeting membrane lipids or their metabolic control as a novel therapeutic approach to modulate immune cell behaviour and our recent work demonstrates that this is a promising strategy in T-cells from patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:26551723

  1. Relationship of body composition and cardiovascular fitness to lipoprotein lipid profiles in master athletes and sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Yataco, A R; Busby-Whitehead, J; Drinkwater, D T; Katzel, L I

    1997-01-01

    A number of studies demonstrate that highly conditioned older athletes are leaner than their sedentary counterparts, and have lipoprotein profiles similar to that of young individuals. It is not clear whether the high maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) or lean body habitus is the major determinant of the favorable lipoprotein lipid profiles present in older athletes. The objective of this study was to determine whether body composition or VO2max was the major determinant of lipoprotein lipid profiles among 61 master (age 63 +/- 6 years, mean +/- SD) athletes (VO2max > 40 mL/kg/min), 39 age-matched lean (% body fat < 25%), and 51 obese (% body fat > 25%) sedentary men. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were 25% higher in that athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 42% higher than in the obese sedentary men. Triglyceride (TG) concentrations were 24% lower in the master athletes than in the lean sedentary men, and 51% lower than in the obese sedentary group. Plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were 9% lower in the athletes than in the other groups of sedentary individuals. In stepwise multiple regression analysis the percent body fat was the major independent predictor of HDL-C and TG levels accounting for 29% and 41% of the variation in these levels, respectively. The VO2max accounted for an additional 6% of the variance in HDL-C levels and 2% of the variance in TG levels. These cross-sectional results suggest that the favorable lipoprotein profile of master athletes is largely due to their lean body habitus, with a small independent contribution from their higher levels of cardiovascular fitness. Thus, regular vigorous aerobic exercise and maintenance of low body fat may prevent the commonly observed age-associated deterioration in lipoprotein concentrations.

  2. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  4. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  5. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  6. Impact of body mass index levels on lipid abnormalities in Chinese Asians, American Blacks and American Whites: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Truesdale, Kimberly P; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen

    2011-01-01

    Background Several researchers have reported that Chinese adults may have a greater chronic disease burden than Whites, especially at lower body mass index (BMI) levels. Objectives To compare the incidence of lipid abnormalities in Chinese (n=5,303), White (n=10,752) and Black (n=3,408) middle-aged adults and the effect of BMI on these incidences. Methods Data were from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies. In each ethnic group, we calculated the adjusted cumulative incidence for high total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), and triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL) and low HDL-cholesterol (≤40 in men and ≤50 mg/dL in women) adjusted for age, gender, education, field site, smoking and drinking status. Risk differences associated with BMI (referent=18.5–22.9 kg/m2) were calculated using weighted linear regression and slopes compared using the Wald test. Results Chinese had lower incidence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Whites in most BMI groups and had lower incidence of abnormal HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides than Blacks. Across the range of 18.5 to <30, BMI was more strongly associated with the incidence of having high total cholesterol in Chinese and Whites than in Blacks. Similar trends were seen for LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but were not always statistically significant. In contrast, BMI was more highly associated with incidence of low HDL-cholesterol in Whites than in Chinese or Blacks. Conclusion Although differences in the incidence of lipid abnormalities and the impact of BMI were identified, results varied by lipid type indicating no consistent ethnic/national pattern. PMID:21802083

  7. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  8. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  9. Blood lipids profile in hyperlipidemic children undergoing different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Agostoni, Carlo; Radaelli, Giovanni; Banderali, Giuseppe; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the effect size of different dietary long chain polyunsaturated supplementations on blood lipid profile in children with primary hyperlipidemia. Thirty-six children (8-13 years) were recruited. After an 8-week stabilization period on the Step I diet, they were randomized to additionally receive for a 16-week period one capsule (500 mg) daily of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone or a DHA plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) mixture (45.6% DHA; 41.6% EPA) or wheat germ oil (control). An effect size (as percentage change from baseline) of +8%, -12% and -16% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides was observed in children supplemented with DHA, compared to +2%, -8% and -12%, respectively, in children supplemented with DHA plus EPA. This preliminary study suggests powered trials appear feasible and are warranted to evaluate efficacy of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supplementations on the blood lipid profile of children with primary hyperlipidemia.

  10. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85-105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20-30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60-70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  11. Human longevity is associated with regular sleep patterns, maintenance of slow wave sleep, and favorable lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; Moraes, Walter André dos Santos; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals are able to successfully reach very old ages, reflecting higher adaptation against age-associated effects. Sleep is one of the processes deeply affected by aging; however few studies evaluating sleep in long-lived individuals (aged over 85) have been reported to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the sleep patterns and biochemical profile of oldest old individuals (N = 10, age 85–105 years old) and compare them to young adults (N = 15, age 20–30 years old) and older adults (N = 13, age 60–70 years old). All subjects underwent full-night polysomnography, 1-week of actigraphic recording and peripheral blood collection. Sleep electroencephalogram spectral analysis was also performed. The oldest old individuals showed lower sleep efficiency and REM sleep when compared to the older adults, while stage N3 percentage and delta power were similar across the groups. Oldest old individuals maintained strictly regular sleep-wake schedules and also presented higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglyceride levels than older adults. The present study revealed novel data regarding specific sleep patterns and maintenance of slow wave sleep in the oldest old group. Taken together with the favorable lipid profile, these results contribute with evidence to the importance of sleep and lipid metabolism regulation in the maintenance of longevity in humans. PMID:25009494

  12. Influence of oily vehicles on fetal testis and lipid profile of rats exposed to di-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, A C S; Gomes, C; Boareto, A C; Mueller, R P; Nihi, F; Andrade, L F; Trindade, E S; Coelho, I; Naliwaiko, K; Morais, R N; Martino-Andrade, A J

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that oils containing high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as canola and fish oil, could counteract some of the adverse effects induced by phthalates. In the present study, the influence of different oily vehicles on di-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced testicular toxicity and lipid profile was investigated. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated by oral gavage from gestation days 13 to 20 with DBP (500 mg/kg/day) diluted in three different vehicles: corn, canola or fish oil. Male fetuses were analyzed on gestation day 20. DBP exposure lowered intratesticular testosterone levels and anogenital distance, regardless of the vehicle used. The percentage of seminiferous cords containing multinucleated gonocytes and cord diameter was increased in DBP-exposed groups, compared with vehicle controls, with no difference between the three DBP-exposed groups. Clustering of Leydig cells was seen in all DBP groups. Lipid profile indicated that administration of canola and fish oil can increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids in rat testis. However, content of omega-3 was diminished in DBP-treated groups. Overall, our results indicate that different oily vehicles did not alter fetal rat testicular toxicity induced by a high DBP dose.

  13. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum on lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Dashti, Gholamreza; Saberi, Salabali; Malekjamshidi, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated. Results: Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200  l/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25050312

  14. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control.

  15. Horse meat consumption affects iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Lucchini, Giorgio; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of moderate consumption of horse meat on iron status, lipid profile and fatty acid composition of red blood cells in healthy male volunteers. Fifty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 subjects each: a test group consuming two portions of 175 g/week of horse meat, and a control group that abstained from eating horse meat during the 90 days trial. Before and after 90 days, blood samples were collected for analysis. Horse meat consumption significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced serum levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( - 6.2% and - 9.1%, respectively) and transferrin ( - 4.6%). Total n - 3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n - 3 and docosahexeanoic acid content in erythrocytes increased (p ≤ 0.05) by about 7.8%, 8% and 11%, respectively. In conclusion, the regular consumption of horse meat may contribute to the dietary intake of n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and may improve lipid profile and iron status in healthy subjects.

