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Sample records for abnormal lymph nodes

  1. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  2. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymph nodes, including: Seizure medicines such as phenytoin Typhoid immunization Which lymph nodes are swollen depends on ... hard, irregular, or fixed in place. You have fever, night sweats, or unexplained weight loss. Any node ...

  3. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  4. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Lymph nodes are part of the lymph system , a network of organs, nodes, ducts, and vessels that support the ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is ...

  5. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. Inmore » 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.« less

  6. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  7. The Posterior Cervical Lymph Node in Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, George F.; Kimball, Anne C.; Kean, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    Posterior cervical node enlargement is characteristic of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults. Lymph node biopsies from 37 patients, who were tested for toxoplasmosis by serologic and isolation studies, were examined. A characteristic pattern of sinus histiocytosis was seen in 17 of 18 posterior cervical nodes and in only 1 of 4 lymph nodes from other sites from patients with toxoplasmosis. The characteristic pattern was not seen in posterior cervical nodes or in lymph nodes from other sites from patients with other diseases. Lymphoma obscured the characteristic changes of toxoplasmosis in the posterior cervical nodes and other nodes of 5 patients with these coexisting diseases. Organisms were seen in tissue sections in only 2 instances. T gondii was isolated from mice in 14 of 17 attempts using nodes from patients with toxoplasmosis, but from none of 8 attempts using nodes from patients with other diseases. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 1Fig 2 PMID:4634739

  8. The posterior cervical lymph node in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Gray, G F; Kimball, A C; Kean, B H

    1972-11-01

    Posterior cervical node enlargement is characteristic of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults. Lymph node biopsies from 37 patients, who were tested for toxoplasmosis by serologic and isolation studies, were examined. A characteristic pattern of sinus histiocytosis was seen in 17 of 18 posterior cervical nodes and in only 1 of 4 lymph nodes from other sites from patients with toxoplasmosis. The characteristic pattern was not seen in posterior cervical nodes or in lymph nodes from other sites from patients with other diseases. Lymphoma obscured the characteristic changes of toxoplasmosis in the posterior cervical nodes and other nodes of 5 patients with these coexisting diseases. Organisms were seen in tissue sections in only 2 instances. T gondii was isolated from mice in 14 of 17 attempts using nodes from patients with toxoplasmosis, but from none of 8 attempts using nodes from patients with other diseases.

  9. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  10. The association of exosomes with lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hood, Joshua L

    2017-07-01

    Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells. Interactions with endothelial cells are also likely. The functional significance of these associations depends on exosome type. Continued investigations into the relationship between exosomes and lymph nodes will further our understanding of how exosomes regulate immune cells subsets and may serve to inspire new exosome based therapeutics to treat a variety of diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  12. Characteristic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint: Focus on Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal of the Mandibular Condyle, Pannus, and Lymph Node Swelling in the Parotid Glands.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Naohisa; Kaneda, Takashi; Muraoka, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Taiga; Ito, Kotaro; Kawashima, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicating bone and soft tissue involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Twenty-one patients with RA and TMJ pain who underwent MRI examination of the TMJs at the authors' hospital from August 2006 to December 2014 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients with normal TMJs who underwent MRI examination at the authors' hospital from November to December 2014 were included as controls. MRI findings were compared between the 2 groups. MRI findings of RA in the TMJ included 1) abnormal disc position (95.2%), 2) abnormal disc morphology (83.3%), 3) joint effusion (30.9%), 4) osseous changes in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), 5) synovial proliferation (pannus; 85.7%), 6) erosion of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (9.52%), 7) deformity of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (16.6%), 8) abnormal bone marrow signal in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), and 9) swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands (78.5%). The abnormal bone marrow signal and pannus in the mandibular condyle and lymph node swelling in the parotid glands were markedly more common in patients with RA than in controls. MRI findings of RA of the TMJs were characterized by bone and soft tissue involvement, including abnormal bone marrow signal of the mandibular condyle, pannus, and swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands. These characteristic MRI findings could be useful in detecting RA in the TMJ in a clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Malignant lymphoma simulating lymph node toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Franssila, K

    1982-03-01

    On histological examination of 667 cases originally suspected of lymph node toxoplasmosis, 12 cases were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma and 15 cases as atypical hyperplasia (AH), suspicious of malignant lymphoma. All 12 malignant cases were of Hodgkin's disease: eight of the lymphocyte predominant nodular type, two of lymphocyte predominant diffuse type, and two of the nodular sclerosis type. In all cases, the lymph nodes contained small groups of epithelioid cells which were virtually indistinguishable from those seen in toxoplasmosis. In the differential diagnosis between lymph node toxoplasmosis and malignant lymphoma, the following features were found helpful. In toxoplasmosis the general structure is preserved and germinal centres are frequent, while in malignant lymphoma and in AH the general structure is destroyed. However, in some cases of toxoplasmosis germinal centres may be difficult to identify because their margins are indistinct due to clusters of epithelioid cells. Also, in some types of Hodgkin's disease and in some cases of AH with epithelioid cells, the general structure of the lymph node may be partially preserved. The occurrence of epithelioid cells within germinal centres seems to be a specific feature for toxoplasmosis; it was never seen in malignant lymphoma nor in AH. The occurrence of strands of monocytoid cells (unreife Sinushistiocytose) though a fairly typical feature of toxoplasmosis, was also occasionally seen in Hodgkin's disease or AH.

  15. Murine chronic lymph node window for longitudinal intravital lymph node imaging.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eelco F J; Jeong, Han-Sin; Pereira, Ethel R; Ruggieri, Thomas A; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Padera, Timothy P

    2017-08-01

    Chronic imaging windows in mice have been developed to allow intravital microscopy of many different organs and have proven to be of paramount importance in advancing our knowledge of normal and disease processes. A model system that allows long-term intravital imaging of lymph nodes would facilitate the study of cell behavior in lymph nodes during the generation of immune responses in a variety of disease settings and during the formation of metastatic lesions in cancer-bearing mice. We describe a chronic lymph node window (CLNW) surgical preparation that allows intravital imaging of the inguinal lymph node in mice. The CLNW is custom-made from titanium and incorporates a standard coverslip. It allows stable longitudinal imaging without the need for serial surgeries while preserving lymph node blood and lymph flow. We also describe how to build and use an imaging stage specifically designed for the CLNW to prevent (large) rotational changes as well as respiratory movement during imaging. The entire procedure takes approximately half an hour per mouse, and subsequently allows for longitudinal intravital imaging of the murine lymph node and surrounding structures for up to 14 d. Small-animal surgery experience is required to successfully carry out the protocol.

  16. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  18. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological differential diagnosis between lymph node toxoplasmosis and other benign lymph node hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M

    1981-03-01

    The material from 667 lymph nodes, originally suspected of toxoplasmosis, was histologically re-examined, to evaluate criteria for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The results showed that at least 80% of benign lymph node enlargements containing small groups of epithelioid cells were associated with high titres of Toxoplasma antibodies. Furthermore, 85--95% of the lymph nodes in association with high Toxoplasma antibodies showed the typical histological appearances of toxoplasmosis. The histological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is thus both fairly specific and sensitive. Other lymph node lesions with small groups of epithelioid cells must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis usually have a predominance of distinct large epithelioid cell granulomata. Lymph nodes with sinus histiocytosis showing the formation of small groups of epithelioid cells, do not demonstrate prominent hyperplasia and include sparse germinal centres and were not associated with toxoplasmosis. Lymph nodes with disturbed general structure and small groups of epithelioid cells must be carefully assessed because of the significant possibility of malignancy.

  20. Primary lymph node responses to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Mellink, J J; Vos, B J

    1977-03-29

    Post-auricular lymph node responses and changes in fresh weight of thymus and spleen of hamsters and mice at 4 and 8 days after primary exposure of both ears to 20 bites by the mosquito Aedes aegypti were studied quantitatively. In both hosts lymph node changes characteristic of the development of cell-mediated immune responses and those which are believed to lead to antibody production occurred, with the emphasis on the latter phenomena. No reactions of thymus and spleen were observed. The responses recorded are considered to be immunologically specific. In hamsters, but not in mice, the responses related to humoral sensitization coincided in time to a large extent with those of the cell-mediated immune processes. The stronger humoral responses in mice were probably in the first place the result of the relatively higher dosages applied.

  1. Synthesis of Lymph Node-Targeting Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2017-01-01

    Molecular adjuvants based off of pattern recognition receptor agonists are capable of potently stimulating innate immunity and inducing protective immune responses to subunit antigens. One significant disadvantage to these small molecule adjuvants is their pharmacokinetic profile of entering the blood stream rather than the lymphatics after parental injection. In order to target molecular adjuvants to lymph nodes, we have developed nanoparticle carriers whose size has been optimized to avoid the blood and efficiently drain to lymph nodes (Hanson et al. Vaccine 33:861-8,2015; Hanson et al. J Clin Invest 125:2532-2546, 2015). This chapter describes in detail the materials and procedures necessary to synthesize liposome nanoparticle carriers of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic adjuvants, including synthesis tips, alternative equipment options, and pitfalls to avoid.

  2. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  3. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-08-01

    -Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. -To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. -Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. -The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin-stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non-sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment.

  4. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Weed, Scott A

    2015-07-25

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease.

  5. Significant role of Fas ligand-binding but defective Fas receptor (CD95) in lymph node hyperplasia composed of abnormal double-negative T cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Akio; Shimizu, Motomu; Takeda, Yasutaka; Nagase, Hisashi; Sayama, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    The functional differences between two mutations of the Fas (CD95) locus, Faslpr (lpr) and Faslprcg (lprcg), were investigated using bone marrow (BM) transplantation on the C3H mouse background. Both lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM transferred caused lymph node (LN) hyperplasia in lpr/+ and lprcg/+ recipients, although it was clearly smaller than that in lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg recipients of lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM. In addition, both BM induced significantly larger LN hyperplasia in lprcg/+ than lpr/+ recipients. Appearance of CD4− CD8−[double negative (DN)] T cells in the periphery is the most consistent phenotype of Fas mutations. Importantly, the proportion of DN T cells was higher in larger LN hyperplasia in the order of lpr/+, lprcg/+ and lpr/lpr or lprcg/lprcg recipients. On the other hand, both lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM transferred into wild-type (+/+) mice caused marked LN atrophy. The former, but not the latter, induced wasting syndrome. Faslg1d (gld)-homozygous lpr/lpr BM transferred into +/+ mice elicited LN hyperplasia of the same extent as that in lpr/lpr mice transferred with lpr/lpr BM, but not wasting syndrome. Taken together with the fact that DN T cells massively express Fas ligand (FasL), this study implied that FasL overexpressed on DN cells may be involved in the accumulation of DN T cells in LN, LN atrophy and wasting syndrome, and that lprcg Fas, which can bind to Fas ligand but not transduce apoptosis signal into cells, may modulate these pathological conditions by interfering with the binding of FasL to Fas. PMID:12153509

  6. The local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Ryan, Cindy; Cinelli, Serena; Basketter, David; Dearman, Rebecca; Kimber, Ian

    2012-02-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a widely accepted method for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Compared with other in vivo methods in guinea pig, the LLNA offers important advantages with respect to animal welfare, including a requirement for reduced animal numbers as well as reduced pain and trauma. In addition to hazard identification, the LLNA is used for determining the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens as a pivotal contribution to the risk assessment process. The LLNA is the only in vivo method that has been subjected to a formal validation process. The original LLNA protocol is based on measurement of the proliferative activity of draining lymph node cells (LNC), as determined by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine. Several variants to the original LLNA have been developed to eliminate the use of radioactive materials. One such alternative is considered here: the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method, which uses 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in place of radiolabeled thymidine to measure LNC proliferation in draining nodes. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Impact of Chemotherapy on Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Keyver-Paik, Mignon-Denise; Arden, Janne Myriam; Lüders, Christine; Thiesler, Thore; Abramian, Alina; Hoeller, Tobias; Hecking, Thomas; Ayub, Tiyasha Hosne; Doeser, Anna; Kaiser, Christina; Kuhn, Walther

    2016-04-01

    Complete cytoreduction is the most important prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. However, there exist conflicting data on whether the removal of microscopic tumor metastasis in macroscopically unsuspicious retroperitoneal lymph nodes is beneficial. Ovarian cancer tissues and tissues from lymph node metastasis of 30 patients with FIGO IIIC or IV disease undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) were obtained and assessed using a validated regression score. Histopathological markers, size of largest tumor focus, and overall score were evaluated in lymph node and ovarian tissue. Regression and known prognostic factors were analyzed for influence on survival. No difference in the overall score between lymph nodes and ovarian tissue was shown, however, single parameters such as fibrosis and pattern of tumor infiltration, were significantly different. The pattern of tumor regression in lymph nodes and ovarian tissue are of prognostic value. Lymph node dissection even of unsuspicious nodes should, therefore, be performed. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. The local lymph node assay in 2014.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Gerberick, G Frank; Kimber, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Toxicology endeavors to predict the potential of materials to cause adverse health (and environmental) effects and to assess the risk(s) associated with exposure. For skin sensitizers, the local lymph node assay was the first method to be fully and independently validated, as well as the first to offer an objective end point with a quantitative measure of sensitizing potency (in addition to hazard identification). Fifteen years later, it serves as the primary standard for the development of in vitro/in chemico/in silico alternatives.

  9. Molecular analysis of breast sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blumencranz, Peter W; Pieretti, Maura; Allen, Kathleen G; Blumencranz, Lisa E

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy have become the standard of care for staging the axilla in patients with invasive breast cancer. Current histologic methods for SLN evaluation have limitations, including subjectivity, limited sensitivity, and lack of standardization. The discovery of molecular markers to detect metastases has been reported over the last 2 decades. The authors review the historical development of these markers and the clinical use of one of the molecular platforms in 478 patients at their institution. Controversies and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated for patients with thick clinically lymph node-negative melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Maki; Fisher, Kate J; Wong, Joyce Y; Koscso, Jonathan M; Konstantinovic, Monique A; Govsyeyev, Nicholas; Messina, Jane L; Sarnaik, Amod A; Cruse, C Wayne; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Sondak, Vernon K; Zager, Jonathan S

    2015-05-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is indicated for the staging of clinically lymph node-negative melanoma of intermediate thickness, but its use is controversial in patients with thick melanoma. From 2002 to 2012, patients with melanoma measuring ≥4 mm in thickness were evaluated at a single institution. Associations between survival and clinicopathologic characteristics were explored. Of 571 patients with melanomas measuring ≥4 mm in thickness and no distant metastases, the median age was 66 years and 401 patients (70.2%) were male. The median Breslow thickness was 6.2 mm; the predominant subtype was nodular (45.4%). SLNB was performed in 412 patients (72%) whereas 46 patients (8.1%) presented with clinically lymph node-positive disease and 113 patients (20%) did not undergo SLNB. A positive SLN was found in 161 of 412 patients (39.1%). For SLNB performed at the study institution, 14 patients with a negative SLNB developed disease recurrence in the mapped lymph node basin (false-negative rate, 12.3%). The median disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) for the entire cohort were 62.1 months, 42.5 months, and 21.2 months, respectively. The DSS and OS for patients with a negative SLNB were 82.4 months and 53.4 months, respectively; 41.2 months and 34.7 months, respectively, for patients with positive SLNB; and 26.8 months and 22 months, respectively, for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (P<.0001). The median RFS was 32.4 months for patients who were SLNB negative, 14.3 months for patients who were SLNB positive, and 6.8 months for patients with clinically lymph node-positive disease (P<.0001). With an acceptably low false-negative rate, patients with thick melanoma and a negative SLNB appear to have significantly prolonged RFS, DSS, and OS compared with those with a positive SLNB. Therefore, SLNB should be considered as indicated for patients with thick, clinically lymph node-negative melanoma

  12. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  13. Localization of antigen-specific lymphocytes following lymph node challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Splitter, G A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of subcutaneous injections of Brucella abortus strain 19 antigen on the specific localization of autologous lymphocytes in the regional nodes of calves was analysed by fluorescent labelling and flow cytometry. Both in vitro and in vivo FITC labelling of lymphocytes indicated the preferential migration of lymphocytes from a previously challenged lymph node to a recently challenged lymph node. However, lymphocytes from a lymph node challenged with B. abortus failed to localize preferentially in a lymph node challenged with a control antigen, Listeria monocytogenes. Lymph node cells, enriched for T lymphocytes and isolated from primary stimulated or secondary challenged B. abortus lymph nodes, could proliferate when cultured with autologous antigen-pulsed macrophages. The kinetics of [3H]thymidine incorporation in lymphocytes from secondarily challenged lymph nodes occurred earlier and to a greater extent when compared with lymphocytes from primary challenged lymph nodes. Our data show that the accumulation of B. abortus-specific lymphocytes in secondarily challenged lymph nodes is increased by the presence of the specific antigen. Images Figure 4 PMID:2426183

  14. Ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes in the dog.

    PubMed

    Llabrés-Díaz, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-one medial iliac lymph nodes of 38 different dogs (eight with adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac, 13 with multicentric lymphoma, six with multicentric lymphoma but in clinical remission, and 11 control dogs) were evaluated to assess the ability of ultrasound to identify and interrogate these lymph nodes across the different groups and to differentiate these groups using different sonographic parameters. Ultrasound proved to be useful to assess canine medial iliac lymph nodes. An increase in size or number of detected lymph nodes or finding rounder or heterogeneous lymph nodes could differentiate lymph nodes of dogs of the control group from lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma or an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. Subcategories of malignancy could not be differentiated. More studies need to be performed, both with patients with reactive lymph nodes and also focusing on other canine superficial lymph nodes, before generalizing the results of this study to other areas or diseases.

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation in Women with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Laura L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer. PMID:24407177

  16. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  17. Sentinel lymph node mapping in gynecological oncology

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Li, Yaling; Wang, Qing; Batchu, Nasra; Zou, Junkai; Sun, Chao; Lv, Shulan; Song, Qing; Li, Qiling

    2017-01-01

    The intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is part of the treatment strategy for a number of types of tumor. To retrospectively compare results from the mapping of pelvic SLNs for gynecological oncology, using distinct dyes, the present review was conducted to determine the clinical significance of SLN mapping for gynecological oncology. In addition, the present study aimed at identifying an improved choice for SLN mapping tracers in clinical application. Each dye exhibits demerits when applied in the clinical environment. The combination of radioisotopes and blue dyes was identified to exhibit the most accurate detection rate of SLN drainage of gynecological oncology. However, contrast agents were unable to identify whether a SLN is positive or negative for metastasis prior to pathologic examination; additional studies are required. PMID:29344213

  18. Lymph node clearance of plutonium from subcutaneous wounds in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.

    1973-08-01

    The lymph node clearance of /sup 239/Pu O/sub 2/ administered as insoluble particles from subcutaneous implants was studied in adult beagles to simulate accidental contamination of hand wounds. External scintillation data were collected from the popliteal lymph nodes of each dog after 9.2 to 39.4 mu Ci of plutonium oxide was subcutaneously implanted into the left or right hind paws. The left hind paw was armputated 4 weeks after implantation to prevent continued deposition of plutonium oxide particles in the left popliteal lymph node. Groups of 3 dogs were sacrificed 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks after plutonium implantation formore » histopathologic, electron microscopic, and radiochemical analysis of regional lymph nodes. An additional group of dogs received treatment with the chelating agent diethyenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Plutonium rapidly accumulated in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection into the hind paw, and 1 to 10% of the implant dose was present in the popliteal lymph nodes at the time of necropsy. Histopathologic changes in the popliteal lymph nodes with plutonium particles were characterized primarily by reticular cell hyperplasia, increased numbers of macrophages, necrosis, and fibroplasia. Eventually, the plutonium particles became sequestered by scar tissue that often replaced the entire architecture of the lymph node. Light microscopic autoradiographs of the popliteal lymph nodes showed a time-related increase in number of alpha tracks per plutonium source. Electron microscopy showed that the plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages. There was slight clearance of plutonium from the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs monitored for 32 weeks. The clearance of plutonium particles from the popliteal lymph nodes was associated with necrosis of macrophages. The external iliac lymph nodes contained fewer plutonium particles than the popliteal lymph nodes and histopathologic changes were less severe. The

  19. Lymph Node Macrophages Restrict Murine Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Dolken, Lars; Mach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic infections that spread from a primary entry site to secondary vascular sites, such as the spleen, and then to tertiary shedding sites, such as the salivary glands. Human CMV (HCMV) is difficult to analyze, because its spread precedes clinical presentation. Murine CMV (MCMV) offers a tractable model. It is hypothesized to spread from peripheral sites via vascular endothelial cells and associated monocytes. However, viral luciferase imaging showed footpad-inoculated MCMV first reaching the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). PLN colonization was rapid and further spread was slow, implying that LN infection can be a significant bottleneck. Most acutely infected PLN cells were CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM). Replication-deficient MCMV also reached them, indicating direct infection. Many SSM expressed viral reporter genes, but few expressed lytic genes. SSM expressed CD11c, and MCMV with a cre-sensitive fluorochrome switch showed switched infected cells in PLN of CD11c-cre mice but yielded little switched virus. SSM depletion with liposomal clodronate or via a CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgene shifted infection to ER-TR7+ stromal cells, increased virus production, and accelerated its spread to the spleen. Therefore, MCMV disseminated via LN, and SSM slowed this spread by shielding permissive fibroblasts and poorly supporting viral lytic replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV chronically infects most people, and it can cause congenital disability and harm the immunocompromised. A major goal of vaccination is to prevent systemic infection. How this is established is unclear. Restriction to humans makes HCMV difficult to analyze. We show that peripheral MCMV infection spreads via lymph nodes. Here, MCMV infected filtering macrophages, which supported virus replication poorly. When these macrophages were depleted, MCMV infected susceptible fibroblasts and spread faster. The capacity of filtering macrophages to limit

  20. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  1. Intra-lymph node injection of biodegradable polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Andorko, James I; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M

    2014-01-02

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.

  2. Nanoparticle Transport from Mouse Vagina to Adjacent Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K.; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Hope, Thomas J.; Labib, Mohamed E.

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844

  3. [The historical perspective of the sentinel lymph node concept].

    PubMed

    Bekker, J; Meijer, S

    2008-01-05

    The sentinel lymph node procedure is currently standard care in the treatment of breast cancer. The introduction of this procedure in 1992 would not have been possible without the pioneering discoveries regarding lymph nodes and cancer. The Italian surgeon Gaspar Asellius (1581-1626) visualized the lymphatic vessels of a dog after it had been fed and shortly before dissection. At the end of the 17th century, the French anatomists Lauth and Sappey visualized the lymphatics by injecting deceased criminals with mercury. In 1858, the German pathologist Virchow (1821-1902) launched the theory that lymph nodes act as defensive barriers. He also made the first microscopical illustration ofa sentinel lymph node. Gould et al. and Cabaãs independently launched the precursors of the current modern sentinel lymph node concept in 1959 and 1977 respectively. Gould et al. were the first people to use the term "sentinel node'. Cabañas used lymphangiography for the visualisation of the sentinel lymph node. Controversies about the barrier function of the lymph nodes, the fear of skip metastasis and the difficulties of performing the Cabañas procedure, prevented a breakthrough of this concept. In 1992 Morton et al. rediscovered the valuable sentinel node biopsy concept and introduced blue dye for the investigation of patients with melanoma. The combination of lymphoscintigraphy, intra-operative gamma probe guidance and patent blue further increased the reliability of the sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Unnecessary lymph gland dissection procedures with considerable morbidity can be prevented by this procedure.

  4. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  5. Utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy for uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Cham, Stephanie; Chen, Ling; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Desai, Vrunda; Hu, Jim C; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L

    2017-06-01

    To limit the potential short and long-term morbidity of lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proposed for endometrial cancer. The principle of sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on removal of a small number of lymph nodes that are the first drainage basins from a tumor and thus the most likely to harbor tumor cells. While the procedure may reduce morbidity, efficacy data are limited and little is known about how commonly the procedure is performed. We examined the patterns and predictors of use of sentinel lymph node biopsy and outcomes of the procedure in women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy. We used the Perspective database to identify women with uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2011 through 2015. Billing and charge codes were used to classify women as having undergone lymphadenectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, or no nodal assessment. Multivariable models were used to examine clinical, demographic, and hospital characteristics with use of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Length of stay and cost were compared among the different methods of nodal assessment. Among 28,362 patients, 9327 (32.9%) did not undergo nodal assessment, 17,669 (62.3%) underwent lymphadenectomy, and 1366 (4.8%) underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.6%) of abdominal hysterectomies, 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-4.1%) of laparoscopic hysterectomies, and 7.5% (95% confidence interval, 7.0-8.0%) of robotic-assisted hysterectomies. In a multivariable model, more recent year of surgery was associated with performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Compared to abdominal hysterectomy, those undergoing laparoscopic (adjusted risk ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-3.18) and robotic-assisted (adjusted risk ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.19-3.30) hysterectomy were more likely to undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy. Among women who underwent minimally

  6. Pelvic lymph node dissection in early ovarian cancer: success of retrieval of lymph nodes by individual lymph node groups in respect to pelvic laterality.

    PubMed

    Mujezinović, Faris; Takac, Iztok

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the differences in number of harvested retroperitoneal pelvic lymph nodes by specific lymph node regions in respect to pelvic laterality. We extracted cases of early ovarian cancer (EOC) with lymphadenectomy from the medical database which were treated at our institution in the period between 1994 and 2008. Recommendations of FIGO and EGSOC (European Guidelines for Staging in Ovarian Cancer) for staging of ovarian malignancies were followed. Stage of the disease was established on the basis of intra-abdominal condition which we found during surgery and histopathologic status of retroperitoneal lymph nodes (LN). For each case and every LN group, we subtracted the number of dissected lymph nodes on the left side from the number of dissected lymph nodes on the right side of the pelvis. The result would represent the difference between number of removed LN on each side of the pelvis for specific LN group. A negative difference means that a greater number of LN was extracted from the left side and a positive difference that the greater number of LN was extracted from the right side of the pelvis. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank test for statistical analysis of differences. 48 cases with EOC underwent lymphadenectomy. In three cases, metastatic retroperitoneal pelvic lymph nodes were found. There were 79.1%, 50.0%, 45.8%, 93.8%, 52.1%, 60.4% and 70.8% of cases with left-right difference in number of removed lymph nodes in external iliac region, common iliac region, presacralic, above obturator nerve, under obturator nerve, lateral from the external ilac vessels and lateral from the common iliac vessels nodal group, respectively. The mean differences between left and right groups were in the range from 2 to 4 lymph nodes. There was no identifiable bias toward either side of the pelvis for any of the analyzed lymph node groups. There is a right and left prevalence of retrieved LN by individual LN regions in the pelvis that could be influenced by asymmetry in right

  7. [Risk factors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node ≤ 2].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yajun; He, Yingjian; Fan, Zhaoqing; Ouyang, Tao

    2014-08-13

    To explore retrospectively the risk factors of non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis ≤ 2 and examine the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node prediction. A sentinel lymph node biopsy database containing 455 breast cancer patients admitted between July 2005 and February 2012 at Beijing Cancer Hospital was analyzed retrospectively. The patients had ≤ 2 positive sentinel lymph node and complete axillary lymph node dissection. The SLNS⁺/SLNS ratio (P = 0.001), histological grade (P = 0.075), size of mass (P = 0.023) and onset age (P = 0.074) were correlated with NSLN metastases. Only SLNS⁺/SLNS (OR 0.502 95% CI 0.322-0.7844) , histological grade ratio (histological grade ratio II, III and others vs grade I OR 2.696, 2.102, 3.662) were significant independent predictors for NSLN metastases . The ROC value was 0.62 (0.56, 0.68). For ≤ 2 positive sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer, ratio of SLNS⁺/SLNS and histological grading are independent factors affecting NSLN metastases. However, the results remain unsatisfactory for predicting the status of NSLN.

  8. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R

    2006-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.

  9. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  10. Lymph node detection in IASLC-defined zones on PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yihua; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lymph node detection is challenging due to the low contrast between lymph nodes as well as surrounding soft tissues and the variation in nodal size and shape. In this paper, we propose several novel ideas which are combined into a system to operate on positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) images to detect abnormal thoracic nodes. First, our previous Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) approach is modified where lymph node zones predominantly following International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) specifications are modeled as objects arranged in a hierarchy along with key anatomic anchor objects. This fuzzy anatomy model built from diagnostic CT images is then deployed on PET/CT images for automatically recognizing the zones. A novel globular filter (g-filter) to detect blob-like objects over a specified range of sizes is designed to detect the most likely locations and sizes of diseased nodes. Abnormal nodes within each automatically localized zone are subsequently detected via combined use of different items of information at various scales: lymph node zone model poses found at recognition indicating the geographic layout at the global level of node clusters, g-filter response which hones in on and carefully selects node-like globular objects at the node level, and CT and PET gray value but within only the most plausible nodal regions for node presence at the voxel level. The models are built from 25 diagnostic CT scans and refined for an object hierarchy based on a separate set of 20 diagnostic CT scans. Node detection is tested on an additional set of 20 PET/CT scans. Our preliminary results indicate node detection sensitivity and specificity at around 90% and 85%, respectively.

  11. Sentinel lymph node detection in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Hitoshi; Okamura, Chikako; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yoshinaga, Kosuke; Akahira, Junichi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with endometrial cancer using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and an intraoperative gamma probe. Between June 2001 and January 2003, 28 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer who were scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total pelvic lymphadenectomy, and paraaortic lymphadenectomy at Tohoku University School of Medicine underwent sentinel lymph node detection. On the day before surgery, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed by injection of 99m-Technetium ((99m)Tc)-labeled phytate into the endometrium during hysteroscopy. At the time of surgery, a gamma-detecting probe was used to locate radioactive lymph nodes. At least one sentinel node was detected in each of 23 of the 28 patients (82%). The mean number of sentinel nodes detected was 3.1 (range, 1-9). Sentinel nodes could be identified in 21 of 22 patients (95%) whose tumor did not invade more than halfway into the myometrium. Eighteen patients had radioactive nodes in the paraaortic area. Most patients had a sentinel node in one of the following three sites: paraaortic, external iliac, and obturator. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting lymph node metastases were both 100%. The combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with intraoperative gamma probe detection may be useful in identifying sentinel nodes in early-stage endometrial cancer.

  12. Isolation of Moraxella canis from an Ulcerated Metastatic Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Claeys, Geert; Steyaert, Sophia; De Baere, Thierry; Peleman, Renaat; Verschraegen, Gerda

    2000-01-01

    Moraxella canis was isolated in large numbers from an ulcerated supraclavicular lymph node of a terminal patient, who died a few days later. Although the patient presented with septic symptoms and with a heavy growth of gram-negative diplococci in the lymph node, blood cultures remained negative. M. canis is an upper-airway commensal from dogs and cats and is considered nonpathogenic for humans, although this is the third reported human isolate of this species. PMID:11015424

  13. Lymph node segmentation by dynamic programming and active contours.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongqiang; Lu, Lin; Bonde, Apurva; Wang, Deling; Qi, Jing; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng

    2018-03-03

    Enlarged lymph nodes are indicators of cancer staging, and the change in their size is a reflection of treatment response. Automatic lymph node segmentation is challenging, as the boundary can be unclear and the surrounding structures complex. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of enlarged lymph nodes. The algorithm requires a user to draw a region of interest (ROI) enclosing the lymph node. Rays are cast from the center of the ROI, and the intersections of the rays and the boundary of the lymph node form a triangle mesh. The intersection points are determined by dynamic programming. The triangle mesh initializes an active contour which evolves to low-energy boundary. Three radiologists independently delineated the contours of 54 lesions from 48 patients. Dice coefficient was used to evaluate the algorithm's performance. The mean Dice coefficient between computer and the majority vote results was 83.2%. The mean Dice coefficients between the three radiologists' manual segmentations were 84.6%, 86.2%, and 88.3%. The performance of this segmentation algorithm suggests its potential clinical value for quantifying enlarged lymph nodes. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Impact of Completion Lymph Node Dissection on Patients with Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y; Lau, Briana J; Huynh, Kelly T; Flaherty, Devin C; Lee, Ji-Hey; Stern, Stacey L; Day, Steve J O'; Foshag, Leland J; Faries, Mark B

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for complete lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is an important unanswered clinical question. Study Design Patients diagnosed with positive SNB at a melanoma referral center from 1991 to 2013 were studied. Outcomes of patients who underwent CLND were compared to those who did not undergo immediate CLND (observation group, OBS). Results There were 471 patients who had positive SNB; 375 (79.6%) in the CLND group and 96 (20.4%) in the OBS group. The groups were similar except that the CLND group was younger and had more sentinel nodes removed. Five-year nodal recurrence free survival was significantly better in the CLND group compared to the OBS group (93.1% vs 84.4%, p= 0.005). However, the 5- (66.4% vs 55.2%) and 10- year (59.5% vs 45.0%) distant metastasis free survival was not significantly different (p= 0.061). The CLND group's melanoma specific survival (MSS) was superior to the OBS group; 5 year MSS was (73.7 vs 65.5%) and10 year MSS- (66.8 vs 48.3%, p=0.015). On multivariate analysis, CLND was associated with improved MSS (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89, p= 0.011) and lower nodal recurrence (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, p=0.016). Increased Breslow thickness, older age, ulceration, and trunk melanoma were all associated with worse outcomes. On subgroup analysis, following factors were associated with better outcomes from CLND- male gender, non-ulcerated primary, intermediate thickness, Clark level IV or lower extremity tumors. Conclusions Treatment of positive SNB with CLND was associated with improved MSS and nodal recurrence rate. Follow up beyond 5 years was needed to see a significant difference in MSS. PMID:27236435

  15. Prognostic relevance of lymph node ratio and total lymph node count for small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Qadan, Motaz; Dua, Monica M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A; Visser, Brendan C

    2015-08-01

    Nodal metastasis is a known prognostic factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma. The goals of this study were to evaluate the number of lymph nodes (LNs) that should be retrieved and the impact of lymph node ratio (LNR) on survival. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results was queried to identify patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma who underwent resection from 1988 to 2010. Survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis identified predictors of survival. A total of 2,772 patients underwent resection with at least one node retrieved, and this sample included equal numbers of duodenal (n = 1,387) and jejunoileal (n = 1,386) adenocarcinomas. There were 1,371 patients with no nodal metastasis (N0, 49.4%), 928 N1 (33.5%), and 474 N2 (17.1%). The median numbers of LNs examined for duodenal and jejunoileal cancers were 9 and 8, respectively. Cut-point analysis demonstrated that harvesting at least 9 for jejunoileal and 5 LN for duodenal cancers resulted in the greatest survival difference. Increasing LNR at both sites was associated with decreased overall median survival (LNR = 0, 71 months; LNR 0-0.02, 35 months; LNR 0.21-0.4, 25 months; and LNR >0.4, 16 months; P < .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed number of LNs examined, T-stage, LN positivity, and LNR were independent predictors of survival. LNR has a profound impact on survival in patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma. To achieve adequate staging, we recommend retrieving a minimum of 5 LN for duodenal and 9 LN for jejunoileal adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microanalyses of lesions and lymph nodes from coalminers' lungs.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Ruckley, V A

    1985-08-01

    The dust content and composition of lesions and hilar lymph nodes from the lungs of British coalworkers have been examined. Samples of macules, fibrotic nodules, and massive fibrosis (both peripheral and central sites) were dissected from 49 lungs. The highest mean dust concentrations (about 20%) were found in nodules and massive fibrosis. Overall there were no significant differences between the selected lesion types and their respective whole lung dust composition, although the central sites of massive fibrosis were found to contain on average a higher proportion of coal and a lower proportion of ash and its measured constituents, quartz and kaolin plus mica, than the edge of the lesion (p less than 0.001 for each component). There were striking differences between recovered lung and lymph node dusts. An examination of 180 specimens showed a mean quartz in lymph node dust of 20.3% compared with 6.1% in lung dust. As expected the proportion of quartz was greater in lymph nodes and lungs from men who had worked "low" rank (high ash) coal. By contrast with the corresponding figures for lung dusts, however, the mean proportion of quartz in nodes did not increase over the pathological range of pneumoconiotic lung disease. On average the proportions of kaolin and mica in lymph nodes reflect those found in lungs. The lymphotrophic nature of quartz was clearly shown although it was not possible to show an association between this clearance pathway and any particular type of lesion.

  17. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P < .05). The NAC nomogram was based on these 4 variables. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.791 for the NAC nomogram. In the internal validation of performance, the AUCs for the training and test sets were 0.801 and 0.760, respectively. The nomogram was validated in an external patient cohort, with an AUC of 0.705. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lymph Node Yield as a Predictor of Survival in Pathologically Node Negative Oral Cavity Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Aaron; Kedarisetty, Suraj; Raju, Sharat; Orosco, Ryan; Coffey, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Even after a pathologically node-negative (pN0) neck dissection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), patients may develop regional recurrence. In this study, we (1) hypothesize that an increased number of lymph nodes removed (lymph node yield) in patients with pN0 oral SCC predicts improved survival and (2) explore predictors of survival in these patients using a multivariable model. Case series with chart review. Administrative database analysis. The SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with all-stage oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2009 who were determined to be pN0 after elective lymph node dissection. Demographic and treatment variables were extracted. The association of lymph node yield with 5-year all-cause survival was studied with multivariable survival analyses. A total of 4341 patients with pN0 oral SCC were included in this study. The 2 highest lymph node yield quartiles (representing >22 nodes removed) were found to be significant predictors of overall survival (22-35 nodes: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.854, P = .031; 36-98 nodes: HR = 0.827, P = .010). Each additional lymph node removed during neck dissection was associated with increased survival (HR = 0.995, P = .022). These data suggest that patients with oral SCC undergoing elective neck dissection may experience an overall survival benefit associated with greater lymph node yield. Mechanisms behind the demonstrated survival advantage are unknown. Larger nodal dissections may remove a greater burden of microscopic metastatic disease, diminishing the likelihood of recurrence. Lymph node yield may serve as an objective measure of the adequacy of lymphadenectomy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Breast Cancer Subtype is Associated With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Qin; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess whether breast cancer subtype (BCS) as determined by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 can predict the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Patients who received breast conserving surgery or mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were identified from 2 cancer centers. The associations between clinicopathological variables and axillary lymph node involvement were evaluated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. A total of 3471 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53.0% had axillary lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)−/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)− subtype had a higher grade disease and the lowest rate of lymphovascular invasion. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that BCS was significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Patients with the HR−/HER2− subtype had the lowest odds of having nodal positivity than those with other BCSs. HR+/HER2− (odds ratio [OR] 1.651, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.349–2.021, P < 0.001), HR+/HER2+ (OR 1.958, 95%CI 1.542–2.486, P < 0.001), and HR−/HER2+ (OR 1.525, 95%CI 1.181–1.970, P < 0.001) tumors had higher risk of nodal positivity than the HR−/HER2− subtype. The other independent predictors of nodal metastases included tumor size, tumor grade, and lymphovascular invasion. Breast cancer subtype can predict the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. HR−/HER2− is associated with a reduced risk of axillary lymph node metastasis compared to other BCSs. Our findings may play an important role in guiding axillary treatment considerations if further confirmed in larger sample size studies. PMID:26632910

  20. Automatic mediastinal lymph node detection in chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Marco; Deguchi, Daisuke; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Mori, Kensaku

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a very common staging investigation for the assessment of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph nodes in the context of lung cancer. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and assessment of lymph nodes is usually performed manually, which can be error-prone and timeconsuming. We therefore propose a method for the automatic detection of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph node candidates in contrast-enhanced chest CT. Based on the segmentation of important mediastinal anatomy (bronchial tree, aortic arch) and making use of anatomical knowledge, we utilize Hessian eigenvalues to detect lymph node candidates. As lymph nodes can be characterized as blob-like structures of varying size and shape within a specific intensity interval, we can utilize these characteristics to reduce the number of false positive candidates significantly. We applied our method to 5 cases suspected to have lung cancer. The processing time of our algorithm did not exceed 6 minutes, and we achieved an average sensitivity of 82.1% and an average precision of 13.3%.

  1. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthey-Giè, Marie-Laure; Boubaker, Ariane; Letovanec, Igor; Demartines, Nicolas; Matter, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors), in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated. PMID:23476781

  2. Active targeted delivery of immune therapeutics to lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Baharak; Vohra, Ishaan; Kamaly, Nazila; Abdi, Reza

    2018-02-01

    Organ transplantation is a life-saving procedure and the only option for patients with end-organ failure. Immune therapeutics have been key to the success of organ transplantation. However, immune therapeutics are still unable to eliminate graft rejection and their toxicity has been implicated in poorer long-term transplant outcomes. Targeted nanodelivery has the potential to enhance not only the therapeutic index but also the bioavailability of the immune therapeutics. One of the key sites of immune therapeutics delivery is lymph node where the priming of immune cells occur. The focus of this review is on nanomedicine research to develop the targeted delivery of immune therapeutics to lymph nodes for controlling immune activation. As nanomedicine creates its niche in clinical care, it provides novel immunotherapy platforms for transplant recipients. Draining lymph nodes are the primary loci of immune activation and represent a formidable site for delivery of wide variety of immune therapeutics. There have been relentless efforts to improve the properties of nanomedicines, to have in-depth knowledge of antigen and drug loading, and, finally, to explore various routes of passive and active targeted delivery to lymph nodes. The application of nanotechnology principles in the delivery of immune therapeutics to the lymph node has created enormous excitement as a paradigm shifting approach that enables targeted delivery of a gamut of molecules to achieve a desired immune response. Therefore, innovative strategies that improve their efficacy while reducing their toxicity are among the highest unmet needs in transplantation.