  16. Safety and efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract from Lawsonia inermis leaves on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Verma, Nishikant; Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common risk factor for cardiac-related disorders in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein and elevated low density lipoprotein concentration. Aim: To explore the effect of Lawsonia inermis hydroalcoholic extract (LIHE) for diabetic dyslipidemic activity along with its safety profile. Materials and Methods: LIHE administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in rats after induction of hyperglycemia by alloxan. Insulin (1 IU/kg), glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg), and metformin (100 mg/kg) were used as positive control and 1% gum acacia as normal control. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's t-test. Results: The percentage reduction in blood glucose level of LIHE at dose of 400 mg/kg was 39.08% on day 21 when compared to baseline (day 0), which is comparable to glibenclamide (44.77%) and metformin (46.30%). Decrease in blood glucose level exhibited significant improvement in lipid profile, plasma albumin, total plasma protein and serum creatinine. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that LIHE significantly improved lipid and lipoprotein pattern observed in diabetic rats and this could be due to improvement in insulin secretion or action, thus has potential to be used in treatment of diabetes mellitus associated dyslipidemia. PMID:26730149

  17. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  18. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  19. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  20. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  1. Improvement of friable callus production of Boerhaavia paniculata Rich and the investigation of its lipid profile by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joanne M M; Berkov, Strahill; Santos, Alberdan S

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a protocol to induce high amount of friable callus of Boerhaavia paniculata RICH and a lipidomics technique were applied to investigate the profile of lipids to relate to those present in the roots of this plant that presented anti-inflammatory activity in the crude hexane extract. The callus culture was induced from seeds in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium containing different amounts of glucose and different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The explants were kept in a germination chamber at 30±2°C with a photoperiod of 16 h under light intensity of 27 µmol m-2 s-1 for 4 weeks. The best results for friable callus formation and development of the biomass were obtained in the treatment containing 2.26 µM 2.4-D and glucose (1.5 %; w/v). Lipidomics techniques were applied in hexane fraction showing higher concentrations of the steroids β-sitosterol (3.53 mg/100 g dc-dry cells), and fatty acids, especially 2-hydroxy-tetracosanoic acid (0.34 mg/100 g dc), eicosanoic acid (86.25 mg/100 g dc), stearic acid (420.83 mg/100 g dc), tetradecanoic acid (10.74 mg/100 g dc) and linoleic acid (100.61 mg/100 g dc). The lipid profile of callus versus that found in the roots of wild plant is described in this work. PMID:25211097

  2. [Effect of sacha inchi oil (plukenetia volúbilis l) on the lipid profile of patients with hyperlipoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Fausto; Pando, Rosa; Ronceros, Gerardo

    2011-12-01

    We performed a pilot, experimental, open study in order to know the effect, effective dosage and secondary effects of sacha inchi´s (Plukenetia Huallabamba) [corrected] oil on the lipid profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia. We included 24 patients of ages 35 to 75, to whom we measured total cholesterol (TC), HDL, triglycerides (Tg), glucose (G), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin (I) levels in blood, then we randomized them to receive sacha inchi oil orally 5 ml or 10 ml of a suspension of sacha inchi oil (2gr/5ml) for four months. The oil intake produced a decrease in the mean values of TC, and NEFA, and a rise in HDL in both subgroups. The subgroup receiving 10 ml was associated to an increase in the insulin levels. Sacha inchi oil appears to have beneficial effects on the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, but their efficacy and security should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:22241259

  3. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition. PMID:20127879

  4. The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Aliasghari, Fereshte; Beigi, Mohammad Ali Babaei; Hasanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient. Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial. Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients. PMID:24600599

  5. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (p<0.05) in group A, whereas the FPG, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides were found significantly increased (p<0.05). Group B registered a significant fall (p<0.05) in BMI as well as blood pressure. Fall in FPG level after guava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) indicating that guava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  6. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  7. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  8. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  10. A nutritional program improved lipid profiles and weight in 28 chiropractic patients: a retrospective case series☆

    PubMed Central

    Powell, James P.; Leonard, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study retrospectively examined the effects of a 21-day nutritional intervention program, which included fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements, on serum lipid measures in 28 chiropractic patients. Methods Medical records were reviewed for 28 chiropractic patients who had completed a commercially available 21-day nutritional intervention program between April 2005 and August 2007 and for whom complete serum lipid and weight measures immediately pre- and postintervention were available. The primary outcome was change in serum lipids, and change in body weight was a secondary outcome variable. Results Significant reductions in total, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed. Serum triglycerides decreased from 116.3 ± 54.6 (mean ± SD) to 88.6 ± 40.5 mg/dL (P < .01). Total cholesterol decreased from 223.3 ± 40.7 to 176.2 ± 30.0 mg/dL (P < .0001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 145.7 ± 36.8 to 110.9 ± 25.3 mg/dL (P < .0001). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased from 54.3 ± 14.6 to 47.6 ± 10.5 mg/dL (P < .001). Weight for patients decreased from 191.2 ± 38.8 to 182.2 ± 36.3 lb (P < .0001). Conclusions This retrospective case series supports the hypothesis that a nutritional purification intervention program emphasizing fruit and vegetable consumption, energy restriction, and nutritional supplements reduces serum lipids and weight. PMID:19646370

  11. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR lipid profiles of human renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Fini, G; Reggiani, A; Tinti, A; Trinchero, A; Tosi, M R

    2003-01-01

    Lipids from human renal tissues are studied by means of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. The total lipid fractions obtained from healthy kidneys, malignant renal cell carcinomas, and benign oncocytomas are characterized and analyzed to elucidate the main differences between the functional and neoplastic tissues. In all cases the lipid components are well identified. The healthy kidney is characterized by high amounts of triglycerides and the presence of cholesterol in its free form. On the contrary, renal cell carcinomas contain high amounts of cholesterol that are almost completely esterified as oleate, suggesting an intracellular localization of the cholesteryl esters synthesis. Cholesteryl esters are considered markers of renal cell carcinomas, thus supporting recent theories that these compounds play a leading role in cell proliferation. Oncocytomas are particularly rich in phosphatidylcholine and, analogous to the healthy kidney, are completely lacking in cholesteryl esters. Healthy kidneys and oncocytomas appear to have other similarities if compared with renal cell carcinomas: a very high fatty acyl/cholesterol ratio, the presence of dolichols, and a higher grade of unsaturation. The (13)C data suggest a new method for the direct evaluation of the saturated/unsaturated fatty acyl ratio.

  12. Profiling Metal Oxides with Lipids: Magnetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Displaying DNA and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yibo; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2016-09-19

    Metal oxides include many important materials with various surface properties. For biomedical and analytical applications, it is desirable to engineer their biocompatible interfaces. Herein, a phosphocholine liposome (DOPC) and its headgroup dipole flipped counterpart (DOCP) were mixed with ten common oxides. Using the calcein leakage assay, cryo-TEM, and ζ-potential measurement, these oxides were grouped into three types. The type 1 oxides (Fe3 O4 , TiO2 , ZrO2 , Y2 O3 , ITO, In2 O3 , and Mn2 O3 ) form supported bilayers only with DOCP. Type 2 (SiO2 ) forms supported bilayers only with DOPC; type 3 (ZnO and NiO) are cationic and damage lipid membranes. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied for conjugation of fluorophores, proteins, and DNA to the supported DOCP bilayers via lipid headgroup labeling, covalent linking, or lipid insertion. Delivery of the conjugates to cells and selective DNA hybridization were demonstrated. This work provides a general solution for coating the type 1 oxides with a simple mixing in water, facilitating applications in biosensing, separation, and nanomedicine. PMID:27539511

  13. Diabetic nephropathy induces alterations in the glomerular and tubule lipid profiles1[S

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Kerri J.; Voziyan, Paul A.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Suwan; Paueksakon, Paisit; Harris, Raymond C.; Hudson, Billy G.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major life-threatening complication of diabetes. Renal lesions affect glomeruli and tubules, but the pathogenesis is not completely understood. Phospholipids and glycolipids are molecules that carry out multiple cell functions in health and disease, and their role in DN pathogenesis is unknown. We employed high spatial resolution MALDI imaging MS to determine lipid changes in kidneys of eNOS−/− db/db mice, a robust model of DN. Phospholipid and glycolipid structures, localization patterns, and relative tissue levels were determined in individual renal glomeruli and tubules without disturbing tissue morphology. A significant increase in the levels of specific glomerular and tubular lipid species from four different classes, i.e., gangliosides, sulfoglycosphingolipids, lysophospholipids, and phosphatidylethanolamines, was detected in diabetic kidneys compared with nondiabetic controls. Inhibition of nonenzymatic oxidative and glycoxidative pathways attenuated the increase in lipid levels and ameliorated renal pathology, even though blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Our data demonstrate that the levels of specific phospho- and glycolipids in glomeruli and/or tubules are associated with diabetic renal pathology. We suggest that hyperglycemia-induced DN pathogenic mechanisms require intermediate oxidative steps that involve specific phospholipid and glycolipid species. PMID:24864273

  14. Profiling Metal Oxides with Lipids: Magnetic Liposomal Nanoparticles Displaying DNA and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yibo; Lin, Zhi Yuan William; Liu, Biwu; Liu, Juewen

    2016-09-19

    Metal oxides include many important materials with various surface properties. For biomedical and analytical applications, it is desirable to engineer their biocompatible interfaces. Herein, a phosphocholine liposome (DOPC) and its headgroup dipole flipped counterpart (DOCP) were mixed with ten common oxides. Using the calcein leakage assay, cryo-TEM, and ζ-potential measurement, these oxides were grouped into three types. The type 1 oxides (Fe3 O4 , TiO2 , ZrO2 , Y2 O3 , ITO, In2 O3 , and Mn2 O3 ) form supported bilayers only with DOCP. Type 2 (SiO2 ) forms supported bilayers only with DOPC; type 3 (ZnO and NiO) are cationic and damage lipid membranes. Magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied for conjugation of fluorophores, proteins, and DNA to the supported DOCP bilayers via lipid headgroup labeling, covalent linking, or lipid insertion. Delivery of the conjugates to cells and selective DNA hybridization were demonstrated. This work provides a general solution for coating the type 1 oxides with a simple mixing in water, facilitating applications in biosensing, separation, and nanomedicine.

  15. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  16. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini, Daniela; Jovenasso Manzoni, Marla Simone; Bedani, Raquel; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Celiberto, Larissa Sbaglia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Saes Parra Abdalla, Dulcinéia; Aparecida Pinto, Roseli; Rosetto, Daniella; Roberto Valentini, Sandro; Antonio Rossi, Elizeu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC) >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day), isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g) or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo) for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h) were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions) and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an improvement in

  17. Proteomic profiling of antisense-induced exon skipping reveals reversal of pathobiochemical abnormalities in dystrophic mdx diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Philip; Wilton, Steve D.; Fletcher, Sue; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2009-01-01

    The disintegration of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex represents the initial pathobiochemical insult in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, secondary changes in signalling, energy metabolism and ion homeostasis are probably the main factors that eventually cause progressive muscle wasting. Thus, for the proper evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches, it is essential to analyse the reversal of both primary and secondary abnormalities in treated muscles. Antisense oligomer-mediated exon skipping promises functional restoration of the primary deficiency in dystrophin. In this study, an established phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer coupled to a cell-penetrating peptide was employed for the specific removal of exon 23 in the mutated mouse dystrophin gene transcript. Using DIGE analysis, we could show the reversal of secondary pathobiochemical abnormalities in the dystrophic diaphragm following exon-23 skipping. In analogy to the restoration of dystrophin, β-dystroglycan and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, the muscular dystrophy-associated differential expression of calsequestrin, adenylate kinase, aldolase, mitochondrial creatine kinase and cvHsp was reversed in treated muscle fibres. Hence, the re-establishment of Dp427 coded by the transcript missing exon 23 has counter-acted dystrophic alterations in Ca2+-handling, nucleotide metabolism, bioenergetic pathways and cellular stress response. This clearly establishes the exon-skipping approach as a realistic treatment strategy for diminishing diverse downstream alterations in dystrophinopathy. PMID:19132684

  18. Metabolomics profiling of the free and total oxidised lipids in urine by LC-MS/MS: application in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junzeng; Schoeman, Johannes C; Harms, Amy C; van Wietmarschen, Herman A; Vreeken, Rob J; Berger, Ruud; Cuppen, Bart V J; Lafeber, Floris P J G; van der Greef, Jan; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Oxidised lipids, covering enzymatic and auto-oxidation-synthesised mediators, are important signalling metabolites in inflammation while also providing a readout for oxidative stress, both of which are prominent physiological processes in a plethora of diseases. Excretion of these metabolites via urine is enhanced through the phase-II conjugation with glucuronic acid, resulting in increased hydrophilicity of these lipid mediators. Here, we developed a bovine liver-β-glucuronidase hydrolysing sample preparation method, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to analyse the total urinary oxidised lipid profile including the prostaglandins, isoprostanes, dihydroxy-fatty acids, hydroxy-fatty acids and the nitro-fatty acids. Our method detected more than 70 oxidised lipids biosynthesised from two non-enzymatic and three enzymatic pathways in urine samples. The total oxidised lipid profiling method was developed and validated for human urine and was demonstrated for urine samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pro-inflammatory mediators PGF2α and PGF3α and oxidative stress markers iPF2α- IV, 11-HETE and 14-HDoHE were positively associated with improvement of disease activity score. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory nitro-fatty acids were negatively associated with baseline disease activity. In conclusion, the developed methodology expands the current metabolic profiling of oxidised lipids in urine, and its application will enhance our understanding of the role these bioactive metabolites play in health and disease. PMID:27405874

  19. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells. PMID:27603212

  20. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  1. A reversed-phase capillary ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qibin; Meng, Da; Issac, Giorgis; Zhao, Rui; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chu, Rosey K.; Zhou, Jianying; Tang, Keqi; Hu, Zeping; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2012-01-01

    Lipidomics is a critical part of metabolomics and aims to study all the lipids within a living system. We present here the development and evaluation of a sensitive capillary UPLC-MS method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak abundances of the lipid standards were 0.29% and 7.7%, respectively, when using the optimized method. The linearity was acceptable at >0.99 over 3 orders of magnitude, and the LOQs were sub-fmol. To demonstrate the performance of the method in the analysis of complex samples, we analyzed lipids extracted from a human cell line, rat plasma, and a model human skin tissue, identifying 446, 444, and 370 unique lipids, respectively. Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS. PMID:22354571

  2. Differential Lipid Profiles of Normal Human Brain Matter and Gliomas by Positive and Negative Mode Desorption Electrospray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pirro, Valentina; Hattab, Eyas M.; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization—mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging was used to analyze unmodified human brain tissue sections from 39 subjects sequentially in the positive and negative ionization modes. Acquisition of both MS polarities allowed more complete analysis of the human brain tumor lipidome as some phospholipids ionize preferentially in the positive and others in the negative ion mode. Normal brain parenchyma, comprised of grey matter and white matter, was differentiated from glioma using positive and negative ion mode DESI-MS lipid profiles with the aid of principal component analysis along with linear discriminant analysis. Principal component–linear discriminant analyses of the positive mode lipid profiles was able to distinguish grey matter, white matter, and glioma with an average sensitivity of 93.2% and specificity of 96.6%, while the negative mode lipid profiles had an average sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.4%. The positive and negative mode lipid profiles provided complementary information. Principal component–linear discriminant analysis of the combined positive and negative mode lipid profiles, via data fusion, resulted in approximately the same average sensitivity (94.7%) and specificity (97.6%) of the positive and negative modes when used individually. However, they complemented each other by improving the sensitivity and specificity of all classes (grey matter, white matter, and glioma) beyond 90% when used in combination. Further principal component analysis using the fused data resulted in the subgrouping of glioma into two groups associated with grey and white matter, respectively, a separation not apparent in the principal component analysis scores plots of the separate positive and negative mode data. The interrelationship of tumor cell percentage and the lipid profiles is discussed, and how such a measure could be used to measure residual tumor at surgical margins. PMID:27658243

  3. Fatty acid profiles of blood lipids in a population group in Tibet: correlations with diet and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Risé, Patrizia; Marangoni, Franca; Martiello, Antonella; Colombo, Claudio; Manzoni, Cristina; Marconi, Claudio; Cattabeni, Flaminio; Galli, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood fatty acid profiles of two population groups: Italian and Tibetan, differing with regard to ethnic, life style and environmental aspects. Additionally the collection of two staple foods provided the opportunity to analyze typical Tibetan dishes. A new, simple, rapid, and substantially non invasive method for fatty acid (FA) analysis of blood lipids was applied to healthy Italian (n=14) and Tibetan (n=13) subjects. Blood drops obtained from the ear lobe of Tibetans or the fingertip of Italians were adsorbed by a special strip of paper and processed for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid profiles of the two groups are different, and environmental factors, such as dietary fats and altitudes of Milan, Italy (a low altitude site), and Lhasa, Tibet (a high altitude site) appear to contribute to these differences. More specifically, in Ti-betans higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, including the 22 and 24 carbon molecules, were found. This appears to be derived mainly from locally consumed fats (mustard seed oil), and are associated with lower levels of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and higher levels of selected omega 3 fatty acids, when compared to the Italians. These relatively higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids may also indicate means of adaptation to local prooxidant conditions. The observed differences in blood fatty acid profiles in Tibetans vs. Italians appear to result both from dietary factors and adaptation to local environmental conditions such as the high altitude of the Tibetan location.