  3. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, Ashley N; Harris, Kerri B; Griffin, Davey B; Edrington, Thomas S; Lucia, Lisa M; Savell, Jeffrey W

    2012-06-01

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes, which may impact compliance with the Salmonella performance standards for ground beef established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes between animals, no data are currently available regarding feedyard origin of the cattle and Salmonella prevalence. Bovine lymph nodes (279 superficial cervical plus 28 iliofemoral = 307) were collected from beef carcasses at a commercial beef harvest and processing plant over a 3-month period and examined for the prevalence of Salmonella. Cattle processed were from seven feedyards (A through G). Salmonella prevalence was exceptionally low (0% of samples were positive ) in cattle from feedyard A and high (88.2%) in cattle from feedyard B. Prevalence in the remaining feedyards ranged widely: 40.0% in feedyard C, 4.0% in feedyard D, 24.0% in feedyard E, 42.9% in feedyard F, and 40.0% in feedyard G. These data indicate the range of differences in Salmonella prevalence among feedyards. Such information may be useful for developing interventions to reduce or eliminate Salmonella from bovine lymph nodes, which would assist in the reduction of Salmonella in ground beef.

  4. Lymph node staging of oral and maxillofacial neoplasms in 31 dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Herring, Erin S; Smith, Mark M; Robertson, John L

    2002-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed to report the histologic examination results of regional lymph nodes of dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms. Twenty-eight dogs and 3 cats were evaluated. Histologic examination results of standard and serial tissue sectioning of regional lymph nodes were recorded. When available, other clinical parameters including mandibular lymph node palpation, thoracic radiographs, and pre- and postoperative fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes were compared with the histologic results. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, and melanoma were the most common neoplasms diagnosed in dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed in cats. Of the palpably enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, 17.0% had metastatic disease histologically. Radiographically evident thoracic metastatic disease was present in 7.4% of cases. Preoperative cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node based on fine needle aspiration concurred with the histologic results in 90.5% of lymph nodes examined. Postoperative cytologic evaluation of fine needle aspirates of regional lymph nodes concurred with the histologic results in 80.6% of lymph nodes examined. Only 54.5% of cases with metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes had metastasis that included the mandibular lymph node. Serial lymph node sectioning provided additional information or metastasis detection. Cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node correlates positively with histology, however results may fail to indicate the presence of regional metastasis. Assessment of all regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms will detect more metastatic disease than assessing the mandibular lymph node only.

  5. Factors affecting sentinel lymph node metastasis in Turkish breast cancer patients: Predictive value of Ki-67 and the size of lymph node.

    PubMed

    Ozemir, I A; Orhun, K; Eren, T; Baysal, H; Sagiroglu, J; Leblebici, M; Ceyran, A B; Alimoglu, O

    We aimed to analyze the factors that affect the axillary lymph node involvement in Turkish breast cancer patients with clinically non-palpable axillary lymph node. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard technique to evaluate the axillary lymph node status that directly influences the prognosis and the treatment options in breast cancer. Breast cancer patients without axillary lymph node involvement in clinic examination were enrolled the study. Patients were categorized into the two groups according to existence of axillary lymph node metastasis or not. Demographic, histopathological and clinical data of patients were revealed retrospectively. One-hundred and eighty-seven patients were analyzed and 101 of patients fulfilled the criteria and were included the study. Metastatic lymph node was detected in 38 (37.6 %) patients (Group 1), and was negative in 63 (62.4 %) patients (Group 2). Sentinel lymph node metastasis were statistically significant higher in patients with Ki-67 ≥ 14 % than patients with Ki-67 < 14 % (51.9 % vs 22.4 %; p < 0.01). Likewise, the mean size of the sentinel lymph node was statistically significant higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (p < 0.01). Ki-67 proliferation index and sentinel lymph node size may provide a higher prediction about the sentinel lymph node involvement in patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 31).

  6. Repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ipsilateral recurrent breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Folli, Secondo; Falco, Giuseppe; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Curcio, Annalisa; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Taffurelli, Mario; Regolo, Lea; Nanni, Oriana

    2016-04-01

    Patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor after previous breast conservative surgery with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy need a new axillary staging procedure. However, the best surgical option, i.e. repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection, is still debated. Purpose of the study is to assess the performance of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy. In a multicenter study, lymph node biopsy completed by back-up axillary lymph node dissection was undertaken for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor. Tracer uptake was used to identify and isolate the sentinel lymph node during surgery, and it was classified after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies. Aside from negative predictive value, overall accuracy and false-negative rate of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy were assessed. A multicenter, prospective study was conducted performing 30 repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy completed by back-up axillary lymph node dissection for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or new ipsilateral primary tumor in patients formerly treated with previous breast conservative surgery and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Negative predictive value, overall accuracy and false-negative rate of repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy were assessed. Sentinel lymph nodes were mapped in 27 patients out of 30 (90%). Aberrant drainage pathways were observed in one patient (3.7%). Tracer uptake was sufficient to identify and isolate the sentinel lymph node during surgery in 23 cases (76.6%); the patients in whom lymphoscintigraphy failed or no sentinel lymph nodes could be isolated underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The negative predictive value was 95.2%, the accuracy was 95.6% and the false-negative rate was 33%. Repeat sentinel lymph node biopsy is feasible and accurate, with a high negative predictive value. Patients with ipsilateral breast tumor

  7. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    PubMed Central

    Aljameel, M.A.; Halima, M.O.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm) in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan. PMID:26753134

  8. Dynamics of neutrophil migration in lymph nodes during infection.

    PubMed

    Chtanova, Tatyana; Schaeffer, Marie; Han, Seong-Ji; van Dooren, Giel G; Nollmann, Marcelo; Herzmark, Paul; Chan, Shiao Wei; Satija, Harshita; Camfield, Kristin; Aaron, Holly; Striepen, Boris; Robey, Ellen A

    2008-09-19

    Although the signals that control neutrophil migration from the blood to sites of infection have been well characterized, little is known about their migration patterns within lymph nodes or the strategies that neutrophils use to find their local sites of action. To address these questions, we used two-photon scanning-laser microscopy to examine neutrophil migration in intact lymph nodes during infection with an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. We found that neutrophils formed both small, transient and large, persistent swarms via a coordinated migration pattern. We provided evidence that cooperative action of neutrophils and parasite egress from host cells could trigger swarm formation. Neutrophil swarm formation coincided in space and time with the removal of macrophages that line the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. Our data provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying neutrophil swarming and suggest new roles for neutrophils in shaping immune responses.

  9. Dynamics of neutrophil migration in lymph nodes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chtanova, Tatyana; Schaeffer, Marie; Han, Seong-Ji; van Dooren, Giel G.; Nollmann, Marcelo; Herzmark, Paul; Chan, Shiao Wei; Satija, Harshita; Camfield, Kristin; Aaron, Holly; Striepen, Boris; Robey, Ellen A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary While the signals that control neutrophil migration from the blood to sites of infection have been well characterized, little is known about their migration patterns within lymph nodes, or the strategies that neutrophils use to find their local sites of action. To address these questions, we used two-photon scanning laser microscopy (TPSLM) to examine neutrophil migration in intact lymph nodes during infection with an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. We find that neutrophils form both small, transient or large, persistent swarms via a strikingly coordinated migration pattern. We provide evidence that cooperative action of neutrophils and parasite egress from host cells can trigger swarm formation. Neutrophil swarm formation coincides in space and time with the removal of macrophages that line the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. Our data provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying neutrophil swarming and suggest new roles for neutrophils in shaping immune responses. PMID:18718768

  10. Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ≥0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

  11. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Regina Marrocos; Tavares, Marcos Roberto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine what ultrasonographic features can identify metastatic cervical lymph nodes, both preoperatively and in recurrences after complete thyroidectomy. Study Design Prospective. Setting Outpatient clinic, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects and Methods A total of 1976 lymph nodes were evaluated in 118 patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with or without cervical lymph node dissection. All the patients were examined by cervical ultrasonography, preoperatively and/or postoperatively. The following factors were assessed: number, size, shape, margins, presence of fatty hilum, cortex, echotexture, echogenicity, presence of microcalcification, presence of necrosis, and type of vascularity. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each variable were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the best cutoff value for the number of variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes. Results Significant differences were found between metastatic and benign lymph nodes with regard to all of the variables evaluated ( P < .05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that size and echogenicity were the best combination of altered variables (odds ratio, 40.080 and 7.288, respectively) in discriminating malignancy. The ROC curve analysis showed that 4 was the best cutoff value for the number of altered variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes, with a combined specificity of 85.7%, sensitivity of 96.4%, and efficiency of 91.0%. Conclusion Greater diagnostic accuracy was achieved by associating the ultrasonographic variables assessed rather than by considering them individually.

  12. How to use… lymph node biopsy in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Farndon, Sarah; Behjati, Sam; Jonas, Nico; Messahel, Boo

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenopathy is a common finding in children. It often causes anxiety among parents and healthcare professionals because it can be a sign of cancer. There is limited high-quality evidence to guide clinicians as to which children should be referred for lymph node biopsy. The gold standard method for evaluating lymphadenopathy of unknown cause is an excision biopsy. In this Interpretation, we discuss the use of lymph node biopsy in children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (<45 years), advanced T stage, and higher depth of tumor invasion. Isolated perifacial node metastasis is high in oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy from the vantage point of an oncologic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has greatly influenced the surgical management of clinically localized primary melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy have been used for the selective management of the draining regional lymph node basin of primary cutaneous melanoma. Oncologic surgeons have adopted this procedure to selectively identify occult nodal status in melanoma patients who are at a higher risk of regional metastasis. The current standard of treatment of tumor-positive sentinel lymph node metastasis is immediate completion lymphadenectomy, but considerable debate surrounds the utility of this procedure. This contribution reviews development, technical aspects, selective management of the lymph node basin, and sentinel lymph node biopsy techniques.

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanin green guidance: Initial experience.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Fatih; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Aytaç, Erman; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Sager, Muhammet Sait; Çelik, Varol; Uras, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be applied by using either blue dye or radionuclide method or both in breast cancer. Fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green is a new defined method. This study evaluates the applicability of sentinel lymph node biopsy via fluorescent indocyanine green. IC-VIEW (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany) infrared visualization system was used for imaging. Two mL of indocyanine green was injected to visualize sentinel lymph nodes. After injection, subcutaneous lymphatics were traced and sentinel lymph nodes were found with simultaneous imaging. Sentinel lymph nodes were excised under fluorescent light guidance, and excised lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases underwent axillary dissection. Four patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to breast cancer were included in the study. Sentinel lymph nodes were visualized with indocyanine green in all patients. The median number of excised sentinel lymph node was 2 (2-3). Two patients with lymph node metastasis underwent axillary dissection. No metastasis was detected in lymph nodes other than the sentinel nodes in patients with axillary dissection. There was no complication during and after the operation related to the method. According to our limited experience, sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanine green guidance, which has an advantage of simultaneous visualization, is technically feasible.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanin green guidance: Initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğan, Fatih; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Aytaç, Erman; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Sager, Muhammet Sait; Çelik, Varol; Uras, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be applied by using either blue dye or radionuclide method or both in breast cancer. Fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green is a new defined method. This study evaluates the applicability of sentinel lymph node biopsy via fluorescent indocyanine green. Material and Methods: IC-VIEW (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany) infrared visualization system was used for imaging. Two mL of indocyanine green was injected to visualize sentinel lymph nodes. After injection, subcutaneous lymphatics were traced and sentinel lymph nodes were found with simultaneous imaging. Sentinel lymph nodes were excised under fluorescent light guidance, and excised lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases underwent axillary dissection. Results: Four patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to breast cancer were included in the study. Sentinel lymph nodes were visualized with indocyanine green in all patients. The median number of excised sentinel lymph node was 2 (2–3). Two patients with lymph node metastasis underwent axillary dissection. No metastasis was detected in lymph nodes other than the sentinel nodes in patients with axillary dissection. There was no complication during and after the operation related to the method. Conclusion: According to our limited experience, sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanine green guidance, which has an advantage of simultaneous visualization, is technically feasible. PMID:26985159

  17. Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.

  18. Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To more fully characterize the burden of Salmonella enterica in bovine peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), PLN (n=5,450) were collected from healthy cattle at slaughter in 12 commercial abattoirs that slaughtered feedlot-fattened (FF) cattle exclusively (n=7), cattle removed (or culled) from breeding herd...

  19. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular suspensions. The detection rate was correlated with the size and infiltrating depth of the cancer. Flow cytometry is a reliable, rapid, and quantitative method for detecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer.

  20. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic): sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 20% to 95%, depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What is the evidence for performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 221 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 99 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 58 studies and the further review of 41 full publications. Of the 41 full articles evaluated, one systematic review and three RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we evaluated the evidence for performing sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes. PMID:26788739

  1. Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic): sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pay, Andy

    2016-01-19

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 20% to 95%, depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What is the evidence for performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 221 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 99 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 58 studies and the further review of 41 full publications. Of the 41 full articles evaluated, one systematic review and three RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we evaluated the evidence for performing sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes.

  2. Lymph Node Size on Computed Tomography Images Is a Predictive Indicator for Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Colorectal Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Murono, Koji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a rare manifestation of colorectal neoplasia, requiring for radical dissection of the regional lymph nodes along with colorectal resection similar to that required for colorectal cancer. However, thus far, no reports have described the ability of computed tomography (CT) to predict lymph node involvement. In this study, we revealed the prediction rate of lymph node metastasis using contrast-enhanced CT. A total of 21 patients with colorectal NET undergoing colorectal resection were recruited from January 2010 to June 2016. We compared the CT findings between samples with or without pathologically proven lymph node metastasis, in each field (pericolic/perirectal and intermediate nodes). Within the pericolic/perirectal field, any lymph node larger than 5 mm in the CT images was a predictive indicator of lymph node metastasis with a sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC curve (AUC) of 66.7%, 87.5%, and 0.844, respectively. Within the intermediate field, any visible lymph node on the CT was a predictive indicator of lymph node metastasis with a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 100%, 76.4%, and 0.890, respectively. In addition, when we observed lymph nodes larger than 3 mm on the CT images, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 82.4%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.8971. CT images provide predictive information for lymph node metastasis with a high rate of accuracy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  4. Lymph Node Assessment in Endometrial Cancer: Towards Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Fabien; Rafii, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and is increasing in incidence. Lymphovascular invasion and lymph node (LN) status are strong predictive factors of recurrence. Therefore, the determination of the nodal status of patients is mandatory to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet allow accurate lymph node staging; thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. The clinical data accumulated recently allow us to define low- and high-risk patients based on pre- or peroperative findings that will allow the clinician to stratify the patients for their need of lymphadenectomies. More recently, several groups have been introducing sentinel node mapping with promising results as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy. Finally, the use of peroperative algorithm for risk determination could improve patient's staging with a reduction of lymphadenectomy-related morbidity. PMID:24191159

  5. Subcarinal lymph node in upper lobe non-small cell lung cancer patients: is selective lymph node dissection valid?

    PubMed

    Aokage, Keiju; Yoshida, Junji; Ishii, Genichiro; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Nagai, Kanji

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about selective lymph node dissection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We sought to gain insight into subcarinal node involvement for its frequency and impact on outcome to evaluate whether it is valid to omit subcarinal lymph node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients. We reviewed node metastases distribution according to node region, tumor location, and histology among 1099 patients with upper lobe NSCLC. We paid special attention to subcarinal metastases patients without superior mediastinal node metastases, because their pathological stages would have been underdiagnosed if subcarinal node dissection had been omitted. We also assessed the outcome and the pattern of failure among subcarinal metastases patients. To identify subcarinal node involvement predictors, we analyzed 7 clinical factors. Subcarinal node metastases were found in 20 patients and were least frequent among squamous cell carcinoma patients (0.5%). Two of them were free from superior mediastinal metastases but died of the disease at 1 month and due to an unknown cause at 18 months, respectively. Seventeen of the 20 patients developed multi-site recurrence within 37 months. The 5-year survival rate of the 20 patients with subcarinal metastases was 9.0%, which was significantly lower than 32.0% of patients with only superior mediastinal metastases. Clinical diagnosis of node metastases was significantly predictive of subcarinal metastases. Subcarinal node metastases from upper lobe NSCLC were rare and predicted an extremely poor outcome. It appears valid to omit subcarinal node dissection in upper lobe NSCLC patients, especially in clinical N0 squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of cytologic and histopathologic findings with perinodal echogenicity of abdominal lymph nodes in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Davé, Aditya C; Zekas, Lisa J; Auld, Danelle M

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs and cats is routinely investigated with ultrasound. As the determination between benign and neoplastic etiologies of lymphadenopathy affects patient management, specific sonographic characteristics associated with both benign and neoplastic lymph nodes have been suggested. However, a significant overlap between these characteristics exists, necessitating a cytologic or histopathologic diagnosis in most instances. The objectives of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to evaluate whether echogenicity of perinodal fat could be a discriminator between benign and neoplastic abdominal lymphadenopathy and to assess if additional sonographic features associated with malignancy could be identified in lymph nodes with hyperechoic perinodal fat. Small animal patients (257 dogs and 117 cats) with sonographic evidence of abdominal lymphadenopathy and a cytological or histopathological diagnosis were evaluated for differences in the proportions of sonographic features between benign and neoplastic groups. Greater maximum long axis diameter (in dogs and cats) and a greater number of abnormal lymph nodes (in cats) were associated with malignancy in lymph nodes with hyperechoic perinodal fat. Canine lymph nodes with round cell neoplasia were significantly more likely to have hyperechoic perinodal fat. Lymph nodes affected with other neoplasia or with lymphadenitis were equally likely to have normal or hyperechoic perinodal fat. Reactive lymph nodes were significantly less likely to have hyperechoic perinodal fat in both species. These results suggest that though echogenicity of perinodal fat is a nonspecific finding, abdominal lymph nodes with hyperechoic perinodal fat are less likely to be reactive and sampling of these lymph nodes may be indicated. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. [Improvement of local lymph node assay for cosmetics safety evaluation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Junping; Wang, Fei; Xu, Guifeng; Hou, Juan; Wan, Xuying; Zhang, Tianbao

    2009-09-01

    To improve the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as an alternative method to detect chemicals for both sensitization and irritation. The following chemicals: one negative control: 4-Aminobenzoic Acid, three sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), Hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), 2-Aminophenol (2-APC) and two irritations: potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) were selected. According to the normal LLNA, groups of female Balb/c mice were treated with test solutions. The thickness of each ear was measured and each auricle was weighed. On the sixth day, the bilateral draining auricular lymph nodes were excised and weighed. The single cell suspensions were prepared, the lymphocyte were counted and the proliferations of lymph cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Significant increase in ear thickness and weight were found in groups of KOH, SLS and DNCB (above 0.5%) (P < 0.05), which could be considered as irritants, whereas irritation were not found in 2-APC and HCA. In the allergic test, three sensitizers showed positive, but different sensitivity were found among each index. HCA, DNCB and 2-APC could all obviously augment the weight of lymph node and the lymphocyte count in different groups (P < 0.05). Conspicuous proliferation of lymphocyte were found in DNCB (all group), HCA (above the middle dose) and 2-APC (high dose) by CCK-8. The reformed LLNA using auricle thickness and weighing as observed markers for irritation, and using lymph nodes weighing and proliferation of lymphocyte as observed markers for sensitization, could evaluate both sensitization and irritation at the same time.

  8. Esophageal Cancer: Associations With (pN+) Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas W; Ishwaran, Hemant; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Schipper, Paul H; Kesler, Kenneth A; Law, Simon; Lerut, E M R; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Salo, Jarmo A; Scott, Walter J; Watson, Thomas J; Allen, Mark S; Chen, Long-Qi; Rusch, Valerie W; Cerfolio, Robert J; Luketich, James D; Duranceau, Andre; Darling, Gail E; Pera, Manuel; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-01-01

    To identify the associations of lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer. Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics. Data on 5806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques. pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5 cm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones. In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status.

  9. Lymph node harvest in colon and rectal cancer: Current considerations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James R; Renehan, Andrew G; O’Dwyer, Sarah T; Haboubi, Najib Y

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic significance of identifying lymph node (LN) metastases following surgical resection for colon and rectal cancer is well recognized and is reflected in accurate staging of the disease. An established body of evidence exists, demonstrating an association between a higher total LN count and improved survival, particularly for node negative colon cancer. In node positive disease, however, the lymph node ratios may represent a better prognostic indicator, although the impact of this on clinical treatment has yet to be universally established. By extension, strategies to increase surgical node harvest and/or laboratory methods to increase LN yield seem logical and might improve cancer staging. However, debate prevails as to whether or not these extrapolations are clinically relevant, particularly when very high LN counts are sought. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 12 nodes harvested as the standard of care, yet the evidence for such is questionable as it is unclear whether an increasing the LN count results in improved survival. Findings from modern treatments, including down-staging in rectal cancer using pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, paradoxically suggest that lower LN count, or indeed complete absence of LNs, are associated with improved survival; implying that using a specific number of LNs harvested as a measure of surgical quality is not always appropriate. The pursuit of a sufficient LN harvest represents good clinical practice; however, recent evidence shows that the exhaustive searching for very high LN yields may be unnecessary and has little influence on modern approaches to treatment. PMID:22347537

  10. Lymph node pick up by separate stations: Option or necessity.

    PubMed

    Morgagni, Paolo; Nanni, Oriana; Carretta, Elisa; Altini, Mattia; Saragoni, Luca; Falcini, Fabio; Garcea, Domenico

    2015-05-27

    To evaluate whether lymph node pick up by separate stations could be an indicator of patients submitted to appropriate surgical treatment. One thousand two hundred and three consecutive gastric cancer patients submitted to radical resection in 7 general hospitals and for whom no information was available on the extension of lymphatic dissection were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, where the stomach specimen was directly formalin-fixed and sent to the pathologist, and group B, where lymph nodes were picked up after surgery and fixed for separate stations. Sixty-two point three percent of group A patients showed < 16 retrieved lymph nodes compared to 19.4% of group B (P < 0.0001). Group B (separate stations) patients had significantly higher survival rates than those in group A [46.1 mo (95%CI: 36.5-56.0) vs 27.7 mo (95%CI: 21.3-31.9); P = 0.0001], independently of T or N stage. In multivariate analysis, group A also showed a higher risk of death than group B (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46). Separate lymphatic station dissection increases the number of retrieved nodes, leads to better tumor staging, and permits verification of the surgical dissection. The number of dissected stations could potentially be used as an index to evaluate the quality of treatment received.

  11. Sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Acharya, B C; Jihong, L

    2009-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important independent prognostic factor in early stage cervical cancer. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node detection have been increasingly evaluated in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors, particularly breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of these procedures in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for early cervical cancer. A total of 30 patients with histologically diagnosed FIGO stage IA to IIA cervical cancer were enrolled to this study. They were scheduled to undergo radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy after injecting patent blue dye in cervix. A total of 60 SLNs (mean 2.5) were detected in 24 patients with detection rate of 80%. Bilateral SLNs were detected in 70.1% of cases. SLNs were identified in obturator and external iliac areas in 50% and 31.7%, respectively; no SLNs were discovered in the common iliac region. Seven patients (23.3%) had lymph node metastases; one of these had false negative SLN.The false negative rate and negative predictive value were 14.3% and 94.4%, respectively. SLN detection procedure with blue dye technique is a feasible procedure in cervical cancer. Patent blue dye is cheap, safe and effective tracer to detect sentinel node in carcinoma of cervix.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer.

  13. [The Role of Supraclavicular lymph node dissection in Breast Cancer Patients with Synchronous Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Qi, X M; Chen, A X; Zhang, P; Cao, X C; Xiao, C H

    2017-05-23

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of supraclavicular lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients who presented with ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (ISLM) without distant metastasis. Methods: A total of 90 patients with synchronous ISLM without distant metastasis between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups, namely supraclavicular lymph node dissection group(34 patients) and non-dissection group(56 patients), according to whether they underwentsupraclavicular lymph node dissection or not.The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to analyze the locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS) and overall survival(OS). Results: Median follow-upwas 85 months(range, 6 to 11 months). Local recurrence in 32 cases, 47 cases of distant metastasis, of which 25 patients were accompanied by both locoregional relapse and distant metastasis. Of the 32 patients with locoregional relapse, 11 patients were in the lymph node dissection group and 21 patients in the control group. Of the 47 patients with distant metastases, 17 were treated with lymph node dissection, 30 in the control group. Thirty-two patients died in the whole group and 16 patients underwentlymph node dissection and 16 patients didn't. There was no significant difference between the rate of 5-year LRFS and 5-year OS ( P =0.359, P =0.246). For patients of ER negative, the 5-year loco-regional relapse free survival rates were 63.7% and 43.3% in supraclavicular lymph node dissection group and control group, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates were 52.1% and 52.3%, respectively, and there were no statistically significant differences ( P =0.118, P =0.951). For patients of PR negative, the 5-yearloco-regional relapse free rates were 59.8% and 46.2%, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 50.6% and 43.2%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups ( P =0.317, P =0

  14. Long-term prognoses and outcomes of axillary lymph node recurrence in 2,578 sentinel lymph node-negative patients for whom axillary lymph node dissection was omitted: results from one Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Ogiya, Akiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Nakashima, Eri; Sakai, Takehiko; Miyagi, Yumi; Iijima, Kotaro; Morizono, Hidetomo; Makita, Masujiro; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Axillary dissection omission for sentinel lymph node-negative patients has been a practice at Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research since 2003. We examined the long-term results of omission of axillary dissection in sentinel lymph node-negative patients treated at our hospital, as well as their axillary lymph node recurrence characteristics and outcomes. Our study included 2,578 patients with cTis or T1-T3N0M0 primary breast cancer for whom dissection was omitted because they were sentinel lymph node negative. The median observation period was 75 months. In sentinel lymph node-negative patients for whom dissection was omitted, the rates of axillary lymph node recurrence, distant recurrence, and breast cancer mortality were 0.9, 2, and 1 %, respectively. Eighteen patients underwent additional dissection if axillary lymph node recurrence was observed at the first recurrence. Four triple-negative (TN) patients experienced distant recurrence after additional dissection. All four patients were administered anticancer agents after axillary lymph node recurrence and experienced recurrence within 1 year of additional dissection. The axillary lymph node recurrence rate was 0.8 % for luminal and 4.5 % for TN subtypes. The long-term prognoses of patients for whom dissection was omitted owing to negative sentinel lymph node metastases were similar to those reported previously-low recurrence and mortality rates. The frequency of axillary lymph node recurrence and the post-recurrence outcome differed between luminal and TN cases, with recurrence being more frequent in patients with the TN subtype. TN patients also had poorer prognoses, even after receiving additional dissection and anticancer agents after recurrence.

  15. Technical considerations to minimize complications of inguinal lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manik K.; Patel, Amar P.

    2017-01-01

    Penile cancer is a rare malignancy with a high propensity for regional dissemination. Current guidelines recommend inguinal lymphadenectomy in patients with penile cancer for palpable inguinal lymph nodes or in certain cases of nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. For many years, this procedure was performed with a traditional open approach and carried significant morbidity due to severe lymphedema, flap necrosis, wound infections, and seroma formation. The evolution of inguinal lymphadenectomy surgery for patients with penile cancer to a more minimally invasive approach has greatly reduced the morbidity of the procedure. Complications of inguinal lymphadenectomy can be minimized with modifications in surgical approach with the use of endoscopic, robotic, and various reconstructive methods. This review focuses on various intraoperative techniques to reduce morbidity in inguinal lymphadenectomies for penile cancer. PMID:29184778

  16. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  17. Statistical evaluation of the Local Lymph Node Assay.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2010-04-01

    In the Local Lymph Node Assay measured endpoints for each animal, such as cell proliferation, cell counts and/or lymph node weight should be evaluated separately. The primary criterion for a positive response is when the estimated stimulation index is larger than a specified relative threshold that is endpoint- and strain-specific. When the lower confidence limit for ratio-to-control comparisons is larger than a relevance threshold, a biologically relevant increase can be concluded according to the proof of hazard. Alternatively, when the upper confidence limit for ratio-to-control comparisons is smaller than a tolerable margin, harmlessness can be concluded according to a proof of safety. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of CEUS in characterization of superficial lymph nodes: a single center prospective study

    PubMed Central

    de Stefano, Giorgio; Scognamiglio, Umberto; Di Martino, Filomena; Parrella, Roberto; Scarano, Francesco; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Farella, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Accurate lymph node characterization is important in a large number of clinical settings. We evaluated the usefulness of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in distinguishing between benign and malignant lymph nodes compared with conventional ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy. We present our experience for 111 patients enrolled in a single center. 111 superficial lymph nodes were selected and only 1 lymph node per patient underwent CEUS. A definitive diagnosis for all lymph nodes was obtained by ultrasonographically guided biopsy and/or excision biopsy. The size of the lymph nodes, the site (neck, axilla, inguinal region) being easily accessible for biopsy, and the US and color Doppler US characteristics guided us in selecting the nodes to be evaluated by CEUS. In our study we identified different enhancement patterns in benign and malignant lymph nodes, with a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for superficial lymphadenopathy in comparison with conventional US. PMID:27191746

  19. Management of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brenin, David R.; Morrow, Monica; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean B.; Wilson, J. Frank; Winchester, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and axillary irradiation (AI) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the factors influencing them. Summary Background Data Routine performance of ALND in the treatment of breast cancer has become controversial. AI has been proposed as an alternative to ALND, and it has been suggested that AI in addition to ALND may decrease local failure in high-risk patients. Methods A joint study was conducted by the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Radiology. A total of 17,151 patients with stage I and II breast cancer treated at 819 institutions in 1994 were studied. Results A total of 15,992 patients underwent ALND (93%). The mean ages of patients who did and did not undergo ALND were 60.4 and 73.0 years. Univariate analysis demonstrated significantly decreased rates of ALND for women age 70 or older (86%vs. 97%), patients with clinical T1a tumors (81%vs. 93%), grade I histology (90%vs. 95%), and patients with favorable tumor types (88%vs. 94%). The ALND rate did not vary between palpable and nonpalpable tumors. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting the rate of ALND identified type of surgery, age, tumor size, histology, and payer status as significant. A total of 889 patients received AI. Patients not undergoing ALND were more likely to receive AI (10%vs. 5%). A total of 1.6% of patients with no lymph node metastasis underwent AI, 8.9% of those with one to three positive nodes underwent AI, 24.0% of those with four to nine positive lymph nodes underwent AI, and 29.9% of those with ≥10 positive lymph nodes underwent AI. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting the proportion of patients who received AI and had undergone ALND identified nodal status and type of surgery as significant. Conclusions Axillary lymph node dissection continues to be routinely applied in the treatment of breast cancer, and AI remains underused in patients at

  20. Clonal B-cell population in a reactive lymph node in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Nappa, Salvatore; Picardi, Marco; De Renzo, Amalia; Troncone, Giancarlo; Palombini, Lucio; Zeppa, Pio

    2009-12-01

    A 40-year-old female, HIV positive, stage C, since 4 years, complained of a right cervical lymph node swelling. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL); she had been treated with four cycles of multiagent chemotherapy plus rituximab, the last cycle being administered 10 months before coming to our attention. An ultrasound (US) guided fine-needle cytology (FNC) showed an atypical lymphoid cell proliferation. The phenotype evidenced by flow cytometry (FC) analysis was D5: 10%, CD19: 49%, CD23: 10%, FMC7: 0%, CD10: 40%, CD10/19: 40%, lambda light chain 40%, kappa light chain 0%. FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan showed positivity in the corresponding cervical area. Since low LDH values and a reduced lymph node size were observed, the lymph node was therefore excised; the histology revealed a reactive hyperplastic lymph node with florid follicular pattern. A subsequent PCR analysis, performed on DNA extracted from a whole histological section, did not evidence IgH rearrangement. The patient is currently undergoing strict clinical and instrumental follow-up, including PET every 3 months; after 13 months, she is alive without recurrence of lymphoma. Clonal B-cell populations in non-lymphomatous processes have been described in mucosa-associated lymphoid cell populations and reactive lymph nodes, and are considered non-malignant, antigen driven, proliferations of B-lymphocytes determined by an abnormal response to bacterial or viral antigen stimulation. The present case occurred in an HIV patient and was clinically complex because of the patient's history of FL. This experience suggests much attention in the evaluation of radiological, cytological, and FC data and in clinical correlation in patients suffering from autoimmune or immunodeficiency syndromes.

  1. [Incidence and influencing factors of distal external iliac lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yueju; Sheng, Xiugui; Li, Xinglan; Li, Dapeng; Han, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-06-01

    The distal external iliac lymph nodes are located along the external iliac artery between the deep circumflex iliac vein and the inguinal canal. Our study aimed to investigate the incidence of metastasis in distal external iliac lymph nodes and its association with clinicopathological factors in patients with early stage cervical cancer, and to determine the role of distal external iliac lymph nodes dissection in the surgery. Five hundred and twenty-four patients with early stage cervical cancer underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the Shandong Province Cancer Hospital between June 1995 and December 2011, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 524 patients, 124 (23.7%) had pelvic lymph node metastasis. The metastasis rates were 16.2% (85 of 524 patients) in the obturator lymph nodes, 12.2% (64 of 524 patients) in the internal and external iliac lymph nodes, 2.9% (15 of 524 patients) in the common iliac lymph nodes, 2.1% (11 of 524 patients) in the distal external iliac lymph nodes, and 1.7% (9 of 524 patients) in the para-aortic nodes. The incidence of isolated positive distal external iliac lymph nodes was 0.2%. Univariate analysis showed that lymphovascular space invasion, pelvic lymph node metastases (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) were significantly associated with distal external iliac lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) was the independent risk factor for metastasis to distal external iliac lymph nodes. In early stage cervical cancer, distal external iliac lymph node metastasis is rare, especially in cases with stage IA or without pelvic lymph node metastasis. Less extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy may be considered in these patients in order to reduce operative complications and improve patients' quality of life. The deep circumflex iliac vein may be an

  2. Clinicopathologic risk factors for right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q A; Ma, D K; Liu, K P; Wang, P; Xie, C M; Wu, Y H; Dai, W J; Jiang, H C

    2018-03-17

    To investigate risk factors associated with right paraesophageal lymph node (RPELN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to determine the indications for right lymph node dissection. Clinicopathologic data from 829 patients (104 men and 725 women) with PTC, operated on by the same thyroid surgery team at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from January 2013 to May 2017, were analyzed. Overall, 309 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymph node dissection, 488 underwent right thyroid lobe and isthmic resection with right central compartment lymph node dissection, and 32 underwent near-total thyroidectomy (ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy with contralateral near-total lobectomy) with bilateral lymph node dissection. The overall rate of central compartment lymph node metastasis was 43.5% (361/829), with right central compartment lymph node and RPELN metastasis rates of 35.5% (294/829) and 19.1% (158/829), respectively. Tumor size, number, invasion, and location, lymph node metastasis, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis were associated with RPELN in the univariate analysis, whereas age and sex were not. Multivariate analysis identified tumors with a diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, tumors located in the right lobe, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis as independent risk factors for RPELN metastasis. Lymph node dissection, including RPELN dissection, should be performed for patients with PTC with a tumor diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, right-lobe tumors, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, or suspected lateral compartment lymph node metastasis.

  3. High definition infrared spectroscopic imaging for lymph node histopathology.

    PubMed

    Leslie, L Suzanne; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Mayerich, David; Bindra, Snehal; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD) data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy.

  4. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  5. Eosinophilic inflammation in lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sidnei Ferro; Trivellato, Gabriel Franco; Rebech, Gabriela Torres; Oliveira Dos Santos Maciel, Marilene; Melo, Larissa Martins; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2018-06-19

    Eosinophils are traditionally associated with the immune response against helminth parasites. However, several studies have demonstrated that these cells have a role regarding protective immunity in leishmaniasis. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of eosinophils and parasite load in biopsy samples from dogs, obtained through fine needle puncture and aspiration of lymph nodes. Histological slides containing biopsy material from lymph nodes of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis and healthy dogs were used to obtain baseline eosinophil counts. Subsequently, scrapings were taken from slides for DNA extraction and determination of parasite load, using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Additionally, production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by eosinophils in the peripheral blood of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis and healthy dogs was measured. The eosinophil percentage were higher in lymph nodes of infected group, and the parasite load showed a significant negative correlation with the eosinophil count. The production of NO and ROS by eosinophils in the peripheral blood was higher in the dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis. All the results together suggest that eosinophils may participate in anti-leishmanial immunity in canine visceral leishmaniasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 μM and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  7. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  8. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs <22; group B: HLNs≥22). The intraoperative and postoperative characteristics, including operative blood loss (P=0.096), operation time (P=0.430), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.142), complications (P=0.552), rate of reoperation (P=0.966) and postoperative mortality (P=1.000), were comparable between the two groups. T-stage-stratified Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the 5-year survival rate of patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  9. Efficacy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Detecting Axillary Metastasis in Breast Cancer Using Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Nandu, Vipul V; Chaudhari, Milind S

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Axillary lymph node status is a very important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients; nodal evaluation is therefore a critical part of breast cancer management. Axillary lymph node dissection results in significant morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is being used in many centers to stage the axilla in planning axillary dissection management of patients and hence plays an important part in reducing morbidity among patients with carcinoma breast. The objectives of this paper is to study the (1) efficacy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in detecting axillary metastasis, (2) location of sentinel lymph node in the axilla, (3) rate of involvement of sentinel lymph nodes, and (4) incidence of skip metastasis. Thirty-five patients with breast cancer with clinically node-negative axilla were selected for the study. Methylene blue dye was injected intralesional and perilesional 20 min prior to surgery. All patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection and after pathological examination diagnostic statics, namely sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were computed. Sentinel lymph node was identified in all of these patients. Sixty percent patients had pathologically positive lymph nodes in the axilla. 90.48% patients of these had sentinel lymph nodes positive for malignant cells. Incidence of skip metastasis is 9.52%. 88.57% patients had sentinel lymph node mapped to level I lymph nodes. Sensitivity of SLNB is 90.48%, specificity is 85.71%, PPV of is 90.48%, NPV is 85.71%, and accuracy is 88.57%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an effective method of staging the axilla and deciding on axillary clearance in patients of carcinoma breast. Unnecessary axillary dissection and associated complications can be prevented in most of patients due to sentinel

  10. Use of Indocyanine Green for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Case Series and Methods Comparison.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Andrew; Pavri, Sabrina N; Tsay, Cynthia; Kim, Samuel; Narayan, Deepak

    2017-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated for patients with biopsy-proven thickness melanoma greater than 1.0 mm. Use of lymphoscintigraphy along with vital blue dyes is the gold standard for identifying sentinel lymph nodes intraoperatively. Indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been used as a method of identifying sentinel lymph nodes. We herein describe a case series of patients who have successfully undergone ICG-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma. We compare 2 imaging systems that are used for ICG-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy. Fourteen patients underwent ICG-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma using the SPY Elite system (Novadaq, Mississigua, Canada) and the Hamamatsu PDE-Neo probe system (Mitaka USA, Park City, Utah). We analyzed costs for 2 systems that utilize ICG for sentinel lymph node biopsies. Intraoperative use of ICG for sentinel lymph node biopsies was successful in correctly identifying sentinel lymph nodes. There was no difference between the Hamamatsu PDE-Neo probe and SPY Elite systems in the ability to detect sentinel lymph nodes; however, the former was associated with a lower operating cost and ease of use compared with the latter. ICG-assisted sentinel lymph biopsy using the SPY Elite or the Hamamatsu PDE-Neo probe systems for melanoma are comparable in terms of sentinel node detection. The Neo probe system delivers pertinent clinical data with the advantages of lower cost and ease of operation.

  11. Impact of affected lymph nodes on long-term outcome after surgical therapy of alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Beck, Annika; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Graeter, Tilmann; Barth, Thomas F E; Schmidberger, Julian; Möller, Peter; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Gruener, Beate

    2018-06-16

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a life-threatening helminthic disease. In humans, AE mostly affects the liver; the regional hepatic lymph nodes may be involved, indicating dissemination of AE from the liver. To achieve complete removal of the disease, enlarged hepatic lymph nodes may be resected during surgical treatment. We evaluated the frequency of affected lymph nodes by conventional microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses including detection of small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spem). Furthermore, we analyzed the association of resection of enlarged and affected lymph nodes with long-term outcome after surgical therapy of patients who underwent surgery with curative intent. We identified 43 patients who underwent hepatic surgery with curative intent with lymph node resection for AE. We analyzed the cohort for the manifestation of the parasite in the resected lymph nodes by conventional histology and by immunohistochemistry and compared these data with the further course of AE. Microscopically infected lymph nodes (laminar layer visible) were found in 7 out of these 43 patients (16%). In more than three quarters (25/32) of all specimens investigated, lymph nodes showed spems when stained with antibody against Em2G11, a monoclonal antibody specific for the Em2 antigen of the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode. Most frequently, lymph nodes were resected due to enlargement. The median size of microscopically affected lymph nodes was 2 cm (range, 1.2 to 2.5 cm), the median size of immunohistochemically and non-affected lymph nodes was 1.3 cm each (range, "small" to 2.3 or 2.5 cm, respectively). Median follow-up was 8 years for all patients, 5 years for patients with lymph node resection, and 4 years for patients with infested lymph nodes. Overall, recurrent disease was seen in ten patients (10/109; 9%) after a median period of 1.5 years (range, 4 months to 4 years). None of the seven patients with conventionally microscopically

  12. Lymph nodes ratio based nomogram predicts survival of resectable gastric cancer regardless of the number of examined lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shangxiang; Rao, Huamin; Liu, Jianjun; Geng, Qirong; Guo, Jing; Kong, Pengfei; Li, Shun; Liu, Xuechao; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhan, Youqing; Xu, Dazhi

    2017-07-11

    To develop a nomogram to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients on the basis of metastatic lymph nodes ratio (mLNR), especially in the patients with total number of examined lymph nodes (TLN) less than 15. The nomogram was constructed based on a retrospective database that included 2,205 patients underwent curative resection in Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University (SYSUCC). Resectable gastric cancer (RGC) patients underwent curative resection before December 31, 2008 were assigned as the training set (n=1,470) and those between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 were selected as the internal validation set (n=735). Additional external validations were also performed separately by an independent data set (n=602) from Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital (JXCH) in Jiangxi, China and a data set (n=3,317) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The Independent risk factors were identified by Multivariate Cox Regression. In the SYSUCC set, TNM (Tumor-node-metastasis) and TRM-based (Tumor-Positive Nodes Ratio-Metastasis) nomograms were constructed respectively. The TNM-based nomogram showed better discrimination than the AJCC-TNM staging system (C-index: 0.73 versus 0.69, p<0.01). When the mLNR was included in the nomogram, the C-index increased to 0.76. Furthermore, the C-index in the TRM-based nomogram was similar between TLN ≥16 (C-index: 0.77) and TLN ≤15 (C-index: 0.75). The discrimination was further ascertained by internal and external validations. We developed and validated a novel TRM-based nomogram that provided more accurate prediction of survival for gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection, regardless of the number of examined lymph nodes.

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy in lymph node positive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gofrit, Ofer N; Stadler, Walter M; Zorn, Kevin C; Lin, Shang; Silvestre, Josephine; Shalhav, Arieh L; Zagaja, Gregory P; Steinberg, Gary D

    2009-01-01

    Lymph node-positive bladder cancer is a systemic disease in the majority of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy given shortly after surgery, when tumor burden is low, seems reasonable, yet there is no proof that it improves survival. In this retrospective study, we compare the outcomes of patients with microscopic lymph node positive bladder cancer (pN1 or pN2) treated with radical cystectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and those who declined chemotherapy. Sixty-seven patients with lymph node positive bladder cancer (26 pN1 and 41 pN2) who underwent radical cystectomy between April 1995 and April 2005 were reviewed. Combined adjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine and cisplatin in most patients) was given to 35 patients (52%), but declined by 32 (48%). The two groups were similar in performance status, postoperative complication rate, and N stage but deferring patients were on average 5 years older and had a more advanced T stage. Study primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Adjuvant chemotherapy was well tolerated and 28/35 patients (80%) completed all 4 cycles. Median OS of patients given adjuvant chemotherapy was 48 months compared with 8 months for declining patients (hazard ratio 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.4, P < 0.0001). Multivariate age adjusted analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent factor affecting OS (hazard ratio 0.2, P < 0.0001). This study supports the use of adjuvant chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with node positive bladder cancer. Study design and patient imbalances make it impossible to draw definitive conclusions.

  14. The prognostic significance of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Russell E; Ross, Merrick I; Edwards, Michael J; Noyes, R Dirk; Reintgen, Douglas S; Hagendoorn, Lee J; Stromberg, Arnold J; Martin, Robert C G; McMasters, Kelly M; Scoggins, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that metastasis beyond the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) to the nonsentinel nodes (NSN) is an important predictor of survival. Analysis was performed of a prospective multi-institutional study that included patients with melanoma ≥ 1.0 mm in Breslow thickness. All patients underwent SLN biopsy; completion lymphadenectomy was performed for all SLN metastases. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were computed by Kaplan-Meier analysis; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with differences in survival among groups. A total of 2335 patients were analyzed over a median follow-up of 68 months. We compared 3 groups: SLN negative (n = 1988), SLN-only positive (n = 296), and both SLN and NSN positive (n = 51). The 5-year DFS rates were 85.5, 64.8, and 42.6% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS rates were 85.5, 64.9, and 49.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, predictors of decreased OS included: SLN metastasis, NSN metastasis, increased total number of positive LN, increased ratio of positive LN to total LN, increased age, male gender, increased Breslow thickness, presence of ulceration, Clark level ≥ IV, and axial primary site (in all cases, P < 0.01). When the total number of positive LN and NSN status were evaluated using multivariate analysis, NSN status remained statistically significant (P < 0.01), while the total number of positive LN and LN ratio did not. NSN melanoma metastasis is an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS, which is distinct from the number of positive lymph nodes or the lymph node ratio.

  15. Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Hylton R; Freeman, Lynetta J; Rohleder, Jacob J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device. Three healthy intact female adult hounds were anesthetized and each received an injection of octafluoropropane-filled lipid microspheres and a separate subcutaneous injection of methylene blue dye around a mammary gland. Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node. Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure. Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node. The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes. Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied. Lymphoid tissue was obtained from all biopsy specimens. Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs. Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.

  16. Lymph Node Micrometastases are Associated with Worse Survival in Patients with Otherwise Node-Negative Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Hendrik T J; Wiggers, Jim K; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastases in patients with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of 146 patients underwent curative-intent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with regional lymphadenectomy at two university medical centers in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients (62 %) without lymph node metastases at routine histology were included. Micrometastases were identified by multiple sectioning of all lymph nodes and additional immunostaining with an antibody against cytokeratin 19 (K19). The association with overall survival was assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis. Median follow-up was 48 months. Micrometastases were identified in 16 (5 %) of 324 lymph nodes, corresponding to 11 (12 %) of 91 patients. There were no differences in clinical variables between K19 lymph node-positive and -negative patients. Five-year survival rates in patients with lymph node micrometastases were significantly lower compared to patients without micrometastases (27 vs. 54 %, P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed micrometastases as an independent prognostic factor for survival (adjusted Hazard ratio 2.4, P = 0.02). Lymph node micrometastases are associated with worse survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of lymph node micrometastases leads to better staging of patients who were initially diagnosed with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology.

  17. Indocyanine Green Guided Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection: An Efficient Technique to Classify the Lymph Node Status of Patients with Prostate Cancer Who Underwent Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Backhaus, Miguel; Mira Moreno, Alejandra; Gómez Ferrer, Alvaro; Calatrava Fons, Ana; Casanova, Juan; Solsona Narbón, Eduardo; Ortiz Rodríguez, Isabel María; Rubio Briones, José

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of indocyanine green guided pelvic lymph node dissection for the optimal staging of prostate cancer and analyzed whether the technique could replace extended pelvic lymph node dissection. A solution of 25 mg indocyanine green in 5 ml sterile water was transperineally injected. Pelvic lymph node dissection was started with the indocyanine green stained nodes followed by extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Primary outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and likelihood ratio of a negative test of indocyanine green guided pelvic lymph node dissection. A total of 84 patients with a median age of 63.55 years and a median prostate specific antigen of 8.48 ng/ml were included in the study. Of these patients 60.7% had intermediate risk disease and 25% had high or very high risk disease. A median of 7 indocyanine green stained nodes per patient was detected (range 2 to 18) with a median of 22 nodes excised during extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Lymph node metastasis was identified in 25 patients, 23 of whom had disease properly classified by indocyanine green guided pelvic lymph node dissection. The most frequent location of indocyanine green stained nodes was the proximal internal iliac artery followed by the fossa of Marcille. The negative predictive value was 96.7% and the likelihood ratio of a negative test was 8%. Overall 1,856 nodes were removed and 603 were stained indocyanine green. Pathological examination revealed 82 metastatic nodes, of which 60% were indocyanine green stained. The negative predictive value was 97.4% but the likelihood ratio of a negative test was 58.5%. Indocyanine green guided pelvic lymph node dissection correctly staged 97% of cases. However, according to our data it cannot replace extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Nevertheless, its high negative predictive value could allow us to avoid extended pelvic lymph node dissection if we had an accurate intraoperative lymph

  18. Anatomical classification of breast sentinel lymph nodes using computed tomography-lymphography.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tamaki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Seino, Hiroko; Ono, Shuichi; Nishi, Takashi; Nishimura, Akimasa; Hakamada, Kenichi; Aoki, Masahiko

    2018-05-03

    To evaluate the anatomical classification and location of breast sentinel lymph nodes, preoperative computed tomography-lymphography examinations were retrospectively reviewed for sentinel lymph nodes in 464 cases clinically diagnosed with node-negative breast cancer between July 2007 and June 2016. Anatomical classification was performed based on the numbers of lymphatic routes and sentinel lymph nodes, the flow direction of lymphatic routes, and the location of sentinel lymph nodes. Of the 464 cases reviewed, anatomical classification could be performed in 434 (93.5 %). The largest number of cases showed single route/single sentinel lymph node (n = 296, 68.2 %), followed by multiple routes/multiple sentinel lymph nodes (n = 59, 13.6 %), single route/multiple sentinel lymph nodes (n = 53, 12.2 %), and multiple routes/single sentinel lymph node (n = 26, 6.0 %). Classification based on the flow direction of lymphatic routes showed that 429 cases (98.8 %) had outward flow on the superficial fascia toward axillary lymph nodes, whereas classification based on the height of sentinel lymph nodes showed that 323 cases (74.4 %) belonged to the upper pectoral group of axillary lymph nodes. There was wide variation in the number of lymphatic routes and their branching patterns and in the number, location, and direction of flow of sentinel lymph nodes. It is clinically very important to preoperatively understand the anatomical morphology of lymphatic routes and sentinel lymph nodes for optimal treatment of breast cancer, and computed tomography-lymphography is suitable for this purpose.

  19. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin-Marcuartu, J J; Alvarez-Perez, R M; Sousa Vaquero, J M; Jimenez-Hoyuela García, J M

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique in male breast cancer. We retrospectively analysed 21 male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in our hospital from 2008 to 2016 with, at least, 18 months follow-up. Fifteen patients underwent selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) following the usual protocols with peritumoral injection of 18.5-111MBq of 99m Tc-nanocoloides and acquisition of planar images 2hours after the injection. In 2 cases it was necessary to perform a SPECT/CT to locate the SLN. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (OSNA) were used for their analysis. Six patients did not undergo SLNB because they had pathological nodes or distant disease at the time of diagnosis. SLNB was performed in 15 patients. The SLN was negative in 6 patients and positive in the remaining 9. Three patients with positive SLNB did not need axillary lymphadenectomy because of the low number of copies by molecular analysis OSNA. Axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in the remaining 6 patients with the result of 4 positive axillary lymphadenectomies and 2 that did not show further extension of the disease. According to our experience, SLNB in males is a reproducible, useful, safe and reliable technique which avoids unnecessary axillary lymphadenectomy and prevents the appearance of undesirable effects. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-21

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient's quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation.

  1. Sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for early stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumori, Norio; Nimura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Naoto; Kawamura, Masahiko; Aoki, Hiroaki; Shida, Atsuo; Omura, Nobuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the history of sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS), technical aspects, tracers, and clinical applications of SNNS using Infrared Ray Electronic Endoscopes (IREE) combined with Indocyanine Green (ICG). The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as a first lymph node (LN) which receives cancer cells from a primary tumor. Reports on clinical application of SNNS for gastric cancers started to appear since early 2000s. Two prospective multicenter trials of SNNS for gastric cancer have also been accomplished in Japan. Kitagawa et al reported that the endoscopic dual (dye and radioisotope) tracer method for SN biopsy was confirmed acceptable and effective when applied to the early-stage gastric cancer (EGC). We have previously reported the usefulness of SNNS in gastrointestinal cancer using ICG as a tracer, combined with IREE (Olympus Optical, Tokyo, Japan) to detect SLN. LN metastasis rate of EGC is low. Hence, clinical application of SNNS for EGC might lead us to avoid unnecessary LN dissection, which could preserve the patient’s quality of life after operation. The most ideal method of SNNS should allow secure and accurate detection of SLN, and real time observation of lymphatic flow during operation. PMID:24914329

  2. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-11-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  3. The sentinel lymph node spread determines quantitatively melanoma seeding to non-sentinel lymph nodes and survival.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Anja; Dietz, Klaus; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Schulz, Claudia; Renner, Philipp; Weber, Florian; Breuninger, Helmut; Röcken, Martin; Garbe, Claus; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Klein, Christoph A

    2018-03-01

    Complete lymph node dissection (CLND) after a positive sentinel node (SN) biopsy provides important prognostic information in melanoma patients but has been questioned for therapeutic use recently. We explored whether quantification of the tumour spread to SNs may replace histopathology of non-sentinel nodes (NSNs) for staging purposes. We quantified melanoma spread in SNs and NSNs in 128 patients undergoing CLND for a positive SN. In addition to routine histopathology, one-half of each of all 1496 SNs and NSNs was disaggregated into a single cell suspension and stained immunocytochemically to determine the number of melanoma cells per 10 6 lymph node cells, i.e. the disseminated cancer cell density (DCCD). We uncovered melanoma spread to NSNs in the majority of patients; however, the tumour load and the proportion of positive nodes were significantly lower in NSNs than in SNs. The relation between SN and NSN spread could be described by a mathematical function with DCCD NSN  = DCCD SN c /10 1 - c (c = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.76). At a median follow-up of 67 months, multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that DCCD SN (p = 0.02; HR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71) and the total number of pathologically positive nodes (p = 0.02; HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) were significant risk factors after controlling for age, gender, thickness of melanoma and ulceration status. A prognostic model based on DCCD SN and melanoma thickness predicted outcome as accurately as a model including pathological information of both SNs and NSNs. The assessment of DCCD SN renders CLND for staging purposes unnecessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Nathan Andrew; McClain, Jacob; Tuell, Sara Lydia; Warner, Alex; Smith, Blair; Yun, Youngho; Mohan, Abhinav; Sushnitha, Manuela; Thomas, Susan Napier

    2015-01-01

    Tissue remodeling is a characteristic of many solid tumor malignancies including melanoma. By virtue of tumor lymphatic transport, remodeling pathways active within the local tumor microenvironment have the potential to be operational within lymph nodes (LNs) draining the tumor interstitium. Here, we show that lymphatic drainage from murine B16 melanomas in syngeneic, immune-competent C57Bl/6 mice is associated with LN enlargement as well as nonuniform increases in bulk tissue elasticity and viscoelasticity, as measured by the response of whole LNs to compression. These remodeling responses, which quickly manifest in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) after tumor inoculation and before apparent metastasis, were accompanied by changes in matrix composition, including up to 3-fold increases in the abundance of soluble collagen and hyaluronic acid. Intranodal pressures were also significantly increased in TDLNs (+1 cmH2O) relative to both non-tumor-draining LNs (−1 cmH2O) and LNs from naive animals (−1 to 2 cmH2O). These data suggest that the reorganization of matrix structure, composition, and fluid microenvironment within LNs associated with tumor lymphatic drainage parallels remodeling seen in primary malignancies and has the potential to regulate the adhesion, proliferation, and signaling function of LN-resident cells involved in directing melanoma disease progression.—Rohner, N. A., McClain, J., Tuell, S. L., Warner, A., Smith, B., Yun, Y., Mohan, A., Sushnitha, M., Thomas, S. N. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage. PMID:26178165

  5. Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. Methods The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. Conclusions The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis. PMID:22695536

  6. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Simões, Maria Inês; Marcão, Isabel; Toscano, Mário; Borges, Luís

    2018-03-29

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  7. Histologic Review of Sarcoidosis in a Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Welter, Shannon M; DeLuca-Johnson, Javier; Thompson, Keith

    2018-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It may occur at any age, but is most commonly seen in young to middle age adults. Sarcoidosis remains more common in women regardless of geographic or racial boundaries. Although the etiology remains unclear, the most common explanation is that sarcoidosis is a disease of immunologic dysregulation triggered by an as yet unidentified environmental or microbial antigen in genetically susceptible persons. We review a case of sarcoidosis with was initially diagnosed in a neck lymph node that was removed for evaluation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with a discussion on the clinical and histologic characteristic of the disease.

  8. Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Lymph Node Classification in Lung Cancer on CT Scanning.

    PubMed

    El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Lau, Charles T; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Mehta, Atul C; Rice, Thomas W; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and consistent regional lymph node classification is an important element in the staging and multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. Regional lymph node definition sets-lymph node maps-have been created to standardize regional lymph node classification. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a lymph node map to supersede all preexisting lymph node maps. Our aim was to study if and how lung cancer specialists apply the IASLC lymph node map when classifying thoracic lymph nodes encountered on CT scans during lung cancer staging. From April 2013 through July 2013, invitations were distributed to all members of the Fleischner Society, Society of Thoracic Radiology, General Thoracic Surgical Club, and the American Association of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology to participate in an anonymous online image-based and text-based 20-question survey regarding lymph node classification for lung cancer staging on CT imaging. Three hundred thirty-seven people responded (approximately 25% participation). Respondents consisted of self-reported thoracic radiologists (n = 158), thoracic surgeons (n = 102), and pulmonologists who perform endobronchial ultrasonography (n = 77). Half of the respondents (50%; 95% CI, 44%-55%) reported using the IASLC lymph node map in daily practice, with no significant differences between subspecialties. A disparity was observed between the IASLC definition sets and their interpretation and application on CT scans, in particular for lymph nodes near the thoracic inlet, anterior to the trachea, anterior to the tracheal bifurcation, near the ligamentum arteriosum, between the bronchus intermedius and esophagus, in the internal mammary space, and adjacent to the heart. Use of older lymph node maps and inconsistencies in interpretation and application of definitions in the IASLC lymph node map may potentially lead to misclassification of stage and suboptimal management of lung

  9. [Establishment of lymph node metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Mi, Chengrong; Wang, Wen

    2015-06-16

    To establish lymph node metastasis of breast cancer model in nude mices using MDA-MB-231 cell lines or tumor masses. Divided twelve female nude mices of five weeks into A, B groups randomly. A group had seven nude mices, B group had five nude mices. A group nude mices were injected with MDA-MB-231 cells suspension into the second right mammary fat pad. Two weeks after emerged tumors, the orthotopic tumors of two nude mices of A group were dissected and then implanted into the second right mammary fat pad of B group nude mices. The other mices of A group continued to be fed. After six weeks of inoculation, we excised the tumors and the swollen lymph nodes in right axilla of all nude mices to make pathological examination. ① A group have a 7/7 tumor formation rate 7 days after implanted, B group was 5/5 5 days after implanted. ② The tumor volumes between the two groups had evident difference (P = 0.023), and the tumor volume of B group was bigger than A group. ③ A group had three nude mices which had one tumid lymph node respectively, the lymph node enlargement rate was 3/5; B group only had one nude mice that had one tumid lymph node, the lymph node enlargement rate was 1/5, the lymph node enlargement rate between the two groups showed no significant difference (P = 0.524). ④ The result of pathology in the two groups testified the tumors were invasive ductal carcinoma. The swollen lymph nodes in A group were reactive hyperplasia lymph nodes; the swollen lymph nodes in B group was metastatic lymph node. The method of orthotopic implantation with MDA-MB-231 tumor mass to establish lymph node metastasis of breast cancer model in nude mice, can provide a useful mean to research the lymph node metastasis mechanism of breast cancer.

  10. Metastatic Lymph Node Burden and Survival in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjin; Tighiouart, Mourad; Gudino, Cynthia; Mita, Alain; Scher, Kevin S.; Laury, Anna; Prasad, Ravi; Shiao, Stephen L.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Current staging systems for oral cavity cancers incorporate lymph node (LN) size and laterality, but place less weight on the total number of positive metastatic nodes. We investigated the independent impact of numerical metastatic LN burden on survival. Methods Adult patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma undergoing upfront surgical resection for curative intent were identified in the National Cancer Data Base between 2004 and 2013. A neck dissection of a minimum of 10 LNs was required. Multivariable models were constructed to assess the association between the number of metastatic LNs and survival, adjusting for factors such as nodal size, laterality, extranodal extension, margin status, and adjuvant treatment. Results Overall, 14,554 patients met inclusion criteria (7,906 N0 patients; 6,648 node-positive patients). Mortality risk escalated continuously with increasing number of metastatic nodes without plateau, with the effect most pronounced with up to four LNs (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.39; P < .001). Extranodal extension (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.65; P < .001) and lower neck involvement (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27; P < .001) also predicted increased mortality. Increasing number of nodes examined was associated with improved survival, plateauing at 35 LNs (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 0.99; P < .001). In multivariable models accounting for the number of metastatic nodes, contralateral LN involvement (N2c status) and LN size were not associated with mortality. A novel nodal staging system derived by recursive partitioning analysis exhibited greater concordance than the American Joint Committee on Cancer (8th edition) system. Conclusion The number of metastatic nodes is a critical predictor of oral cavity cancer mortality, eclipsing other features such as LN size and contralaterality in prognostic value. More robust incorporation of numerical metastatic LN burden may augment staging and better inform adjuvant treatment decisions. PMID

  11. Longitudinal 3.0T MRI analysis of changes in lymph node volume and apparent diffusion coefficient in an experimental animal model of metastatic and hyperplastic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Klerkx, Wenche M; Geldof, Albert A; Heintz, A Peter; van Diest, Paul J; Visser, Fredy; Mali, Willem P; Veldhuis, Wouter B

    2011-05-01

    To perform a longitudinal analysis of changes in lymph node volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in healthy, metastatic, and hyperplastic lymph nodes. Three groups of four female Copenhagen rats were studied. Metastasis was induced by injecting cells with a high metastatic potential in their left hind footpad. Reactive nodes were induced by injecting Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA). Imaging was performed at baseline and at 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 days after tumor cell injection. Finally, lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. The model was highly efficient in inducing lymphadenopathy: subcutaneous cell or CFA inoculation resulted in ipsilateral metastatic or reactive popliteal lymph nodes in all rats. Metastatic nodal volumes increased exponentially from 5-7 mm(3) at baseline to 25 mm(3) at day 14, while the control node remained 5 mm(3). The hyperplastic nodes showed a rapid volume increase reaching a plateau at day 6. The ADC of metastatic nodes significantly decreased (range 13%-32%), but this decrease was also seen in reactive nodes. Metastatic and hyperplastic lymph nodes differed in terms of enlargement patterns and ADC changes. Enlarged reactive or malignant nodes could not be differentiated based on their ADC values. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Renal lymph nodes for tumor staging: appraisal of 871 nephrectomies with examination of hilar fat.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vikas; Mudaliar, Kumaran; Ghai, Ritu; Quek, Marcus L; Milner, John; Flanigan, Robert C; Picken, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Despite decades of research, the role of lymphadenectomy in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still not clearly defined. Before the implementation of targeted therapies, lymph node metastases were considered to be a portent of markedly decreased survival, regardless of the tumor stage. However, the role of lymphadenectomy and the relative benefit of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the context of modern adjunctive therapies have not been conclusively addressed in the clinical literature. The current pathologic literature does not offer clear recommendations with regard to the minimum number of lymph nodes that should be examined in order to accurately stage the pN in renal cell carcinoma. Although gross examination of the hilar fat to assess the nodal status is performed routinely, it has not yet been determined whether this approach is adequate. To evaluate the status of lymph nodes and their rate of identification in the pathologic examination of nephrectomy specimens in adult renal malignancies. We reviewed the operative and pathology reports of 871 patients with renal malignancies treated by nephrectomy. All tumors were classified according to the seventh edition of the Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis classification. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Nx, no lymph nodes recovered; N0, negative; and N1, with positive lymph nodes. Grossly visible lymph nodes were submitted separately; as per grossing protocol, hilar fatty tissue was submitted for microscopic examination. We evaluated the factors that affected the number of lymph nodes identified and the variables that allowed the prediction of nodal involvement. Lymph nodes were recovered in 333 of 871 patients (38%): hilar in 125 patients, nonhilar in 137 patients, and hilar and nonhilar in 71 patients. Patients with positive lymph nodes (n = 87) were younger, had larger primary tumors, and had lymph nodes of average size, as well as a higher pT stage, nuclear grade, and rate of metastases

  13. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping on chest CT using spatial priors and random forest

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiamin; Hoffman, Joanne; Zhao, Jocelyn

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system for mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping for chest CT. Methods: The contextual organs, trachea, lungs, and spine are first automatically identified to locate the region of interest (ROI) (mediastinum). The authors employ shape features derived from Hessian analysis, local object scale, and circular transformation that are computed per voxel in the ROI. Eight more anatomical structures are simultaneously segmented by multiatlas label fusion. Spatial priors are defined as the relative multidimensional distance vectors corresponding to each structure. Intensity, shape, and spatial prior features are integrated and parsed by a random forest classifiermore » for lymph node detection. The detected candidates are then segmented by the following curve evolution process. Texture features are computed on the segmented lymph nodes and a support vector machine committee is used for final classification. For lymph node station labeling, based on the segmentation results of the above anatomical structures, the textual definitions of mediastinal lymph node map according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer are converted into patient-specific color-coded CT image, where the lymph node station can be automatically assigned for each detected node. Results: The chest CT volumes from 70 patients with 316 enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes are used for validation. For lymph node detection, their system achieves 88% sensitivity at eight false positives per patient. For lymph node station labeling, 84.5% of lymph nodes are correctly assigned to their stations. Conclusions: Multiple-channel shape, intensity, and spatial prior features aggregated by a random forest classifier improve mediastinal lymph node detection on chest CT. Using the location information of segmented anatomic structures from the multiatlas formulation enables accurate identification of lymph node stations.« less

  15. Sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer: is hysteroscopic injection valid?

    PubMed

    Clement, D; Bats, A S; Ghazzar-Pierquet, N; Le Frere Belda, M A; Larousserie, F; Nos, C; Lecuru, F

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to describe hysteroscopic peritumoral tracer injection for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with endometrial cancer and to evaluate tolerance of the procedure, detection rate and location of SLNs. Five patients with early endometrial cancer underwent hysteroscopic radiotracer injection followed by lymphoscintigraphy, then by surgery with hysteroscopic peritumoral blue dye injection, and radioactivity measurement using an endoscopic handheld gamma probe. SLNs and other nodes were sent separately to the pathology laboratory. SLNs were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin-saffron staining and, when negative, by immunohistochemistry. Tolerance of the injection by the patients was poor (mean visual analog scale score, 8/10). SLNs were detected in only two patients (external iliac and common iliac+paraaortic, respectively). Detection rates were 1/5 by radiotracer, 1/5 by dye, and 2/5 by the combined method. One SLN was involved in a patient whose other nodes were negative. In three patients no SLNs were found by radiotracer or blue dye. Of the 83 non sentinel nodes removed from these patients, none was involved. Hysteroscopic peritumoral injection may be more difficult than cervical injection and, in our experience, carries a lower SLN detection rate.

  16. Axillary lymph node uptake of technetium-99m-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Finestone, H.

    We sought to determine the frequency and significance of axillary lymph node visualization on bone scans performed with diphosphonates. Consecutive {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) bone scans (2435) were inspected for axillary soft-tissue uptake. In positive cases, the results of physical examination, correlative imaging studies and serial bone scans were recorded, as was the site of venipuncture. Forty-eight studies (2%) showed axillary uptake ipsilateral to the injection site. Extravasation of tracer, documented by focal activity near the injection site, was present in every case. There was no association with axillary adenopathy, mass, induration of radiographically visible calcification. On some images,more » foci adjacent to the axilla were superimposed on the rib, scapula, or humerus. The bone-to-background ratio was frequently reduced; repeat imaging after 1-2 hr usually improved osseous detail. Ipsilateral axillary lymph node visualization due to extravasation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP is frequently associated with additional foci superimposed on osseous structures simulating pathology. Delayed skeletal uptake is common in such cases and necessitates a greater time interval between injection and imaging. 7 refs., 3 figs.« less

  17. The local lymph node assay being too sensitive?

    PubMed

    Hans-Werner, Vohr; Jürgen, Ahr Hans

    2005-12-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) and modifications thereof were recently recognized by the OECD as stand-alone methods for the detection of skin-sensitizing potential. However, although the validity of the LLNA was acknowledged by the ICCVAM, attention was drawn to one major problem, i.e., the possibility of false positive results caused by non-specific cell activation as a result of inflammatory processes in the skin (irritation). This is based on the fact that inflammatory processes in the skin may lead to non-specific activation of dendritic cells, cell migration and non-specific proliferation of lymph node cells. Measuring cell proliferation by radioactive or non-radioactive methods, without taking the irritating properties of test items into account, leads thus to false positive reactions. In this paper, we have compared both endpoints: (1) cell proliferation alone and (2) cell proliferation in combination with inflammatory (irritating) processes. It turned out that a considerable number of tests were "false positive" to the definition mentioned above. By excluding such false positive results the LLNA seems not to be more sensitive than relevant guinea pig assays. These various methods and results are described here.

  18. Regression and Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Melanoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Letca, Alina Florentina; Ungureanu, Loredana; Şenilă, Simona Corina; Grigore, Lavinia Elena; Pop, Ştefan; Fechete, Oana; Vesa, Ştefan Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the role of regression and other clinical and histological features for the prognosis and the progression of cutaneous melanoma. Material/Methods Between 2005 and 2016, 403 patients with melanoma were treated and followed at our Department of Dermatology. Of the 403 patients, 173 patients had cutaneous melanoma and underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and thus were included in this study. Results Histological regression was found in 37 cases of melanoma (21.3%). It was significantly associated with marked and moderate tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) and with negative SLN. Progression of the disease occurred in 42 patients (24.2%). On multivariate analysis, we found that a positive lymph node and a Breslow index higher than 2 mm were independent variables associated with disease free survival (DFS). These variables together with a mild TIL were significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The presence of regression was not associated with DFS or OS. Conclusions We could not demonstrate an association between regression and the outcome of patients with cutaneous melanoma. Tumor thickness greater than 2 mm and a positive SLN were associated with recurrence. Survival was influenced by a Breslow thickness >2 mm, the presence of a mild TIL and a positive SLN status. PMID:29507279

  19. 10 % fluorescein sodium vs 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lidong; Liu, Zhao; Liang, Mengdi; Wang, Li; Song, Xingli; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-03

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is well accepted to be a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery with clinically negative lymph nodes. Isosulfan blue is the first dye approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the localization of the lymphatic system. Few alternative tracers have been investigated. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences between 10 % fluorescein sodium and 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy and to investigate the feasibility of using 10 % fluorescein sodium as a new dye for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the fluorescein sodium group and the isosulfan blue group (15 rabbits per group). Fluorescein sodium or isosulfan blue was injected subcutaneously into the second pair of mammary areolas. The average fading time of the second lymph nodes in the isosulfan blue group was significantly shorter than that in the fluorescein sodium group. Moreover, the detection rates of SLNs were higher in the fluorescein sodium group than in the isosulfan blue group. No significant differences between the fluorescein sodium group and isosulfan blue group were observed regarding the distances between the detected sentinel lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the distances between the second lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and second lymph nodes, the average dyeing time of the sentinel and the second lymph nodes, and the average fading time of the second lymph nodes. In summary, we first reported that fluorescein sodium is a potential new tracer for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  20. Iodine-131: An Effective Method for Treating Lymph Node Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Pan, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Min; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Ling-Ge

    2016-12-15

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radioactive iodine-131 (¹³¹I) therapy for lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to identify influential factors using univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if identified factors influence the efficacy of treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included a retrospective review of 218 patients with histologically proven DTC in the post-operation stage. After thyroid tissue remnants were eliminated with ¹³¹I therapy, patients' lymph node status was confirmed by ultrasound and by ¹³¹I whole body scan regarding lymph node metastasis, and then patients were treated with ¹³¹I as appropriate. The treatment efficacy was assessed and possible influencing factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS The total effective rate of ¹³¹I therapy was 88.07% (including a cure rate of 20.64% and an improvement rate of 67.43%). The non-effective rate was 11.93%. Of the total 406 lymph nodes of 218 patients, 319 lymph nodes (78.57%) were judged to be effectively cured, including 133 (32.75%) lymph nodes that were totally eliminated and 186 (45.82%) lymph nodes that shrank. Eighty-seven (21.43%) of the 406 lymph nodes had no obvious change. No lymph nodes were found to be in a continuously enlarging state. Distant metastasis, size of lymph node, human serum thyroglobulin (HTG) level, and condition of thyroid remnants ablation were identified as the independent factors influencing the efficacy of treatment using univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS The use of ¹³¹I is a promising treatment for lymph node metastasis of DCT. Distant metastasis, size of lymph nodes, HTG level, and condition of thyroid remnant ablation were independent factors influencing the treatment efficacy.

  1. Number of evaluated lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, and log odds evaluation in early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: numerology or valid indicators of patient outcome?

    PubMed

    Lahat, G; Lubezky, N; Gerstenhaber, F; Nizri, E; Gysi, M; Rozenek, M; Goichman, Y; Nachmany, I; Nakache, R; Wolf, I; Klausner, J M

    2016-09-29

    We evaluated the prognostic significance and universal validity of the total number of evaluated lymph nodes (ELN), number of positive lymph nodes (PLN), lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in a relatively large and homogenous cohort of surgically treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Prospectively accrued data were retrospectively analyzed for 282 PDAC patients who had pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) at our institution. Long-term survival was analyzed according to the ELN, PLN, LNR, and LODDS. Of these patients, 168 patients (59.5 %) had LN metastasis (N1). Mean ELN and PLN were 13.5 and 1.6, respectively. LN positivity correlated with a greater number of evaluated lymph nodes; positive lymph nodes were identified in 61.4 % of the patients with ELN ≥ 13 compared with 44.9 % of the patients with ELN < 13 (p = 0.014). Median overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS rate were higher in N0 than in N1 patients, 22.4 vs. 18.7 months and 35 vs. 11 %, respectively (p = 0.008). Mean LNR was 0.12; 91 patients (54.1 %) had LNR < 0.3. Among the N1 patients, median OS was comparable in those with LNR ≥ 0.3 vs. LNR < 0.3 (16.7 vs. 14.1 months, p = 0.950). Neither LODDS nor various ELN and PLN cutoff values provided more discriminative information within the group of N1 patients. Our data confirms that lymph node positivity strongly reflects PDAC biology and thus patient outcome. While a higher number of evaluated lymph nodes may provide a more accurate nodal staging, it does not have any prognostic value among N1 patients. Similarly, PLN, LNR, and LODDS had limited prognostic relevance.

  2. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hillelsohn, Joel H.; Duty, Brian D.; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Kavoussi, Louis R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-RPLND) was introduced over 20 years ago as a less invasive alternative to open node dissection. In this review we summarise the indications, surgical technique and outcomes of L-RPLND in the treatment of testicular cancer. Methods We searched MEDLINE using the terms ‘laparoscopy’, ‘laparoscopic’, ‘retroperitoneal lymph node dissection’, ‘RPLND’ and ‘testicular neoplasms’. Articles were selected on the basis of their relevance, study design and content, with an emphasis on more recent data. Results We found 14 pertinent studies, which included >1300 patients who received either L-RPLND (515) or open RPLND (788). L-RPLND was associated with longer mean operative times (204 vs. 186 min), but shorter hospital stays (3.3 vs. 6.6 days) and lower complication rates (15.6% vs. 33%). Oncological outcomes were similar between L-RPLND and open RPLND, with local relapse rates of 1.3% and 1.4%, incidence of distal progression of 3.3% and 6.1%, biochemical failure in 0.9% and 1.1% and cure rates of 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion There are no randomised controlled studies comparing L-RPLND with open RPLND. A review of case and comparative series showed similar perioperative and oncological outcomes. Patients undergoing L-RPLND on average have shorter hospital stays, a quicker return to normal activity and improved cosmesis. PMID:26558006

  3. Dense volumetric detection and segmentation of mediastinal lymph nodes in chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirohisa; Roth, Holger R.; Bhatia, Kanwal K.; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Homma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Schnabel, Julia A.; Mori, Kensaku

    2018-02-01

    We propose a novel mediastinal lymph node detection and segmentation method from chest CT volumes based on fully convolutional networks (FCNs). Most lymph node detection methods are based on filters for blob-like structures, which are not specific for lymph nodes. The 3D U-Net is a recent example of the state-of-the-art 3D FCNs. The 3D U-Net can be trained to learn appearances of lymph nodes in order to output lymph node likelihood maps on input CT volumes. However, it is prone to oversegmentation of each lymph node due to the strong data imbalance between lymph nodes and the remaining part of the CT volumes. To moderate the balance of sizes between the target classes, we train the 3D U-Net using not only lymph node annotations but also other anatomical structures (lungs, airways, aortic arches, and pulmonary arteries) that can be extracted robustly in an automated fashion. We applied the proposed method to 45 cases of contrast-enhanced chest CT volumes. Experimental results showed that 95.5% of lymph nodes were detected with 16.3 false positives per CT volume. The segmentation results showed that the proposed method can prevent oversegmentation, achieving an average Dice score of 52.3 +/- 23.1%, compared to the baseline method with 49.2 +/- 23.8%, respectively.

  4. Cervical lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of mouth.

    PubMed

    Ehsan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Warraich, Riaz Ahmed; Abid, Hina; Sajid, Malik Ali Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma has high chances of cervical lymph node metastasis. This case series describes the distribution of cervical lymph nodes in 50 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of mouth. The mean age was 47.28±10.5 years. Thirty positive metastatic lymph nodes were found; 90% occurring at level I-II mostly in T4 size but also in T1 and T2 cases. The distribution of involved lymph nodes in oral cancer affects the neck dissection extent and is, therefore, an important pre-operative feature.

  5. A Specific Mapping Study Using Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Daniel P; Huber, Philipp M; Metzger, Tobias A; Genitsch, Vera; Schudel, Hans H; Thalmann, George N

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection techniques have the potential to change the standard of surgical care for patients with prostate cancer. We performed a lymphatic mapping study and determined the value of fluorescence SLN detection with indocyanine green (ICG) for the detection of lymph node metastases in intermediate- and high-risk patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection. A total of 42 patients received systematic or specific ICG injections into the prostate base, the midportion, the apex, the left lobe, or the right lobe. We found (1) that external and internal iliac regions encompass the majority of SLNs, (2) that common iliac regions contain up to 22% of all SLNs, (3) that a prostatic lobe can drain into the contralateral group of pelvic lymph nodes, and (4) that the fossa of Marcille also receives significant drainage. Among the 12 patients who received systematic ICG injections, 5 (42%) had a total of 29 lymph node metastases. Of these, 16 nodes were ICG positive, yielding 55% sensitivity. The complex drainage pattern of the prostate and the low sensitivity of ICG for the detection of lymph node metastases reported in our study highlight the difficulties related to the implementation of SNL techniques in prostate cancer. There is controversy about how extensive lymph node dissection (LND) should be during prostatectomy. We investigated the lymphatic drainage of the prostate and whether sentinel node fluorescence techniques would be useful to detect node metastases. We found that the drainage pattern is complex and that the sentinel node technique is not able to replace extended pelvic LND. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology. PMID:28521436

  7. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  8. Extent of lymph node dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; McCulloch, Peter; Kazi, Hussain; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquin J; Yuan, Yuhong; Nitti, Donato

    2015-08-12

    The impact of lymphadenectomy extent on the survival of patients with primary resectable gastric carcinoma is debated. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the impact of the three main types of progressively more extended lymph node dissection (that is, D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) on the clinical outcome of patients with primary resectable carcinoma of the stomach. The primary objective was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy extent on survival (overall survival [OS], disease specific survival [DSS] and disease free survival [DFS]). The secondary aim was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy on post-operative mortality. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2001, including references from relevant articles and conference proceedings. We also contacted known researchers in the field. For the updated review, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2001 to February 2015. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the three main types of lymph node dissection (i.e., D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) in patients with primary non-metastatic resectable carcinoma of the stomach. Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. Hazard ratios (HR) and relative risks (RR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure differences in survival and mortality rates between trial arms, respectively. Potential sources of between-study heterogeneity were investigated by means of subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The same two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration and the quality of the overall evidence based on the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Eight RCTs (enrolling 2515 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs (all performed in Asian countries) compared D3 with D2 lymphadenectomy: data suggested no significant difference in OS

  9. [Presence of intramammary lymph nodes in the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to locate the sentinel lymph node. Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Nogareda, Z; Álvarez, A; Perlaza, P; Caparrós, F X; Alonso, I; Paredes, P; Vidal-Sicart, S

    2015-01-01

    The routes of lymphatic drainage from a breast cancer are the axilla (the most frequent) and the extra axillary regions. Among the latter, there are the so-called intrammamary lymph nodes (IMLN). This study has aimed to assess the incidence of IMLNs in our patients and study the evolution of these cases with IMLN in the lymphoscintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients (out of 1725) with IMLN in the pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy were assessed. During the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe, IMLNs were located and excised. After their harvesting, a meticulous surgical field scan was performed. When the axillary sentinel node was positive for metastasis, a complete axillary lymphadenectomy was performed. In those where the axillary sentinel node was negative and IMLN was positive (IMLN+), axillary lymphadenectomy was also performed, except for one case. Thirty-four out of the 38 IMLNs were obtained (89.5%), because no lymphatic tissue was found in pathology analysis in three cases (8%) and in one patient (3%) IMLN was not found during surgery. Ten (26%) metastatic IMLNs were located and the remaining 24 IMLNs cases (63%) were metastasis-free. During the clinical follow-up, one patient with IMLN+ developed hepatic metastases. The remaining 33 patients did not present any recurrence. No follow-up data were available for three patients. IMLN and axillary sentinel node biopsy are recommended when both are depicted in preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. The axilla treatment will only depend on the axillary sentinel node status. Based on the data from other authors and our own experience, avoiding the axillary lymphadenectomy when a metastatic IMLN without axillary involvement seems reasonable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Hirano, Yukiko; Futami, Kitaro; Maekawa, Takafumi

    2017-07-18

    Mixed-type early gastric cancer (differentiated and undifferentiated components) incurs a higher risk of lymph node metastasis than pure-type early gastric cancer (only differentiated or only undifferentiated components). Therefore, we investigated the expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer in order to establish the most appropriate treatment for mixed-type cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive patients with submucosal invasive gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 1996 and 2015. We classified the patients into the mixed-type and pure-type groups according to histologic examination and evaluated the expansion of lymph node metastasis. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 23.7% (66/279) in the total patients, 36.4% (36/99) in the mixed-type group, and 16.6% (30/180) in the pure-type group. The significant independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis were tumor size ≥2.0 cm (P = 0.014), mixed-type gastric cancer (P < 0.001), and lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001). Lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis had a strong relationship in mixed-type group. The rates of no. 7 lymph node metastasis in the total patients and mixed-type group were 2.9% (8/279) and 5.1% (5/99), respectively; the rates of no. 8a lymph node metastasis were 1.4% (4/279) and 4.0% (4/99), respectively. Mixed histological type is an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis in mixed-type gastric cancer involves expansion to the no. 7 and no. 8a lymph nodes. Therefore, lymphadenectomy for mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer requires D1+ or D2 dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Extraperitoneal lymph node dissection in locally advanced cervical cancer; the prognostic factors associated with survival

    PubMed Central

    Köse, Mehmet Faruk; Kiseli, Mine; Kimyon, Günsu; Öcalan, Reyhan; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Tulunay, Gökhan; Turan, Ahmet Taner; Üreyen, Işın; Boran, Nurettin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Surgical staging was recently recommended for the decision of treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes as well as factors associated with overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who had undergone extraperitoneal lymph node dissection and were managed according to their lymph node status. Material and Methods: The medical records of 233 women with stage IIb-IVa cervical cancer who were clinically staged and underwent extraperitoneal lymph node dissection were retrospectively reviewed. Paraaortic lymph node status determined the appropriate radiotherapeutic treatment field. Surgery-related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The median age of the patients was 52 years (range, 26-88 years) and the median follow-up time was 28.4 months (range, 3-141 months). Thirty-one patients had laparoscopic extraperitoneal lymph node dissection and 202 patients underwent laparotomy. The number of paraaortic lymph nodes extracted was similar for both techniques. Sixty-two (27%) of the 233 patients had paraaortic lymph node metastases. The 3-year and 5-year OS rates were 55.1% and 46.5%, respectively. The stage of disease, number of metastatic paraaortic lymph nodes, tumor type, and paraaortic lymph node status were associated with OS. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, tumor type, stage, and presence of paraaortic lymph node metastases were the independent prognostic factors of OS. Conclusion: Paraaortic lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor affecting survival. Surgery would give hints about the prognosis and treatment planning of the patient. PMID:28400350

  12. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineatedmore » on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.« less

  13. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Axillary Lymph Node Positivity and Numbers in Breast Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Uyan, Mikail; Koca, Bulent; Yuruker, Savas; Ozen, Necati

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the numbers of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) taken out by dissection between patients with breast cancer operated on after having neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment and otherswithout having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting lymph node positivity. A total of 49 patients operated due to advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 144 patients with a similar stage of the cancer having primary surgical treatment without chemotherapy at the general surgery clinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Medicine Faculty between the dates 01.01.2006 and 31.10.2012 were included in the study. The total number of lymph nodes taken out by axillary dissection (ALND) was categorized as the number of positive lymph nodes and divided into <10 and ≥10. The variables to be compared were analysed using the program SPSS 15.0 with P<0.05 accepted as significant. Median number of dissected lymph nodes from the patient group having neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 16 (16-33) while it was 20 (5-55) without chemotherapy. The respective median numbers of positive lymph nodes were 5 ( 0-19) and 10 (0-51). In 8 out of 49 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients (16.3%), the number of dissected lymph nodes was below 10, and it was below 10 in 17 out of 144 primary surgery patients. Differences in numbers of dissected total and positive lymph nodes between two groups were significant, but this was not the case for numbers of <10 lymph nodes. The number of dissected lymph nodes from the patients with breast cancer having neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be less than without chemotherapy. This may not always be attributed to an inadequate axillary dissection. More research to evaluate the numbers of positive lymph nodes are required in order to increase the reliability of staging in the patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  14. Comparison of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei

    2009-11-01

    The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous head and neck melanoma.