  4. Detection and Quantification of Rotenoids from Clitoria fairchildiana and its Lipids Profile.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rauldenis A F; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration. The activity against brine shrimp revealed that the root extract (LD50 = 158 ppm) was the more active. PMID:27319136

  5. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (P<0.05). Mean peak systolic velocity values before and after the pistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  6. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  7. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l(-1) and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l(-1) day(-1), with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  8. Impact of some commonly used Egyptian diets on plasma lipids profiles of rats.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, O M; al-Okbi, S Y; Abbas, A E

    1993-09-01

    Seven types of diets commonly consumed in Egypt were studied in hyperlipemic rats. Each of the seven diets were fed to a group of hyperlipemic rats. The diets contain white beans and whole wheat bread (Diet 1); cabbage and peas (2); spinach and carrots (3); whole wheat bread and bean sprouts (4); whole wheat bread, white beans and peas (5); white beans and carrots (6) and the last diet contains peas and carrots (7). The experiment continued for 5 weeks, at the end of which different plasma lipids and biological parameters were compared to hyperlipemic rats fed the control diet for 5 weeks. Results showed that plasma total cholesterol of rats of all groups showed significant decrease, except in rats fed diet 6 in which no significant change was noticed. Plasma total lipids of rats fed diet 5 decreased significantly. Plasma phospholipids of rats fed diets 3 and 7 increased significantly. Rats fed diet 3 showed decreased levels of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Body weight gain of rats fed diets 1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly. Total food intake was noticed to decrease on feeding diets 1 and 6. Significant decrease was produced in food efficiency ratio of rats fed diets 1, 5 and 6. Feeding any type of the previous seven diets produced significant increase of feces weight.

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  10. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-15

    A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l(-1) and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l(-1) day(-1), with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production.

  11. Comparative Proteomics Profile of Lipid-Cumulating Oleaginous Yeast: An iTRAQ-Coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts. PMID:24386479

  12. Comparative proteomics profile of lipid-cumulating oleaginous yeast: an iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiahua; Feng, Huixing; Lee, Jaslyn; Ning Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular lipid in oleaginous yeast cells has been studied for providing an alternative supply for energy, biofuel. Numerous studies have been conducted on increasing lipid content in oleaginous yeasts. However, few explore the mechanism of the high lipid accumulation ability of oleaginous yeast strains at the proteomics level. In this study, a time-course comparative proteomics analysis was introduced to compare the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with two oleaginous yeast strains, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodosporidium toruloides at different lipid accumulation stages. Two dimensional LC-MS/MS approach has been applied for protein profiling together with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labelling method. 132 proteins were identified when three yeast strains were all at early lipid accumulation stage; 122 and 116 proteins were found respectively within cells of three strains collected at middle and late lipid accumulation stages. Significantly up-regulation or down-regulation of proteins were experienced among comparison. Essential proteins correlated to lipid synthesis and regulation were detected. Our approach provides valuable indication and better understanding for lipid accumulation mechanism from proteomics level and would further contribute to genetic engineering of oleaginous yeasts.

  13. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  14. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  15. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation.

  16. Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

    2013-12-01

    The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ω-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

  17. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  18. Amino acid, mineral, and polyphenolic profiles of black vinegar, and its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Hsi; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Deng-Jye; Wu, Yi-Hsieng Samuel; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Black vinegar (BV) contains abundant essential and hydrophobic amino acids, and polyphenolic contents, especially catechin and chlorogenic acid via chemical analyses. K and Mg are the major minerals in BV, and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Se are also measured. After a 9-week experiment, high-fat/cholesterol-diet (HFCD) fed hamsters had higher (p<0.05) weight gains, relative visceral-fat sizes, serum/liver lipids, and serum cardiac indices than low-fat/cholesterol diet (LFCD) fed ones, but BV supplementation decreased (p<0.05) them which may resulted from the higher (p<0.05) faecal TAG and TC contents. Serum ALT value, and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hepatic TNF-α and IL-1β contents in HFCD-fed hamsters were reduced (p<0.05) by supplementing BV due to increased (p<0.05) hepatic glutathione (GSH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels, and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Taken together, the component profiles of BV contributed the lipid lowering and antioxidant effects on HFCD fed hamsters.

  19. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-mediated alterations in cell permeability, lipid and protein profiles of steroid-transforming Arthrobacter simplex.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanbing; Liang, Jingting; Li, Huanan; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) enhances steroid 1-dehydrogenation biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex. In this work, HP-β-CD-induced improvement of A. simplex CPCC 140451 cell envelope permeability which had positive effects on the steroid bioconversion was confirmed by a comparative investigation which showed a lower dehydrogenase activity and higher cell permeability of the cells after being incubated with HP-β-CD. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that HP-β-CD altered the size, sharpness, and surface structure of the cell envelope. The analysis of lipid composition revealed that the proportion of extractable lipids decreased and the fatty acids profile was considerably altered. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids were reduced by 11.77 and 14.98%, respectively. The total leakage of protein level increased to 8%. Proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and major facilitator superfamily were observed outside the cell. These alterations can explain the change of permeability on the molecular level under HP-β-CD treatment. Results showed the material basis and mechanisms underlying the cellular changes, thus most likely contributing to the conversion rate in addition to cyclodextrins known effects on substrate solubility. PMID:25277411

  20. Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bresolin, Adriana Chassot; Pronsatti, Mariana Menegassi; Pasqualotto, Larissa Nicole; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer; Jorge, Alex Sandro; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Nassar, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Due to the biological associations between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the fact that atherosclerosis begins in childhood, behavior based on oral health care and metabolic control from an early age is essential for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of full-mouth scaling and root planing on the reduction of periodontal disease in children with congenital heart disease. In this study, treatments were related to clinical periodontal parameters and also to blood ones, such as lipid profile and inflammatory markers. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=17), scaling and root planing; and group 2 (n=16), full-mouth scaling and root planing. The results showed a significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters (P<0.05) in both groups. Considering lipid parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein parameters showed significant improvement (P<0.05). There was also an improvement in C-reactive protein (ultrasensitive) in the group treated with scaling and root planing (P<0.05). Fibrinogen and interleukin-6 parameters improved (P<0.05) in both groups. We suggest that both periodontal treatments were effective in children with congenital heart disease, though neither demonstrated superiority. PMID:24250224

  1. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork.

    PubMed

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  2. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  3. Dose-response efficacy of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and its prevention is of great interest throughout the world. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of different doses of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed a modified pellet diet for the whole of 30 weeks. To induce colon cancer, rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) (based on body weight) for the first 15 weeks. Caraway was supplemented every day orally at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg kg(-1) for different groups of rats for the total period of 30 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks, the colons were examined visually for masses and were subsequently evaluated histologically. The results showed diminished levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal LPO products, such as conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) in DMH treated rats, which were significantly reversed (P<0.05) on caraway supplementation. Moreover, enhanced activity of intestinal, colonic and caecal glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and colonic ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels were observed in carcinogen-treated rats, which were significantly (P<0.05) reduced on caraway supplementation. Thus, our study showed that caraway supplementation at a dose of 60 mg kg(-1) had a modulatory role on tissue LPO, antioxidant profile and prevented DMH-induced histopathological lesions in colon cancer rats.

  4. Effects of Aster scaber Seed Oil Containing trans-Δ3 Fatty Acids on Lipid Profiles of Hamsters and Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Soon; Lee, Koung-Hee; Jeong, Yeon-Ho; Koba, Kazunori; Sugano, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Aster scaber seed oil (ASO) on lipid profiles were studied in rats and hamsters. ASO contained considerable amounts of Δ3t-16:1 (11.4%), Δ3t, 9c-18:2 (4.6%), and Δ3t, 9c, 12c-18:3 (11.3%). Young rats and hamsters were fed diets containing ASO, soybean oil (SBO), or olive oil (OLO) as fat sources for 4 weeks in separate experiments with or without cholesterol. In the rat study, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol among the groups. The serum but not liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly lower in the ASO-fed group than it was in the other groups. The biochemical and growth parameters revealed no significant biological damages in the ASO-fed animals. In the hamster study, dietary cholesterol-dependent effects were evident in the serum lipids profiles, whereas the fat-induced effect was only observed in the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-/HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, fat- and cholesterol-induced effects were evident in the ratio of serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol. Significant interactions between dietary fat and cholesterol were observed as evident from the concentration of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol, as well as the activity of serum cholesterol ester transfer protein. These results suggest that dietary ASO containing trans-Δ3 fatty acids appeared to improve the serum LDL-/HDL-cholesterol ratio more than the SBO did, especially when hamsters were simultaneously fed cholesterol-supplemented diet.