    PubMed

    Evrard, D; Routier, E; Mateus, C; Tomasic, G; Lombroso, J; Kolb, F; Robert, C; Moya-Plana, A

    2018-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now a standard of care for cutaneous melanoma, but it is still controversial for cutaneous head and neck melanoma (CHNM). This study aims to confirm the feasibility, accuracy and low morbidity of SLNB in CHNM and evaluate its prognostic value. A monocentric and retrospective study on patients with CHNM treated in our tertiary care center (Gustave Roussy) between January 2008 and December 2012 was performed. The feasibility, morbidity and prognostic value of this technique were analysed. One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were included. SLNB was realized in 97.6% of the cases. No significant post-operative morbidity was observed. Nineteen percents of patients had a positive SN while only 14.3% of complete lymph node dissections (CLND) had additional nodal metastasis. The risk of recurrence after positive SN was significantly higher (69.2 vs 30.8%, p = 0.043). The false omission rate was low with 7.1%. Overall survival and disease-free survival were better in the negative SN group (82 vs 49%, p < 0.001 and 69.3 vs 41.8%, p = 0.0131). The risk of recurrence was significantly higher in the positive SN group (p = 0.043) and when primary tumour was ulcerated (p = 0.031). Only the mitotic rate of the primary tumour was associated with SN positivity (p = 0.049). As in other sites, SLNB status is a strong prognostic factor with comparable false omission rate and no superior morbidity.

  16. [Analysis of the patterns of cervical lymph node recurrence in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma after central neck lymph node dissection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhengang; Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-10-01

    To retrospectively analyze the long-term results of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and investigate the treatment method of the cervical lymph nodes for cN0 PTC. One hundred and thirty-six patients with cN0 PTC were treated by surgery at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2000 to 2006. Their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical procedures and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed. The occult lymph node metastasis rate in central compartment was 61.0%. The average number of positive lymph nodes was 2.47 (1-13), in which 54 patients had 1-2 and 29 patients had ≥ 3 positive lymph nodes. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 45 (P=0.001, OR 3.571, 95% CI 1.681-7.587)and extracapsular spread (ECS) (P=0.015, OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.241-7.202)were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in the central compartment. The ten-year cumulative overall survival rate was 98.3% and cumulative lateral neck metastasis rate was 25.2%. Multivariate analysis with Cox regression model showed that ECS (P=0.001, OR 5.211, 95% CI1.884-14.411) and positive lymph nodes in the central compartment ≥ 3 (P=0.009, OR 4.005, 95% CI 1.419-11.307) were independent risk factors for lymph node recurrence in the lateral neck region. The distribution of recurrent lymph nodes: level IV (82.4%), level III (64.7%), level II (29.4%) and level V (11.8%). Routine central lymph node dissection, at least unilateral, should be conducted for cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Attention should be paid to the treatment of lateral neck region in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Selective neck dissection is suggested for cN0 PTC with ECS or positive central lymph nodes ≥ 3, or both. The range of dissection should include level III and IV at least.

  17. [Correlation factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical stage T1a non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ruochuan, Zang; Shugeng, Guo; Jie, He; Yousheng, Mao; Qi, Xue; Dali, Wang; Juwei, Mu; Jun, Zhao; Yonggang, Wang; Xiangyang, Liu; Fengwei, Tan; Gefei, Zhao; Qian, Zhang; Moyan, Zhang; Peng, Song

    2015-04-01

    To explore the relationship between the lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological features in patients with clinical stage T1a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinicopathological data of a total of 418 patients who underwent lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological features. Lymph node metastasis was observed in 25 patients. There were 122 patients who were diagnosed as ground glass opacity with no lymph node metastasis. 399 patients had subcarinal dissection, among them 7 patients were found to have lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis showed that gender, smoking history, diameter of lymph node, ground glass opacity (GGO), differentiation of the tumor and tumor site were the factors affecting lymph node metastasis (all P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that diameter of lymph node, differentiation of the tumor and the site of lesion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. Tumor in the left lung, poor differentiation, and diameter of lymph nodes ≥ 1 cm on the preoperative CT image are independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis of NSCLC, hence we should pay attention before surgery and systematic lymph node dissection should be done. For patients with poor differentiation and lymph nodes ≥ 1 cm, subcarinal lymph nodes dissection is recommended for the sake of higher possibility of lymph node metastasis. For patients with ground glass opacity ≤ 2 cm, the lymph node metastasis is extremely rare, therefore, selective lymph node dissection is reconmmended.

  18. A critical evaluation of lymph node ratio in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, M; Marres, C C M; Smeele, L E; van den Brekel, M W M; Hauptmann, M; Balm, A J M; van Velthuysen, M L F

    2016-12-01

    In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the search for better prognostic factors beyond TNM-stage is ongoing. Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/total lymph nodes) is gaining interest in view of its potential prognostic significance. All HNSCC patients at the Netherlands Cancer Institute undergoing neck dissection for lymph node metastases in the neck region between 2002 and 2012 (n = 176) were included. Based on a protocol change in specimen processing, the cohort was subdivided in two distinct consecutive periods (pre and post 2007). The prognostic value of LNR, N-stage, and number of positive lymph nodes for overall survival was assessed. The mean number of examined lymph nodes after 2007 was significantly higher (42.3) than before (35.8) (p = 0.024). The higher number concerned mostly lymph nodes in level V. The mean number of positive lymph nodes before 2007 was 3.3 vs. 3.6 after 2007 (p = 0.745). By multivariate analysis of both pre- and post-2007 cohort data, two factors remained associated with an increased hazard of dying: N2 [HR 2.1 (1.1-4.1) and 2.4 (1.0-5.8)] and >3 positive lymph nodes [HR 2.0 (1.1-3.5) and 3.1 (1.4-6.9)]. Hazard ratio for LNR >7 % was not significantly different: pre 2007 at 2.2 (1.3-3.8) and post 2007 at 2.1 (1.0-4.8, p = 0.053). In this study, changes in specimen processing influenced LNR values, but not the total number of tumor positive nodes found. Therefore, in HNSCC, the number of positive nodes seems a more reliable parameter than LNR, provided a minimum number of lymph nodes are examined.

  19. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (<5 mm) and the average number of metastatic nodes were both significantly higher in the methylene blue group. The modified method of injection with methylene blue had no impact on overall survival. The modified method with methylene blue injection improved lymph node harvest in rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  1. Direct rapid detection of beef lymph nodes containing high levels of Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Category: Post-harvest research Published: Unpublished to date Objective: The objective of this work was to determine if beef lymph nodes containing Salmonella could be rapidly identified through direct testing without enrichment. Experimental Design & Analysis: Beef lymph nodes (1,038) were co...

  2. Shoulder Strength Changes One Year After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection or Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Sandra; Ferrer, Montse; Tejero, Marta; Pont, Angels; Piqueras, Merce; Belmonte, Roser

    2016-06-01

    To assess the changes in shoulder strength of patients with breast cancer during the first year after surgery; and to compare the effect of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on shoulder strength. Prospective longitudinal observational study from presurgery to 1 year after. Tertiary hospital. Of 129 consecutive patients examined for eligibility, a sample of women (N=112) with breast cancer were included (44 underwent ALND, and 68 underwent SLNB). Not applicable. Difference between the affected and unaffected arm in strength of shoulder external rotators, internal rotators, abductors, and serratus anterior, measured by dynamometry. Evaluations were performed prior to surgery and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. After breast cancer ALND surgery, strength decreased significantly at the first month for internal rotators, without having recovered presurgery values after 1 year of follow-up, with a mean difference of 2.26kg (P=.011). There was no significant loss of strength for patients treated with SLNB. The loss of shoulder range of motion was only significant the first month for the ALND group. The factors identified as associated with strength loss in the general estimating equation models were the ALND surgery and having received physical/occupational therapy during follow-up. One year after breast cancer surgery, patients treated with ALND had not recovered their previous shoulder internal rotators strength, whereas those who underwent SLNB presented no significant loss of strength. This provides important information for designing rehabilitation programs targeted specifically at the affected muscle group after nodal surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility of using negative ultrasonography results of axillary lymph nodes to predict sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; He, Yingjian; Wang, Jiwei; Huo, Ling; Fan, Zhaoqing; Li, Jinfeng; Xie, Yuntao; Wang, Tianfeng; Ouyang, Tao

    2018-06-14

    Knowledge of the pathology of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) in breast cancer patients is critical for determining their treatment. Ultrasound is the best noninvasive evaluation for the ALN status. However, the correlation between negative ultrasound results and the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) pathology remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that negative ultrasound results of ALN predict the negative pathology results of SLN in breast cancer patients, we assessed the association between ALN ultrasonography-negative results and the SLN pathology in 3115 patients with breast cancer recruited between October 2010 and April 2016 from a single cancer center, prospective database. Of these patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2317 (74.4%) had no SLN pathological metastasis. In the univariate analysis, other 798 patient with positive SLN tended to be under age 40 and premenopausal, having large tumor sizes (>2 cm), higher histological grade of primary tumor, positive hormone receptors, and negative HER-2 status (P < .05 for all). In the multivariate analysis, menstrual status, tumor size, ER status and histological types of primary tumor remained to be independent predictors for SLN pathological metastasis. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.658 (95% CI = 0.637-0.679), P > .05. In conclusion, only a 74.4% consistency between ALN ultrasonography-negative results and negative pathological SLN results, although menstrual status, tumor size, histologic subtypes of primary tumor and ER status were found to be statistically independent predictors of positive SLN among patients negative for ALN ultrasonography. Therefore, the present study suggests that negative ultrasound results of ALN do not adequately predict the negative pathology results of SLN in breast cancer patients. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Near-infrared-fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes by using liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivatives.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Taro; Fujito, Hiromichi; Suganami, Akiko; Ouchi, Tomoki; Ooishi, Aki; Aoki, Akira; Onoue, Kazutaka; Muraki, Yutaka; Madono, Tomoyuki; Fujinami, Masanori; Tamura, Yutaka; Hayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-15

    Liposomally formulated indocyanine green (LP-ICG) has drawn much attention as a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR)-fluorescence probe for tumors or lymph nodes in vivo. We synthesized ICG derivatives tagged with alkyl chains (ICG-Cn), and we examined NIR-fluorescence imaging for lymph nodes in the lower extremities of mice by using liposomally formulated ICG-Cn (LP-ICG-Cn) as well as conventional liposomally formulated ICG (LP-ICG) and ICG. Analysis with a noninvasive preclinical NIR-fluorescence imaging system revealed that LP-ICG-Cn accumulates in only the popliteal lymph node 1h after injection into the footpad, whereas LP-ICG and ICG accumulate in the popliteal lymph node and other organs like the liver. This result indicates that LP-ICG-Cn is a useful NIR-fluorescence probe for noninvasive in vivo bioimaging, especially for the sentinel lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left-right asymmetry in neck lymph nodes distribution in patients with bilateral laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoruk, Ozgur; Yuksel, Ramazan; Yuksel, Yasemin; Dane, Senol

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to examine left-right asymmetry in involved and total neck lymph nodes distribution in patients with bilateral laryngeal cancer in the present study. Forty-six patients with bilateral laryngeal cancer was included the study. The oncologic database of our otorhinolaryngology department was used. The right and left lymph node with and without involvement by cancer cells counts were retrieved from pathological reports. The numbers of both involved and total neck lymph nodes were significantly higher on right side than on left side for all neck levels in laryngeal malignancies. The results of the present study suggest the existence of a left-right asymmetry in neck lymph node distribution and in the neck lymph node distribution involved by laryngeal cancer cells. The stronger cell-mediated immune activity in the left side of humans may be associated with the blocking of the metastatic invasion of cancer cells from laryngeal malignancies in the left body side.

  6. Anatomic-histologic study of the floor of the mouth: the lingual lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ananian, Sargis G; Gvetadze, Shalva R; Ilkaev, Konstantin D; Mochalnikova, Valeria V; Zayratiants, Georgiy O; Mkhitarov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xin; Ciciashvili, Aleksandr M

    2015-06-01

    The lingual lymph nodes are inconstant nodes located within the fascial/intermuscular spaces of the floor of the mouth. Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma has been reported to recur and metastasize in lingual lymph nodes with poor prognosis. Lingual lymph nodes are not currently included in basic tongue squamous cell carcinoma surgery. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males, 14 females) were studied, aged from 57 to 94 years (mean age 76.3 years). The gross specimen of the floor of the mouth was divided into blocks: A (median nodes), B, B' (parahyoid), C, C' (paraglandular). Serial histological microslides were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Frequency of lingual lymph nodes in each block and their microscopic features were assessed. The lingual lymph nodes in overall number of 7 were detected in 5 of the 21 cadavers (23.8%). The total incidence of lingual lymph node was 33.3% (7 nodes/21 cadavers). Block A failed to demonstrate any lymph nodes (0%); Blocks B, B'-2 nodes (9.5%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively; Blocks C, C'-1 node (4.8%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively. The mean lingual lymph node length was 4.1 mm (from 1.4 to 8.7 mm), the mean thickness was 2.8 mm (from 0.8 to 7.5 mm). Five cadavers (23.8%) revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Atrophic changes appeared in 4 (57.1%) lingual lymph nodes. The presence of lymph node-bearing tissue in the floor of the mouth is demonstrated. In account of resection radicalism and better local control the fat tissue of the floor of the mouth should be removed in conjunction to glossectomy. Further anatomic and clinical research is required to establish the role of lingual lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence and metastasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Association between expression of MMP-7 and MMP-9 and pelvic lymph node and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Dai, Yifei; Wang, Anna; Wang, Chunyan; Sun, Lili; Wang, Zheng

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the association of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and MMP-9 with pelvic lymph node and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer. A total of 137 patients with early cervical cancer (Stage Ia2-IIa2) were recruited from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tumor Hospital of Liaoning Province from January 2009 to May 2014. We evaluated the expression of MMP-7 and MMP-9 by immunohistochemistry and their association with the clinicopathological parameters such as pelvic, common iliac and para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Spearman correlation was performed to analyze the correlation between MMP-7 and MMP-9 in cervical cancer. Finally, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of MMP-7 and MMP-9 in pelvic lymph node metastasis were assessed. MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in patients with adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas (P = 0.014), vascular cancer embolus (P = 0.041), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000) and a higher level of Ki-67 (P = 0.000). MMP-9 expression was significantly associated with vascular cancer embolus (P = 0.003), depth of stromal invasion (P = 0.001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003), common iliac lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001) and para-aortic lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.004). Coexpression of MMP-7 and MMP-9 was significantly associated with vascular cancer embolus (P < 0.001), higher expression of Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Spearman correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between MMP-7 and MMP-9 (r = 0.263, P = 0.002). Areas under the ROC of MMP-7 and MMP-9 were 0.707 and 0.646, respectively. MMP-7 and MMP-9 expressions were associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with early cervical cancers, suggesting a positive correlation of MMP-7 and MMP-9 with invasive potential in early cervical cancers. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and

  8. Simplified intraoperative sentinel-node detection performed by the urologist accurately determines lymph-node stage in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kjölhede, Henrik; Bratt, Ola; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Sundqvist, Pernilla; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2015-04-01

    The reference standard for lymph-node staging in prostate cancer is currently an extended pelvic lymph-node dissection (ePLND), which detects most, but not all, regional lymph-node metastases. As an alternative to ePLND, sentinel-node dissection with preoperative isotope injection and imaging has been reported. The objective was to determine whether intraoperative sentinel-node detection with a simplified protocol can accurately determine lymph-node stage in prostate cancer patients. Patients with biopsy-verified high-risk prostate cancer with tumour stage T2-3 were included in the study. All patients underwent both ePLND and sentinel-node detection. (99m)Tc-marked nanocolloid was injected peritumourally by the operating urologist after induction of anaesthesia just before surgery. Sentinel nodes were detected both in vivo and ex vivo intraoperatively using a gamma probe. Sentinel nodes and metastases and their locations were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. At least one sentinel node was detected in 72 (87%) of the 83 patients. In 13 (18%) of these 72 patients sentinel nodes were detected outside the ePLND template. In six of these 13 patients, the Sentinel nodes from outside the template contained metastases, which proved to be the only metastases in two. For 12 patients the only metastatic deposit found was a micrometastasis (≤2 mm) in a sentinel node. In the 72 patients with detectable sentinel nodes, pathological analysis of the sentinel node correctly categorized 71 and ePLND 70 patients. This protocol yielded results comparable to the commonly used technique of sentinel-node detection, but with more cases of non-detection.

  9. Ultrasound texture analysis: Association with lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Eunjung; Nam, Se Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate whether ultrasound texture analysis is useful to predict lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. Between May and July 2013, 361 patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 11.3 years; range, 16-72 years) who underwent staging ultrasound (US) and subsequent thyroidectomy for conventional PTMC ≤ 10 mm between May and July 2013 were included. Each PTMC was manually segmented and its histogram parameters (Mean, Standard deviation, Skewness, Kurtosis, and Entropy) were extracted with Matlab software. The mean values of histogram parameters and clinical and US features were compared according to lymph node metastasis using the independent t-test and Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with lymph node metastasis. Tumors with lymph node metastasis (n = 117) had significantly higher entropy compared to those without lymph node metastasis (n = 244) (mean±standard deviation, 6.268±0.407 vs. 6.171±.0.405; P = .035). No additional histogram parameters showed differences in mean values according to lymph node metastasis. Entropy was not independently associated with lymph node metastasis on multivariate logistic regression analysis (Odds ratio, 0.977 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.482-1.980]; P = .949). Younger age (Odds ratio, 0.962 [95% CI, 0.940-0.984]; P = .001) and lymph node metastasis on US (Odds ratio, 7.325 [95% CI, 3.573-15.020]; P < .001) were independently associated with lymph node metastasis. Texture analysis was not useful in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with PTMC.

  10. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of false-negative sentinel lymph node biopsy on survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Caracò, C; Marone, U; Celentano, E; Botti, G; Mozzillo, N

    2007-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is widely accepted as standard care in melanoma despite lack of pertinent randomized trials results. A possible pitfall of this procedure is the inaccurate identification of the sentinel lymph node leading to biopsy and analysis of a nonsentinel node. Such a technical failure may yield a different prognosis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the incidence of false negativity and its impact on clinical outcome and to try to understand its causes. The Melanoma Data Base at National Cancer Institute of Naples was analyzed comparing results between false-negative and tumor-positive sentinel node patients focusing on overall survival and prognostic factors influencing the clinical outcome. One hundred fifty-one cases were diagnosed to be tumor-positive after sentinel lymph node biopsy and were subjected to complete lymph node dissection. Thirty-four (18.4%)patients with tumor-negative sentinel node subsequently developed lymph node metastases in the basin site of the sentinel procedure. With a median follow-up of 42.8 months the 5-year overall survival was 48.4% and 66.3% for false-negative and tumor-positive group respectively with significant statistical differences (P < .03). The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 81.6%, and a regional nodal basin recurrence after negative-sentinel node biopsy means a worse prognosis, compared with patients submitted to complete lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel biopsy. The evidence of higher number of tumor-positive nodes after delayed lymphadenectomy in false-negative group compared with tumor-positive sentinel node cases, confirmed the importance of an early staging of lymph nodal involvement. Further data will better clarify the role of prognostic factors to identify cases with a more aggressive biological behavior of the disease.

  12. Semi-automatic central-chest lymph-node definition from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The three-dimensional (3D) definition of lymph nodes from multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. This is because of the limitations in the MDCT imaging of soft-tissue structures and the complicated phenomena that influence the appearance of a lymph node in an MDCT image. In the past, we have made significant efforts toward developing (1) live-wire-based segmentation methods for defining 2D and 3D chest structures and (2) a computer-based system for automatic definition and interactive visualization of the Mountain central-chest lymph-node stations. Based on these works, we propose new single-click and single-section live-wire methods for segmenting central-chest lymph nodes. The single-click live wire only requires the user to select an object pixel on one 2D MDCT section and is designed for typical lymph nodes. The single-section live wire requires the user to process one selected 2D section using standard 2D live wire, but it is more robust. We applied these methods to the segmentation of 20 lymph nodes from two human MDCT chest scans (10 per scan) drawn from our ground-truth database. The single-click live wire segmented 75% of the selected nodes successfully and reproducibly, while the success rate for the single-section live wire was 85%. We are able to segment the remaining nodes, using our previously derived (but more interaction intense) 2D live-wire method incorporated in our lymph-node analysis system. Both proposed methods are reliable and applicable to a wide range of pulmonary lymph nodes.

  13. Indocyanine green SPY elite-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Korn, Jason M; Tellez-Diaz, Alejandra; Bartz-Kurycki, Marisa; Gastman, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard of care for intermediate-depth and high-risk thin melanomas. Recently, indocyanine green and near-infrared imaging have been used to aid in sentinel node biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy with indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation and to critically evaluate the technique compared with the standard modalities. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Two cohorts were formed: group A, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with blue dye and radioisotope; and group B, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with radioisotope and indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation. The cohorts were compared to assess for differences in localization rates, sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node identification, and length of surgery. The sentinel lymph node localization rate was 79.4 percent using the blue dye method, 98.0 percent using the indocyanine green fluorescence method, and 97.8 percent using the radioisotope/handheld gamma probe method. Indocyanine green fluorescence detected more sentinel lymph nodes than the vital dye method alone (p = 0.020). A trend toward a reduction in length of surgery was noted in the SPY Elite cohort. Sentinel lymph node mapping and localization in cutaneous melanoma with the indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation system is technically feasible and may offer several advantages over current modalities, including higher sensitivity and specificity, decreased number of lymph nodes sampled, decreased operative time, and potentially lower false-negative rates. Diagnostic, II.

  14. Elastin Shapes Small Molecule Distribution in Lymph Node Conduits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yujia; Louie, Dante; Ganguly, Anutosh; Wu, Dequan; Huang, Peng; Liao, Shan

    2018-05-01

    The spatial and temporal Ag distribution determines the subsequent T cell and B cell activation at the distinct anatomical locations in the lymph node (LN). It is well known that LN conduits facilitate small Ag distribution in the LN, but the mechanism of how Ags travel along LN conduits remains poorly understood. In C57BL/6J mice, using FITC as a fluorescent tracer to study lymph distribution in the LN, we found that FITC preferentially colocalized with LN capsule-associated (LNC) conduits. Images generated using a transmission electron microscope showed that LNC conduits are composed of solid collagen fibers and are wrapped with fibroblastic cells. Superresolution images revealed that high-intensity FITC is typically colocalized with elastin fibers inside the LNC conduits. Whereas tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate appears to enter LNC conduits as effectively as FITC, fluorescently-labeled Alexa-555-conjugated OVA labels significantly fewer LNC conduits. Importantly, injection of Alexa-555-conjugated OVA with LPS substantially increases OVA distribution along elastin fibers in LNC conduits, indicating immune stimulation is required for effective OVA traveling along elastin in LN conduits. Finally, elastin fibers preferentially surround lymphatic vessels in the skin and likely guide fluid flow to the lymphatic vessels. Our studies demonstrate that fluid or small molecules are preferentially colocalized with elastin fibers. Although the exact mechanism of how elastin fibers regulate Ag trafficking remains to be explored, our results suggest that elastin can be a potentially new target to direct Ag distribution in the LN during vaccine design. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Does shear wave ultrasound independently predict axillary lymph node metastasis in women with invasive breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew; Rauchhaus, Petra; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Michie, Caroline O; Thompson, Alastair; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) shows promise as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasound examination in assessing breast masses. In breast cancer, higher lesion stiffness on SWE has been shown to be associated with features of poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess whether lesion stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node involvement. Patients with invasive breast cancer treated by primary surgery, who had undergone SWE examination were eligible. Data were retrospectively analysed from 396 consecutive patients. The mean stiffness values were obtained using the Aixplorer® ultrasound machine from SuperSonic Imagine Ltd. Measurements were taken from a region of interest positioned over the stiffest part of the abnormality. The average of the mean stiffness value obtained from each of two orthogonal image planes was used for analysis. Associations between lymph node involvement and mean lesion stiffness, invasive cancer size, histologic grade, tumour type, ER expression, HER-2 status and vascular invasion were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. At univariate analysis, invasive size, histologic grade, HER-2 status, vascular invasion, tumour type and mean stiffness were significantly associated with nodal involvement. Nodal involvement rates ranged from 7 % for tumours with mean stiffness <50 kPa to 41 % for tumours with a mean stiffness of >150 kPa. At multivariate analysis, invasive size, tumour type, vascular invasion, and mean stiffness maintained independent significance. Mean stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis and thus can confer prognostic information additional to that provided by conventional preoperative tumour assessment and staging.

  16. Lymph node toxoplasmosis. Follow-up of 237 histologically diagnosed and serologically verified cases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Saxén, L; Saxén, E

    1980-01-01

    The clinical features, histology and follow-up of lymph node toxoplasmosis are presented in the light of 237 histologically and serologically verified cases. Lymph node toxoplasmosis is a disease with mild symptoms, and in most patients the enlarged lymph nodes were the only sign. Three fourths of the patients were women and the majority were under 40 years of age. The clinical picture was not specific, but suggestive features included a relatively short history, presence of the nodes in the neck and relative lymphocytosis in peripheral blood. Histological changes in the lymph nodes were characteristic. The most important features were strong hyperplasia but preserved general structure with small groups of epithelioid cells both in the paracortical area and in the germinal centers. Strands of monocytoid cells were usually found. 80% of the cases with typical histology also had high antibody titers, and in more than 85% of the cases with high antibodies, the lymph nodes presented a typical picture of toxoplasmosis. The follow-up revealed that lymph node toxoplasmosis. The follow-up revealed that lymph node toxoplasmosis is a disease without complications, nor is there any connection with malignant lymphomas.

  17. Clinical significance of the pattern of lymph node metastasis depending on the location of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki Bin; Jang, You Jin; Kim, Jong Han; Park, Sung Soo; Park, Seong Heum; Kim, Seung Joo; Mok, Young Jae; Kim, Chong Suk

    2011-06-01

    When performing a laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy, a function-preserving gastrectomy is performed depending on the location of the primary gastric cancer. This study examined the incidence of lymph node metastasis by the lymph node station number by tumor location to determine the optimal extent of the lymph node dissection. The subjects consisted of 1,510 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who underwent a gastrectomy between 1996 and 2005. The patients were divided into three groups: upper, middle and lower third, depending on the location of the primary tumor. The lymph node metastasis patterns were analyzed in the total and early gastric cancer patients. In all patients, lymph node station numbers 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 11 metastases were dominant in the cancer originating in the upper third, whereas station numbers 4, 5, 6 and 8 were dominant in the lower third. In early gastric cancer patients, the station number of lymph nodes with a metastasis did not show a significant difference in stage pT1a disease. On the other hand, a metastasis in lymph node station number 6 was dominant in stage pT1b disease that originated in the lower third of the stomach. When performing a laparoscopic-assisted gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, a limited lymphadenectomy is considered adequate during a function-preserving gastrectomy in mucosal (T1a) cancer. On the other hand, for submucosal (T1b) cancer, a number 6 node dissection should be performed when performing a pylorus preserving gastrectomy.

  18. Predicting Radiotherapy Necessity in Tongue Cancer Using Lymph Node Yield.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhien; Xu, Qiao Shi; Qin, Li Zheng; Li, Hua; Han, Zhengxue

    2017-05-01

    In patients with head and neck cancer and a single metastatic lymph node (pN1), the value of lymph node yield (LNY) remains controversial in determining the prognosis and identifying patients who require radiotherapy. This study evaluated the role of LNY in predicting the adequacy of neck dissection, need for adjuvant radiotherapy, and survival in patients with pN1 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The authors implemented a retrospective cohort study. The predictor variable was LNY. The outcome variables were 5-year disease-specific survival and the need for adjuvant radiotherapy. Other study variables were age, gender, tumor stage, pathologic grade, growth pattern, tobacco and alcohol habits, and time frame. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and a P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. The sample was chosen from among 2,792 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as having oral squamous cell carcinoma and underwent surgical treatment from June 1996 through December 2012. One hundred forty-one patients treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology of the Beijing Stomatological Hospital (Beijing, China) were screened for the study. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis identified that a cutoff (LNY, 20; area under the curve, 0.708; 95% confidence interval, 0.625-0.781; sensitivity and specificity, 64.94 and 70.31%, respectively; P = .0001) could best discriminate patients into 2 groups according to need for adjuvant radiotherapy. Interestingly, subgroup analyses showed that patients who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy had notably better 5-year disease-specific survival than those who did not undergo radiotherapy if the LNY was smaller than 20 (58.0 vs 21.0%; P = .021). However, there was no significant association for 5-year disease-specific survival between the low and high LNY groups (49.2 vs 58.7%; P = .363). An LNY smaller than 20 at levels I to III predicted a

  19. Anatomic Variability of the Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Level VII.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Dana M; Breuskin, Ingrid; Mirghani, Haïtham; Berdelou, Amandine; Déandréis, Désirée; Pottier, Edwige; Borget, Isabelle; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Lymph node level VII, between the sternal notch and the innominate artery, is a frequent site of lymph node metastases in thyroid cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the cranial-caudal dimensions of level VII in patients undergoing central neck dissection for thyroid cancer and its accessibility through a neck incision only. Consecutive patients undergoing central neck dissection for thyroid cancer, with no previous neck dissection, mediastinal or thoracic surgery. The innominate artery was identified and the distance between the sternal notch and the upper border of the artery was measured to the nearest .5 mm. The sizes of level VII were compared with respect to age, sex, height, body mass index, type of neck dissection (therapeutic or prophylactic), and the incidence of previous thyroidectomy. One-hundred-one consecutive patients (65 women, 36 men, mean age 44 years (range 15-87) underwent prophylactic (n = 55) or therapeutic (n = 46) bilateral central compartment neck dissection. Level VII was accessible via the horizontal neck incision in all cases. Sizes of level VII ranged from 6 cm above the sternal notch to 35 mm below the sternal notch, with a mean distance of 3.5 mm below the sternal notch. The innominate artery was at the level of the sternal notch in 29 patients, and cranial to the sternal notch in 20 cases. No statistical relationship with age, sex, therapeutic/prophylactic neck dissection, previous surgery, body mass index or height was found. The maximal distance below the sternal notch was 35 mm. Level VII did not exist in 49 % of patients, and was less than 25 mm caudal to the sternal notch in 95 % of cases. Distinguishing level VII from level VI in thyroid cancer surgery may not be pertinent, due to the ease of access via a classic horizontal neck incision and the small sizes of level VII in the majority of patients.

  20. Predictors of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer-radioactivity and Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakao, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yousuke; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Background Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) located in the left upper division. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy) with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako’s method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station. Results We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women). Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC. Conclusions Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC. PMID:26247881

  2. Prognostic relevance of an epigenetic biomarker panel in sentinel lymph nodes from colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lind, Guro E; Guriby, Marianne; Ahlquist, Terje; Hussain, Israr; Jeanmougin, Marine; Søreide, Kjetil; Kørner, Hartwig; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2017-01-01

    Patients with early colorectal cancer (stages I-II) generally have a good prognosis, but a subgroup of 15-20% experiences relapse and eventually die of disease. Occult metastases have been suggested as a marker for increased risk of recurrence in patients with node-negative disease. Using a previously identified, highly accurate epigenetic biomarker panel for early detection of colorectal tumors, we aimed at evaluating the prognostic value of occult metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of colon cancer patients. The biomarker panel was analyzed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in primary tumors and 783 sentinel lymph nodes from 201 patients. The panel status in sentinel lymph nodes showed a strong association with lymph node stage ( P  = 8.2E-17). Compared with routine lymph node diagnostics, the biomarker panel had a sensitivity of 79% (31/39). Interestingly, among 162 patients with negative lymph nodes from routine diagnostics, 13 (8%) were positive for the biomarker panel. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation had an inferior prognosis (5-year overall survival P  = 3.0E-4; time to recurrence P  = 3.1E-4), although not significant. The same trend was observed in multivariate analyses ( P  = 1.4E-1 and P  = 6.7E-2, respectively). Occult sentinel lymph node metastases were not detected in early stage (I-II) colon cancer patients who experienced relapse. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation of the analyzed epigenetic biomarker panel had an inferior prognosis, although not significant in multivariate analyses. Occult metastases in TNM stage II patients that experienced relapse were not detected.

  3. Use of High Frequency Ultrasound to Monitor Cervical Lymph Node Alterations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Elyse L.; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  4. Use of high frequency ultrasound to monitor cervical lymph node alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy.

  5. Transected thin melanoma: Implications for sentinel lymph node staging.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Garth; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Bartlett, Edmund K; Zaheer, Salman; Graham, Danielle; Czerniecki, Brian J; Fraker, Douglas L; Ariyan, Charlotte; Coit, Daniel G; Brady, Mary S

    2018-03-01

    Indications for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in patients with thin melanoma (≤1 mm thick) are controversial. We asked whether deep margin (DM) positivity at initial biopsy of thin melanoma is associated with SLN positivity. Cases were identified using prospectively maintained databases at two melanoma centers. Patients who had undergone SLN biopsy for melanoma ≤1 mm were included. DM status was assessed for association with SLN metastasis in univariate and multivariate analyses. 1413 cases were identified, but only 1129 with known DM status were included. 39% of patients had a positive DM on original biopsy. DM-positive and DM-negative patients did not differ significantly in primary thickness, ulceration, or mitotic activity. DM-positive and DM-negative patients had similar incidence of SLN metastasis (5.7% vs 3.5%; P = 0.07). Positive DM was not associated with SLN metastasis on univariate analysis (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 0.95-3.00, P = 0.07) or on multivariate analysis adjusted for Breslow depth, Clark level, mitotic rate, and ulceration (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.89-2.85; P = 0.12). For patients with thin melanoma, a positive DM on initial biopsy is not associated with risk of SLN metastasis, so DM positivity should not be considered an indication for SLN staging in an otherwise low-risk patient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Skin sensitisation, vehicle effects and the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Gerberick, G F; Kimber, I

    2001-06-01

    Accurate risk assessment in allergic contact dermatitis is dependent on the successful prospective identification of chemicals which possess the ability to behave as skin sensitisers, followed by appropriate measurement of the relative ability to cause sensitisation; their potency. Tools for hazard identification have been available for many years; more recently, a novel approach to the quantitative assessment of potency--the derivation of EC3 values in the local lymph node assay (LLNA)--has been described. It must be recognised, however, that these evaluations of chemical sensitisers also may be affected by the vehicle matrix in which skin exposure occurs. In this article, our knowledge of this area is reviewed and potential mechanisms through which vehicle effects may occur are detailed. Using the LLNA as an example, it is demonstrated that the vehicle may have little impact on the accuracy of basic hazard identification; the data also therefore support the view that testing ingredients in specific product formulations is not warranted for hazard identification purposes. However, the effect on potency estimations is of greater significance. Although not all chemical allergens are affected similarly, for certain substances a greater than 10-fold vehicle-dependent change in potency is observed. Such data are vital for accurate risk assessment. Unfortunately, it does not at present appear possible to predict notionally the effect of the vehicle matrix on skin sensitising potency without recourse to direct testing, for example by estimation of LLNA EC3 data, which provides a valuable tool for this purpose.

  7. [Early form of toxoplasmosis with accompanying enlargement of lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Małafiej, Eugeniusz; Spiewak, Ewa; Frankowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa

    2004-05-01

    The paper describes a case of a 42-year-old female presented rapidly increasing enlargement of lymph nodes. Initially it was believed to be an effect of proliferous systemic changes. The diagnostic procedures did not confirm the initial diagnosis but they evoked a lot of stress of the patient as well as her psychic discomfort resulting from a number of biopsies. Serological tests carried out in the further course of the diagnostic procedure showed that the increased nodular reaction should be attributed to Toxoplasma gondii invasion, which was indicated by the presence of IgM and IgA antibodies and low avidity of IgG. The early administration of specific treatment with spiramycin led to the regression of the clinical symptoms and gradual normalization of the serological test. The case is worth attention for several reasons: 1. it indicates that it is necessary to consider T. gondii infection in basic clinical practice, which is frequently ignored, 2. it illustrates the effectiveness of early specific treatment, 3. it demonstrates the importance of well selected and properly interpreted microbiological tests.

  8. [Numbers of lymph nodes in large intestinal resections for colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Motycka, V; Ferko, A; Tycová, V; Nikolov, Hadzi; Sotona, O; Cecka, F; Dusek, T; Chobola, M; Pospísil, I

    2010-03-01

    Precise evaluation of lymph nodes in the surgical specimen is crucial for the staging and subsequent decision about the adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Prognosis of the patients can be assessed only in cases when at least 12 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen are examined. To evaluate the radicalism of resections for colorectal carcinoma after introducing laparoscopic approach. We compared all resections for primary colorectal cancer and rectal cancer (C 18-C20) performed in the Department of Surgery in University Hospital Hradec Králové in the years 2005 and 2008 and we evaluated numbers of examined lymph nodes in the surgical specimens. The patients with recurrent tumours and the patients with complete pathological response (negative histology) after neoadjuvant therapy were excluded from the study. 117 patients were included in the study in 2005, 2 of them were operated laparoscopically. 155 patients (more by 32.5%) were included in the study in 2008, 53 of them (34.2%) were operated laparoscopically. In tumours of the right part of the colon (C180-C184) treated by right hemicolectomy: on an average 7.9 (+/- 5.3) lymph nodes were examined in the specimens in 2005, and 15.3 (+/- 7.0) lymph nodes in 2008. In tumours of the left part of the colon (C185-C186) treated by left hemicolectomy: 6.5 (+/- 5.1) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 19.6 (+/- 15.6) in 2008. In tumours of the sigmoid colon (C187) 9.1 (+/- 6.9) lymph nodes were examined in 2005,and 15.4 (+/- 7.9) in 2008. In tumours of the rectosigmoid junction (C19) 8.0 (+/- 6.9) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 17.8 (+/- 11.2) in 2008. In rectal cancer (C20) 5.2 (+/- 4.5) lymph nodes were examined in 2005, and 13.6 (+/- 12.5) in 2008. There is a significant difference in a number of examined lymph nodes in patients without neodadjuvant treatment compared to those with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. In 2005, in an average 3.7 (+/- 3.3) lymph nodes were removed in

  9. Intracellular esterase activity in living cells may distinguish between metastatic and tumor-free lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Afrimzon, Elena; Deutsch, Assaf; Shafran, Yana; Zurgil, Naomi; Sandbank, Judith; Pappo, Itzhak; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2008-01-01

    One of the major clinical problems in breast cancer detection is the relatively high incidence of occult lymph node metastases undetectable by standard procedures. Since the ascertainment of breast cancer stage determines the following treatment, such a "hypo-diagnosis" leads to inadequate therapy, and hence is detrimental for the outcome and survival of the patients. The purpose of our study was to investigate functional metabolic characteristics of living cells derived from metastatic and tumor-free lymph nodes of breast cancer (BC) patients. Our methodology is based on the ability of living cells to hydrolyze fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by intracellular esterases and on the association of FDA hydrolysis rates with a specific cell status, both in physiological and pathological conditions. The present study demonstrates a significant difference in the ability to utilize FDA by lymph node cells derived from metastatic and tumor-free lymph nodes in general average, as well as in the metastatic and tumor-free lymph nodes of individual patients. Cells from metastatic lymph nodes had a higher capacity for FDA hydrolysis, and increased this activity after additional activation by autologous tumor tissue (tt). The association between increased FDA hydrolysis rate and activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APC) was shown. The results of the present study may contribute to predicting the risk of involvement of seemingly "tumor-free" axillary lymph nodes in occult metastatic processes, and to reducing false-negative results of axillary examination.

  10. [Feasibility analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer after local lumpectomy].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, W Y; Liu, J Q; Xing, Z Y; Wang, X

    2016-07-01

    To explore the feasibility, safety and clinical application value of sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)in patients with breast cancer after local lumpectomy. Clinical data of 195 patients who previously received local lumpectomy from January 2005 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients with pathologic stage T1-2N0M0 (T1-2N0M0) breast cancer underwent SLNB. Methylene blue, carbon nanoparticles suspension, technetium-99m-labeled dextran, or in combination were used in the SLNB. The interval from lumpectomy to SLNB was 1-91 days(mean, 18.3 days)and the maximum diameter of tumors before first operation was 0.2-4.5 cm (mean, 1.8 cm). The sentinel lymph node was successfully found in all the cases and the detection rate was 100%. 42 patients received axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), 19 patients had pathologically positive sentinel lymph node, with an accuracy rate of 97.6%, sensitivity of 95.0%, false negative rate of 5.0%, and specificity of 100%, and the false positive rate was 0. Logistic regression analysis suggested that the age of patients was significantly associated with sentinel lymph node metastasis after local lumpectomy. For early breast cancer and after breast tumor biopsy, the influence of local lumpectomy on detection rate and accuracy of sentinel lymph node is not significant. Sentinel lymph node biopsy with appropriately chosen tracing technique may still provide a high detection rate and accuracy.

  11. Contribution of Kinetic Characteristics of Axillary Lymph Nodes to the Diagnosis in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Örgüç, Şebnem; Başara, Işıl; Pekindil, Gökhan; Coşkun, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of kinetic characteristics in the discrimination of malignant-benign axillary lymph nodes. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty-five female patients were included in the study. Following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations postprocessing applications were applied, dynamic curves were obtained from subtracted images. Types of dynamic curves were correlated with histopathological results in malignant cases or final clinical results in patients with no evidence of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likehood ratio (+LHR), negative (−LHR) of dynamic curves characterizing the axillary lymph nodes were calculated. Results: A total of 178 lymph nodes greater than 8 mm were evaluated in 113 patients. Forty-six lymph nodes in 24 cases had malignant axillary involvement. 132 lymph nodes in 89 patients with benign diagnosis were included in the study. The sensitivity of type 3 curve as an indicator of malignancy was calculated as 89%. However the specificity, +LHR, −LHR were calculated as 14%, 1.04, 0.76 respectively. Conclusion: Since kinetic analysis of both benign and malignant axillary lymph nodes, rapid enhancement and washout (type 3) they cannot be used as a discriminator, unlike breast lesions. MRI, depending on the kinetic features of the axillary lymph nodes, is not high enough to be used in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. PMID:25207016

  12. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Anne L; Malhotra, Deepali; Acton, Sophie E; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Curry, Mark; Armant, Myriam; Turley, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  13. Clinical relevance of sentinel lymph node status examined with conventional histology and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Micciolo, Rocco; Boi, Sebastiana; Paoli, Loredana; Cristofolini, Paolo; Girlando, Salvatore; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Cristofolini, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma adversely affects the biological behavior and is related to a poor prognosis. The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy is still debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of sentinel lymph node biopsy with respect to disease-free period and overall survival. Patients with invasive cutaneous melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in the Santa Chiara Hospital of Trento between October 1997 and December 2002 were evaluated. The lymph nodes were examined with conventional histology, S100 and tyrosinase in immunohistochemistry, and tyrosinase in molecular biology. There were 144 patients with 198 sentinel lymph nodes. A significant association was found in conventional histology with Clark level and Breslow thickness. The prognostic role of sentinel lymph node status was independent of the other considered variables. However, no significant association was found with the molecular biology test. A significant excess of positive results at molecular biology was found. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an important independent prognostic factor for invasive cutaneous melanoma, but only when evaluated with conventional histology. As a result of this study, we stopped performing the tyrosinase test in molecular biology.

  14. Biological Ablation of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosally Invaded Early Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25523761

  15. Mantle Cell Hyperplasia of Peripheral Lymph Nodes as Initial Manifestation of Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Monabbati, Ahmad; Noori, Sadat; Safaei, Akbar; Ramzi, Mani; Eghbali, Seyedsajjad; Adib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a well known hemoglobinopathy with usual manifestations including anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and vasoocclusive complications. Despite presence of mild splenomegaly in early phase of the disease, lymphadenopathy is not an often finding of SCD. We introduce an undiagnosed case of SCD who presented in third decade of his life with multiple cervical lymphadenopathies and mild splenomegaly persistent for about five years. Histopathologic examination of the resected lymph nodes showed expansion of the mantle cell layers of secondary follicles as well as several monomorphic mantle cell nodules. To rule out possibility of a malignant process involving lymph nodes, an immunohistochemical panel was ordered which was in favor of benign mantle cell hyperplasia. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement study showed no clonal bands and confirmed benign nature of the process. Respecting mild abnormalities on Complete Blood Count, peripheral blood smear was reviewed revealing some typical sickle red blood cells as well as rare nucleated red blood cells. Solubility test for hemoglobin (HB) S was positive. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed diagnosis of homozygous HbS disease.

  16. DETECTION OF OCCULT LYMPH NODE TUMOR CELLS IN NODE-NEGATIVE GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Alessandra; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, Andre Roncon; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Faraj, Sheila Friedrich; Zilberstein, Bruno; Cecconello, Ivan; Mello, Evandro Sobroza de; Ribeiro, Ulysses

    2017-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes metastasis is one of the most important prognostic indicators in gastric cancer. The micrometastases have been studied as prognostic factor in gastric cancer, which are related to decrease overall survival and increased risk of recurrence. However, their identification is limited by conventional methodology, since they can be overlooked after routine staining. To investigate the presence of occult tumor cells using cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 immunostaining in gastric cancer patients histologically lymph node negative (pN0) by H&E. Forty patients (T1-T4N0) submitted to a potentially curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were evaluated. The results for metastases, micrometastases and isolated tumor cells were also associated to clinicopathological characteristics and their impact on stage grouping. Tumor deposits within lymph nodes were defined according to the tumor-node-metastases guidelines (7th TNM). A total of 1439 lymph nodes were obtained (~36 per patient). Tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 lymph nodes from 12 patients (30%). Neoplasic cells were detected as a single or cluster tumor cells. Tumor (p=0.002), venous (p=0.016), lymphatic (p=0.006) and perineural invasions (p=0.04), as well as peritumoral lymphocytic response (p=0.012) were correlated to CK-positive immunostaining tumor cells in originally negative lymph nodes by H&E. The histologic stage of two patients was upstaged from stage IB to stage IIA. Four of the 28 CK-negative patients (14.3%) and three among 12 CK-positive patients (25%) had disease recurrence (p=0.65). The CK-immunostaining is an effective method for detecting occult tumor cells in lymph nodes and may be recommended to precisely determine tumor stage. It may be useful as supplement to H&E routine to provide better pathological staging. A presença de metástase em linfonodos é um dos indicadores prognósticos mais importantes no câncer gástrico. As micrometástases têm sido

  17. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of < 6% and < 10%, respectively, when applied to the validation group. Our nomogram could help predict L-2-ALNM in patients with level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  18. Availability of sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Shusaku; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second common cutaneous cancer, especially in the elderly. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is generally performed in breast cancers and cutaneous melanomas to detect occult nodal metastases. The benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy in improving cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma prognosis is doubtful. One hundred and sixty-nine patients who underwent treatment for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2015, and who were followed up for at least 6 months or developed metastases within the follow-up period were included. Forty-nine patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, whereas 120 patients did not, including 13 who exhibited clinical lymph node metastases before treatment. Of these 49 patients, nine (18.4%) presented with sentinel lymph node metastasis, which occurred after treatment in three (6.1%) of them (false-negative). Among the 107 patients who did not undergo lymph node biopsy, 12 (11.2%) developed post-treatment metastases. The metastasis-free and disease-specific survival rates were not significantly different in those who did or did not undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients with clinical lymph node metastases had a higher risk compared with those without. Patients with T2-T4 tumors had a higher risk compared with those with T1 tumors. When selecting for those with T2 tumors or greater, the same lack of relationship was observed. In conclusion, in this small retrospective cohort, in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, there were no significant differences in metastasis-free and disease-specific survival rates between those who did or did not undergo sentinel lymph node biopsy, regardless of T staging. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes in children without head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Vali, Reza; Bakari, Alaa A; Marie, Eman; Kousha, Mahnaz; Charron, Martin; Shammas, Amer

    2017-06-01

    Reactive cervical lymphadenopathy is common in children and may demonstrate increased 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We sought to evaluate the frequency and significance of 18 F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes in children with no history of head and neck cancer. The charts of 244 patients (114 female, mean age: 10.4 years) with a variety of tumors such as lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD), but no head and neck cancers, who had undergone 18 F-FDG PET/CT were reviewed retrospectively. Using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), increased 18 F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes was recorded and compared with the final diagnosis based on follow-up studies or biopsy results. Neck lymph node uptake was identified in 70/244 (28.6%) of the patients. In 38 patients, the lymph nodes were benign. In eight patients, the lymph nodes were malignant (seven PTLD and one lymphoma). In 24 patients, we were not able to confirm the final diagnosis. Seven out of the eight malignant lymph nodes were positive for PTLD. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in malignant lesions (4.2) compared with benign lesions (2.1) (P = 0.00049). 18 F-FDG uptake in neck lymph nodes is common in children and is frequently due to reactive lymph nodes, especially when the SUVmax is <3.2. The frequency of malignant cervical lymph nodes is higher in PTLD patients compared with other groups.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer-Feasibility, safety and lymphatic complications.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Persson, Jan

    2018-03-01

    To compare the rate of lymphatic complications in women with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy versus a full pelvic and infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy, and to examine the overall feasibility and safety of the former. A prospective study of 188 patients with endometrial cancer planned for robotic surgery. Indocyanine green was used to identify the sentinel lymph nodes. In low-risk patients the lymphadenectomy was restricted to removal of sentinel lymph nodes whereas in high-risk patients also a full lymphadenectomy was performed. The impact of the extent of the lymphadenectomy on the rate of complications was evaluated. The bilateral detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes was 96% after cervical tracer injection. No intraoperative complication was associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy per se. Compared with hysterectomy alone, the additional average operative time for removal of sentinel lymph nodes was 33min whereas 91min were saved compared with a full pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy alone resulted in a lower incidence of leg lymphedema than infrarenal paraaortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy (1.3% vs 18.1%, p=0.0003). The high feasibility, the absence of intraoperative complications and the low risk of lymphatic complications supports implementing detection of sentinel lymph nodes in low-risk endometrial cancer patients. Given that available preliminary data on sensitivity and false negative rates in high-risk patients are confirmed in further studies, we also believe that the reduction in lymphatic complications and operative time strongly motivates the sentinel lymph node concept in high-risk endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Prognostic Value of Lymph Node Yield and Density in Head and Neck Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cheraghlou, Shayan; Otremba, Michael; Kuo Yu, Phoebe; Agogo, George O; Hersey, Denise; Judson, Benjamin L

    2018-06-01

    Objective Studies have suggested that the lymph node yield and lymph node density from selective or elective neck dissections are predictive of patient outcomes and may be used for patient counseling, treatment planning, or quality measurement. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and conduct a meta-analysis of studies that investigated the prognostic significance of lymph node yield and/or lymph node density after neck dissection for patients with head and neck cancer. Data Sources The Ovid/Medline, Ovid/Embase, and NLM PubMed databases were systematically searched on January 23, 2017, for articles published between January 1, 1946, and January 23, 2017. Review Methods We reviewed English-language original research that included survival analysis of patients undergoing neck dissection for a head and neck malignancy stratified by lymph node yield and/or lymph node density. Study data were extracted by 2 independent researchers (S.C. and M.O.). We utilized the DerSimonian and Laird random effects model to account for heterogeneity of studies. Results Our search yielded 350 nonduplicate articles, with 23 studies included in the final synthesis. Pooled results demonstrated that increased lymph node yield was associated with a significant improvement in survival (hazard ratio, 0.833; 95% CI, 0.790-0.879). Additionally, we found that increased lymph node density was associated with poorer survival (hazard ratio, 1.916; 95% CI, 1.637-2.241). Conclusions Increased nodal yield portends improved outcomes and may be a valuable quality indicator for neck dissections, while increased lymph node density is associated with diminished survival and may be used for postsurgical counseling and planning for adjuvant therapy.

  2. [The related factors of head and neck mocosal melanoma with lymph node metastasis].

    PubMed

    Yin, G F; Guo, W; Chen, X H; Huang, Z G

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the related factors of mucosal melanoma of head and neck with lymph node metastasis for early diagnosis and further treatments. Method: A retrospective analysis of 117 cases of head and neck mucosal malignant melanoma patients which received surgical treatment was performed. Eleven cases of patients with pathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis and 33 cases without lymph node metastasis (1∶3) were randomly selected to analyze. The related factors of lymph node metastasis of head and neck mucosal melanoma patients including age, gender, whether the existence of recurrence, bone invasion, lesion location were analyzed. The single factor and logistic regression analysis were performed, P <0.05 difference was statistically significant. Result: The lymph node metastasis rate of head and neck mucosal melanoma was 9.40%(11/117), the single factor analysis showed that there were 3 factors to be associated with lymph node metastasis, which was recurrence ( P =0.0000), bone invasion ( P =0.001), primary position ( P =0.007). Recurrence ( P =0.021) was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis according to the Logistic regression analysis, and the impact of bone invasion ( P =0.487) and primary location ( P =0.367) remained to be further explored. Conclusion: The patients of head and neck mucosal melanoma with the presence of recurrent usually accompanied by a further progression of the disease, such as lymph node metastasis, so for recurrent patients should pay special attention to the situation of lymph node and choose the reasonable treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  3. Alternative paratracheal lymph node dissection in left-sided hilar lung cancer patients: comparing the number of lymph nodes dissected to the number of lymph nodes dissected in right-sided mediastinal dissections.

    PubMed

    Toker, Alper; Tanju, Serhan; Ziyade, Sedat; Kaya, Serkan; Erus, Suat; Ozkan, Berker; Yilmazbayhan, Dilek

    2011-06-01

    Removing or sampling lymph nodes from the bilateral paratracheal area through a left thoracotomy is not a standard procedure in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a technique without ductus arteriosus division and mobilization of the aortic arch and to compare the number of lymph nodes resected in left-sided dissections to the number of lymph nodes removed in right-sided mediastinal dissections that are routinely performed in clinical practice. A total of 93 patients with hilar lung cancer were evaluated. A prospective study was conducted on 51 patients with primary left-sided hilar lung cancer, who underwent left thoracotomy and paratracheal lymphadenectomy between January 2008 and January 2010. The number of nodes dissected in these patients was compared with the number of nodes dissected in 42 patients with right-sided hilar lung cancer by right-sided mediastinal dissection within the same period. The mean number of resected nodes in the bilateral paratracheal area via left thoracotomy was 8.4 (2-18 nodes). The distribution from 4R-4L-2L-2R was as follows: 3.3-2.5-0.5-2.1, respectively. Six patients (11.7%) were diagnosed with occult N2, and two (3.9%) of these patients also had N3 disease concomitantly. The number of dissected nodes from the ipsilateral station 2 via right-sided versus left-sided thoracotomy was 1.6 versus 0.5 (p=0.000), whereas the number of dissected nodes from ipsilateral station 4 via right-sided versus left-sided thoracotomy was 3.3 versus 2.5, respectively (p=0.1). The number of dissected nodes from the contralateral station 2 via right-sided versus left-sided thoracotomy was 0.2 versus 2.1 (p=0.000), whereas those numbers from the contralateral station 4 via right-sided versus left-sided thoracotomy were 1.0 versus 3.3, respectively (p=0.000). Lymphadenectomy of the paratracheal area via left thoracotomy without ductus arteriosus division and mobilization of the aortic arch is technically

  4. Simultaneous mapping of pan and sentinel lymph nodes for real-time image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2014-01-01

    The resection of regional lymph nodes in the basin of a primary tumor is of paramount importance in surgical oncology. Although sentinel lymph node mapping is now the standard of care in breast cancer and melanoma, over 20% of patients require a completion lymphadenectomy. Yet, there is currently no technology available that can image all lymph nodes in the body in real time, or assess both the sentinel node and all nodes simultaneously. In this study, we report an optical fluorescence technology that is capable of simultaneous mapping of pan lymph nodes (PLNs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the same subject. We developed near-infrared fluorophores, which have fluorescence emission maxima either at 700 nm or at 800 nm. One was injected intravenously for identification of all regional lymph nodes in a basin, and the other was injected locally for identification of the SLN. Using the dual-channel FLARE intraoperative imaging system, we could identify and resect all PLNs and SLNs simultaneously. The technology we describe enables simultaneous, real-time visualization of both PLNs and SLNs in the same subject.

  5. Cystic lymph node enlargement of the neck: filariasis as a rare differential diagnosis in MRI.

    PubMed

    Schick, Christoph; Thalhammer, Axel; Balzer, Jörn O; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Vogl, Thomas J

    2002-09-01

    Cervical lymph node enlargement is a common feature of most inflammatory and neoplastic entities of the head and neck. Filariasis can lead to lymphangiectasis resembling lymph node enlargement; however, this is a rare differential diagnosis in European patients. As ethnic minorities are increasing throughout Europe and personal mobility, e.g. during holidays, is increasing, such rare differential diagnoses have to be taken into consideration. We present the case of an Iraqi patient referred to as for a suspected cystic lymph node mass that was verified histologically by open MRI biopsy and proved to be a cystic manifestation of filariasis.

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Clinical Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Haji, Altaf; Battoo, Azhar; Qurieshi, Mariya; Mir, Wahid; Shah, Mudasir

    2017-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. This article discusses how sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved and is becoming a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of breast cancer management. PMID:28970846

  7. Initial experiences in the photoacoustic detection of melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootendorst, D.; Jose, J.; Van der Jagt, P.; Van der Weg, W.; Nagel, K.; Wouters, M.; Van Boven, H.; Van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Ruers, T.; Manohar, S.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate lymph node analysis is essential to determine the prognosis and treatment of patients suffering from melanoma. The initial results of a tomographic photoacoustic modality to detect melanoma metastases in resected lymph nodes are presented based on phantom models and a human lymph node. The results show melanoma metastases detection is feasible and the setup is capable of distinguishing absorbing structures down to 1 mm. In addition, the use of longer laser wavelengths could result in an image containing a higher contrast ratio. Future research shall be focused on using the melanin characteristics to improve contrast and detection possibilities.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Clinical Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Sheikh; Haji, Altaf; Battoo, Azhar; Qurieshi, Mariya; Mir, Wahid; Shah, Mudasir

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. This article discusses how sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved and is becoming a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of breast cancer management.

  9. [Assessment of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer: status quo, recent advances and new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Tu, Min; Zhu, Zhen-shu; Shi, Lin-sen; Jiang, Xi-qun; Wang, Hao; Guan, Wen-xian

    2012-02-01

    The precondition of accurate gastric cancer surgery is precise assessment of lymph node metastasis. To date, no imaging modality achieves both high sensitivity and high specificity in detecting lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Intraoperative sentinel node tracing and biopsy are the most popular method to identify the localization of tumor cell, but is limited to early gastric cancer. Nano-composite materials, designed for tumor imaging and tracing, show us a newly emerging domain for tumor detection in gastric cancer. The function of these nano-composite materials to detect lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer relies on the effective backflow of lymph system. However, the lymph vessels can be obstructed by tumor cells in advanced gastric cancer, which may restrain the application of these nanoparticles. Therefore, more methods to detect lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer should be explored. This review summarizes the characteristic of the targeted nanosphere. Based on the reported studies, a novel idea is conceived that targeted multifunctional nanosphere may be a potential method to achieve precise assessment of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

  10. Use of Lymph Node Ultrasound Prior to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 384 Patients with Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, D; Brotons-Seguí, M; Del Toro, C; González, M; Requena, C; Traves, V; Pla, A; Bolumar, I; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Nagore, E

    2017-12-01

    Locoregional lymph node ultrasound is not typically included in guidelines as part of the staging process prior to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The objective of the present study was to make a clinical and economic analysis of lymph node ultrasound prior to SLNB. We performed a retrospective study of 384 patients with clinical stage I-II primary melanoma who underwent locorregional lymph node ultrasound (with or without ultrasound-guided biopsy) prior to SLNB between 2004 and 2015. We evaluated the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the strategy. Use of locorregional lymph node ultrasound avoided SLNB in 23 patients (6%). Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 76% for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes that were not clinically palpable. False negatives were significantly more common in patients aged over 60 years and in tumors with a thickness of less than 2mm. The staging process using SLNB and ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy produced an increase of €16.30 in the unit price. Our cost-effectiveness analysis identified the staging protocol with ultrasound and SLNB as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio than the alternative, consisting of SLNB alone (8,095.24 vs. €28,605.00). Ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnostic staging of melanoma prior to SLNB is a useful and cost-effective tool. This procedure does not substitute SLNB, though it does allow to avoid SLNB in a not insignificant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Preclinical Evaluation of Robotic-Assisted Sentinel Lymph Node Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Qin, Zhengtao; Hickey, Sean A.; Hall, David J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal substance to provide convenient and accurate targeting for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping during robotic-assisted surgery has yet to be found. We used an animal model to determine the ability of the FireFly camera system to detect fluorescent SLNs after administration of a dual-labeled molecular imaging agent. Methods We injected the footpads of New Zealand White rabbits with 1.7 or 8.4 nmol of tilmanocept labeled with 99mTc and a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW. One and 36 h after injection, popliteal lymph nodes, representing the SLNs, were dissected with the assistance of the FireFly camera system, a fluorescence-capable endoscopic imaging system. After excision of the paraaortic lymph nodes, which represented non-SLNs, we assayed all lymph nodes for radioactivity and fluorescence intensity. Results Fluorescence within all popliteal lymph nodes was easily detected by the FireFly camera system. Fluorescence within the lymph channel could be imaged during the 1-h studies. When compared with the paraaortic lymph nodes, the popliteal lymph nodes retain greater than 95% of the radioactivity at both 1 and 36 h after injection. At both doses (1.7 and 8.4 nmol), the popliteal nodes had higher (P < 0.050) optical fluorescence intensity than the paraaortic nodes at the 1- and 36-h time points. Conclusion The FireFly camera system can easily detect tilmanocept labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore at least 36 h after administration. This ability will permit image acquisition and subsequent verification of fluorescence-labeled SLNs during robotic-assisted surgery. PMID:25024425

  12. [Sentinel lymph node metastasis in patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ].

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba-Limón, Eva; de Jesús Garduño-Raya, María; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Trejo-Martínez, Claudia; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ still controversial, with positive lymph node in range of 1.4-12.5% due occult invasive breast carcinoma in surgical specimen. To know the frequency of sentimel node metastases in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, identify differences between positive and negative cases. Retrospective study of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy because mastectomy indication, palpable tumor, radiological lesion = 5 cm, non-favorable breast-tumor relation and/or patients whom surgery could affect lymphatic flow drainage. Of 168 in situ carcinomas, 50 cases with ductal carcinoma in situ and sentinel lymph node biopsy were included, with a mean age of 51.6 years, 30 (60%) asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were palpable nodule (18%), nipple discharge (12%), or both (8%). Microcalcifications were common (72%), comedonecrosis pattern (62%), grade-2 histology (44%), and 28% negative hormonal receptors. Four (8%) cases had intra-operatory positive sentinel lymph node and one patient at final histo-pathological study (60% micrometastases, 40% macrometastases), all with invasive carcinoma in surgical specimen. Patients with intra-operatory positive sentinel lymph node where younger (44.5 vs 51 years), with more palpable tumors (50% vs 23.1%), and bigger (3.5 vs 2 cm), more comedonecrosis pattern (75% vs 60.8%), more indifferent tumors (75% vs 39.1%), and less cases with hormonal receptors (50% vs 73.9%), compared with negative sentinel lymph node cases, all these differences without statistic significance. One of each 12 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ had affection in sentinel lymph node, so we recommend continue doing this procedure to avoid second surgeries due the presence of occult invasive carcinoma.

  13. Preclinical evaluation of robotic-assisted sentinel lymph node fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Qin, Zhengtao; Hickey, Sean A; Hall, David J; Kane, Christopher J; Vera, David R

    2014-09-01

    An ideal substance to provide convenient and accurate targeting for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping during robotic-assisted surgery has yet to be found. We used an animal model to determine the ability of the FireFly camera system to detect fluorescent SLNs after administration of a dual-labeled molecular imaging agent. We injected the footpads of New Zealand White rabbits with 1.7 or 8.4 nmol of tilmanocept labeled with (99m)Tc and a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW. One and 36 h after injection, popliteal lymph nodes, representing the SLNs, were dissected with the assistance of the FireFly camera system, a fluorescence-capable endoscopic imaging system. After excision of the paraaortic lymph nodes, which represented non-SLNs, we assayed all lymph nodes for radioactivity and fluorescence intensity. Fluorescence within all popliteal lymph nodes was easily detected by the FireFly camera system. Fluorescence within the lymph channel could be imaged during the 1-h studies. When compared with the paraaortic lymph nodes, the popliteal lymph nodes retain greater than 95% of the radioactivity at both 1 and 36 h after injection. At both doses (1.7 and 8.4 nmol), the popliteal nodes had higher (P < 0.050) optical fluorescence intensity than the paraaortic nodes at the 1- and 36-h time points. The FireFly camera system can easily detect tilmanocept labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore at least 36 h after administration. This ability will permit image acquisition and subsequent verification of fluorescence-labeled SLNs during robotic-assisted surgery. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. The predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinzhong

    2015-01-01

    To detect the clinicopathological factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer. We retrospectively evaluated the distribution of metastatic nodes in 198 patients with early gastric cancer treated in our hospital between May 2008 and January 2015, the clinicopathological factors including age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, macroscopic type, depth of invasion, histological type and venous invasion were studied, and the relationship between various parameters and lymph node metastases was analyzed. In this study, one hundred and ninety-eight patients with early gastric cancer were included, and lymph node metastasis was detected in 28 patients. Univariate analysis revealed a close relationship between tumor size, depth of invasion, histological type, venous invasion, local ulceration and lymph node metastases. Multivariate analysis revealed that the five factors were independent risk factors for lymph node metastases. The clinicopathological parameters including tumor size, depth of invasion, local ulceration, histological type and venous invasion are closely correlated with lymph node metastases, should be paid high attention in early gastric cancer patients.

  15. Can Breast Cancer Biopsy Influence Sentinel Lymph Node Status?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Michela; Patrolecco, Federica; Rella, Rossella; Di Giovanni, Silvia Eleonora; Infante, Amato; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Romani, Maurizio; Mulè, Antonino; Arciuolo, Damiano; Belli, Paolo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated whether the needle size could influence metastasis occurrence in the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) in ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) of breast cancer (BC). The data from all patients with breast lesions who had undergone US-CNB at our institution from January 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 377 BC cases were included using the following criteria: (1) percutaneous biopsy-proven invasive BC; and (2) SLN dissection with histopathologic examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the needle size used: 14 gauge versus 16 or 18 gauge. SLN metastasis classification followed the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (2010) TNM pathologic staging factors: macrometastases, micrometastases, isolated tumor cells, or negative. Only macrometastases and micrometastases were considered positive, and the positive and negative rates were calculated for the overall population and for both needle size groups. Of the 377 BC cases, 268 US-CNB procedures were performed using a 14-gauge needle and 109 with a 16- or 18-gauge needle, respectively. The negative rate was significantly related statistically with the needle size, with a greater prevalence in the 14-gauge group on both extemporaneous analysis (P = .019) and definitive analysis (P = .002). The macrometastasis rate was 17% (63 of 377) for the 14-gauge and 3% (12 of 377) for the 16- and 18-gauge needles, respectively. Our preliminary results have suggested that use of a large needle size in CNB does not influence SLN status; thus, preoperative breast biopsy can be considered a safe procedure in the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed; Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT; Makarov, Danil V.

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formulamore » (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.« less

  17. Significance of epitrochlear lymph node involvement in Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, B K; Backstrand, K H; Ng, A K; Silver, B; Hitchcock, S L; Mauch, P M

    2001-04-01

    Epitrochlear involvement in Hodgkin disease (HD) is a rare event, with only limited data available describing this unique presentation, its treatment, and long term outcome. Between 1968 and 1997, 1180 patients with clinical stage (CS) IA-IIB HD were treated at the Harvard Longwood Area Hospitals, among whom 11 were identified to have presented with epitrochlear lymphadenopathy (1%). Together with 6 CS III-IV patients also with clinically involved epitrochlear lymph nodes at diagnosis, these 17 patients form the basis of the current study. The clinical characteristics, histopathologic distribution, and treatment details are described. Two radiation therapy techniques were used: the "single field" and "separate-field" techniques. The median dose to the epitrochlear region was 3600 centigrays. Survival outcome was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 17 years. The actuarial 15-year freedom from recurrence, cause specific survival, and overall survival (OS) rates for the 17 patients were 70%, 88%, and 70%, respectively. Among the CS IA-IIB patients, the 15-year OS rates of the 1169 patients and 11 patients without and with epitrochlear involvement were 80% and 90%, respectively. Two of the 11 CS IA-IIB and 3 of the 6 CS III-IV patients experienced recurrence. None of the recurrences involved the epitrochlear or ipsilateral brachial region regardless of the treatment technique, and no complications from the local radiation therapy were observed. Feasible and effective radiation therapy techniques are available for patients with HD with epitrochlear involvement. If appropriately treated, the prognosis of patients with this unique presentation appears to be similar to that of other HD patients. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  18. L1 Antibodies Block Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Matrix Remodeling In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Di Sciullo, Gino; Donahue, Tim; Schachner, Melitta; Bogen, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    L1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule highly expressed on neurons and involved in cell motility, neurite outgrowth, axon fasciculation, myelination, and synaptic plasticity. L1 is also expressed by nonneural cells, but its function outside of the nervous system has not been studied extensively. We find that administration of an L1 monoclonal antibody in vivo disrupts the normal remodeling of lymph node reticular matrix during an immune response. Ultrastructural examination reveals that reticular fibroblasts in mice treated with L1 monoclonal antibodies fail to spread and envelop collagen fibers with their cellular processes. The induced defect in the remodeling of the fibroblastic reticular system results in the loss of normal nodal architecture, collapsed cortical sinusoids, and macrophage accumulation in malformed sinuses. Surprisingly, such profound architectural abnormalities have no detectable effects on the primary immune response to protein antigens. PMID:9625755

  19. In vitro autoradiographic localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in sarcoid lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.K.; Chai, S.Y.; Dunbar, M.S.

    1986-09-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was localized in sarcoid lymph nodes by an in vitro autoradiographic technique using a synthetic ACE inhibitor of high affinity, /sup 125/I-labelled 351A. The lymph nodes were from seven patients with active sarcoidosis who underwent mediastinoscopy and from six control subjects who had nodes resected at either mediastinoscopy or laparotomy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was localized in the epithelioid cells of sarcoid granulomata in markedly increased amounts compared with control nodes, where it was restricted to vessels and some histiocytes. In sarcoid lymph nodes, there was little ACE present in lymphocytes or fibrous tissue. Sarcoid nodes with considerable fibrosismore » had much less intense ACE activity than the nonfibrotic nodes. The specific activity of ACE measured by an enzymatic assay in both the control and sarcoid lymph nodes closely reflected the ACE activity demonstrated by autoradiography. Sarcoid lymph nodes with fibrosis had an ACE specific activity of half that of nonfibrotic nodes (p less than 0.05). There was a 15-fold increase in specific ACE activity in sarcoid nodes (p less than 0.05) compared to normal. Serum ACE was significantly higher in those sarcoid patients whose lymph nodes were not fibrosed compared with those with fibrosis (p less than 0.01). This technique offers many advantages over the use of polyclonal antibodies. The 351A is a highly specific ACE inhibitor, chemically defined and in limitless supply. This method enables the quantitation of results, and autoradiographs may be stored indefinitely for later comparison.« less

  20. Comparative transcriptome response in swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes to viral infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN) transcriptome response was evaluated following viral infection using Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP). Pigs were sham-treated or infected intranasally with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine circovirus type 2, pseudorabies...

  1. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  2. Fluorescence-guided mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Łukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    We have successfully applied a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera for intraoperative fluorescence detection of indocyanine green in a feasibility study on sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with vulvar, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer.

  3. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  4. Lymph Nodes and Survival in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNET)

    PubMed Central

    Krampitz, Geoffrey W.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.; Visser, Brendan C.; Sun, Lixian; Jensen, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The significance of lymph node metastases on survival of patients with pNET is controversial. Hypothesis Lymph node metastases decrease survival in patients with pNET. Design Prospective databases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH) were queried. Main Outcome Measures Overall survival, disease-related survival, and time to development of liver metastases Results 326 underwent surgical exploration for pNET at the NIH (n=216) and SUH (n=110). 40 (13%) and 305 (94%) underwent enucleation and resection, respectively. Of the patients who underwent resection, 117 (42%) had partial pancreatectomy and 30 (11%) had a Whipple procedure. 41 also had liver resections, 21 wedge resections and 20 lobectomies. Average follow-up was 8 years (range 0.3–28.6 years). The 10-year overall survival for patients with no metastases or lymph node metastases only was similar at 80%. As expected, patients with liver metastases had a significantly decreased 10-year survival of 30% (p<0.001). The time to development of liver metastases was significantly reduced for patients with lymph node metastases alone compared to those with none (p<0.001). For the NIH cohort with longer follow-up, disease-related survival was significantly different for those patients with no metastases, lymph node metastases alone, and liver metastases (p<0.0001). Extent of lymph node involvement in this subgroup showed that disease-related survival decreased as a function of number of lymph nodes involved (p=0.004). Conclusion As expected, liver metastases decrease survival of patients with pNET. Patients with lymph node metastases alone have a shorter time to development of liver metastases that is dependent on the number of lymph nodes involved. With sufficient long-term follow-up, lymph node metastases decrease disease-related survival. Careful evaluation of number and extent of lymph node involvement is warranted in all surgical procedures for pNET. PMID

  5. The Role of Central Neck Lymph Node Dissection in the Management of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Lawrence A; Jones, Natalie B; Phay, John E

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, and cervical nodal metastases are frequent at presentation. The most common site for nodal metastases from PTC is the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck in the paratracheal and pretracheal regions. The decision to resect these lymph nodes at the time of thyroidectomy often depends on if nodes with suspected malignancy can be identified preoperatively. If nodal spread to the central neck nodes is known, then the consensus is to remove all nodes in this area. However, there remains significant controversy regarding the utility of removing central neck lymph nodes for prophylactic reasons. Herein, we review the potential utility of central neck lymph node dissection as well as the risks of performing this procedure. As well, we review the potential of molecular testing to stratify patients who would most benefit from this procedure. We advocate a selective approach in which patients undergo clinical neck examination coupled with ultrasound to detect any concerning lymph nodes that warrant additional evaluation with either fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy in the operating room. In lieu of clinical lymphadenopathy, we suggest the use of patient and disease characteristics as identified by multiple groups, such as the American Thyroid Association and European Society of Endocrine Surgeons, which include extremes of ages, large primary tumor size, and male gender, when deciding to perform central neck lymph node dissection. Patients should be educated on the potential long-terms risks versus the lack of known long-term benefits.

  6. Mitotic rate is associated with positive lymph nodes in patients with thin melanomas.

    PubMed

    Wheless, Lee; Isom, Chelsea A; Hooks, Mary A; Kauffmann, Rondi M

    2018-05-01

    The American Joint Commission on Cancer will remove mitotic rate from its staging guidelines in 2018. Using a large nationally representative cohort, we examined the association between mitotic rate and lymph node positivity among thin melanomas. A total of 149,273 thin melanomas in the National Cancer Database were examined for their association of high-risk features of mitotic rate, ulceration, and Breslow depth with lymph node status. Among 17,204 patients with thin melanomas with data on Breslow depth, ulceration, and mitotic rate who underwent a lymph node biopsy, there was a strong linear relationship between odds of having a positive lymph node and mitotic rate (R 2  = 0.96, P < .0001, β = 3.31). The odds of having a positive node increased by 19% with each 1-point increase in mitotic rate (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.21). Cases with negative nodes had a mean mitotic rate of 1.54 plus or minus 2.07 mitoses/mm 2 compared with 3.30 plus or minus 3.54 mitoses/mm 2 for those with positive nodes (P < .0001). The data collected do not allow for survival analyses. Mitotic rate was strongly associated with the odds of having a positive lymph node and should continue to be reported on pathology reports. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma with technetium-99m dextran.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, S; Mena, I; Iglesis, R; Schwartz, R; Acevedo, J C; Leon, A; Gomez, L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of Tc99m B Dextran as a lymphoscintigraphic agent in the detection of the sentinel node in skin lesions. Forty-one patients with melanomas (39) and Merkel cell tumors (2) had perilesional intradermal injection of Tc99m-Dextran 2 hours before surgery. Serial gamma camera images and a handheld gamma probe were used to direct sentinel node biopsy. In 39/41 patients, lymph channels and 52 sentinel nodes (one to three sentinel nodes/patient) could be visualized. In one patient, with a dorsal melanoma, no lymph channels or lymph nodes could be demonstrated on the images and only minimal radioactivity was found in the regional nodes with the probe. Another patient with a facial lesion failed to demonstrate lymph channels or nodes. No adverse reactions were observed. Tc99m-Dextran provided good definition of lymph channels and sentinel node localization, without the risks related to the use of potentially hazardous labeled materials of biological origin.

  8. Support Vector Machines Model of Computed Tomography for Assessing Lymph Node Metastasis in Esophageal Cancer with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-Ting; Sun, Ying-Shi

    The aim of this study was to diagnose lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer by support vector machines model based on computed tomography. A total of 131 esophageal cancer patients with preoperative chemotherapy and radical surgery were included. Various indicators (tumor thickness, tumor length, tumor CT value, total number of lymph nodes, and long axis and short axis sizes of largest lymph node) on CT images before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were recorded. A support vector machines model based on these CT indicators was built to predict lymph node metastasis. Support vector machines model diagnosed lymph node metastasis better than preoperative short axis size of largest lymph node on CT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.887 and 0.705, respectively. The support vector machine model of CT images can help diagnose lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer with preoperative chemotherapy.

  9. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  10. Multimodal imaging of lymph nodes and tumors using glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, In-Cheol; Dumani, Diego S.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    A key step in staging cancer is the diagnosis of metastasis that spreads through lymphatic system. For this reason, researchers develop various methods of sentinel lymph node mapping that often use a radioactive tracer. This study introduces a safe, cost-effective, high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time method of visualizing the sentinel lymph node: ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (US/PA) imaging augmented by a contrast agent. In this work, we use clearable gold nanoparticles covered by a biocompatible polymer (glycol chitosan) to enhance cellular uptake by macrophages abundant in lymph nodes. We incubate macrophages with glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (0.05 mg Au/ml), and then fix them with paraformaldehyde solution for an analysis of in vitro dark-field microscopy and cell phantom. The analysis shows enhanced cellular uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages and strong photoacoustic signal from labeled cells in tissue-mimicking cell phantoms consisting gelatin solution (6 %) with silica gel (25 μm, 0.3%) and fixed macrophages. The in-vivo US/PA imaging of cervical lymph nodes in healthy mice (nu/nu, female, 5 weeks) indicates a strong photoacoustic signal from a lymph node 10 minutes post-injection (2.5 mg Au/ml, 80 μl). The signal intensity and the nanoparticle-labeled volume of tissue within the lymph node continues to increase until 4 h post-injection. Histological analysis further confirms the accumulation of gold nanoparticles within the lymph nodes. This work suggests the feasibility of molecular/cellular US/PA imaging with biocompatible gold nanoparticles as a photoacoustic contrast agent in the diagnosis of lymph-node-related diseases.

  11. The Effect of Lymph Node Dissection on the Survival of Patients With Operable Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone

    2016-10-01

    What is the effect of different extents of lymph node dissection (D1, D2, and D3 lymphadenectomy) in patients affected with operable gastric carcinoma? Compared with D1 lymphadenectomy (the most conservative type of lymph node dissection), D2 lymphadenectomy (but not D3) is associated with better disease-specific survival, although a more extended dissection is burdened by a higher postoperative mortality rate.

  12. HIV-1 induction-maintenance at the lymph node level: the "Apollo-97" Study.

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, A; Poggi, C; Chadapaud, S; Hittinger, G; Chouraqui, M; Delbeke, E

    2001-10-01

    To assess the effects of five-drug combination therapy on HIV-1 load in lymph nodes and subsequent maintenance with four and three drugs. Ten pharmacotherapeutically naive patients received a combination of zidovudine, lamivudine, didanosine, ritonavir, and saquinavir for 24 weeks, then zidovudine, lamivudine, didanosine, and saquinavir for the next 24 weeks, and finally zidovudine, lamivudine, and saquinavir for the last 24 weeks. HIV-1 RNA in lymph nodes was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline, after 12, 24, 48, and 78 weeks. Plasma HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), circulating lymphocyte subsets, and protease inhibitor levels in blood were also regularly measured. Genotypic resistance was assessed in the different compartments in 2 patients who were failed by therapy. HIV-1 RNA decreased in lymph nodes in 9 patients and was stable in 1 despite initial control of plasma replication <20 copies/ml in each patient. Lymph node levels rebounded in 1 patient at week 72 as a result of lack of adherence and remained stable in the 8 others despite maintenance regimens. This represents a mean drop of -3.17 log in lymph nodes for the 8 patients maintaining undetectable viremia at 72 weeks. In the patient with stable lymph node viral RNA, selection of the M184V mutation was demonstrated at this level before detection in plasma and low blood saquinavir levels were found throughout the study. Continuous improvements in immune parameters were observed in all cases, although PBMC proviral DNA levels either showed a continuous decrease or stabilized to a plateau. More complex regimens do not perform better in lymph nodes than classic triple therapy. The persistence of HIV-1 RNA in lymph nodes could be related with cellular resistance mechanisms rather than an insufficient potency of the regimens.