  5. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  6. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  7. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Deik, Amy; Fossale, Elisa; Weston, Rory M.; Guide, Jolene R.; Arjomand, Jamshid; Kwak, Seung; Clish, Clary B.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2015-01-01

    The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington’s Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue), using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219) in the striatum to 12% (25/212) in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219) of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224) in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and most evident

  8. The transcriptomic profile of Pseudozyma aphidis during production of mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Grumaz, Christian; Lorenz, Stefan; Stevens, Philip; Lindemann, Elena; Hirth, Thomas; Sohn, Kai; Zibek, Susanne; Rupp, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma aphidis is able to convert vegetable oils to abundant amounts of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) with a unique product pattern of MEL-A, MEL-B, MEL-C, and MEL-D. To investigate the metabolism of MEL production, we analyzed the transcriptome of P. aphidis DSM 70725 under MEL-inducing and non-inducing conditions using deep sequencing. Following manual curation of the previously described in silico gene models based on RNA-Seq data, we were able to generate an experimentally verified gene annotation containing 6347 genes. Using this database, our expression analysis revealed that only four of the five cluster genes required for MEL synthesis were clearly induced by the presence of soybean oil. The acetyltransferase encoding gene PaGMAT1 was expressed on a much lower level, which may explain the secretion of MEL with different degrees of acetylation in P. aphidis. In parallel to MEL synthesis, microscopic observations showed morphological changes accompanied by expression of genes responsible for cell development, indicative of a coregulation between MEL synthesis and cell morphology. In addition a set of transcription factors was identified which may be responsible for regulation of MEL synthesis and cell development. The upregulation of genes required for nitrogen metabolism and other assimilation processes indicate additional metabolic pathways required under the MEL-inducing conditions used. We also searched for a conserved gene cluster for cellobiose lipids (CL) but only found seven genes with limited homology distributed over the genome. However, we detected characteristic TLC spots in fermentations using P. aphidis DSM 70725, indicative of CL secretion. PMID:25586580

  9. Effect of sesame oil on serum and liver lipid profiles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, S; Chanderbhan, R; Kharroubi, A T; Calvert, R J; Klurfeld, D; Tepper, S A; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    In our previous study (Satchithanandam, S., Reicks, M., Calvert, R.J., Cassidy, M.M. and Kritchevsky, D. (1993) J. Nutr. 123, 1852-1858), we found that the absorption of lymphatic cholesterol by rats fed diets containing 24% sesame oil was about 50% less than that by rats fed the control diet containing no sesame oil. The effect of sesame oil on serum cholesterol levels was not determined at that time. In the present study, three groups of male Wistar rats (75-100 g) were fed a control diet or a diet containing 12 or 24% sesame oil. To increase serum cholesterol levels, 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid were added to each diet. After rats were fed for 4 weeks, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured in the serum. Liver weight and cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined. Liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in rats fed the 24% sesame oil diet, and the liver lipid level was significantly higher in the 24% sesame oil-fed group, compared with levels in the group fed the control diet. Liver weights and esterified cholesterol and liver triglyceride levels were not significantly different among the groups. Levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in rats fed the 24% sesame oil diet, compared with levels in the control group. Serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels did not differ significantly among the groups. The mechanism by which a diet containing 24% sesame oil reduces levels of serum and liver cholesterol, liver LDL cholesterol, and liver lipids is not known. However, the high degree of unsaturation (85%) of sesame oil and the presence of linoleic acid may be important factors. PMID:8979168

  10. Loss of haem from cytochrome P-450 caused by lipid peroxidation and 2-allyl-2-isoprophylacetamide. An abnormal pathway not involving production of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, F; Gibbs, A H; Unseld, A

    1977-01-01

    1. Microsomal preparations undergoing lipid peroxidation produce CO and lose haem from cytochrome P-450. 2. The amount of CO produced does not correlate with the amount of haem lost and, after pre-labelling of microsomal haem in its bridges with 5-amino[5-14C]laevulinate, the radioactivity lost from haem is not recorved as CO. 3. Similarly, when pre-labelled microsomal haem is destroyed by the action of 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide, no radioactivity is recovered as CO. In clear contrast, on degradation of haem by the haem oxygenase system, CO is produced in an amount equimolar to the haem lost. 4. It is concluded that (a) the CO produced during lipid peroxidation originates from a source different from haem and (b) the degradations of haem caused by lipid peroxidation and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide do not involve to any significant extent evolution of the methene-bridge carbon of haem as CO. PMID:606245

  11. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, M Altug; Yaymaci, Bengi; Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Acar, Goksemin; Altug, Tuncay; Demir, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia.

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma: poor prognosis linked to concomitant detection in random and focal lesion bone marrow samples and associated with high-risk gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiming; Nair, Bijay; Shaughnessy, John D; Cartron, Marie-Astrid; Haessler, Jeff; Anaissie, Elias; van Rhee, Frits; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2009-06-01

    The clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) present in randomly sampled (RS) or focal lesion (FL) bone marrow sites was examined in 419 untreated myeloma patients. Among 290 patients with gene expression profiling (GEP) data generated from RS sites, GEP-defined high-risk was present in 52% of the RS+/FL+ group but in only 9% of the remainder (P < 0.001). The RS+/FL+ constellation (18%) was an independent predictor of poor survival, also after adjusting for GEP-derived risk and TP53 status (Hazard ratio = 2.42, P = 0.004). The prevalence of high-risk myeloma in the RS+/FL+ group may reflect a dissemination-prone condition not shared by the other three groups. PMID:19344415

  13. Comparison of nebivolol and atenolol on blood pressure, blood sugar, and lipid profile in patients of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Badar, V.A.; Hiware, Sachin K.; Shrivastava, Meena P.; Thawani, V.R.; Hardas, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nebivolol is a third-generation β-blocker, with highest β1 selectivity and nitric-oxide-derived vasodilatation. It also exhibits antiproliferative and antioxidant property that has beneficial metabolic profile compared to second-generation β blockers like atenolol. This study was planned to study the comparative effects of nebivolol and atenolol on metabolic parameters in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized, parallel, open-label clinical study was carried out on patients with essential hypertension. The patients were randomly assigned to receive tablet atenolol (Group A) and nebivolol (Group B) for a period of 24 weeks. Investigations were carried out at baseline and at the end of study period, that is, 24 weeks. Out of 69 patients, 60 completed the study and the data was analyzed using student's t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Atenolol and nebivolol both showed significant (P < 0.001) antihypertensive action after 24 weeks. Mean blood sugar and lipid profile were found to be significantly (P < 0.001) elevated after 24 weeks of treatment with atenolol but not with nebivolol. Heart rate was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in both groups at 24 weeks. Conclusion: In view of metabolic adverse effects of atenolol, nebivolol is the better choice whenever β-blockers have to be used in essential hypertension. PMID:21845001

  14. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J Bruce; Gillies, Laura A; Almada, Luis A G; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2013-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  15. Influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles in gonads of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Siliani, Silvia; Melis, Riccardo; Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Baroli, Maura; Sanna, Roberta; Uzzau, Sergio; Roggio, Tonina; Addis, Maria Filippa; Anedda, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid fraction of Paracentrotus lividus gonads was investigated. For this purpose, sea urchins were collected monthly over a year from two Sardinian coastal areas. Total lipids in gonads follow an annual cyclical trend, described by a sine wave curve, that it is more influenced by season than by growing area. The lowest lipid content in gonads corresponds to a high percentage of mature reproductive stages (i.e. winter season), independently of sampling area. A variation in total lipid content follows a change in photoperiod, while it is related to sea surface temperature. Multivariate analysis on fatty acid profiles of gonads, detected by gas chromatography, clusters the collected specimens mainly according to the sampling area, secondly according to the sites within the same sampling area and finally according to season.

  16. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J Bruce; Gillies, Laura A; Almada, Luis A G; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2013-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified.

  17. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  18. [Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

    2013-11-01

    The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P < 0.05). A better bowel function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans.