  13. Number of negative lymph nodes should be considered for incorporation into staging for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; He, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of the number of involved lymph nodes (pN), number of removed lymph nodes (RLNs), lymph node ratio (LNR), number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs), and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in breast cancer patients. The records of 2,515 breast cancer patients who received a mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. The median follow-up time was 64.2 months, and the 8-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 74.6% and 82.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that pN stage, LNR, number of RLNs, and number of NLNs were significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS (all, P < 0.05). LODDS was a significant prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.021). Multivariate analysis indicated that pN stage and the number of NLNs were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. A higher number of NLNs was associated with higher DFS and OS, and a higher number of involved lymph nodes were associated with poorer DFS and OS. Patients with a NLNs count > 9 had better survival (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the NLNs count had a prognostic value in patients with different pT stages and different lymph node status (log-rank P < 0.05). For breast cancer, pN stage and NLNs count have a better prognostic value compared to the RLNs count, LNR, and LODDS. Number of negative lymph nodes should be considered for incorporation into staging for breast cancer. PMID:25973321

  14. Ultrasonographic detection of regional lymph node metastases in patients with intermediate or thick malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Brountzos, Elias N; Panagiotou, Irene E; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios I; Kelekis, Dimitrios A

    2003-01-01

    Careful monitoring of regional lymph nodes and early detection of metastases in malignant melanoma patients has an impact on their survival, since it may permit beneficial surgical therapy. Palpation is routinely used in clinical practice. The value of ultrasonography for routine follow-up of melanoma patients, still, is not generally accepted. The aim of our study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound and clinical examination respectively, in the detection of melanoma regional node metastases. Additionally, we evaluated whether early detection of metastases improved overall survival. One hundred and forty-eight melanoma patients with an intermediate or thick primary lesion were followed between January 1997 and May 2001. Clinical examination and concomitant regional lymph node ultrasonography were performed, every 3-4 months. If suspicious findings were identified, regional lymph node dissection was undertaken. Forty-four from the initial 148 patients relapsed with regional lymph nodal metastases. In 11 patients (25%) palpation failed to reveal the disease and metastases were depicted only by ultrasonography. In only 1 patient ultrasonography was false-negative. The sensitivity and specificity of palpation were 72.7 and 97% respectively, while those of ultrasonography were 97.7 (p<0.001) and 98% respectively. Ultrasonography was more sensitive in detecting lymph node metastases in the axilla (100%) and the groin (93.3%). When overall survival of patients presenting with local-regional recurrence was calculated--depending on the number of involved lymph nodes--a survival benefit (p<0.05) was found for patients with only one lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, ultrasonography is superior to clinical examination in the early detection of regional lymph node metastases from an intermediate or thick malignant melanoma and should be a part of those patients' surveillance.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    PubMed

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With an Initial Diagnosis of Cytology-Proven Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Enokido, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Chie; Nakamura, Seigo; Ogiya, Akiko; Osako, Tomo; Akiyama, Futoshi; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Iwata, Hiroji; Ohno, Shinji; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Naoki; Yamauchi, Hideko; Sato, Nobuaki

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is the standard treatment of node-negative breast cancer; however, whether SNB should be performed for patients with node-positive disease before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is controversial. We evaluated the accuracy of SNB after NAC in patients with breast cancer with nodal metastasis before chemotherapy to determine the false-negative rate (FNR) and detection rate for SNB. In the present multicenter prospective study performed from September 2011 to April 2013, 143 patients with breast cancer and positive axillary nodes, proved by fine needle aspiration cytology at the initial diagnosis (stage T1-T3N1M0), were enrolled. All patients underwent breast surgery with SNB and complete axillary lymph node dissection. After NAC, the pathologic complete nodal response rate was 52.4%. The sentinel lymph node could be identified in 130 cases (90.9%); the FNR was 16.0% (13 of 81). The FNR of each clinical subtype was 42.1% (8 of 19) for the estrogen receptor-positive and human epithelial growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative (luminal type), 16.7% (2 of 12) for ER-positive and HER2-positive (luminal-HER2 type), 3.2% (1 of 31) for HER2-positive (HER2-enriched type), and 10.5% (2 of 19) for ER-negative and HER2-negative (triple-negative breast cancer; P = .003). The FNR was significantly greater in the luminal than in the nonluminal type (odds ratio, 9.91; 95% confidence interval, 6.77-14.52). SNB after NAC in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer was technically feasible but should not be recommended for the luminal subtype. However, the tumor subtype can guide patient selection, and axillary lymph node dissection could be omitted for the luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and triple-negative breast cancer subtypes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion.

    PubMed

    Acton, Sophie E; Farrugia, Aaron J; Astarita, Jillian L; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Jenkins, Robert P; Nye, Emma; Hooper, Steven; van Blijswijk, Janneke; Rogers, Neil C; Snelgrove, Kathryn J; Rosewell, Ian; Moita, Luis F; Stamp, Gordon; Turley, Shannon J; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2014-10-23

    After immunogenic challenge, infiltrating and dividing lymphocytes markedly increase lymph node cellularity, leading to organ expansion. Here we report that the physical elasticity of lymph nodes is maintained in part by podoplanin (PDPN) signalling in stromal fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and its modulation by CLEC-2 expressed on dendritic cells. We show in mouse cells that PDPN induces actomyosin contractility in FRCs via activation of RhoA/C and downstream Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). Engagement by CLEC-2 causes PDPN clustering and rapidly uncouples PDPN from RhoA/C activation, relaxing the actomyosin cytoskeleton and permitting FRC stretching. Notably, administration of CLEC-2 protein to immunized mice augments lymph node expansion. In contrast, lymph node expansion is significantly constrained in mice selectively lacking CLEC-2 expression in dendritic cells. Thus, the same dendritic cells that initiate immunity by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes also initiate remodelling of lymph nodes by delivering CLEC-2 to FRCs. CLEC-2 modulation of PDPN signalling permits FRC network stretching and allows for the rapid lymph node expansion--driven by lymphocyte influx and proliferation--that is the critical hallmark of adaptive immunity.

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in periocular merkel cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Filitis, Dan C; Paragh, Gyorgy; Samie, Faramarz H; Zeitouni, Nathalie C

    2017-09-20

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for Merkel cell carcinoma recommend performance of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in all patients with clinically negative nodal disease for staging and treatment. Nevertheless, sentinel lymph node biopsy in the periocular region is debated as tumors are typically smaller and lymphatic variability can make performance procedurally problematic. We present a case of a Caucasian patient in their seventies who presented with a 1.0 cm periocular Merkel cell carcinoma, who underwent Mohs surgery with a Tenzel flap repair, that was found to have a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy, but who, despite parotidectomy, selective neck dissection, and radiation, succumbed to the disease. Evidence in both the site-specific and non-specific literature demonstrates: (1) Worsening prognosis with extent of lymph node burden, (2) improvements in our abilities to perform lymphoscintigraphy, (3) locoregional and distant metastatic disease in patients with tumor sizes ≤1 cm, and (4) significant rates of sentinel lymph node positivity in patients with tumor sizes ≤1 cm. Our case supports that sentinel lymph node biopsy should be considered in all clinically nodal negative periocular Merkel cell carcinoma, regardless of size, and despite limited site-specific studies on the subject.

  19. Infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Incidence and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Pauzie, A; Gavid, M; Dumollard, J-M; Timoshenko, A; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M

    2016-11-01

    Supracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis is classically a poor prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence and survival in head and neck cancer. Causality, however, is more controversial for infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prognostic value of infracentimetric lymph node metastasis. Two hundred and forty-three neck dissections from 150 head and neck cancer patients were analyzed. A single pathologist exhaustively inventoried the number and size of all adenopathies in the surgical specimen. Cervical lymph node metastases were infracentimetric in 38% of cases, with 72% extracapsular spread (versus 91% for supracentimetric adenopathies; P<0.01). Infracentimetric metastases were more often associated with other cervical lymph node metastases (mean 5.3 versus 3.9; P=0.14). Fifty three percent of specimens showed only supracentimetric metastases (versus 13% infracentimetric metastases; P<0.01). Disease-specific and failure-free survival were lower in case of infracentimetric metastasis, associated with supracentimetric metastasis or not, than in case of macrometastasis only. Infracentimetric cervical lymph node metastasis is a factor of poor prognosis, and may represent a different, more aggressive lymphatic process. We suggest complete neck dissection by the surgeon and meticulous analysis by the pathologist, the results of which guide complementary therapy. Close surveillance of recurrence is also recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Identification of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer by color Doppler and MRI].

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufeng; Zhang, Quan; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lina; Zheng, Lie; Liu, Longzhong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the values of color Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer. Totally 96 cases of tongue cancer with impalpable neck lymph node was examined with color Doppler and MRI within one week before surgery. Chi-square test was used to assess if the presence of regional lymph node micrometastasis, histopathological analysis as a golden standard lymph node micrometastasis. For the diagnosis of cervical lymph node micrometastasis, color Doppler was significantly better than MRI in sensitivity (72.5% vs 50.0%, P = 0.039) and the accuracy (78.1% vs 64.6%, P = 0.038), but no significant difference in the specificity (82.1% vs 75.0%, P = 0.357), the positive predictive value (74.4% vs 58.8%, P = 0.159) and the negative predictive value (80.7% vs 67.7%, P = 0.108). Color Doppler is better than MRI in the sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of cervical lymph node micrometastasis of tongue cancer.

  1. Acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in children with reactive hyperplasia of the cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Jalal A; Alsammani, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Mohamed I

    2014-07-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in children with reactive hyperplasia of the cervical lymph nodes. This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in Khartoum Children Emergency Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan between January 2010 and April 2011. Eighty children with cervical lymphadenopathy were selected using random sampling. Their lymph nodes were aspirated for cytology, and a blood sample was collected from all patients for routine laboratory analysis and T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Among 80 children with cervical lymphadenopathy, 60 (75%) had non-specific reactive hyperplasia. The seroprevalence of T. gondii among children with cervical lymphadenopathy was 27.5% (n=22), and the seropositivity of acute T. gondii among those with reactive hyperplasia was 36.7% (n=22/60). Lymph nodes in the T. gondii positive group were mobile and warm (p<0.05). The clinical features and laboratory tests were insignificant predictors of acute T. gondii infection with reactive hyperplasia of the cervical lymph nodes. The prevalence of acute T. gondii infection is high among children with non-specific reactive hyperplasia of the cervical lymph nodes. Routine laboratory studies are not helpful in the diagnosis of T. gondii infection with reactive hyperplasia of the lymph nodes however, serological studies may be requested prior to invasive procedures.

  2. Lymph node dissection for melanoma using tumescence local anaesthesia: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Lukas; Breuninger, Helmut; Häfner, Hans-Martin; Schweinzer, Katrin; Schnabl, Saskia M; Eigentler, Thomas K; Leiter, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    The possibility that tumescence local anaesthesia (TLA) may lead to dissemination of tumour cells in lymph nodes is presently unclear. To evaluate whether infiltration by TLA influences metastatic spread and survival probability, compared to general anaesthesia (GA), based on lymph node dissection in melanoma patients. In total, 281 patients (GA: 162; TLA: 119) with cutaneous melanoma and clinically or histologically-confirmed metastases in regional lymph nodes were included. All patients underwent complete lymph node dissection. Median follow-up was 70 months. The rate of lymph node recurrence at the dissection site was 25.3% in the GA group and 17.6% in the TLA group (p = 0.082). No significant difference was found concerning 10-year melanoma-specific survival (GA: 56.2%, TLA: 67.4%; p = 0.09), disease-free survival (GA: 72.8 %, TLA: 81.1%; p = 0.095), or lymph node-free survival (GA: 72.8%, TLA: 81.1%; p = 0.095). Distant metastases-free survival appeared to be slightly reduced in the TLA group (GA: 49.9%, TLA: 64.0%; p = 0.025). No differences were identified between the GA and TLA groups regarding prognostic outcome for overall survival or disease-free survival.

  3. MRI and (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy hardware for axillary lymph node investigation at 7T.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Debra S; Wijnen, Jannie P; van der Kemp, Wybe J M; Raaijmakers, Alexander J; Luijten, Peter R; Klomp, Dennis W J

    2015-05-01

    Neoadjuvant treatment response in lymph nodes predicts patient outcome, but existing methods do not track response during therapy accurately. In this study, specialized hardware was used to adapt high-field (7T) (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which has been shown to track treatment response in small breast tumors, to monitor axillary lymph nodes. A dual-tuned quadrature coil that is a (31) P (120 MHz) transceiver and a (1) H (300 MHz) receiver was designed using a novel detune circuit. The transceiver/receiver coil in the axilla is used with a fractionated dipole antenna on the back of the subject and the conventional breast coil for transmit. The novel circuit detuned the (1) H resonance without disturbing the (31) P resonance. In vivo demonstrations included: >80% homogeneous B1 (+) for (1) H over the axilla, identification of a small (3-mm diameter) lymph node, and (31) P MR spectra from a single healthy lymph node. The setup can detect <2 millimolar concentrations of metabolites from a 2-mL voxel. The first (31) P MR spectrum from an in vivo lymph node indicates that the presented design may be sufficiently sensitive to detect metabolic response to neoadjuvant therapy. Multinuclei MRS of the lymph nodes at 7T is possible through combining lightweight antenna elements with dual-tuned transceiver/receive-only coils. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Significance of lymph node capsular invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Makoto; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Sano, Akihiko; Tanaka, Naritaka; Inose, Takanori; Sohda, Makoto; Nakajima, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Extranodal invasion (ENI) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in several malignancies. However, previous studies have included perinodal fat tissue tumor deposits in their definitions of ENI. To investigate the precise nature of ENI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we excluded these tumor deposits from our definition of ENI and defined tumor cell invasion through the lymph node capsule and into the perinodal tissues as lymph node capsular invasion (LNCI). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the significance of LNCI in ESCC. We investigated the associations between LNCI and other clinicopathologic features in 139 surgically resected ESCC. We also investigated the prognostic significance of LNCI in ESCC. LNCI was detected in 35 (25.2%) of 139 patients. The overall survival rate of the ESCC patients with LNCI was significantly lower than that of the ESCC patients with lymph node metastasis who were negative for LNCI. The survival difference between the patients with 1–3 lymph node metastases without LNCI and those with no lymph node metastasis was not significant. LNCI was significantly associated with distant organ recurrence. LNCI was also found to be an independent predictor of overall survival in addition to the number of lymph node metastases. LNCI in ESCC patients is an indicator of distant organ recurrence and a worse prognosis. LNCI could be used as a candidate marker for designing more precise staging and therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

  5. Association between surgeon and hospital characteristics and lymph node counts from radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Elyn H; Yu, James B; Gross, Cary P; Abouassaly, Robert; Cherullo, Edward E; Smaldone, Marc C; Shah, Nilay D; Kiechle, Jonathon; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Kim, Simon P

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether surgical approach and hospital characteristics independently determine the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed from prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and pelvic LN dissection (PLND). Using the National Cancer Database, we identified all surgically treated patients diagnosed with pretreatment intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer from 2010 to 2011. The primary outcome was the number of LNs retrieved at the time of RP. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess for differences in the adjusted number of LNs retrieved after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics and surgical approach. Overall, 35,876 patients were diagnosed with intermediate-risk (61.2%) and high-risk (38.8%) prostate cancer and underwent RP and PLND.On multivariate analysis, open RP and high-volume and academic hospitals were independently associated with greater LN counts compared with robotic-assisted RP and medium or low and community hospitals, respectively (all P <.001). After adjusting for patient and hospital variables, higher adjusted LN counts were observed for open RP compared with robotic-assisted RP (7.1 vs 6.1; P <.001). Adjusted counts were also higher for high-volume hospitals compared with medium- or low-volume hospitals (7.8 vs 5.9; P <.001), and academic compared with community hospitals (7.3 vs 5.6; P <.001). Among patients with aggressive prostate cancer treated with RP and PLND, retrieval of LN counts varied by surgical approach and hospital characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of regional head and neck lymph node metastasis in primary conjunctival malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, M; Tatla, T; Hersh, D; Hungerford, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To correlate patterns of regional lymph node metastasis with the site of origin in primary conjunctival malignant melanoma. Design Retrospective analysis (1990–2003) of clinical data. Setting Two London tertiary referral centres. Participants 12 patients presenting with regional metastases after failed local treatment for conjunctival malignant melanoma. Results 6 cases predominantly involving the temporal conjunctiva metastasised to the pre‐auricular lymph nodes. Two cases predominantly involving the nasal conjunctiva metastasised to the submandibular nodes. Of the two cases with purely multifocal disease, one metastasised to the pre‐auricular nodes and another to both submandibular and parotid nodes. One primary conjunctival malignant melanoma had its origin in temporal conjunctiva but metastasised to submandibular nodes, and another case originating from nasal conjunctiva metastasised to pre‐auricular nodes. Conclusions Temporal conjunctival melanotic lesions tend to metastasise clinically to pre‐auricular lymph nodes and nasal conjunctival melanotic lesions metastasise to the submandibular lymph nodes. Patterns appear consistent with laboratory‐based anatomically mapped lymphatic drainage basins of the conjunctiva. PMID:16928703

  7. Comparison of five systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, W; Choi, G S; Whang, I; Suh, I S

    1997-09-01

    There are several systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Their relative merits are not clear. In this retrospective analysis, the nodal status was classified according to the Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum (UICC) and Japanese staging systems, the number and frequency of lymph node metastasis, and the level of involved nodes. Each staging system was scored as good (+1), fair (0) or poor (-1) with respect to prognostic value, theoretical value, convenience, reproducibility and surgical applicability. There were no differences between the five staging systems in predicting survival. The Japanese staging system was most arbitrary owing to the complexity of the system, although it had an advantage in surgical application. The same disadvantage was found in the UICC system and the level system. Determination of the number and frequency of involved nodes was convenient and reproducible, but the number of lymph nodes dissected must be considered when the number of positive nodes is used for staging. The classification of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes as N0 (no nodal metastasis), N1 (metastasis in 1-25 per cent of dissected nodes) and N2 (metastasis in more than 25 per cent of dissected nodes) would be a simple, convenient, reproducible staging system with an ability to predict surgical results.

  8. Portable gamma camera guidance in sentinel lymph node biopsy: prospective observational study of consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Peral Rubio, F; de La Riva, P; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the most important tool available for node staging in patients with melanoma. To analyze sentinel lymph node detection and dissection with radio guidance from a portable gamma camera. To assess the number of complications attributable to this biopsy technique. Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of patients undergoing radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy. We analyzed agreement between nodes detected by presurgical lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. A total of 29 patients (17 women [62.5%] and 12 men [37.5%]) were enrolled. The mean age was 52.6 years (range, 26-82 years). The sentinel node was dissected from all patients; secondary nodes were dissected from some. In 16 cases (55.2%), there was agreement between the number of nodes detected by lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. The only complications observed were seromas (3.64%). No cases of wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma, or hemorrhage were observed. Portable gamma-camera radio guidance may be of use in improving the detection and dissection of sentinel lymph nodes and may also reduce complications. These goals are essential in a procedure whose purpose is melanoma staging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Superficial and deep lymph node dissection for stage III cutaneous melanoma: clinical outcome and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the effect of combined superficial and deep groin dissection on disease-free and melanoma-specific survival, and to identify the most important factors for predicting the involvement of deep nodes according to clinically or microscopically detected nodal metastases. Methods Between January 1996 and December 2005, 133 consecutive patients with groin lymph node metastases underwent superficial and deep dissection at the National Cancer Institute, Naples. Lymph node involvement was clinically evident in 84 patients and detected by sentinel node biopsy in 49 cases. Results The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly better for patients with superficial lymph node metastases than for patients with involvement of both superficial and deep lymph nodes (34.9% vs. 19.0%; P = 0.001). The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was also significantly better for patients with superficial node metastases only (55.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001). Conclusions Metastasis in the deep nodes is the strongest predictor of both disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. Deep groin dissection should be considered for all patients with groin clinical nodal involvement, but might be spared in patients with a positive sentinel node. Prospective studies will clarify the issue further. PMID:23379355

  10. Superficial and deep lymph node dissection for stage III cutaneous melanoma: clinical outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, Nicola; Caracò, Corrado; Marone, Ugo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Crispo, Anna; Botti, Gerardo; Montella, Maurizio; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2013-02-04

    The aims of this retrospective analysis were to evaluate the effect of combined superficial and deep groin dissection on disease-free and melanoma-specific survival, and to identify the most important factors for predicting the involvement of deep nodes according to clinically or microscopically detected nodal metastases. Between January 1996 and December 2005, 133 consecutive patients with groin lymph node metastases underwent superficial and deep dissection at the National Cancer Institute, Naples. Lymph node involvement was clinically evident in 84 patients and detected by sentinel node biopsy in 49 cases. The 5-year disease-free survival was significantly better for patients with superficial lymph node metastases than for patients with involvement of both superficial and deep lymph nodes (34.9% vs. 19.0%; P = 0.001). The 5-year melanoma-specific survival was also significantly better for patients with superficial node metastases only (55.6% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.001). Metastasis in the deep nodes is the strongest predictor of both disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. Deep groin dissection should be considered for all patients with groin clinical nodal involvement, but might be spared in patients with a positive sentinel node. Prospective studies will clarify the issue further.

  11. Predicting lymph node output efficiency using systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chang; Mattila, Joshua T.; Miller, Mark; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Kirschner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture pathogens and foreign antigen (Ag) in peripheral tissues and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs), where they present processed Ag as MHC-bound peptide (pMHC) to naïve T cells. Interactions between DCs and T cells result, over periods of hours, in activation, clonal expansion and differentiation of antigen-specific T cells, leading to primed cells that can now participate in immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) has been widely adopted to analyze lymphocyte dynamics and can serve as a powerful in vivo assay for cell trafficking and activation over short length and time scales. Linking biological phenomena between vastly different spatiotemporal scales can be achieved using a systems biology approach. We developed a 3D agent-based cellular model of a LN that allows for the simultaneous in silico simulation of T cell trafficking, activation and production of effector cells under different antigen (Ag) conditions. The model anatomy is based on in situ analysis of LN sections (from primates and mice) and cell dynamics based on quantitative measurements from 2PM imaging of mice. Our simulations make three important predictions. First, T cell encounters by DCs and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire scanning are more efficient in a 3D model compared with 2D, suggesting that a 3D model is needed to analyze LN function. Second, LNs are able to produce primed CD4+T cells at the same efficiency over broad ranges of cognate frequencies (from 10−5 to 10−2). Third, reducing the time that naïve T cells are required to bind DCs before becoming activated will increase the rate at which effector cells are produced. This 3D model provides a robust platform to study how T cell trafficking and activation dynamics relate to the efficiency of T cell priming and clonal expansion. We envision that this systems biology approach will provide novel insights for guiding vaccine development and understanding immune responses

  12. Collection and processing of lymph nodes from large animals for RNA analysis: preparing for lymph node transcriptomic studies of large animal species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large animals (both livestock and wildlife) serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, including Brucella, Salmonella, and E. coli, as well as useful models for the study of pathogenesis and/or spread of the bacteria in non-murine hosts. With the key function of lymph nodes in the host imm...

  13. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  14. RTOG GU Radiation Oncology Specialists Reach Consensus on Pelvic Lymph Node Volumes for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A.F.; Michalski, Jeff; El-Naqa, Issam

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer is required on several Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. Based on a prior lymph node contouring project, we have shown significant disagreement in the definition of pelvic lymph node volumes among genitourinary radiation oncology specialists involved in developing and executing current RTOG trials. Materials and Methods: A consensus meeting was held on October 3, 2007, to reach agreement on pelvic lymph node volumes. Data were presented to address the lymph node drainage of the prostate. Extensive discussion ensued to develop clinical target volume (CTV) pelvic lymphmore » node consensus. Results: Consensus was obtained resulting in computed tomography image-based pelvic lymph node CTVs. Based on this consensus, the pelvic lymph node volumes to be irradiated include: distal common iliac, presacral lymph nodes (S{sub 1}-S{sub 3}), external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes, and obturator lymph nodes. Lymph node CTVs include the vessels (artery and vein) and a 7-mm radial margin being careful to 'carve out' bowel, bladder, bone, and muscle. Volumes begin at the L5/S1 interspace and end at the superior aspect of the pubic bone. Consensus on dose-volume histogram constraints for OARs was also attained. Conclusions: Consensus on pelvic lymph node CTVs for radiation therapy to address high-risk prostate cancer was attained and is available as web-based computed tomography images as well as a descriptive format through the RTOG. This will allow for uniformity in evaluating the benefit and risk of such treatment.« less

  15. Axillary Lymph Node Evaluation Utilizing Convolutional Neural Networks Using MRI Dataset.

    PubMed

    Ha, Richard; Chang, Peter; Karcich, Jenika; Mutasa, Simukayi; Fardanesh, Reza; Wynn, Ralph T; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of convolutional neural network (CNN) in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis, using a breast MRI dataset. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of our database from 1/2013 to 6/2016 identified 275 axillary lymph nodes for this study. Biopsy-proven 133 metastatic axillary lymph nodes and 142 negative control lymph nodes were identified based on benign biopsies (100) and from healthy MRI screening patients (42) with at least 3 years of negative follow-up. For each breast MRI, axillary lymph node was identified on first T1 post contrast dynamic images and underwent 3D segmentation using an open source software platform 3D Slicer. A 32 × 32 patch was then extracted from the center slice of the segmented tumor data. A CNN was designed for lymph node prediction based on each of these cropped images. The CNN consisted of seven convolutional layers and max-pooling layers with 50% dropout applied in the linear layer. In addition, data augmentation and L2 regularization were performed to limit overfitting. Training was implemented using the Adam optimizer, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. Code for this study was written in Python using the TensorFlow module (1.0.0). Experiments and CNN training were done on a Linux workstation with NVIDIA GTX 1070 Pascal GPU. Two class axillary lymph node metastasis prediction models were evaluated. For each lymph node, a final softmax score threshold of 0.5 was used for classification. Based on this, CNN achieved a mean five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 84.3%. It is feasible for current deep CNN architectures to be trained to predict likelihood of axillary lymph node metastasis. Larger dataset will likely improve our prediction model and can potentially be a non-invasive alternative to core needle biopsy and even sentinel lymph node

  16. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, andmore » external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy

  17. Ultrasonography and fine needle aspirate cytology of the mesenteric lymph node in normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Paul-Murphy, J; O'Brien, R T; Spaeth, A; Sullivan, L; Dubielzig, R R

    1999-01-01

    The large mesenteric lymph node of 28 normal ferrets was imaged with ultrasound. The large node, located in the mid-abdomen at the root of the mesentery, was round to ovoid and uniformly hyperechoic. Mean ultrasonographic dimensions of the lymph node were 12.6 +/- 2.6 mm by 7.6 +/- 2.0 mm. Fine needle aspirates of 20 lymph nodes were obtained either using ultrasound guided free-hand techniques or at necropsy. The cytological descriptions were compared to histological descriptions of 13 lymph node core biopsies obtained during laparotomy or necropsy as well as 10 peripheral blood smear differentials. The large mesenteric lymph node of ferrets could be easily imaged and measured by ultrasound and evaluated by fine needle aspirate cytology. Normal lymph node cytology may include an eosinophilic infiltrate.

  18. Thoracic lymph node station recognition on CT images based on automatic anatomy recognition with an optimal parent strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoping; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Cao, Hanqiang; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Xingyu

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there are many papers that have been published on the detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from medical images. However, it is still a challenging problem owing to low contrast with surrounding soft tissues and the variations of lymph node size and shape on computed tomography (CT) images. This is particularly very difficult on low-dose CT of PET/CT acquisitions. In this study, we utilize our previous automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) framework to recognize the thoracic-lymph node stations defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. The lymph node stations themselves are viewed as anatomic objects and are localized by using a one-shot method in the AAR framework. Two strategies have been taken in this paper for integration into AAR framework. The first is to combine some lymph node stations into composite lymph node stations according to their geometrical nearness. The other is to find the optimal parent (organ or union of organs) as an anchor for each lymph node station based on the recognition error and thereby find an overall optimal hierarchy to arrange anchor organs and lymph node stations. Based on 28 contrast-enhanced thoracic CT image data sets for model building, 12 independent data sets for testing, our results show that thoracic lymph node stations can be localized within 2-3 voxels compared to the ground truth.

  19. Influence of apoptosis on the cutaneous and peripheral lymph node inflammatory response in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Bandarra, Marcio de Barros; Magalhães, Geórgia Modé; Munari, Danísio Prado; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Prandini, Marcelo Martinasso; Alessi, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2013-02-18

    In canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), the abnormalities most commonly observed in clinical examination on the animals are lymphadenomegaly and skin lesions. Dogs are the main domestic reservoir for the protozoon Leishmania (L.) chagasi and the skin is the main site of contamination by the vector insect. Some protozoa use apoptosis as an immunological escape mechanism. The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of apoptosis with the parasite load and with the inflammatory response in the skin and lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (L.) chagasi. Thirty-three dogs from the municipality of Araçatuba (São Paulo, Brazil) were used, an endemic area for CVL. Muzzle, ear and abdominal skin and the popliteal, subscapular, iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes of symptomatic (S), oligosymptomatic (O) and asymptomatic (A) dogs were analyzed histologically. The parasite load and percentage apoptosis were evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique. Microscopically, the lymph nodes presented chronic lymphadenitis and the skin presented plasmacytic infiltrate and granulomatous foci in the superficial dermis, especially in the ear and muzzle regions. The inflammation was most severe in group S. The parasite load and apoptotic cell density were also greatest in this group. The cause of the lymphoid atrophy in these dogs was correlated with T lymphocyte apoptosis, thus leaving the dogs more susceptible to CVL. The peripheral lymph nodes presented the greatest inflammatory response. Independent of the clinical picture, the predominant inflammatory response was granulomatous and plasmacytic, both in the skin and in the peripheral lymph nodes. The ear skin presented the greatest intensity of inflammation and parasite load, followed by the muzzle skin, in group S. The ear skin area presented a non-significant difference in cell profile, with predominance of macrophages, and a significant difference from group A to groups O and S. It was seen that in

  20. Normal Axillary Lymph Node Variability Between White and Black Women on Breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lars J; Viradia, Neal K; Johnson, Karen S

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if there were differences in the imaging features of normal lymph nodes between white and black women using magnetic resonance imaging. Following institutional review board approval, we identified white and black women who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 at our institution. To identify normal lymph nodes for measurement, patients with any benign or malignant causes for lymph node enlargement and patients with any subsequent breast cancer in the following 2 years were excluded. Black and white women were age matched at a 1:2 ratio. The largest lymph node in each axilla was measured for the long-axis length and maximal cortical thickness. Comparisons were made between white and black women using a conditional logistic regression to control for matching. There were 55 black women and 110 white women for analysis. The mean lymph node long-axis length was 14.7 ± 5.3 mm for black women and 14.4 ± 6.4 mm for white women (P = .678). The mean maximum cortical thickness was 3.3 ± 1.6 mm for black women and 2.6 ± 1.4 mm for Caucasian women (P < .001). A significantly higher percentage of black than white women had cortical thicknesses greater than threshold values of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm (P < .01 for all). The normal lymph node cortical thickness in black women is significantly greater than in white women, which should be considered when deciding to recommend a lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic localization of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT images using fuzzy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Beig, Niha G.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Archer, Steven; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is associated with the highest cancer mortality rates among men and women in the United States. The accurate and precise identification of the lymph node stations on computed tomography (CT) images is important for staging disease and potentially for prognosticating outcome in patients with lung cancer, as well as for pretreatment planning and response assessment purposes. To facilitate a standard means of referring to lymph nodes, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) has recently proposed a definition of the different lymph node stations and zones in the thorax. However, nodal station identification is typically performed manually by visual assessment in clinical radiology. This approach leaves room for error due to the subjective and potentially ambiguous nature of visual interpretation, and is labor intensive. We present a method of automatically recognizing the mediastinal IASLC-defined lymph node stations by modifying a hierarchical fuzzy modeling approach previously developed for body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) in medical imagery. Our AAR-lymph node (AAR-LN) system follows the AAR methodology and consists of two steps. In the first step, the various lymph node stations are manually delineated on a set of CT images following the IASLC definitions. These delineations are then used to build a fuzzy hierarchical model of the nodal stations which are considered as 3D objects. In the second step, the stations are automatically located on any given CT image of the thorax by using the hierarchical fuzzy model and object recognition algorithms. Based on 23 data sets used for model building, 22 independent data sets for testing, and 10 lymph node stations, a mean localization accuracy of within 1-6 voxels has been achieved by the AAR-LN system.

  2. Complications following recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection in oesophageal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yusuke; Miyata, Go; Kamei, Takashi; Nakano, Toru; Abe, Shigeo; Katsura, Kazunori; Sakurai, Tadashi; Teshima, Jin; Hikage, Makoto; Ohuchi, Norikaki

    2015-01-01

    The recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node is one of the most common metastatic sites in oesophageal cancer, and dissection of this lymph node is considered beneficial. Although the risk of complications from this procedure, such as recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, is well known, few reports have detailed those risks in a large number of cases. Our study examined the risks of recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection, with a special focus on recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Retrospectively collected data from 661 patients, who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer, were analysed. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurred in 36% of the patients. Among these patients, except those in whom recurrent laryngeal nerve was intentionally excised due to metastatic lymph node, permanent palsy was detected in 12%. Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection, cervical anastomosis and upper oesophageal cancer were independent risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Although recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was a risk factor for aspiration, tracheostomy and postoperative pneumonia, it did not directly correlate with death caused by pneumonia. Among postoperative complications, only recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy correlated with bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is a complication that should be avoided but does not seem to be severe enough to affect patient survival after surgery. Although bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node dissection can induce recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in patients who undergo transthoracic oesophagectomy, this procedure did not correlate with aspiration and pneumonia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Histologic pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian; Billings, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathologic predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: 1, sheet-like (n=38, 59%); 2, non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); 3, sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); 4, perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%) and 5, rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21(33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2–5 metastases (p=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. 3 (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. 4 (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph node (1 or 2 versus >2, p<.0001), age (<70 versus ≥70, p=.01), sentinel lymph node metastasis pattern (patterns 2–5 versus 1, p=.02), and immune status (immunocompetent versus suppressed, p=.03) were independent predictors of outcome, and could be used to stratify Stage III patients into 3 groups with markedly different outcomes. In Merkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathologic features

  4. The Value of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Oral Cavity Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, İsa; Göde, Sercan; Öztürk, Kerem; Turhal, Göksel; Aliyev, Araz; Akyıldız, Serdar; Duygun, Ülkem Yararbaş; Uluöz, Ümit; Yavuzer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the detection of metastasis in N0 necks of T1–T2 early-stage oral cavity cancers. Materials and Methods Twenty neck dissections were performed in 18 patients diagnosed with T1 and T2 oral cavity cancer, with an indication for elective neck dissection between November 2007 and January 2011. The male to female ratio was 12:8, with a mean age of 54.5 years (range 28–76). Eight of the dissections were performed for lower lip cancer, 7 for tongue cancer, and 5 for floor of the mouth cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was used to detect metastatic lymph nodes. Tc99m radionuclide injection was administered to the periphery of the tumor 24 h before the operation, and a lymphoscintigraphy image was obtained 30 min after the injection. Sentinel lymph nodes were localized and excised on the day of surgery using static lymphoscintigraphy images and a gamma probe. Sentinel lymph nodes were sent for a frozen section examination, and either a selective or a comprehensive neck dissection was performed for each neck according to the results. Results After the final histopathological examination of the specimens, the negative predictive value, the positive predictive value, the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy, and frozen section accuracy were found to be 100%. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy was found to be an efficient method in the pathological staging and management of the N0 neck in early T-stage oral cavity cancers. PMID:29391982

  5. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    SciTech Connect

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it; Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania; Loreto, Carla

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanningmore » electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.« less

  6. Starry sky sign: A prevalent sonographic finding in mediastinal tuberculous lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Alici, Ibrahim Onur; Demirci, Nilg N Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Aydin; Karakaya, Jale; Erdogan, Yurdanur

    2015-01-01

    We report a prevalent finding in tuberculous lymphadenitis (TL): Starry sky sign, hyperechoic foci without acoustic shadows over a hypoechoic background. We retrospectively searched the database for a possible relationship of starry sky sign with a specific diagnosis and also the prevalence and accuracy of the finding. Starry sky sign was found in 16 of 31 tuberculous lymph nodes, while none of other lymph nodes (1,015 lymph nodes) exhibited this finding; giving a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 51.6%, 100%, 100%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. Bacteriologic and histologic findings are gold standard in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, but this finding may guide the bronchoscopist in choosing the more pathologic node within a station and increase the diagnostic yield as it may relate to actively dividing mycobacteria.

  7. Paired-agent fluorescent imaging to detect micrometastases in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy: experiment design and protocol development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengyue; Xu, Xiaochun; Basheer, Yusairah; He, Yusheng; Sattar, Husain A.; Brankov, Jovan G.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer treatment and is essential to guide future adjuvant treatment. The estimation that 20-60% of micrometastases are missed by conventional pathology has created a demand for the development of more accurate approaches. Here, a paired-agent imaging approach is presented that employs a control imaging agent to allow rapid, quantitative mapping of microscopic populations of tumor cells in lymph nodes to guide pathology sectioning. To test the feasibility of this approach to identify micrometastases, healthy pig lymph nodes were stained with targeted and control imaging agent solution to evaluate the potential for the agents to diffuse into and out of intact nodes. Aby-029, an anti-EGFR affibody was labeled with IRDye 800CW (LICOR) as targeted agent and IRDye 700DX was hydrolyzed as a control agent. Lymph nodes were stained and rinsed by directly injecting the agents into the lymph nodes after immobilization in agarose gel. Subsequently, lymph nodes were frozen-sectioned and imaged under an 80-um resolution fluorescence imaging system (Pearl, LICOR) to confirm equivalence of spatial distribution of both agents in the entire node. The binding potentials were acquired by a pixel-by-pixel calculation and was found to be 0.02 +/- 0.06 along the lymph node in the absence of binding. The results demonstrate this approach's potential to enhance the sensitivity of lymph node pathology by detecting fewer than 1000 cell in a whole human lymph node.

  8. Ratio of metastatic lymph nodes to total number of nodes resected is prognostic for survival in esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Clive J; Kennedy, Catherine W; Falk, Gregory L

    2010-09-01

    The role of the number of metastatic nodes in esophageal cancer surgery is of interest. We assess predictors of survival after oesophagectomy for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction malignancy. Prospective data of consecutive patients undergoing oesophagectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy between 1991 and 2007. Of 224 patients, 148 patients (66%) had adenocarcinoma, 70 (31%) squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (2.6%) were other tumor types. Five-year survival was 43% with hospital mortality of 3.5%. Locoregional recurrence occurred in 14%. The total number of affected nodes significantly reduced survival (four or more metastatic nodes). Further analysis of the ratio of nodes affected to the total number resected showed a significant decrease in survival as the percentage of positive nodes increased (p < 0.001). Patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer should be staged according to a minimum total number of metastatic lymph nodes and ratios because this more accurately predicts survival than current staging systems.

  9. Inflammation-based prognostic score and number of lymph node metastases are independent prognostic factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Kaneko, Susumu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have investigated whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is useful for postoperative prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein level (>10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0. A new scoring system was constructed using independent prognostic variables and was evaluated on whether it could be used to dictate the choice of clinical options. 65 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases were found to be independent prognostic variables. The scoring system comprising GPS and the number of lymph node metastases was found to be effective in the prediction of a long-term outcome (p < 0.0001). Preoperative GPS may be useful for postoperative prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases could be used to identify a subgroup of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who are eligible for radical resection but show poor prognosis.

  10. Male occult breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis as the first manifestation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruixin; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Jing, Hongbiao; Zhu, Youzhe

    2017-12-01

    Occult breast cancer (OBC) is extremely rare in males with neither symptoms in the breast nor abnormalities upon imaging examination. This current case report presents a young male patient who was diagnosed with male OBC first manifesting as axillary lymph node metastasis. The physical and imaging examination showed no primary lesions in either breasts or in other organs. The pathological results revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the axillary lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), cytokeratin (CK)20 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), positive for CK7, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and suspicious positive for human epidermal receptor-2 (Her-2). On basis of IHC markers, particularly such as CK7, CK20 and GCDFP-15, and eliminating other malignancies, male OBC was identified in spite of negativity for hormone receptors. The patient underwent left axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) but not mastectomy. After the surgery, the patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is currently being followed up without any signs of recurrence. Carefully imaging examination and pathological analysis were particularly essential in the diagnosis of male OBC. The guidelines for managing male OBC default to those of female OBC and male breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in gastrointestinal malignancies-where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, R; Shukla, P J; Naraynsingh, V; Dan, D; Hariharan, S

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the nodes in direct communication with the primary tumor and are therefore the first group of nodes to be involved in lymphatic metastasis. Though the role of SLN biopsy is well established in cancers of the breast and melanoma, its role in gastrointestinal malignancies is still evolving and controversial. In this paper, the literature is reviewed with respect to the status of SLN biopsy in gastrointestinal malignancies.

  12. The genomic heritage of lymph node metastases: implications for clinical management of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tyson E; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Deyarmin, Brenda; Patney, Heather L; Jordan, Rick M; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Darrell L

    2008-04-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is an aggressive disease associated with recurrence and decreased survival. To improve outcomes and develop more effective treatment strategies for patients with breast cancer, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis. We used allelic imbalance (AI) to determine the molecular heritage of primary breast tumors and corresponding metastases to the axillary lymph nodes. Paraffin-embedded samples from primary breast tumors and matched metastases (n = 146) were collected from 26 patients with node-positive breast cancer involving multiple axillary nodes. Hierarchical clustering was used to assess overall differences in the patterns of AI, and phylogenetic analysis inferred the molecular heritage of axillary lymph node metastases. Overall frequencies of AI were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in primary breast tumors (23%) than in lymph node metastases (15%), and there was a high degree of discordance in patterns of AI between primary breast carcinomas and the metastases. Metastatic tumors in the axillary nodes showed different patterns of chromosomal changes, suggesting that multiple molecular mechanisms may govern the process of metastasis in individual patients. Some metastases progressed with few genomic alterations, while others harbored many chromosomal alterations present in the primary tumor. The extent of genomic heterogeneity in axillary lymph node metastases differs markedly among individual patients. Genomic diversity may be associated with response to adjuvant therapy, recurrence, and survival, and thus may be important in improving clinical management of breast cancer patients.