  19. Evaluation of Lipid Profile in Second and Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pusukuru, Raghuram; Shenoi, Arjun S.; Kyada, Prakash Kumar; Ghodke, Babita; Bhuta, Kunal; Bhatia, Aadhijaya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a change in energy usage along with accumulation of fat during different trimesters of pregnancy. Lipid physiology and pathophysiology during pregnancy has not been studied extensively in large population-based cohorts. Aim To study the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TGs) during pregnancy and their changes in second and third trimester. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India by enrolling antenatal cases from October, 2012 to October 2014. The study was conducted on 200 pregnant local women after taking an informed consent from patients to get enrolled in the study. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. All reported p-values are two-tailed, and confidence intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Results The mean cholesterol levels in second and third trimester were 214.6±18.16 mg/dl and 242.65±20.44 mg/dl respectively. The mean triglyceride levels in second and third trimester were 188.68±20.88 mg/dl and 216.78±20.09 mg/dl respectively. The mean HDL – Cholesterol levels in second and third trimester were 49.13±6.15 mg/dl and 43.07±4.34 mg/dl respectively. The mean LDL – Cholesterol levels in second and third trimester were 92.41±18.94 mg/dl and 137.82±13.45 mg/dl respectively. The mean VLDL – Cholesterol levels in second and third trimester were 28.22±7.66 mg/dl and 36.27±6.72 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion This study helps in understanding baseline lipid parameters in the second and third trimester among pregnant women in India. Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol, VLDL-Cholesterol increased in both second and third trimester. The increase is more in third trimester, when compared to second. HDL-Cholesterol is decreased in third trimester when compared to second trimester. PMID:27134947

  20. The effects of atorvastatin therapy on rheological characteristics of erythrocyte membrane, serum lipid profile and oxidative status in patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Yıldırmış, Sermet; Orem, Cihan; Calapoglu, Mustafa; Alver, Ahmet; Kural, Birgül; Orem, Asım

    2012-11-01

    The statins, most commonly used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, have certain beneficial effects including improved endothelial function, plaque stability and decreased oxidative stress and inflammation, beyond their lipid-lowering effect in plasma. We evaluated the pleiotropic impact of atorvastatin on erythrocyte structural/mechanical properties and lipid peroxidation in dyslipidemics. The study group included 44 patients with dyslipidemia and was divided into subgroups according to triglyceride and cholesterol levels as hypercholesterolemic (n = 29) and mixed-type hyperlipidemic (n = 15). Subjects were given 10 mg atorvastatin per day for 12 weeks. Changes in serum lipid composition, lipid contents, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and osmotic fragility in erythrocytes and oxidative stress parameters of erythrocytes and plasma were studied. Atorvastatin therapy improved the serum lipid profile of both subgroups. This alteration was accompanied by a decreased level of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes. Moreover, enhanced activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in erythrocytes reflected the improvements in membrane lipids of both subgroups. However, a significant change was observed in osmotic fragility values of the mixed-typed dyslipidemic group. This treatment lowered the lipid peroxidation in plasma and erythrocytes and increased plasma total antioxidant capacity in all groups. The present study shows that the use of atorvastatin reversed the structural and functional features of erythrocyte membranes in dyslipidemic subjects. Also, hypolipidemic therapy had a beneficial impact on a balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems.

  1. Sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation: a comparative study of light emission and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gavazza, Mariana; Marmunti, Mónica; Catalá, Angel

    2005-12-01

    Much work has been carried out on non-enzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria obtained from different tissues of monogastric animals, but little information is available about this process in poligastric animals. Studies were carried out to determine the sensitivity of mitochondria isolated from liver and kidney of rat and bovine to lipid peroxidation (ascorbate-Fe2+ dependent) by comparison of light emission and fatty acid profiles. Mitochondria from both species were susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Measurements of chemiluminescence indicate that the lipid peroxidation process was more effective in mitochondria from rat liver than in the organelle obtained from bovine, whereas changes were not observed in mitochondria from rat and bovine kidney. The fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from liver and kidney mitochondria of both species was substantially modified when subjected to non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation with a decrease of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition was higher in mitochondria obtained from rat liver (43.11+/- 4.16) than in bovine (15.78 +/- 0.76). As a consequence, the unsaturation index (UI), was higher in mitochondria of rat liver than in bovine. Nevertheless, the PUFA composition of kidney mitochondria from both species was similar; therefore, statistically significant differences in the UI were not observed. The results suggest that mainly the PUFAs present in hepatic and kidney mitochondria were sensitive to oxidative damage. The lipid peroxidation process was more effective in rat liver mitochondria than in bovine.

  2. Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator

    PubMed Central

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Bruce, Barry D.; Young, Jock W.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51–81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g−1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g−1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  3. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    PubMed

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species. PMID:24871223

  4. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  5. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  6. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption.

  7. Alterations in hepatic lipid peroxides and antioxidant profile in Indian water buffaloes suffering from sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Ranjan, R; Kataria, M

    2008-08-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the status of antioxidants in water buffaloes with sarcoptic mange. Sixty-three buffaloes were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=19), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). Lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), zinc and copper in hepatic tissues and serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured. In comparison to group I, LPO was significantly (P<0.05) higher, while SOD and CAT were significantly (P<0.05) lower in group III. LPO and SOD activities were comparable between group I and II, but CAT was significantly (P<0.05) lower in group II. In group III, zinc, copper and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) lower than group I. Decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and trace mineral concentrations suggested that sarcoptic mange in buffaloes is associated with compromise in antioxidant defense and oxidative stress may play important role in pathogenesis.

  8. Lipid profile of in vitro oil produced through cell culture of Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sandra M; Atehortúa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in energy demands as a consequence of population growth and industrialization, and pollution caused during the extraction and combustion of fossil fuel sources have driven the development of new energy sources that do not cause pollution and are inexpensive and renewable. Consequently, it is necessary to develop alternative ways of generating biofuels that put less pressure on agricultural lands and water supplies, and ensure ecosystems conservation. In order to achieve the proposed goals related to energetic coverage and independence, several approaches have been developed, including biodiesel production using vegetal oils as feedstock. The aim of the current research project was to apply a nonconventional bioprocess for in vitro biomass and oil production of Jatropha curcas, for assessing different J. curcas varieties, where seed tissue was isolated and used for callus induction. Once friable callus was obtained, cell suspension cultures were established. The cell viability, fatty acid content, and characteristics were used to select the most promising cell line according to its fatty acid profile and ability to grow and develop under in vitro conditions. Oil produced by cell suspension culture of the Jatropha varieties studied was extracted and characterized by GC/MS. Differences encountered among Jatropha varieties were related to their fatty acid profiles, oil content (% on dry basis), and cell viability measurements (%). PMID:22970586

  9. Tumor targeting profiling of hyaluronan-coated lipid based-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahy, Shoshy; Goldsmith, Meir; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Kisin-Finfer, Einat; Redy, Orit; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Shabat, Doron; Godin, Biana; Peer, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression. Low Mw (LMw, <10 kDa) HA has been reported to provoke inflammatory responses, such as induction of cytokines, chemokines, reactive nitrogen species and growth factors. Herein, we prepared and characterized two types of HA coated (LMw and HMw) lipid-based targeted and stabilized nanoparticles (tsNPs) and tested their binding to tumor cells expressing the HA receptor (CD44), systemic immunotoxicity, and biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. In vitro, the Mw of the surface anchored HA had a significant influence on the affinity towards CD44 on B16F10 murine melanoma cells. LMw HA-tsNPs exhibited weak binding, while binding of tsNPs coated with HMw HA was characterized by high binding. Both types of tsNPs had no measured effect on cytokine induction in vivo following intravenous administration to healthy C57BL/6 mice suggesting no immune activation. HMw HA-tsNPs showed enhanced circulation time and tumor targeting specificity, mainly by accumulating in the tumor and its vicinity compared with LMw HA-tsNPs. Finally, we show that methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, entrapped in HMw HA-tsNPs slowly diffused from the particles with a half-life of 13.75 days, and improved the therapeutic outcome in a murine B16F10 melanoma model compared with NPs suggesting an active cellular targeting beyond the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Taken together, these findings have major implications for the use of high molecular weight HA in nanomedicine as a selective and safe active cellular targeting moiety.Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression

  10. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  11. Pharmacological Action of Mentha piperita on Lipid Profile in Fructose-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Mani Badal, Rajendra; Badal, Divya; Badal, Pourush; Khare, Ashish; Shrivastava, Jyoti; Kumar, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases with an incidence of approximately 50% are the main causes of death in most advanced countries and an increasing trend in the developing world as well. The World Health Organization estimates that 12 million people per year worldwide die from cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are becoming an increasing problem worldwide and hypercholesterolemia has been correlated for coronary heart diseases. Nearly all lipoproteins are involved in this process including cholesterol carried by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), remnant lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Currently, available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with the number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidemia poses no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available. In view of this, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Menthe piperita on serum lipid levels of albino rats. Mentha piperita aqueous extract (100 mg/Kg, 250 mg/Kg p.o. daily) was fed for 3 weeks on fructose-fed rats and the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and atherogenic index was measured. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (6 per group). The results of present study indicate that Mentha piperita had significant beneficial effects against fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and showed good antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of the plant produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and atherogenic index and also increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and HDL-ratio without affecting serum insulin levels in fructose-fed rats.

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on hepatic and serum lipid profiles in zebrafish exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Hermes, Djuli Milene; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Guizzo, Ranieli; Fracasso, Laísa Beduschi; de-Paris, Fernanda; Meurer, Fábio; Barth, Afonso Luis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful tool in pharmacological research and useful to identify new therapies. Probiotics can offer therapeutic options in alcoholic liver disease. This study was done in two independent experiments: first, we confirmed the intestinal colonization of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after ethanol exposure. Second, four groups were performed: control (C), probiotic (P), ethanol (E), and probiotic+ethanol (P+E). Liver histology, hepatocytes morphometry, hepatic and serum lipid quantifications were conducted in second experiment. During 4 weeks, P and P+E groups were fed with LGG supplemented feed; E and C unsupplemented. E and P+E groups received 0.5% of ethanol added into tank water. Zebrafish exposed to ethanol (E group) presented intense liver steatosis after 28 days in contrast to the almost normalized liver histology of P+E group at the same period. Liver morphometry showed a significant enlargement of hepatocytes of E group after 4 weeks (p<0.0001). Serum triglycerides decreased in P+E group compared with C, P (p<0.001), and E (p=0.004), after 14 and 28 days similarly. Serum cholesterol was also decreased by LGG; P group decreased compared with C and E after 14 days (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively) and P+E group decreased significantly compared with E and C groups (p<0.0001) after 28 days. Hepatic triglycerides were reduced in P+E group after 28 days compared to E (p=0.006). The persistence of LGG in zebrafish intestines was demonstrated. LGG decreased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and improved hepatic steatosis.

  13. Effects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Dicklin, Mary R; Kaden, Valerie N; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M; Marshall, John W

    2011-04-01

    This double-blind, randomized crossover study investigated the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (POM3, 4 g/day) versus placebo (soy oil) on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other aspects of the fasting lipid profile in 31 men and women with primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C 130-220 mg/dL and triglycerides less than 150 mg/dL while free of lipid-altering therapies). Mean ± standard error of the mean baseline concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were 229 ± 3, 146 ± 3, 60 ± 2, 23 ± 2, and 113 ± 8 mg/dL, respectively. POM3 produced a modest increase from baseline in LDL-C (3.4%) versus the placebo response (-0.7%, P = 0.010). Significant changes (P < 0.05) for POM3 (placebo-corrected) were observed for very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-18.8%), triglycerides (-18.7%), and HDL-C (3.3%). Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentration and size and HDL particle concentration decreased significantly more with POM3 versus placebo, whereas LDL and HDL particle sizes increased significantly more with POM3 versus placebo. Total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and LDL particle concentration responses did not differ between treatments. These results did not confirm the hypothesis that POM3 treatment would lower LDL-C in primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia. Effects on other variables were consistent with prior results in mixed dyslipidemia. PMID:21297494

  14. Causal Role of Alcohol Consumption in an Improved Lipid Profile: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Khanh N.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. Methods This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Results Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p < 0.001), a 7.71 mg/dL lower level of total cholesterol (p = 0.007), a 10.3% higher level of HDL2-c (p = 0.007), a 6.87 mg/dL lower level of LDL-c (p = 0.012), a 7.4% lower level of sdLDL-c (p = 0.037), and a 3.5% lower level of apoB (p = 0.058, poverall = 0.022). Conclusions This study supports the causal role of regular low-to-moderate alcohol consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit. PMID:26849558

  15. Dietary intake of palmitate and oleate has broad impact on systemic and tissue lipid profiles in humans123

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Stevens, Robert; Bain, James; Ikayeva, Olga; Crain, Karen; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has suggested that diets with a high ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To gain additional insights into the relative effect of dietary fatty acids and their metabolism on CVD risk, we sought to identify a metabolomic signature that tracks with diet-induced changes in blood lipid concentrations and whole-body fat oxidation. Design: We applied comprehensive metabolomic profiling tools to biological specimens collected from 18 healthy adults enrolled in a crossover trial that compared a 3-wk high–palmitic acid (HPA) with a low–palmitic acid and high–oleic acid (HOA) diet. Results: A principal components analysis of the data set including 329 variables measured in 15 subjects in the fasted state identified one factor, the principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF1-Fasted), which was heavily weighted by the PA:OA ratio of serum and muscle lipids, that was affected by diet (P < 0.0001; HPA greater than HOA). One other factor, the additional principal components analysis factor in the fasted state (PCF2-Fasted), reflected a wide range of acylcarnitines and was affected by diet in women only (P = 0.0198; HPA greater than HOA). HOA lowered the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein (LDL:HDL) in men and women, and adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted abolished the effect. In women only, adjustment for the PCF2-Fasted eliminated the HOA-diet effect on serum total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The respiratory exchange ratio in the fasted state was lower with the HPA diet (P = 0.04), and the diet effect was eliminated after adjustment for the PCF1-Fasted. The messenger RNA expression of the cholesterol regulatory gene insulin-induced gene-1 was higher with the HOA diet (P = 0.008). Conclusions: These results suggest that replacing dietary PA with OA reduces the blood LDL concentration and whole-body fat oxidation by

  16. MALDI-MS lipid profiles of oocytes recovered by ovum pickup from Bos indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus with high vs low oocyte yields.

    PubMed

    Silva-Santos, K C; Ferreira, C R; Santos, G M G; Eberlin, M N; Siloto, L S; Rosa, C O; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the lipid profile in oocytes of indicus and 1/2 indicus × taurus cows with high and low antral follicle count (AFC)/oocyte yields. After an OPU procedure (D0), antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted by ultrasonography (D4, 19, 34, 49, 64), and cows were assigned to groups with either high AFC (≥30 follicles; indicus, NH group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AH group) or low AFC (≤15 antral follicles; indicus, NL group; 1/2 indicus × taurus, AL group). The lipid profiles of the oocytes were determined by MALDI-MS. For GI, GII and GIII oocytes, the indicus samples tend to cluster separately from the 1/2 indicus × taurus samples. The lipid species [PC (P-38:5) + H](+) and/or [PC (P-36:2) + Na](+) , [PC (38:2) + H](+) , [PC (38:5) + Na](+) and [TAG (60:8) + NH(4) ](+) were more abundant in indicus (NH and NL groups) than 1/2 indicus × taurus. The higher lipid content in the indicus oocytes likely reflects differences in the rate of lipid metabolism and may contribute to oocyte competence and embryo development.

  17. Effect of Sesame Oil on Diuretics or ß-blockers in the Modulation of Blood Pressure, Anthropometry, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, D.; Rao, M. Ramakrishna; Sambandam, G.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients who were on antihypertensive therapy either with diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) or ß-blockers (atenolol). Thirty-two male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil (Idhayam gingelly oil) and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days. Blood pressure, anthropometry, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal. The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days, and the measurements were repeated at the end of withdrawal period. Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values. A significant reduction was noted in body weight and body mass index (BMI) upon sesame oil substitution. No significant alterations were observed in lipid profile except triglycerides. Plasma levels of sodium reduced while potassium elevated upon the substitution of sesame oil. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) decreased while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were increased. The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients. PMID:17876372

  18. Hematological and lipid profile changes in sea-level natives after exposure to 3550-m altitude for 8 months.

    PubMed

    Siqués, Patricia; Brito, Julio; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Barrios, Luis; De La Cruz, Juan José; López, Vasthi; Herruzo, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to determinate the effects on hematological and lipid profile in a young group of newcomers to altitude after being exposed chronically for 8 months to 3550 m (n = 50), age 17.8 +/- 0.7; and not overweight, BMI 22.9 +/- 0.5). Readings taken at altitude on day 1 and on month 8 were hematocrit (Hct, %), hemoglobin (Hb, g/dL), Sa(O(2)), total leukocyte and subset count (mm(3), %), and lipid profile (mg/dL). The same measurements were taken in a comparative group (CG) at sea level (SL). At altitude, elevations of Hct (44.6 +/- 0.4; 51.2 +/- 0.4) and Hb (15.5 +/- 0.1; 17.3 +/- 0.1) were seen (p < 0.001) and none with Hb >/= 21 g/dL. No correlation was observed between Hb and Sa(O(2)), r = 0.11, p > 0.05. Total leukocyte count showed no changes (6037 +/- 74; 6002 +/- 43), but a relative neutropenia (55.2 + -1.5; 50.6 + -1.3) and lymphocytosis (34.2 + 1; 42.4 + 1, p < 0.001) between periods were found and also when compared to SL. Also, an inverse relationship between Sa(O(2)) and total leukocytes on month 8 (r = 0.46; r(2) = 0.204), suggesting a probable representation of a hypoxia effect. Total cholesterol (153.8 +/- 4.5; 157.3 +/- 5.1; p, ns) showed no changes, but a mild decrease of LDL-cholesterol (88.4 +/- 3.3; 81.0 +/- 3.9; p < 0.05), and a rise in triglycerides (121.6 +/- 10.9; 178.8 +/- 11.7; p < 0.001) was found. Changes observed in leukocytes subset count and triglycerides could suggest a contributory role of hypoxic conditions, raising some future epidemiological concerns regarding immune system and fatty acid behaviour at altitude.