  13. [Lymph-node tuberculosis in patients infected or not with HIV: general characteristics, clinical presentation, microbiological diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hochedez, P; Zeller, V; Truffot, C; Ansart, S; Caumes, E; Tubiana, R; Katlama, C; Bricaire, F; Bossi, P

    2003-10-01

    Lymph node tuberculosis is the most frequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. We have studied patients with proven lymph node tuberculosis in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, between January 1997 and January 2002. Clinical presentation, microbiological diagnosis and treatment were analyzed in 13 HIV infected and 19 non-HIV infected patients. A risk factor for tuberculosis was present in all cases (HIV infection, immigration, life in community, poverty, past history of tuberculosis and IVDU). The median duration between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was longer for HIV infected (2 months) compared with non-HIV infected patients (1 month). At the time of the diagnosis, general symptoms were present in >50% of patients of both groups. In HIV infected patients, abdominal lymph node involvement was more frequent (P < 0.05). All the non-HIV infected and 85% of HIV infected patients had peripheral adenopathies. A pulmonary tuberculosis was noted in more than half of the cases (53% non-HIV and 69% HIV patients). Inflammatory parameters and liver function tests were frequently abnormal in both groups. Hyponatremia was more frequent in HIV patients (P < 0.05). TB skin testing was more frequently positive and phlyctenular in non-HIV infected patients (P < 0.05). In this study, direct examination of the needle aspirate from infected lymph nodes was rarely positive; cultures were more frequently positive after biopsy compared to needle-aspiration. The median duration of treatment was 9 months for the two groups (6-24 months). Three HIV infected patients were infected by mycobacteria resistant to at least one antibiotic (isoniazid, 1; rifampicin, 1; isoniazid, streptomycin, etambutool, 1). All the patients recovered.

  14. Tumor laterality in early ovarian cancer: influence on left-right asymmetry of pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Mujezinović, Faris; Takac, Iztok

    2010-01-01

    AIM AND BACKGROUND.:To determine whether left-right asymmetry was present in cases of early ovarian cancer and whether or not the difference between number of removed lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis is associated with tumor laterality. We extracted from the medical data base cases of early ovarian cancer with lymphadenectomy who had been treated between 1994 and 2008. The sample was divided in three groups according to the left-right laterality of the tumor in the pelvis (bilateral, left sided, right sided). For each case, we subtracted the number of dissected lymph nodes on the left side from the number of dissected lymph nodes on the right side of the pelvis (N(Right side) - N(Left side)). We used one sample t test to determine whether the mean of differences for each group was different from zero. Results. We extracted 48 cases with early ovarian cancer who had undergone lymphadenectomy. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 24 (SD, 12). In 3 cases, we confirmed the presence of lymph node metastasis (6.3%). In 2 of the upstaged cases, tumor and involved lymph nodes were on the right side of the pelvis. In the third case, the tumor was on the left side, whereas involved lymph nodes were on both sides of the pelvis. For bilateral tumors, tumors on the left, and those on the right side of the pelvis, the mean difference was -0.5 (95% CI, -9.9 to 8.9; t, -0.137; P = 0.90), 0.32 (95% CI, -3.8 to 4.5; t, 0.16; P = 0.87) and 3.5 (95% CI, 0.03 to 7.01; t, 2.09; P = 0.048), respectively. When the tumor was on the left or on both sides of the pelvis, there was no significant difference in the number of removed lymph nodes. In contrast, when the tumor was on the right side, the number of removed lymph nodes was significantly higher on the right hemipelvis than on the left hemipelvis.

  15. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, Eva E.; Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancermore » during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced

  16. Investigation of the Lack of Angiogenesis in the Formation of Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Han-Sin; Jones, Dennis; Liao, Shan; Wattson, Daniel A.; Cui, Cheryl H.; Duda, Dan G.; Willett, Christopher G.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, antiangiogenic therapy has failed to improve overall survival in cancer patients when used in the adjuvant setting (local-regional disease with no detectable systemic metastasis). The presence of lymph node metastases worsens prognosis, however their reliance on angiogenesis for growth has not been reported. Methods: Here, we introduce a novel chronic lymph node window (CLNW) model to facilitate new discoveries in the growth and spread of lymph node metastases. We use the CLNW in multiple models of spontaneous lymphatic metastases in mice to study the vasculature of metastatic lymph nodes (n = 9–12). We further test our results in patient samples (n = 20 colon cancer patients; n = 20 head and neck cancer patients). Finally, we test the ability of antiangiogenic therapy to inhibit metastatic growth in the CLNW. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Using the CLNW, we reveal the surprising lack of sprouting angiogenesis during metastatic growth, despite the presence of hypoxia in some lesions. Treatment with two different antiangiogenic therapies showed no effect on the growth or vascular density of lymph node metastases (day 10: untreated mean = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.7%; control mean = 0.7%, 95% CI = 0.1% to 1.3%; DC101 mean = 0.4%, 95% CI = 0.0% to 3.3%; sunitinib mean = 0.5%, 95% CI = 0.0% to 1.0%, analysis of variance P = .34). We confirmed these findings in clinical specimens, including the lack of reduction in blood vessel density in lymph node metastases in patients treated with bevacizumab (no bevacizumab group mean = 257 vessels/mm2, 95% CI = 149 to 365 vessels/mm2; bevacizumab group mean = 327 vessels/mm2, 95% CI = 140 to 514 vessels/mm2, P = .78). Conclusion: We provide preclinical and clinical evidence that sprouting angiogenesis does not occur during the growth of lymph node metastases, and thus reveals a new mechanism of treatment resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in adjuvant settings. The

  17. Effect of pathologist's dedication on lymph node detection rate and postoperative survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Unger, L W; Muckenhuber, M; Riss, S; Argeny, S; Stift, J; Mesteri, I; Stift, A

    2018-04-28

    As adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer relies on the identification of lymph node metastases, the pathologist's dedication may have a considerable influence on postoperative survival. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the impact of the pathologist's dedication on lymph node detection rate and postoperative survival in patients operated on by a single experienced colorectal surgeon within a 5-year period. We assessed 229 patients undergoing total mesorectal excision or complete mesocolic excision by the senior author between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Pathologists were grouped as 'general pathologist' or 'dedicated pathologist' depending on their dedication/specialization. Dedicated pathologists found statistically significantly more lymph nodes in colorectal specimens than general pathologists [23 (interquartile range 24) vs 14 (interquartile range 11), respectively; P < 0.001]. The detection rate of ≥ 12 lymph nodes per specimen was significantly higher in the dedicated pathologist group [65/74 (87.8%) vs 105/155 (67.7%); P = 0.016]. However, postoperative survival did not differ in the respective subgroups. In the multivariable analysis by Cox proportional hazard model, International Union against Cancer Stage IV was the only factor associated with decreased disease-specific survival (hazard ratio 28.257; 95% CI 3.850-207.386; P = 0.001). In our centre, the pathologist's dedication has an impact on lymph node detection rate but does not influence postoperative disease-specific survival. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. [B lymphocyte clonal evolution of human reactive lymph nodes revealed by lineage tree analysis].

    PubMed

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Schiby, Ginette; Azogui-Rosenthal, Noemie; Hazanov, Helena; Rakovsky, Aviya Shapira; Michaeli, Miri; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    Hypermutation and selection processes, characterizing T-dependent B cell responses taking place in germinal centers of lymph nodes, lead to B cell receptor affinity maturation. Those immune responses lead to the development of memory B cells and plasma cells that secrete high amounts of antibody molecules. The dynamics of B cell clonal evolution during affinity maturation has significant importance in infectious and autoimmune diseases, malignancies and aging. Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene mutational Lineage tree construction by comparing variable regions of Ig-gene sequences to the Ig germline gene is an interesting approach for studying B cell cLonal evolution. Lineage tree shapes and Ig gene mutations can be evaluated not only qualitatively and intuitively, but also quantitatively, and thus reveal important information related to hypermutation and selection. In this paper we describe the experimental protocols that we used for PCR amplification of Igvariable region genes from human formalin fixed paraffin embedded reactive lymph node tissues and the subsequent bioinformatical analyses of sequencing data using Ig mutational lineage trees. B cell populations of three out of four reactive Lymph node tissues were composed of several clones. Most of the Ig gene mutational lineage trees were small and narrow. Significant differences were not detected by quantification of Lineage trees. B lymphocyte clones that were detected in human reactive lymph node tissues represent major responding clones in normal polyclonal immune response. This result is in line with the polyclonal profile of B Lymphocyte populations that reside in reactive lymph node tissues.

  19. Complex mammary carcinoma with metastases to lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue, and multiple joints in a dog.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Maggie R; Dieterly, Alexandra M; Mackey, Paige E; Lyon, Shane D; Rizzi, Theresa E; Ritchey, Jerry W

    2018-05-07

    An 8-year-old, intact female, mixed-breed dog presented to the Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of progressive lameness and joint effusion of multiple joints. Physical examination revealed joint effusion of the elbow, hock, and stifle joints bilaterally, enlarged left axillary and right popliteal lymph nodes, a subcutaneous mass over the left elbow, and a subcutaneous mass involving the left second and third mammary glands. Cytologic examination of the mammary mass, enlarged lymph nodes, and joint fluid from most affected joints revealed a monomorphic population of loosely cohesive neoplastic epithelial cells. The patient was humanely euthanized, and subsequent necropsy with histopathologic examination revealed a complex mammary carcinoma with metastases to enlarged lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissue over the left elbow, and the synovium of multiple joints. Immunohistochemical stains were performed and showed diffusely positive pan cytokeratin, CK8/18, and CK19 staining in the neoplastic luminal epithelial cells of the mammary carcinoma, synovium, and lymph nodes, and showed diffusely positive vimentin staining of the myoepithelial cells. Myoepithelial calponin positivity was diffuse in the mammary mass and lymph nodes but minimal in the synovium. Only the mammary mass showed p63 positivity. Metastatic mammary neoplasia is relatively common in dogs; however, metastasis to the synovium has only been reported once previously in the literature. This is the first case utilizing immunohistochemistry for confirmation and characterization of metastases. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. Lymph node ratio as a prognostic factor in metastatic cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Kartik; Low, Tsu-Hui Hubert; Gupta, Ruta; Ashford, Bruce; Asher, Rebecca; Gao, Kan; Ch'ng, Sydney; Palme, Carsten E; Clark, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    The prognostic impact of the size and number of nodal metastases in head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is well established. The purpose of this study was to validate the prognostic significance of the lymph node ratio in metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC. A retrospective review of 326 patients with head and neck cutaneous SCC with parotid and/or cervical nodal metastases was performed. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The minimal-P approach was used to investigate the optimal lymph node ratio threshold. Our data included 77 recurrences and 101 deaths. A lymph node ratio of 6% was a significant predictor of shorter DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.38; P = .01) and OS (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03-2.58; P = 0.04) on multivariable analysis. The lymph node ratio is an independent prognosticator of survival outcomes in patients presenting with metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC. A lymph node ratio >6% is a significant threshold to categorize patients into low and high risk. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of MUC4 expression in primary pancreatic cancer and paired lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Daniel; Urey, Carlos; Gundewar, Chinmay; Bauden, Monika Posaric; Andersson, Roland

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. Mucin 4 (MUC4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but not in normal pancreatic tissue. MUC4 has a proposed role in pancreatic tumor progression and metastasis. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate MUC4 expression during PDAC metastasis by comparing the expression in the primary tumor and paired lymph node metastases from the same patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Surgical specimens from 17 cases of primary PDAC and paired lymph node metastases were immunohistochemically analyzed for MUC4 expression. The modified histochemical score (H-score) was used for staining assessment. RESULTS. Positive staining for MUC4 was detected in most primary and metastatic PDAC tumors (15/17 vs. 14/17). The concordance for MUC4 expression in primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases was 82%. In two cases, the primary tumor was MUC4-positive and the lymph node metastases were negative, while in one patient with a MUC4-negative primary tumor, the lymph node metastasis was positive. The distribution of H-score for expression of MUC4 significantly correlated (r = 0.615; p = 0.009) between primary tumors and paired metastatic lesions. MUC4 was observed in both primary and matched metastatic tumors with a high level of concordance, suggesting that MUC4 expression is retained following PDAC metastasis.

  2. Incidence of intraglandular lymph nodes within submandibular gland, and involvement by floor of mouth cancer.

    PubMed

    Fives, Cassie; Feeley, Linda; Sadadcharam, Mira; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Resection of the submandibular gland is generally undertaken as an integral component of level I neck dissection for oral cancer. However, it is unclear whether lymph nodes are present within the submandibular gland which may form the basis of lymphatic spread. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of lymph nodes within the submandibular gland, and the incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement in floor of mouth cancer. Retrospective review of 177 patients with oral cancer undergoing neck dissection. Original pathology slides of floor of mouth cases were re-reviewed by two pathologists to determine frequency of intraglandular lymph nodes, and incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement by cancer. The overall incidence of cervical metastases was 36.4 %, of whom 44 % had level I metastases. Level I metastases were significantly more common in floor of mouth than tongue cancers (p = 0.004). Among 50 patients with floor of mouth cancer undergoing re-review of pathology slides, intraglandular lymph nodes were not found in any of 69 submandibular glands. Submandibular gland involvement by cancer was present in two patients, representing 1 % of all oral cancers, and 4 % FOM cases. Mechanisms of involvement were direct extension, and by an apparent novel mechanism of carcinoma growing along bilateral Wharton's ducts. Despite the high incidence of level I metastasis in floor of mouth, lymphatic metastases to submandibular gland are unlikely based on absence of intraglandular lymph nodes. We describe a previously unreported mechanism of submandibular gland involvement.

  3. Transcriptomic and innate immune responses to Yersinia pestis in the lymph node during bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jason E; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Carmody, Aaron B; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Gardner, Donald; Long, Dan; Rosenke, Rebecca; Porcella, Stephen F; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2010-12-01

    A delayed inflammatory response is a prominent feature of infection with Yersinia pestis, the agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Using a rat model of bubonic plague, we examined lymph node histopathology, transcriptome, and extracellular cytokine levels to broadly characterize the kinetics and extent of the host response to Y. pestis and how it is influenced by the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV). Remarkably, dissemination and multiplication of wild-type Y. pestis during the bubonic stage of disease did not induce any detectable gene expression or cytokine response by host lymph node cells in the developing bubo. Only after systemic spread had led to terminal septicemic plague was a transcriptomic response detected, which included upregulation of several cytokine, chemokine, and other immune response genes. Although an initial intracellular phase of Y. pestis infection has been postulated, a Th1-type cytokine response associated with classical activation of macrophages was not observed during the bubonic stage of disease. However, elevated levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) were present in infected lymph nodes. In the absence of pYV, sustained recruitment to the lymph node of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN, or neutrophils), the major IL-17 effector cells, correlated with clearance of infection. Thus, the ability to counteract a PMN response in the lymph node appears to be a major in vivo function of the Y. pestis virulence plasmid.

  4. Sentinel lymph node detection in gynecologic malignancies by a handheld fluorescence camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Lukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer is a promising technique for mapping the lymphatic system and for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) during cancer surgery. In our feasibility study we have investigated the application of a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera system for the detection of lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies. It comprises a low cost CCD camera with enhanced NIR sensitivity and two groups of LEDs emitting at wavelengths of 735 nm and 830 nm for interlaced recording of fluorescence and reflectance images of the tissue, respectively. With the help of our system, surgeons can observe fluorescent tissue structures overlaid onto the anatomical image on a monitor in real-time. We applied the camera system for intraoperative lymphatic mapping in 5 patients with vulvar cancer, 5 patients with ovarian cancer, 3 patients with cervical cancer, and 3 patients with endometrial cancer. ICG was injected at four loci around the primary malignant tumor during surgery. After a residence time of typically 15 min fluorescence images were taken in order to visualize the lymph nodes closest to the carcinomas. In cases with vulvar cancer about half of the lymph nodes detected by routinely performed radioactive SLN mapping have shown fluorescence in vivo as well. In the other types of carcinomas several lymph nodes could be detected by fluorescence during laparotomy. We conclude that our low cost camera system has sufficient sensitivity for lymphatic mapping during surgery.

  5. Low rates of loco-regional recurrence following extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Muratore, A; Zimmitti, G; Lo Tesoriere, R; Mellano, A; Massucco, P; Capussotti, L

    2009-06-01

    The study by MacDonald et al. [Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med 2001;345:725-30] has reported low loco-regional recurrence rates (19%) after gastric cancer resection and adjuvant radiotherapy. However, the lymph node dissection was often "inadequate". The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse if an extended lymph node dissection (D2) without adjuvant radiotherapy may achieve comparable loco-regional recurrence rates. A prospective database of 200 patients who underwent a curative resection for gastric carcinoma from January 2000 to December 2006 was analysed. D2 lymph node dissection was standard. Recurrences were categorized as loco-regional, peritoneal, or distant. No patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1% (2 patients). The mean number of dissected lymph nodes was 25.9. Overall and disease-free survival at 5years were 60.7% and 61.2% respectively. During the follow-up, 60 patients (30%) have recurred at 76 sites: 38 (50%) distant metastases, 25 (32.9%) peritoneal metastases, and 13 (17.1%) loco-regional recurrences. The loco-regional recurrence was isolated in 6 patients and associated with peritoneal or distant metastases in 7 patients. The mean time to the first recurrence was 18.9 (95% confidence interval: 15.0-21.9) months. Extended lymph node dissection is safe and warrants low loco-regional recurrence rates.

  6. The correlation of extranodal invasion with other prognostic parameters in lymph node positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Altinyollar, Hüseyin; Berberoğlu, Uğur; Gülben, Kaptan; Irkin, Fikret

    2007-06-01

    The presence of extranodal invasion (ENI) in the metastatic lymph nodes is reported to increase the risk of locoregional recurrence while shortening disease-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer. In this study the relationship between ENI and other prognostic parameters and survival is investigated. Of 650 patients with breast cancer who were treated in Ankara Oncology Teaching and Research Hospital from 1996 to 2003, 368 (56.6%) had lymph node metastasis. The patients with axillary metastasis were separated into two groups as with and without invasion to lymph node capsule and the surrounding adipose tissue. Clinicopathologic features were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of 368 patients with axillary metastasis, 135 (36.7%) had ENI. Based on multivariate analysis; the number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymphatic invasion, and tumor necrosis were found to be related with ENI. In the group with ENI, 5-year overall survival rate was 74.8%, compared to 82.3% for patients without ENI which was significantly lower (P = 0.04). In lymph node positive breast cancer with presence of ENI, adverse prognostic parameters are more frequently encountered and has a worse overall survival compared to group without ENI. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in malignant melanoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Nedjat, Roman Kia; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Sagheb, Keyvan; Grabbe, Stephan; Walter, Christian

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with head and neck melanoma. Patients who underwent SLNB between 2010 and 2016 were comprised. Epidemiological, radiological, and surgical data were collected and compared to histological findings. Patients who underwent primary complete lymph node dissection were excluded. 74 patients underwent SLNB during this period. The most common tumor localizations were the cheek (20.4%) and ears (20.4%). Overall, 256 sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) were detected and removed, most frequently in Robbins-levels IIA and IIB as well as in the surrounding of the parotid gland. 12.3% of the SLN showed a microscopic or macroscopic metastasis. In preoperative imaging all lymph nodes with macroscopic metastasis were described as suspect but only 4 of 11 lymph nodes with microscopic metastases were described as such. SLNB is an especially good procedure for the diagnosis of microscopically metastases as disease status is an important diagnostic and prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma patients. However, due to the complex lymphatic system in head and neck melanoma, a short follow-up interval is necessary in order to prevent delayed diagnosis of a nodal recurrence due to a false-negative SLN. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging provides evidence of glymphatic drainage from human brain to cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Eide, Per Kristian; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Emblem, Kyrre Eeg; Ringstad, Geir

    2018-05-08

    Pre-clinical research in rodents provides evidence that the central nervous system (CNS) has functional lymphatic vessels. In-vivo observations in humans, however, are not demonstrated. We here show data on CNS lymphatic drainage to cervical lymph nodes in-vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced with an intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer. Standardized MRI of the intracranial compartment and the neck were acquired before and up to 24-48 hours following intrathecal contrast agent administration in 19 individuals. Contrast enhancement was radiologically confirmed by signal changes in CSF nearby inferior frontal gyrus, brain parenchyma of inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and pons, and parenchyma of cervical lymph node, and with sagittal sinus and neck muscle serving as reference tissue for cranial and neck MRI acquisitions, respectively. Time series of changes in signal intensity shows that contrast enhancement within CSF precedes glymphatic enhancement and peaks at 4-6 hours following intrathecal injection. Cervical lymph node enhancement coincides in time with peak glymphatic enhancement, with peak after 24 hours. Our findings provide in-vivo evidence of CSF tracer drainage to cervical lymph nodes in humans. The time course of lymph node enhancement coincided with brain glymphatic enhancement rather than with CSF enhancement.

  9. Does debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes improve survival in different gynaecological cancers?

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P

    2015-08-01

    Lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers remain a pharmacotherapeutic challenge, and patients with lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers have poor survival. The purpose of this review is to determine whether a survival advantage arises from surgical debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes in different types of gynaecological cancers. Information from studies published on the survival benefits from debulking lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers was investigated. Pertaining to therapeutic lymphadenectomy, survival benefit can be analysed in two ways, direct survival benefit following therapeutic lymphadenectomy of bulky positive metastatic lymph nodes and indirect survival benefit, which results after a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, proper, accurate staging of disease and stage migration and tailor-made adjuvant treatment. The direct hypothesis of therapeutic lymphadenectomy and survival benefit has been prospected in cervical cancers and vulval cancers and in post-chemotherapy residual paraarotic nodal mass in germ cell ovarian cancer. The indirect survival benefit of therapeutic paraarotic lymphadenectomy in high-risk endometrial cancers and advanced epithelial ovarian cancers needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials. More randomized controlled trials are required to investigate this research question. Further, indirect benefit due to tailor-made adjuvant treatment, secondary to accurate staging achieved as a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, needs to be analysed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lymph node segmentation on CT images by a shape model guided deformable surface methodh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleike, Daniel; Fabel, Michael; Tetzlaff, Ralf; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Heimann, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2008-03-01

    With many tumor entities, quantitative assessment of lymph node growth over time is important to make therapy choices or to evaluate new therapies. The clinical standard is to document diameters on transversal slices, which is not the best measure for a volume. We present a new algorithm to segment (metastatic) lymph nodes and evaluate the algorithm with 29 lymph nodes in clinical CT images. The algorithm is based on a deformable surface search, which uses statistical shape models to restrict free deformation. To model lymph nodes, we construct an ellipsoid shape model, which strives for a surface with strong gradients and user-defined gray values. The algorithm is integrated into an application, which also allows interactive correction of the segmentation results. The evaluation shows that the algorithm gives good results in the majority of cases and is comparable to time-consuming manual segmentation. The median volume error was 10.1% of the reference volume before and 6.1% after manual correction. Integrated into an application, it is possible to perform lymph node volumetry for a whole patient within the 10 to 15 minutes time limit imposed by clinical routine.

  11. Perigastric lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with early gastric cancer: the first case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gui-Ae; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Gyu-Seok

    2014-09-01

    Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), particularly from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, is rare. We present a case of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC in a patient with early gastric cancer and breast cancer. During post-surgical follow-up for breast cancer, a 56-year-old woman was diagnosed incidentally with early gastric cancer and synchronous left thyroid cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and left thyroidectomy were performed. On the basis of the pathologic findings of the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with perigastric lymph node metastasis and early gastric cancer with mucosal invasion. Finally, on the basis of immunohistochemical staining with galectin-3, the diagnosis of perigastric lymph node metastasis from PTC was made. When a patient has multiple primary malignancies with lymph node metastasis, careful pathologic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary; immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in determining the primary origin of lymph node metastasis.

  12. [Relevance of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast multifocal and multicentric cancer].

    PubMed

    Mosbah, R; Raimond, E; Pelissier, A; Hocedez, C; Graesslin, O

    2015-05-01

    The sentinel lymph node biopsy is a gold standard in the management of breast cancer. Its role in multifocal or multicentric tumors is still evolving. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and pertinence of sentinel lymph node biopsy in multifocal and multicentric tumors based on a systematic review of literature. A systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases PubMed using "sentinel lymph node biopsy", "breast cancer", "multifocal tumor", "multicentric tumor" and "multiple tumor" as keywords. We included original articles published between 2000 and 2014, both French and English, studying feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in invasive breast cancer, multicentric and/or multifocal tumors. The first end point was success rate and false negative rate. Twenty-six articles were included in this literature review, with 2212 cases (782 multifocal, 737 multicentric and 693 multiple tumors). Percentage of tumors whose stage was higher than stage T2 ranged from 0 to 86.3%. Success rate average was 83.1%. False negative average was 8.2%. False negative rate was less than 10% in 15 articles. Mean of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 2 (1-9). The average rate of sentinel lymph node positive was 50.6%. Axillary recurrence rate was 0.5%. Despite the methodological biases of the studies included in this review of literature, the false negative rate of sentinel node biopsy in multifocal and multicentric breast cancers are less than 10% with a low rate of axillary recurrence. Despite the lack of randomized study, this procedure can be routinely performed in accordance with rigorous technical process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Historical outline on the nomenclature of neck lymph nodes as a basis of neck dissection classification].

    PubMed

    Werner, J A

    2001-07-01

    The neck dissection classification is based considerably on the organization of the lymph nodes of the neck. Terminology and anatomical allocation of nearly 300 cervicofacial lymph nodes repeatedly changed since the beginning of the 20th century. Analysis of the literature on neck lymph node organization with reference to the development of the neck dissection classification. The first fundamental nomenclature of the neck lymph nodes is founded on the work of Rouviére (1932). Suárez (1963) described the functional neck dissection on the basis of the fascial compartmentalization of the neck. Lindberg (1972) left the predominantly anatomically correlated grouping of the cervical lymph nodes as described by Rouviére and divided the lymphatic system of the neck on basis of pathophysiological mechanisms. The attention regarding the location of occult metastases led to the description of the selective neck dissection. Since the fundamental work of Shah et al. (1981) there was a multiplicity of more or less slight changes of the neck node regions. These changes were again basis for new neck dissection terminologies. A new classification was introduced in the year 2000 as the revised version of the American Head and Neck Society. The revised version of the neck dissection classification can reduce former controversies, particularly regarding an optimized intraoperative allocation of the lymph nodes and a simplified terminology of the selective neck dissection. With the goal of a standardization of the neck dissection forms it remains to be seen if the proponents of the functional neck dissection after Suárez consider the extent of the neck dissection in patients with N0 neck in favor of the selective neck dissection.

  14. Pattern and predictors of paradoxical response in patients with peripheral lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Supreet; Rajawat, Govind Singh; Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Gupta, Manohar Lal

    2017-09-01

    Many of the patients with lymph node tuberculosis show 'Paradoxical Response" in the form of appearance of new lymph node (LN) or increase in the size of existing LN, development of new disease in other organ and worsening of the disease while on treatment. Reason behind such response in only selective patients is not clearly understood. We evaluated the pattern and predictors for paradoxical response(s) (PR) in patients with peripheral lymph node tuberculosis (TB). Study included patients aged > 6 years with peripheral lymphadenopathy of tubercular etiology attending a tertiary care hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010. PR in our study was defined as worsening of pre-existing disease or development of new lesions in a patient who has been on anti-TB therapy for at least 2 weeks. One hundred ten patients with peripheral lymph node TB were included. Their mean age was 27.5 ± 5 years and 68 (62%) were females. PR occurred in 28 (25%) patients, at a mean onset time of 6 weeks (range 2-12 weeks) after starting anti-TB medication. Four of these 28 patients experienced PR on two occasions. Of these, 22 (79%) patients presented with enlarged lymph nodes only, 8 (29%) with new nodes at same or different site and 2 (7%) with discharging sinus. PR was observed more in younger age group (p> 0.05), female gender (p> 0.05), unilateral lymphadenopathy (p> 0.05) and those with positive AFB on initial examination (p< 0.01). Paradoxical response in peripheral lymph node TB is associated with younger age, female gender, unilateral lymphadenopathy and those with positive AFB on initial examination.

  15. Age-related changes in cell localization and proliferation in lymph nodes and spleen after antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, J D; McDougall, C M; Micklem, H S; Inchley, C J

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-dependent localization of 51Cr-labelled lymphocytes, and the subsequent uptake of IUdR into lymphoid organs has been studied as a function of age. Measures of cell localization indicated that while old age can alter the patterns of entry of lymphocytes into lymph nodes and spleen, these changes are variable and probably not sufficient alone to explain decreased primary antibody responses in old animals. Proliferation of cells, however, was consistently affected in both organs and this phenomenon is discussed in terms of abnormal T-cell function. PMID:7429546

  16. [Pay attention to the selective lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in mid-low rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Meng, Wenjian; Wang, Ziqiang

    2017-03-25

    Lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis is an important metastatic mode and a major cause of locoregional recurrence of mid-low rectal cancer. Recently, there is an East-West discrepancy in regard to the diagnosis, clinical significance, treatment and prognosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In the West, lateral nodal involvement may represent systemic disease and preoperative chemoradiotherapy can sterilize clinically suspected lateral nodes. Thus, in many Western countries, the standard therapy for lower rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision with chemoradiotherapy, and pelvic sidewall dissection is rarely performed. In the East, and Japan in particular, however, there is a positive attitude in regard to lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPND). They consider that lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis is as regional metastasis, and the clinically suspected lateral nodes can not be removed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The selective LPND after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy may be found to be promising treatment for the improvement of therapeutic benefits in these patients. Therefore, the large-scale prospective studies are urgently required to improve selection criteria for LPND and neoadjuvant treatment to prevent overtreatment in the near future. Selective LPND after neoadjuvant treatment based on modern imaging techniques is expected to reduce locoregional recurrence and improve long-term survival in patients with mid-low rectal cancer.

  17. Detection of lymph node metastases in pediatric and adolescent/young adult sarcoma: Sentinel lymph node biopsy versus fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging-A prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lars M; Kremer, Nathalie; Gelfand, Michael J; Sharp, Susan E; Turpin, Brian K; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Tiao, Gregory M; Pressey, Joseph G; Yin, Julie; Dasgupta, Roshni

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases are an important cause of treatment failure for pediatric and adolescent/young adult (AYA) sarcoma patients. Nodal sampling is recommended for certain sarcoma subtypes that have a predilection for lymphatic spread. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may improve the diagnostic yield of nodal sampling, particularly when single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) is used to facilitate anatomic localization. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is increasingly used for sarcoma staging and is a less invasive alternative to SLNB. To assess the utility of these 2 staging methods, this study prospectively compared SLNB plus SPECT-CT with PET-CT for the identification of nodal metastases in pediatric and AYA patients. Twenty-eight pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients underwent SLNB with SPECT-CT. The histological findings of the excised lymph nodes were then correlated with preoperative PET-CT imaging. A median of 2.4 sentinel nodes were sampled per patient. No wound infections or chronic lymphedema occurred. SLNB identified tumors in 7 of the 28 patients (25%), including 3 patients who had normal PET-CT imaging of the nodal basin. In contrast, PET-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic regional nodes in 14 patients, and this resulted in a positive predictive value of only 29%. The sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT for detecting histologically confirmed nodal metastases were only 57% and 52%, respectively. SLNB can safely guide the rational selection of nodes for biopsy in pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients and can identify therapy-changing nodal disease not appreciated with PET-CT. Cancer 2017;155-160. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  18. Influence of previous breast surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Prior, V; Díaz-Expósito, R; Casáns Tormo, I

    The aim of this study was to review the feasibility of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with previous surgery for breast cancer, as well as to examine the factors that may interfere with sentinel node detection. A retrospective review was performed on 91 patients with breast cancer and previous breast surgery, and who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups according to their previous treatment: aesthetic breast surgery in 30 patients (group I) and breast-conserving surgery in 61 (group II). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after an intra-tumour injection in 21 cases and a peri-areolar injection in 70 cases. An analysis was made of lymphatic drainage patterns and overall sentinel node detection according to clinical, pathological and surgical variables. The overall detection of the sentinel lymph node in the lymphoscintigraphy was 92.3%, with 7.7% of extra-axillary drainages. The identification rate was similar after aesthetic breast surgery (93.3%) and breast-conserving surgery (91.8%). Sentinel lymph nodes were found in the contralateral axilla in two patients (2.2%), and they were included in the histopathology study. The non-identification rate in the lymphoscintigraphy was 7.7%. There was a significantly higher non-detection rate in the highest histological grade tumours (28.6% grade III, 4.5% grade I and 3.6% grade II). Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with previous breast surgery is feasible and deserves further studies to assess the influence of different aspects in sentinel node detection in this clinical scenario. A high histological grade was significantly associated with a lower detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of cervical lymph nodes in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woojin; Kim, Min Kyung; Sim, Jung Suk

    2017-05-01

    Our study investigates whether the histopathological features of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis (TL), specifically noncaseating microgranuloma and follicular hyperplasia, can be obtained by sonographic-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) of cervical lymph nodes. Thirty-two patients seen from June 2014 to March 2015 were positive for toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. Among those patients, 21 underwent CNB of a cervical lymph node and were enrolled in this study. The pathologic findings were reviewed. Twenty-nine lymph nodes in 21 patients were sampled. Eighteen of the 21 (86%) patients had a microgranuloma without caseating necrosis or giant cells, and all 21 (100%) patients had follicular hyperplasia. The histologic findings of TL were detected by sonographic-guided CNB, which can be used as part of the first line of investigation in patients with unexplained cervical adenopathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:192-196, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Trypanosoma congolense: proliferative responses and interleukin production in lymph node cells of infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Lutje, V; Mertens, B; Boulangé, A; Williams, D J; Authié, E

    1995-09-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses to defined antigens of Trypanosoma congolense were measured in cattle undergoing primary infection. The antigens used were the variable surface glycoprotein and two invariant antigens, a 33-kDa cysteine protease (congopain) and a recombinant form of a 69-kDa heat-shock protein. Proliferative responses were highest during the second week postinfection and were detected in cells obtained from the lymph node draining the site of infection but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma was measured in supernatants from antigen-stimulated lymph node cell cultures. Expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain amplification.

  1. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: An Update on Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been established as the standard of care for axillary staging in patients with invasive breast carcinoma and clinically negative lymph nodes (cN0). Historically, all patients with a positive SLN underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The ACOSOG Z0011 trial showed that women with T1-T2 disease and cN0 who undergo breast conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy can safely avoid ALND. The main goal of SLN examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2mm). Gross sectioning SLNs at 2 mm intervals and microscopic examination of one H&E-stained section from each SLN block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation of SLNs. The role and timing of SLN biopsy for patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy is controversial and continues to be explored in clinical trials. SLN biopsies from patients with invasive breast carcinoma who have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy pose particular challenges for pathologists. PMID:26768036

  2. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-12-12

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.

  3. Lymph nodes fine needle cytology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases: clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Natella, Valentina; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Sosa Fernandez, Laura Virginia; Vigliar, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node reactive hyperplasia, caused by specific infectious etiologic factors, represents the most frequent cause of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes. The main infectious agents are viruses, pyogenic bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi and protozoa that may determine unspecific or specific pathological entities, such as cat-scratch disease, toxoplasmosis or infectious mononucleosis. Lymph node fine needle cytology (FNC) is a safe, simple, cost-effective and efficient technique that quickly provides information about the cell population and the nature of the process. FNC can also provide suitable material for ancillary techniques, such as flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, molecular biology and microbiological examinations. This study focuses on the cytological features of benign lymphadenopathy of infectious origin and their possible contribution to the clinical setting definition of corresponding patients.

  4. [Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in human lymph node tissue by in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Ke, O; Tan, D; Zhang, Z

    1998-01-01

    To detect the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in lymph node tissue in patients with Toxoplasma infection. T. gondii (RH strain) specific DNA fragment clones were obtained by using PCR and gene recombination technique. The DNA fragments used as hybridization probes were labelled with digoxigenin by random primer method. The technique of in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect T. g DNA in the lymph node sections. Four out of 120 samples T. g DNA were found positive, one with Hodgkin's disease (HD) (1/32), one with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (1/41) and 2 with chronic lymphadenitis (CL) (2/47). The total positive rate was 3.3%. It was demonstrated that this highly specific probe could detect 10 pg of the total RH strain T. g DNA. ISH was applicable in detecting pathogens in the lymph node tissues of individuals with Toxoplasma infection.

  5. PREOPERATIVE MRI IMPROVES PREDICTION OF EXTENSIVE OCCULT AXILLARY LYMPH NODE METASTASES IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS WITH A POSITIVE SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Christopher; Eby, Peter R.; Kim, Janice N.; Calhoun, Kristine E.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K.; Peacock, Sue; Storer, Barry; Mankoff, David A.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Lehman, Constance D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To test the ability of quantitative measures from preoperative Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to predict, independently and/or with the Katz pathologic nomogram, which breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy will have ≥ 4 positive axillary lymph nodes upon completion axillary dissection. Methods and Materials A retrospective review was conducted to identify clinically node-negative invasive breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative DCE-MRI, followed by sentinel node biopsy with positive findings and complete axillary dissection (6/2005 – 1/2010). Clinical/pathologic factors, primary lesion size and quantitative DCE-MRI kinetics were collected from clinical records and prospective databases. DCE-MRI parameters with univariate significance (p < 0.05) to predict ≥ 4 positive axillary nodes were modeled with stepwise regression and compared to the Katz nomogram alone and to a combined MRI-Katz nomogram model. Results Ninety-eight patients with 99 positive sentinel biopsies met study criteria. Stepwise regression identified DCE-MRI total persistent enhancement and volume adjusted peak enhancement as significant predictors of ≥4 metastatic nodes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 for the Katz nomogram, 0.79 for the DCE-MRI multivariate model, and 0.87 for the combined MRI-Katz model. The combined model was significantly more predictive than the Katz nomogram alone (p = 0.003). Conclusion Integration of DCE-MRI primary lesion kinetics significantly improved the Katz pathologic nomogram accuracy to predict presence of metastases in ≥ 4 nodes. DCE-MRI may help identify sentinel node positive patients requiring further localregional therapy. PMID:24331270

  6. Previous conization on patient eligibility of sentinel lymph node detection for early invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hidenori; Todo, Yukiharu; Minobe, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakatani, Makiko; Ohba, Yoko; Yamashiro, Katsusige; Okamoto, Kazuhira

    2011-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection has been accepted as a common strategy to preserve the quality of life of the patients with gynecologic cancers. However, the feasibility of SLN detection after conization is not yet clarified. Accuracy of SLN after conization was evaluated. Eighteen cases with prior conization (cone group) and 32 cases without conization (noncone group), all of which belonged to IB1 except 1 case in IA stage, underwent SLN detection. Systemic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was coincidently performed for the estimation of negative and positive predictive values. Detection rate in which at least unilateral nodes were identified or bilaterally identified was 100% and 72.2% in the cone group, 90.6% and 71.9% in the noncone group, respectively. The average number of the detected SLN was 2.4 in the cone group and 2.1 in the noncone group. Negative and positive predictive value was 100% in both groups. On the distribution of sentinel node stations, most of the detected nodes were internal iliac and obturator node in both groups. Less frequent detection was observed in superficial common iliac node (5.4% in the cone group, 3.1% in the noncone group), external iliac node (2.7% and 9.5%), and parauterine artery node (5.4% and 1.6%).In both groups, no other lymph nodes were identified as SLN except 1 case in the cone group with the node in cardinal ligament. No significant difference was observed on detection rate, predictive value, and the distribution of sentinel node between the cone and noncone groups. Sentinel lymph node detection after conization can be performed with a certain reliability.