  19. Dietary spices as beneficial modulators of lipid profile in conditions of metabolic disorders and diseases.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-04-25

    Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile.

  20. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae). These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and

  1. Cardiolipin Deficiency in Rhodobacter sphaeroides Alters the Lipid Profile of Membranes and of Crystallized Cytochrome Oxidase, but Structure and Function Are Maintained

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xi; Tamot, Banita; Hiser, Carrie; Reid, Gavin E.; Benning, Christoph; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2012-05-08

    Many recent studies highlight the importance of lipids in membrane proteins, including in the formation of well-ordered crystals. To examine the effect of changes in one lipid, cardiolipin, on the lipid profile and the production, function, and crystallization of an intrinsic membrane protein, cytochrome c oxidase, we mutated the cardiolipin synthase (cls) gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, causing a >90% reduction in cardiolipin content in vivo and selective changes in the abundances of other lipids. Under these conditions, a fully native cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was produced, as indicated by its activity, spectral properties, and crystal characteristics. Analysis by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed that the cardiolipin level in CcO crystals, as in the membranes, was greatly decreased. Lipid species present in the crystals were directly analyzed for the first time using MS/MS, documenting their identities and fatty acid chain composition. The fatty acid content of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides CcO (predominantly 18:1) differs from that in mammalian CcO (18:2). In contrast to the cardiolipin dependence of mammalian CcO activity, major depletion of cardiolipin in R. sphaeroides did not impact any aspect of CcO structure or behavior, suggesting a greater tolerance of interchange of cardiolipin with other lipids in this bacterial system.

  2. Evaluation of treadmill exercise effect on muscular lipid profiles of diabetic fatty rats by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Il Yong; Son, Yeri; Byeon, Seul Kee; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    We compare comprehensive quantitative profiling of lipids at the molecular level from skeletal muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and soleus) of Zucker diabetic fatty rats and Zucker lean control rats during treadmill exercise by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Because type II diabetes is caused by decreased insulin sensitivity due to excess lipids accumulated in skeletal muscle tissue, lipidomic analysis of muscle tissues under treadmill exercise can help unveil the mechanism of lipid-associated insulin resistance. In total, 314 lipid species, including phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, diacylglycerols (DAGs), and triacylglycerols (TAGs), were analyzed to examine diabetes-related lipid species and responses to treadmill exercise. Most lysophospholipid levels increased with diabetes. While DAG levels (10 from the gastrocnemius and 13 from the soleus) were >3-fold higher in diabetic rats, levels of most of these decreased after exercise in soleus but not in gastrocnemius. Levels of 5 highly abundant TAGs (52:1 and 54:3 in the gastrocnemius and 48:2, 50:2, and 52:4 in the soleus) displaying 2-fold increases in diabetic rats decreased after exercise in the soleus but not in the gastrocnemius in most cases. Thus, aerobic exercise has a stronger influence on lipid levels in the soleus than in the gastrocnemius in type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27388225

  3. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  4. Early-postnatal changes in adiposity and lipids profile by transgenerational developmental programming in swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Ayuso, Miriam; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy, both deficiency and excess, induces changes in the intrauterine environment and the metabolic status of the offspring, playing a key role in the growth, status of fitness/obesity and appearance of metabolic disorders during postnatal life. There is increasing evidence that these effects may not be only limited to the first generation of descendants, the offspring directly exposed to metabolic challenges, but to subsequent generations. This study evaluated, in a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance, the existence and extent of transgenerational developmental programming effects. Pre- and postnatal development, adiposity and metabolic features were assessed in the second generation of piglets, descendant of sows exposed to either undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy. The results indicated that these piglets exhibited early-postnatal increases in adiposity and disturbances in lipid profiles compatible with the early prodrome of metabolic syndrome, with liver tissue also displaying evidence of paediatric liver disease. These features indicative of early-life metabolic disorders were more evident in the males that were descended from overfed grandmothers and during the transition from milk to solid feeding. Thus, this study provides evidence supporting transgenerational developmental programming and supports the necessity for the development of strategies for avoiding the current epidemics of childhood overweight and obesity.

  5. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), free FM (FFM), and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs) with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27297504

  6. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  7. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  8. Effects on lipid profile of supplementation with vitamin D in type 2 diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Lozano, José Manuel; Calvo-Romero, José María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D status may have an influence on lipid profile. Patients and methods: We studied consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) lower than 20 ng/ml). They were treated with 16,000 IU of calcifediol orally once a week for a minimum of 8 weeks. Results: A total of 28 patients were treated for a mean time of 84.1 days (range 56-120 days). All patients achieved serum levels of 25(OH)D higher than 20 ng/ml. There was significant reduction in total cholesterol (172.1 ± 32.4 versus 164.4 ± 27.3 mg/dl, p = 0.04). There were nonsignificant reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. There was no change in HDL cholesterol. Conclusions: Correction of vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetic patients decreases total cholesterol. Our results do not rule out reductions in LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. PMID:26623001

  9. Effects of Rosiglitazone with Insulin Combination Therapy on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Left Ventricular Muscles of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavak, Servet; Ayaz, Lokman; Emre, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rosiglitazone (RSG) with insulin is able to quench oxidative stress initiated by high glucose through prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods and Materials. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into an untreated control group (C), a diabetic group (D) that was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mgkg−1), and rosiglitazone group that was treated with RSG twice daily by gavage and insulin once daily by subcutaneous injection (group B). HbA1c and blood glucose levels in the circulation and malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in left ventricular muscle were measured. Result. Treatment of D rats with group B resulted in a time-dependent decrease in blood glucose. We found that the lipid profile and HbA1c levels in group B reached the control group D rat values at the end of the treatment period. There was an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine levels in group D compared to group C. Malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were found to be decreased in group B compared to group D (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data suggests that the treatment of diabetic rats with group B for 8 weeks may decrease the oxidative/nitrosative stress in left ventricular tissue of rats. Thus, in diabetes-related vascular diseases, group B treatment may be cardioprotective. PMID:22829806

  10. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  11. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  12. Blood glucose level and lipid profile of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    The current study sought to investigate the capacities of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of leaf extracts of Acanthus montanus, Asystasia gangetica, Emilia coccinea, and Hibiscus rosasinensis to reverse hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Phytochemical composition of the herbal extracts, fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), and serum lipid profile (SLP) of the rats were measured by standard methods. The relative abundance of phytochemicals in the four experimental leaf extracts was in the following order: flavonoids > alkaloids > saponins > tannins. Hyperglycemic rats (HyGR) treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of reduced FPGC compared with the untreated HyGR and were normoglycemic (FPGC < 110.0 mg/dL). Similarly, HyGR treated with single and combinatorial herbal formulations showed evidence of readjustments in their SLPs. Generally, HyGR treated with triple herbal formulations (THfs) exhibited the highest atherogenic index compared with HyGR treated with single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), and quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The display of synergy or antagonism by the composite herbal extracts in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia depended on the type and number of individual herbal extract used in constituting the experimental herbal formulations. Furthermore, the capacities of the herbal formulations (SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf) to exert glycemic control and reverse dyslipidemia did not follow predictable patterns in the animal models. PMID:27114943

  13. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human. PMID:26665406

  14. Effect of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, H S; Mohtadi-Nia, J; Homayouni-Rad, A; Niafar, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M; Mofid, V; Akbarian-Moghari, A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt on the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic people. In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 60 people (23 males and 37 females) with type 2 diabetes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than 2.6 mmol/L were assigned to 2 groups. Participants consumed daily 300 g of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g of conventional yogurt for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Probiotic yogurt consumption caused a 4.54% decrease in total cholesterol and a 7.45% decrease in LDL-C compared with the control group. No significant changes from baseline were shown in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the probiotic group. The total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio and LDL-C:HDL-C ratio as atherogenic indices significantly decreased in the probiotic group compared with the control group. Probiotic yogurt improved total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations in type 2 diabetic people and may contribute to the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:21700013

  15. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Shetty, Prashanth; Mooventhan, A; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2016-03-01

    Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF). Henc