  7. Partial axillary lymph node dissection inferior to the intercostobrachial nerves complements sentinel node biopsy in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyi; Jia, Shi; Zhang, Wenhai; Qiu, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Gu, Xi; Xue, Jinqi

    2015-06-30

    The practice of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China varies to that in western developed countries. With the unavailability of radioactive tracer technique for sentinel lymph nodes biopsy (SLNB), using blue dye alone has been the only option in China. Also, the diagnosis of breast malignant tumor in most Chinese centres heavily relies on intraoperative instant frozen histology which is normally followed by sentinel lymph nodes mapping, SLNB and the potential breast and axillary operations in one consecutive session. This practice appears to cause a high false negative rate (FNR) for SLNB. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the current practice in China on the accuracy of SLNB, and whether partial axillary lymph node dissection (PALND), dissection of lymph nodes inferior to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), was a good complementary procedure following SLNB using blue dye. 289 patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were identified and recruited. Tumorectomy, intraoperative instant frozen histological diagnosis, SLNB using methylene blue dye, and PALND or complete axillary node dissection (ALND) were performed in one consecutive operative session. The choice of SLNB only, SLNB followed by PALND or by ALND was based on the pre-determined protocol and preoperative choice by the patient. Clinical parameters were analyzed and survival analysis was performed. 37% patients with clinically negative nodes were found nodes positive. 59 patients with positive SLN underwent ALND, including 47 patients with up to two positive nodes which were all located inferior to the ICBN. 9 patients had failed SLNB and underwent PALND. Among them, 3 (33.3%) patients were found to have one metastatic node. 149 patients showed negative SLNB but chose PALND. Among them, 30 (20.1%), 14 (9.4) and 1 (0.7%) patients were found to have one, two and three metastatic node(s), respectively. PALND detected 48 (30.4%) patients who had either failed SLNB or

  8. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LNmore » center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.« less

  9. Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy performed using a combination of indocyanine green fluorescence and the blue dye method in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Nishi, Toshio; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Nishimae, Ayaka; Sawai, Yuka; Yamasaki, Masaru; Inaji, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    There is limited information on indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence and blue dye for detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) in early breast cancer. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the feasibility of an SLN biopsy using the combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method. Seven hundred and fourteen patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were included in this study. They underwent SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method from March 2007 to February 2014. The ICG (a fluorescence-emitting source) and patent blue (the blue dye) were injected into the patients' subareolar region. The removed lymph nodes that had ICG fluorescence and/or blue dye uptake were defined as SLNs. The results of the SLN biopsies and follow-up results of patients who underwent SLN biopsy alone were investigated. In 711 out of 714 patients, SLNs were identified by a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye method (detection rate, 99.6 %). The average number of SLNs was 2.4 (range 1-7), and the average number of resected swollen para-SLNs was 0.4 (range 0-5). Ninety-nine patients with an SLN and/or para-SLN involvement during the intraoperative pathological diagnosis underwent axillary lymph node resection (ALND). In addition, two of three patients whose SLN was not identified also underwent ALND. In 46 of 101 patients with an ALND, non-SLN involvement was not found. Follow-up results were analyzed in 464 patients with invasive carcinoma excluding those with ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 148) and those who underwent ALND (n = 101). During the follow-up period (range 4.4-87.7 months; median, 38 months), two patients (0.4 %) developed axillary lymph node recurrence. They were successfully salvaged, and to date, no further locoregional recurrence has been observed. A high rate of SLN detection and low rate of axillary lymph node recurrence were confirmed by an SLN biopsy using a combination of ICG fluorescence and the blue dye

  10. Strain elastography of abnormal axillary nodes in breast cancer patients does not improve diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional ultrasound alone.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Mi; Fornage, Bruno D; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Yang, Wei Tse

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of strain elastography (SE) alone and in combination with gray-scale ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign versus metastatic disease for abnormal axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic disease on conventional ultrasound who underwent SE of the suspicious node before ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were included in this study. On conventional ultrasound, the long- and short-axis diameters, long-axis-to-short-axis ratio, cortical echogenicity, thickness, and evenness were documented. The nodal vascularity was assessed on power Doppler imaging. Elastograms were evaluated for the percentage of black (hard) areas in the lymph node, and the SE-ultrasound size ratio was calculated. Two readers assessed the images independently and then in consensus in cases of disagreement. ROC AUCs were calculated for conventional ultrasound, SE, and both methods combined. Interreader reliability was assessed using kappa statistics. A total of 101 patients with 104 nodes were examined; 35 nodes were benign, and 69 had metastases. SE alone showed a significantly lower AUC (62%) than did conventional ultrasound (92%) (p<0.001). There was no difference between the AUC of conventional ultrasound and the AUC of the combination of conventional ultrasound and SE (93%) (p=0.16). Interreader reliability was moderate for all variables (κ≥0.60) except the SE-ultrasound size ratio (κ=0.35). Added SE does not improve the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound when evaluating abnormal axillary lymph nodes.

  11. Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, L; Bruschini, R; Ansarin, M; Giugliano, G; De Cicco, C; Ionna, F; Paganelli, G; Maffini, F; Werner, J A; Soutar, D

    2006-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity represents about 2% of all malignant neoplasms and 47% of those developing in the head and neck area. The tongue is the most common site involved, and this incidence is increasing mainly in young people, possibly related to human papilloma virus infections. Prognosis depends on the stage: the 5-year survival rate of tongue squamous cell carcinoma, whatever the T stage, is 73% in pN0 cases, 40% in patients with positive nodes without extracapsular spread (pNl ECS-), and 29% when nodes are metastatic with extracapsular spread (pNl ECS+: p > or = 0.0001). Nodal micrometastases (cN0 pN1) are found in up to 50% of cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients operated on the neck. At present, no clinical, imaging staging modalities or biological markers are available to diagnose nodal micrometastases. The sentinel node biopsy has been tested since 1996 in order to find a solution to this problem. The sentinel node is the first node reached by the lymphatic stream, assuming an orderly and sequential drainage from the tumour site, and should be predictive of the nodal stage. According to the literature, sentinel node biopsy is a reliable technique in selected cN0 cases, but the procedure is still experimental and should not be performed outside validation trials. Successful application of sentinel node biopsy in the head and neck region requires surgical experience and specific technical devices, including pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and intra-operative gamma-probe. Moreover, dynamic lymphoscintigraphy seems to be able to show the lymphatic stream from the primary tumour and could allow a selective neck dissection to be tailored thus reducing the related morbidity.

  12. Convective diffusion of nanoparticles from the epithelial barrier toward regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Dukhin, Stanislav S; Labib, Mohamed E

    2013-11-01

    Drug delivery using nanoparticles as drug carriers has recently attracted the attention of many investigators. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to the lymph nodes is especially important to prevent cancer metastasis or infection, and to diagnose disease stage. However, systemic injection of nanoparticles often results in organ toxicity because they reach and accumulate in all the lymph nodes in the body. An attractive strategy would be to deliver the drug-loaded nanoparticles to a subset of draining lymph nodes corresponding to a specific site or organ to minimize systemic toxicity. In this respect, mucosal delivery of nanoparticles to regional draining lymph nodes of a selected site creates a new opportunity to accomplish this task with minimal toxicity. One example is the delivery of nanoparticles from the vaginal lumen to draining lymph nodes to prevent the transmission of HIV in women. Other known examples include mucosal delivery of vaccines to induce immunity. In all cases, molecular and particle transport by means of diffusion and convective diffusion play a major role. The corresponding transport processes have common inherent regularities and are addressed in this review. Here we use nanoparticle delivery from the vaginal lumen to the lymph nodes as an example to address the many aspects of associated transport processes. In this case, nanoparticles penetrate the epithelial barrier and move through the interstitium (tissue) to the initial lymphatics until they finally reach the lymph nodes. Since the movement of interstitial liquid near the epithelial barrier is retarded, nanoparticle transport was found to take place through special foci present in the epithelium. Immediately after nanoparticles emerge from the foci, they move through the interstitium due to diffusion affected by convection (convective diffusion). Specifically, the convective transport of nanoparticles occurs due to their convection together with interstitial fluid through the

  13. Convective diffusion of nanoparticles from the epithelial barrier towards regional lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Dukhin, Stanislav S; Labib, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery using nanoparticles as drug carriers has recently attracted the attention of many investigators. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to lymph nodes is especially important to prevent cancer metastasis or infection, and to diagnose disease stage. However, systemic injection of nanoparticles often results in organ toxicity because they reach and accumulate in all the lymph nodes in the body. An attractive strategy would be to deliver the drug-loaded nanoparticles to a subset of draining lymph nodes corresponding to a specific site or organ to minimize systemic toxicity. In this respect, mucosal delivery of nanoparticles to regional draining lymph nodes of a selected site creates a new opportunity to accomplish this task with minimal toxicity. One example is the delivery of nanoparticles from the vaginal lumen to draining lymph nodes to prevent the transmission of HIV in women. Other known examples include mucosal delivery of vaccines to induce immunity. In all cases, molecular and particle transport by means of diffusion and convective diffusion play a major role. The corresponding transport processes have common inherent regularities and are addressed in this review. Here we use nanoparticles delivery from the vaginal lumen to lymph nodes as an example to address the many aspects of associated transport processes. In this case, nanoparticles penetrate the epithelial barrier and move through the interstitium (tissue) to the initial lymphatics until they finally reach the lymph nodes. Since the movement of interstitial liquid near the epithelial barrier is retarded, nanoparticles transport was found to take place through special foci present in the epithelium. Immediately after nanoparticles emerge from the foci, they move through the interstitium due to diffusion affected by convection (convective diffusion). Specifically, the convective transport of nanoparticles occurs due to their convection together with interstitial fluid through the interstitium

  14. Importance of Delphian Lymph Node Evaluation in Autoimmune Thyroiditis: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Ormeci, Tugrul; Çolakoğulları, Mukaddes; Orhan, İsrafil

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Our main objective was to evaluate the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and the Delphian lymph node during different stages of thyroiditis. Material/Methods The relationships between the ultrasonography (US) results of thyroiditis and characteristics of the Delphian lymph node in different stages of AT were evaluated. Thyroid hormone and antibody levels were assessed. A total of 126 patients were divided into four groups according to the thyroid US findings: Group 1: control cases; Group 2: indeterminate cases; Group 3: established thyroiditis cases; Group 4: advanced-late stage thyroiditis cases. Indeterminate cases attended a 1-year follow-up, and the cases with a sonographic finding matching thyroiditis formed Group 2. Results The rate of Delphian lymph node presence in Group 4 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 2 (p<0.01). In addition, its presence was significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 (p<0.05). Although there was a difference in Delphian lymph node presence between Groups 2 and 3, it was not significant (p=0.052), nor was there a significant difference between Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). Both the long and short axis measurements were significantly higher in Groups 2, 3, and 4 compared to those in the control group. However, the same increase was not observed in the long/short axis ratio. Conclusions Both the presence and dimensions of the Delphian lymph node were highly correlated with the progress of autoimmune thyroiditis. Evaluating the Delphian lymph nodes might prevent missing a diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:26985243

  15. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  16. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes amore » secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.« less

  17. A pilot study of lymph node mapping with indocyanine green in robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Liu, Chien-An; Lo, Su-Shun; Wu, Chew-Wun; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Fang, Wen-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Robotic gastrectomy has become increasingly popular in the treatment of gastric cancer, especially in Asian countries. The use of indocyanine green fluorescence has been reported in lymphatic mapping for gastric cancer in laparoscopic gastrectomy; however, there have been few reports regarding the use of indocyanine green in robotic gastrectomy. From January 2011 to March 2016, a total of 79 patients underwent robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Among them, intraoperative subserosal injection (n = 9) or preoperative submucosal injection (n = 5) of indocyanine green with near-infrared imaging was performed in 14 patients, and the other 65 patients underwent robotic gastrectomy without the use of indocyanine green. There was no significant difference in the operative time, total number of retrieved lymph nodes, operative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay between the patients who underwent robotic gastrectomy with or without indocyanine green fluorescence. For each lymph node station, there was significantly more number of retrieved lymph nodes in the indocyanine green group than in the no-indocyanine green group at the greater curvature side of the low body (#4d) to the infrapyloric region (#6) of the stomach. Five of the 14 patients who received an indocyanine green injection for lymphatic mapping had lymph node metastasis, and metastatic lymph nodes were located in the lymph node stations as detected by indocyanine green fluorescence during surgery. Indocyanine green fluorescence with near-infrared imaging is feasible and is a promising method of lymphatic mapping in robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. In future studies, larger patient numbers and long-term follow-up are required.

  18. Diagnostic utility of endobronchial ultrasound features in differentiating malignant and benign lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sumita P; Ish, Pranav; Goel, Akhil D; Gupta, Nitesh; Chakrabarti, Shibdas; Bhattacharya, Dipak; Sen, Manas K; Suri, Jagdish C

    2018-06-25

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) features have been shown to be useful in predicting etiology of enlarged malignant lymph nodes. However, there is dearth of evidence especially from developing countries. We assessed the EBUS characteristics across various mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathies. In this prospective study, all patients with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy on CT Chest and who were planned for EBUS-FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) were included. EBUS features of lymph nodes studied were shape, size, margins, echogenicity, central hilar structure (CHS), coagulation necrosis sign and colour power doppler index (CPDI). These were scored and compared between benign and malignant lymphadenopathies. A total of 86 lymph nodes in 46 patients were prospectively studied of which 23 (26.7%) were malignant, 27 (31.3%) tuberculosis and 36 (41.8%) sarcoidosis. There was significant difference between malignant and benign lymph nodes in terms of CHS [central hilar structutre] (p=0.011), margins (p=0.036) and coagulation necrosis sign (p<0.001). On comparison of features of malignancy and tuberculosis, there were significant differences in margins (p=0.016) and coagulation necrosis sign (p 0.001). However, when malignancy and sarcoidosis was compared, there were differences in echogenicity (p=0.002), CHS (p=0.009) and coagulation necrosis sign (p<0.001). Only coagulation necrosis sign was found to be highly consistent with malignant lymph nodes. The other features cannot be used to distinguish malignant from benign lymph nodes, especially in a developing country like India where tuberculosis is a common cause of mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

  19. The value of quantitative shear wave elastography in differentiating the cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Chen, Juan; Xiang, Feixiang; Song, Yue; Khamis, Simai; Lu, Chengfa; Lv, Qing; Zhang, Yanrong; Xie, Mingxing

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in differentiating metastatic cervical lymph nodes from benign nodes in patients with thyroid nodules. One hundred and forty-one cervical lymph nodes from 39 patients with thyroid nodules that were diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer had been imaged with SWE. The shear elasticity modulus, which indicates the stiffness of the lymph nodes, was measured in terms of maximum shear elasticity modulus (maxSM), minimum shear elasticity modulus (minSM), mean shear elasticity modulus (meanSM), and standard deviation (SD) of the shear elasticity modulus. All the patients underwent thyroid surgery, 50 of the suspicious lymph nodes were resected, and 91 lymph nodes were followed up for 6 months. The maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value of the metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of the benign nodes. The area under the curve of the maxSM value, minSM value, meanSM value, and SD value were 0.918, 0.606, 0.865, and 0.915, respectively. SWE can differentiate metastasis from benign cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid nodules, and the maxSM, meanSM, and SD may be valuable quantitative indicators for characterizing cervical lymph nodes.

  20. [Characteristics of regional lymph nodes in breast cancer (quantitative histochemical study)].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, L O

    1982-01-01

    The changes in axillary lymph nodes in mammary gland carcinoma of different histological types, metastasizing and nonmetastasizing, as well as after radiation therapy and in fibroadenomatosis were studied. The study was carried out on cryostate sections by histological and histochemical methods. Signs of activation of lymph nodes were clearly seen only in solid carcinoma, not always manifested in adenocarcinomas and scirrhous carcinomas, and undetectable in fibroadenomatosis. The quantitative determination of enzymes and nucleic acids showed differences in their activity between fibroadenomatosis and carcinomas. Proliferation processes dominated significantly over lymphocyte differentiation in carcinoma, increasing even more in metastasizing tumors. Pre-operative irradiation did not inhibit metabolism or proliferative activity of the cells.

  1. Ultrasonographic identification of the anatomical landmarks that define cervical lymph nodes spaces.

    PubMed

    Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Baciuţ, Grigore; Botar-Jid, Carolina; Vasilescu, Dan; Bojan, Anca; Dudea, Sorin M

    2013-03-01

    The localization of cervical lymph nodes is extremely important in practice for the positive and differential diagnosis as well as the staging of cervical lymphadenopathies. Ultrasonography represents the first line imaging method in the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathies due to its excellent resolution and high diagnosis accuracy. The present paper aims to illustrate the ultrasonographic identification of the anatomical landmarks used for the definition of cervical lymphatic spaces. The application of standardized views allows a delineation of clear anatomical landmarks and an accurate localization of the cervical lymph nodes.

  2. US surveillance of regional lymph node recurrence after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Byeong-Woo; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young; Sohn, Joohyuk; Kim, Seung-Il

    2009-09-01

    To determine the diagnostic indexes of lymph node ultrasonography (US) of the axillary and supraclavicular regions for detecting lymph node recurrence (LNR) after breast cancer surgery and assess the effect of lymph node evaluation on prognosis during bilateral breast US. Institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Between January 2003 and December 2004, 3982 lymph node US examinations, including bilateral axillary and supraclavicular areas, were performed in 1817 women (mean age, 49.9 years; range, 22-86 years) after breast cancer surgery, nine of whom had palpable lesions. Final diagnosis was based on cytopathologic results, clinical follow-up, and imaging studies for at least 12 months after breast US. Diagnostic indexes of US for detecting LNR were assessed. The frequency of distant metastases between patients with ipsilateral LNR and those without was compared. Three-year mortality rates of patients with ipsilateral LNR only and those with distant metastases were evaluated. Of 1817 patients, 54 had suspicious LNR at US (28 at first, 20 at second, five at third, and one at fourth US examination). Thirty-nine of 1817 patients (2.1%), including nine with palpable lesions, had LNR, 11 of whom had ipsilateral LNR only. At first lymph node US, LNR was detected in 17 patients; at second, in 10; at third, in two; and at fourth, in one. Nine had false-negative results. The respective sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of lymph node US for detecting LNR per woman was 76.9% (30 of 39), 98.7% (1754 of 1778), 98.2% (1784 of 1817), 55.6% (30 of 54), and 99.5% (1754 of 1763); those of first lymph node US were 85.0% (17 of 20), 99.4% (1786 of 1797), 99.2% (1803 of 1817), 60.7% (17 of 28), and 99.8% (1786 of 1789); and those of total US examinations were 78.0% (32 of 41), 99.4% (3917 of 3941), 99.2% (3949 of 3982), 57.1% (32 of 56), and 99.8% (3917 of 3926). Distant

  3. [Lymphadenopathy caused by Toxoplasma in an intramammary lymph node: role of molecular biology in the diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Voglino, G; Arisio, R; Novero, D; Marchi, C; Fessia, L

    1997-08-01

    We describe a case of Toxoplasma gondii lymphoadenopathy in an intramammary lymph node in a 22 year old woman. Clinical evidence and ultrasound were suggestive for fibroadenoma, while cytology on fine needle aspiration suspected a lymphomatous lesion. The pathological examination demonstrated a lymph node with granulomatous foci with epithelioid histiocytes, consistent with Toxoplasma gondii lymphadenopathy. The pathological finding was confirmed by serological tests and by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) using specific primers designed on ribosomal 18s DNA sequence of Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of this work is to emphasize the role of molecular biology techniques as an aid to pathological diagnosis in parasite diseases.

  4. Lymph node non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidentally discovered during a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pello, Sergio; Rodriguez Villamil, Luis; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Ivan; Venta, Victoria; Cuervo, Javier; Menéndez, Carmen Luz

    2013-06-16

    We report the case of a left laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with the incidental discovery of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in one of the lymph nodes of the renal hilum. A laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was decided on for a 64-year-old man. Renal cell carcinoma in the kidney and one lymph node of the renal hilum with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found. Chemotherapy was not started for the lymphoma discovery. There are no signs of relapse after two years of follow up. Coexistence in the same patient is an extremely rare condition. We review the literature about this issue to clarify this association.

  5. Factors Predictive of Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement in Primary Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Malter, Wolfram; Hellmich, Martin; Badian, Mayhar; Kirn, Verena; Mallmann, Peter; Krämer, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for axillary staging in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The need for therapeutic ALND is the subject of ongoing debate especially after the publication of the ACOSOG Z0011 trial. In a retrospective trial with univariate and multivariate analyses, factors predictive of sentinel lymph node involvement should be analyzed in order to define tumor characteristics of breast cancer patients, where SLNB should not be spared to receive important indicators for adjuvant treatment decisions (e.g. thoracic wall irradiation after mastectomy with or without reconstruction). Between 2006 and 2010, 1,360 patients with primary breast cancer underwent SLNB with/without ALND with evaluation of tumor localization, multicentricity and multifocality, histological subtype, tumor size, grading, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. These characteristics were retrospectively analyzed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to define significant predictive factors for sentinel lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size and LVI (p<0.001) were independent predictive factors for metastatic sentinel lymph node involvement in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Because of the increased risk for metastatic involvement of axillary sentinel nodes in cases with larger breast cancer or diagnosis of LVI, patients with these breast cancer characteristics should not be spared from SLNB in a clinically node-negative situation in order to avoid false-negative results with a high potential for wrong indication of primary breast reconstruction or wrong non-indication of necessary post-mastectomy radiation therapy. The prognostic impact of avoidance of axillary staging with SLNB is analyzed in the ongoing prospective INSEMA trial. Copyright© 2018, International

  6. Incidence and location of lymph node metastases in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for clinical non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: results from a prospective lymph node mapping study.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Harman M; Skinner, Eila C; Dorin, Ryan P; Ahmadi, Hamed; Djaladat, Hooman; Miranda, Gus; Cai, Jie; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence and location of lymph node metastases (LNMs) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and lymph node dissection (LND) for clinical non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Prospectively collected data of 637 patients who underwent RC and 'superextended' LND with intent-to-cure for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder between 2002 and 2008 were examined. Inclusion criteria were (a) clinical stage Ta, Tis-only, or T1, (b) muscle presence at diagnostic transurethral resection in clinical T1 patients, (c) no prior diagnosis of ≥ T2 disease, (d) no neoadjuvant therapy, and (e) lymphatic tissue sample submitted from all 13 predesignated locations. Lymph node mapping was performed in all patients to determine the location of metastatic lymph nodes. Median follow-up time was 4.7 years. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival were reported. A total of 114 patients were included of whom 9 patients (7.9%) had LNM. Stratified by clinical stage, LNM was present in 6/67 (9.0%) patients with cT1, 3/25 (12.0%) patients with cTis-only, and none of the 22 patients with cTa. Of the 9 node-positive patients (33.3%), 3 had LNM proximal to the aortic bifurcation. No skip metastases were found. After RC, 27 patients (23.7%) were upstaged to muscle invasive disease; of whom 16.7% had cT1, 2.6% had cTa, and 4.4% had cTis-only. Of the remaining 87 patients with pathologic NMIBC, 1 patient (1.1%) had LNM, limited to the true pelvis. Five-year RFS was 82.3%, 81.5%, and 62.0% in patients with pathologic NMIBC, clinical NMIBC, and pathologic muscle invasive bladder cancer, respectively. Routine LND is important in patients with cT1 and cTis-only bladder cancer, but may have limited value in patients with cTa. LNM beyond the boundaries of a standard LND occurred in up to one-third of node-positive patients. In the absence of skip metastases, however, performing a standard LND would correctly identify all node

  7. Tracer injection sites and combinations for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Hitoshi; Kaiho-Sakuma, Michiko; Tokunaga, Hideki; Toyoshima, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Nagase, Satoru; Takano, Tadao; Watanabe, Mika; Ito, Kiyoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the most effective combination of injected tracer types and injection sites in order to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early endometrial cancer. The study included 100 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer treated at Tohoku University Hospital between June 2001 and December 2012. The procedure for SLN identification entailed either radioisotope (RI) injection into the endometrium during hysteroscopy (55 cases) or direct RI injection into the uterine cervix (45 cases). A combination of blue dye injected into the uterine cervix or uterine body intraoperatively in addition to preoperative RI injection occurred in 69 of 100 cases. All detected SLNs were recorded according to the individual tracer and the resultant staging from this method was compared to the final pathology of lymph node metastases including para-aortic nodes. SLN detection rate was highest (96%) by cervical RI injection; however, no SLNs were detected in para-aortic area. Para-aortic SLNs were detected only by hysteroscopic RI injection (56%). All cases with pelvic lymph node metastases were detected by pelvic SLN biopsy. Isolated positive para-aortic lymph nodes were detected in 3 patients. Bilateral SLN detection rate was high (96%; 26 of 27 cases) by cervical RI injection combined with dye. RI injection into the uterine cervix is highly sensitive in detection of SLN metastasis in early stage endometrial cancer. It is a useful and safe modality when combined with blue dye injection into the uterine body. © 2013.

  8. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Seong, Seok Ju; Park, Hyun; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Tae Jin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Shim, Jae Uk; Park, Chong Taik; Lee, Ki Heon

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying the sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) as well as to evaluate factors that might influence the SN detection rate in patients with cervical cancer of the uterus. Eighty nine patients underwent intracervical injection of 1% isosulfan blue dye at the time of planned radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2003 and December 2003. With the visual detection of lymph nodes that stained blue, SNs were identified and removed separately. Then all patients underwent complete pelvic lymph node dissection and/or para-aortic lymph node dissection. SNs were identified in 51 of 89 (57.3%) patients. The most common site for SN detection was the external iliac area. Metastatic nodes were detected in 21 of 89 (23.5%) patients. One false negative SN was obtained. Successful SN detection was more likely in patients younger than 50 yr (p=0.02) and with a history of preoperative conization (p=0.05). However, stage, histological type, surgical procedure and neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no significant difference for SN detection rate. Therefore, the identification of SNs with isosulfan blue dye is feasible and safe. The SN detection rate was high in patients younger than 50 yr or with a history of preoperative conization.

  9. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  10. A mathematical prediction model incorporating molecular subtype for risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis and nomogram development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xue; Chen, Li-Xuan; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Cao, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Molecular subtype of breast cancer is associated with sentinel lymph node status. We sought to establish a mathematical prediction model that included breast cancer molecular subtype for risk of positive non-sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis and further validate the model in a separate validation cohort. We reviewed the clinicopathologic data of breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis who underwent axillary lymph node dissection between June 16, 2014 and November 16, 2017 at our hospital. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed and patients with pathologically proven sentinel lymph node metastasis underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Independent risks for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis were assessed in a training cohort by multivariate analysis and incorporated into a mathematical prediction model. The model was further validated in a separate validation cohort, and a nomogram was developed and evaluated for diagnostic performance in predicting the risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we assessed the performance of five different models in predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in training cohort. Totally, 495 cases were eligible for the study, including 291 patients in the training cohort and 204 in the validation cohort. Non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was observed in 33.3% (97/291) patients in the training cohort. The AUC of MSKCC, Tenon, MDA, Ljubljana, and Louisville models in training cohort were 0.7613, 0.7142, 0.7076, 0.7483, and 0.671, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that tumor size (OR = 1.439; 95% CI 1.025-2.021; P = 0.036), sentinel lymph node macro-metastasis versus micro-metastasis (OR = 5.063; 95% CI 1.111-23.074; P = 0.036), the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (OR = 2.583, 95% CI 1.714-3.892; P < 0.001), and the number of negative sentinel lymph nodes (OR = 0.686, 95% CI 0

  11. [Application of lymph node labeling with carbon nanoparticles by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Hong, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Hu, C G; Fang, Y J; Fan, X X; Liu, T; Tong, Q

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of carbon lymph node tracing technique by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy. Methods: From June 2013 to February 2015, seventy eight patients with gastric cancer were enrolled and randomly divided into trial group and control group. Subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticles around the tumor was performed by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection one day before the operation in trial group, while the patients routinely underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy in control group. Results of harvested lymph nodes, postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Carbon nanoparticle-related side effect was also evaluated. Results: The average number of harvested lymph node in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (35.5±8.5 vs 29.5±6.5, P <0.05). The rate of overall black-dyed harvested lymph node was 74.7% (1 035/1 386) in trial group, the black-dyed lymph node rate in D1 lymph node was 80.1%, which was significantly higher than that in D2 lymph node (69.8%, χ 2 =19.38, P <0.01). When comparing the lymph node with and without black-dyed in trial group, the rate of metastasis lymph node was significantly higher in lymph node with black-dyed (17.3% vs 4.0%, χ 2 =38.67, P <0.01). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications rate between two group (trial group 10.2%; control group 12.8%, χ 2 =0.00, P >0.05), and no carbon nanoparticle-related side effect was observed. Conclusion: Given a higher harvested lymph node number and a similar rate of complications, preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticles was safe and feasible.

  12. Immune response in melanoma: an in-depth analysis of the primary tumor and corresponding sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Michelle W.; Medicherla, Ratna C.; Qian, Meng; de Miera, Eleazar Vega-Saenz; Friedman, Erica B.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod

    2013-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node is the initial site of metastasis. Down-regulation of anti-tumor immunity plays a role in nodal progression. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between immune modulation and sentinel lymph node positivity, correlating it with outcome in melanoma patients. Lymph node/primary tissues from melanoma patients prospectively accrued and followed at New York University Medical Center were evaluated for the presence of regulatory T-cells (Foxp3+) and dendritic cells (conventional: CD11c+, mature: CD86+) using immunohistochemistry. Primary melanoma immune cell profiles from sentinel lymph node-positive/-negative patients were compared. Logistic regression models inclusive of standard-of-care/immunologic primary tumor characteristics were constructed to predict the risk of sentinel lymph node positivity. Immunological responses in the positive sentinel lymph node were also compared to those in the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin and matched negative sentinel lymph node. Decreased immune response was defined as increased regulatory T-cells or decreased dendritic cells. Associations between the expression of these immune modulators, clinicopathologic variables, and clinical outcome were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analyses. Primary tumor conventional dendritic cells and regression were protective against sentinel lymph node metastasis (odds ratio=0.714, 0.067; P=0.0099, 0.0816, respectively). Anti-tumor immunity was down-regulated in the positive sentinel lymph node with an increase in regulatory T-cells compared to the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin (P=0.0005) and matched negative sentinel lymph node (P=0.0002). The positive sentinel lymph node also had decreased numbers of conventional dendritic cells compared to the negative sentinel lymph node (P<0.0001). Adding sentinel lymph node regulatory T-cell expression improved the discriminative power of a recurrence risk assessment model

  13. Left-right asymmetry in pelvic lymph nodes distribution: is there a right-side prevalence?

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Fabio; Cromi, Antonella; Uccella, Stefano; Giudici, Silvia; Franchi, Massimo; Bolis, Pierfrancesco

    2006-08-01

    To assess whether pelvic lymph nodes have a left-right asymmetric distribution. The oncologic databases of two gynecologic academic departments were used to identify consecutive patients undergoing pelvic systematic lymphadenectomy as part of the treatment for a variety of gynecologic malignancies. All procedures were carried out in a standardized fashion. Lymph node counts were retrieved from pathological reports. Four hundred and twenty-eight women underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy during the study period. The median lymph node count was higher on the right side than on the left side [10 (0-33) versus 8 (0-29); P<0.0001]. A prevalence of right-sided nodes was found in 265 (61.9%) patients, while in 44 (10.3%) cases pelvic nodes were equally distributed on the two sides. The right-sided prevalence was significantly higher than the expected 50% in each type of malignancy and surgical technique subgroup. The right-sided prevalence was statistically significant even when the analysis was performed for different nodal groups [external iliac nodes: 5 (0-23) versus 4 (0-13), P=0.005; hypogastric and obturator nodes: 6 (0-17) versus 5 (0-19), P=0.04]. Moreover, nodal count was higher on the right than on the left in obese [10 (1-33) versus 8 (1-26), P=0.0002] and nonobese women [10 (0-32) versus 9 (0-29), P<0.0001]. Our findings suggest the existence of a left-right asymmetry in pelvic lymph nodes distribution, with right-sided prevalence.

  14. Changes in lymphocyte accumulation and proliferation in the lymph nodes draining the pregnant uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, J D; McDougall, C M; Speedy, G; Inchley, C J

    1978-01-01

    Changes in weight, lymphocyte accumulation and cellular proliferation have been measured in the lymph nodes draining the uterus during inter- and intra-strain pregnancies and compared with similar effects after other antigenic stimuli. From the data obtained it was concluded that "paternal" antigenic stimulation from the conceptus initiated an immune response in these nodes. The mechanisms of the subsequent suppression of this response are discussed. PMID:657586

  15. Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. METHODS: From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People’s Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, χ2 = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, χ2 = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, χ2 = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, χ2 = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ≥ 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, χ2 = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and

  16. Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

    2013-08-21

    To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People's Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, χ² = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, χ² = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, χ² = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, χ² = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ≥ 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, χ² = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and LNR, but no

  17. Primary and secondary responses of the ovine lymph node to Toxoplasma gondii: cell output in efferent lymph and parasite detection.

    PubMed

    Buxton, D; Thomson, K M; Maley, S; Wastling, J M; Innes, E A; Panton, W R; Nicoll, S

    1994-10-01

    Efferent lymphatic cannulation was used to study the dissemination of strain S48 of Toxoplasma gondii and the cell output from the prefemoral lymph node, after infection of both "naive" and vaccinated sheep. In the former the mean cell output decreased for 3 days before reaching a peak at 11 and 12 days, but in vaccinated ewes a similar drop in cell output and subsequent peak occurred significantly earlier, at 24 h and 5 days, respectively. The cellular response in both types of sheep was largely due to a marked increase in blast cells. The detection of live toxoplasms and parasite DNA by mouse inoculation and the polymerase chain reaction, respectively, gave similar results; the parasite was demonstrated in lymph from days 3 to 12 during a primary infection but with a sharp cut-off after day 9 coinciding with the peak blast cell response. Very little evidence of T. gondii was found in lymph of vaccinated sheep after challenge. Immunity, which is thought to be largely T-cell mediated and is sustained without continuous antigenic stimulation, suppresses dissemination of the parasite in the lymph and therefore to other sites, which might include the gravid uterus.

  18. An improved graph cut segmentation method for cervical lymph nodes on sonograms and its relationship with node's shape assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xinling

    2009-12-01

    A modified graph cut was proposed under the elliptical shape constraint to segment cervical lymph nodes on sonograms, and its effect on the measurement of short axis to long axis ratio (S/L) was investigated by using the relative ultimate measurement accuracy (RUMA). Under the same user inputs, the proposed algorithm successfully segmented all 60 sonograms tested, while the traditional graph cut failed. The mean RUMA resulted from the developed method was comparable to that resulted from the manual segmentation. Results indicated that utilizing the elliptical shape prior could appreciably improve the graph cut for nodes segmentation, and the proposed method satisfied the accuracy requirement of S/L measurement.

  19. [Injection of methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Huang, Jianglong; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2015-06-09

    To confirm the feasibility of improving lymph node harvest by injecting methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery in rectal cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Forty two ex vivo specimens were collected from rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant therapy and radical operation at our hospital. Traditional method with palpation and injection of methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery were employed. The data of lymph node harvest were analyzed by paired t and chi-square tests. The average number of detected lymph node in traditional method and methylene blue groups were 6.1 ± 4.3 and 15.2 ± 6.4 respectively (P<0.001). The proportions of lymph nodes <5 mm were 14.1% and 46.7% in traditional method and methylene blue groups respectively (P<0.001). And the injection of methylene blue added 13 extra metastatic lymph nodes and caused a shift to node-positive stage (P=0.89). Neoadjuvant therapy decrease lymph node retrieval in rectal cancer. Injecting methylene blue into inferior mesenteric artery improves lymph node harvest especially for small nodes and helps to acquire more metastatic nodes for accurate pathological staging.

  20. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and tumor histologic grade are associated with surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Arias Ortega, M; Torres Sousa, M Y; González García, B; Pardo García, R; González López, A; Delgado Portela, M

    2014-01-01

    To study which variables involved in the process of selective sentinel node biopsy (SSNB) influence the intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph node. This was a prospective cross-sectional study in 210 patients (mean age, 54 years) diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SSNB. We recorded clinical, radiological, radioisotope administration, surgical, and histological data as well as follow-up data. We did a descriptive analysis of the data and an associative analysis using multivariable regression. Deep injection alone was the most common route of radioisotope administration (72.7%). Most lesions were palpable (57.1%), presented as nodules (67.1%), measured less than 2 cm in diameter (64.8%), were located in the upper outer quadrant (49.1%), were ductal carcinomas (85.7%), were accompanied by infiltration (66.2%), and had a histologic grade of differentiation of ii (44.8%). Preoperative scintigraphy detected the sentinel node in 97.6% of cases and 95.7% were detected during the operation. One axillary relapse was observed. In the associative study, the variables "preoperative lymphoscintigraphy" and "histologic grade of differentiation of the tumor" were significantly associated with the detection of the sentinel lymph node during the operation. The probability of not detecting the sentinel lymph node during the surgical intervention is higher in patients with high histologic grade tumors or in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy failed to detect the sentinel node. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Directional Migration of Recirculating Lymphocytes through Lymph Nodes via Random Walks

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Niclas; Matejovicova, Lenka; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Shawe-Taylor, John; Chain, Benny

    2012-01-01

    Naive T lymphocytes exhibit extensive antigen-independent recirculation between blood and lymph nodes, where they may encounter dendritic cells carrying cognate antigen. We examine how long different T cells may spend in an individual lymph node by examining data from long term cannulation of blood and efferent lymphatics of a single lymph node in the sheep. We determine empirically the distribution of transit times of migrating T cells by applying the Least Absolute Shrinkage & Selection Operator () or regularised to fit experimental data describing the proportion of labelled infused cells in blood and efferent lymphatics over time. The optimal inferred solution reveals a distribution with high variance and strong skew. The mode transit time is typically between 10 and 20 hours, but a significant number of cells spend more than 70 hours before exiting. We complement the empirical machine learning based approach by modelling lymphocyte passage through the lymph node . On the basis of previous two photon analysis of lymphocyte movement, we optimised distributions which describe the transit times (first passage times) of discrete one dimensional and continuous (Brownian) three dimensional random walks with drift. The optimal fit is obtained when drift is small, i.e. the ratio of probabilities of migrating forward and backward within the node is close to one. These distributions are qualitatively similar to the inferred empirical distribution, with high variance and strong skew. In contrast, an optimised normal distribution of transit times (symmetrical around mean) fitted the data poorly. The results demonstrate that the rapid recirculation of lymphocytes observed at a macro level is compatible with predominantly randomised movement within lymph nodes, and significant probabilities of long transit times. We discuss how this pattern of migration may contribute to facilitating interactions between low frequency T cells and antigen presenting cells carrying cognate

  2. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can covermore » 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.« less

  3. Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymphmore » nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% {+-} 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.« less

  4. Comparison of DWI and PET/CT in evaluation of lymph node metastasis in uterine cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Erena; Kaji, Yasushi; Murakami, Koji; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) with IV contrast for the preoperative evaluation of pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis in uterine cancer. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with endometrial or cervical cancer who underwent both DWI and PET/CT before pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this study. For area specific analysis, LNs were divided into eight regions: both common iliac, external iliac, internal iliac areas, and obturator areas. The classification for malignancy on DWI was a focally abnormal signal intensity in a location that corresponded to the LN chains on the T1WI and T2WI. The criterion for malignancy on PET/CT images was increased tracer uptake by the LN. RESULTS: A total of 36 pathologically positive LN areas were found in 9 patients. With DWI, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for detecting metastatic LNs on an LN area-by-area analysis were 83.3%, 51.2%, 27.3%, 93.3% and 57.0%, respectively, while the corresponding values for PET/CT were 38.9%, 96.3%, 70.0%, 87.8% and 86.0%. Differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were significant (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSION: DWI showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than PET/CT. Neither DWI nor PET/CT were sufficiently accurate to replace lymphadenectomy. PMID:22761980

  5. The value of naked eye examination of biopsied lymph nodes in the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Bem, C

    1996-01-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis is common in Central Africa, where diagnosis by histological examination of a biopsied node is often delayed. In the present study, the naked eye appearance of the cut surface of 306 consecutive biopsied lymph nodes was compared with the histological diagnosis. One hundred and eight-eight nodes showed tuberculosis on histology (including two with coexisting second pathology). One hundred and forty-eight (79%) cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis (including both with coexisting second pathology) showed noncaseating tuberculomata or caseation visible on naked eye examination. Such signs were not seen in other nodes. Other signs were seen in another 18 (10%) tuberculous nodes. It is concluded that naked eye examination of nodes provides useful information for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis, pending confirmation by histology.

  6. [Exclusive use of blue dye to detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Bühler H, Simón; Rojas P, Hugo; Cayazzo M, Daniela; Cunill C, Eduardo; Vesperinas A, Gonzalo; Hamilton S, James

    2008-08-01

    The use of a dye and radiocolloid to detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the detection rates. However the use of either method alone does not modify the false negative rate. Therefore there is no formal contraindication for the exclusive use of dye to detect nodes. To report a prospective analysis of the exclusive blue dye technique for sentinel node biopsy in patients with early breast cancer. We analyzed the first 100 women with pathologically proven breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria. Patent blue dye was used as colorant. In the first 25 cases sentinel node was identified using radiocolloid and blue dye an then an axillary dissection performed. In the next 25 women, blue dye was used exclusively for detection and an axillary dissection was performed. In the next 50 cases, blue dye was used and only isolated sentinel node biopsy was performed. In 92 of the 100 women a sentinel node was successfully detected. In the first 50 women, the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node detection was 6.9%. No complications occurred. During follow-up, lasting three to 29 months, no axillary relapse was observed. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with early breast cancer using exclusively blue dye is feasible and safe.

  7. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started.

  8. MALIGNANT PLEURAL MESOTHELIOMA WITHOUT ASBESTOS EXPOSURE WITH DISTANT METASTASIS IN A PERIPHERAL LYMPH NODE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon pleural neoplasm and usually associated with inhalation exposure to asbestos. About 20% of the patients have no demonstrable exposure to asbestos. It rarely metastasizes in peripheral lymph nodes. Here is a case report of malignant pleural mesothelioma without asbestos exposure with cervical lymph node metastasis PMID:20396658

  9. Lipoxygenase mediates invasion of intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and propagates lymph node metastasis of human mammary carcinoma xenografts in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Rudas, Margaretha; Sexl, Veronika; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Wolbank, Susanne; Bartel, Gregor; Krieger, Sigurd; Kalt, Romana; Hantusch, Brigitte; Keller, Thomas; Nagy-Bojarszky, Katalin; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Lackner, Karin; Krautgasser, Katharina; Schachner, Helga; Kaserer, Klaus; Rezar, Sandra; Madlener, Sybille; Vonach, Caroline; Davidovits, Agnes; Nosaka, Hitonari; Hämmerle, Monika; Viola, Katharina; Dolznig, Helmut; Schreiber, Martin; Nader, Alexander; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Gnant, Michael; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Detmar, Michael; Alitalo, Kari; Nijman, Sebastian; Offner, Felix; Maier, Thorsten J.; Steinhilber, Dieter; Krupitza, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with mammary carcinoma, the most relevant prognostic predictor of distant organ metastasis and clinical outcome is the status of axillary lymph node metastasis. Metastases form initially in axillary sentinel lymph nodes and progress via connecting lymphatic vessels into postsentinel lymph nodes. However, the mechanisms of consecutive lymph node colonization are unknown. Through the analysis of human mammary carcinomas and their matching axillary lymph nodes, we show here that intrametastatic lymphatic vessels and bulk tumor cell invasion into these vessels highly correlate with formation of postsentinel metastasis. In an in vitro model of tumor bulk invasion, human mammary carcinoma cells caused circular defects in lymphatic endothelial monolayers. These circular defects were highly reminiscent of defects of the lymphovascular walls at sites of tumor invasion in vivo and were primarily generated by the tumor-derived arachidonic acid metabolite 12S-HETE following 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) catalysis. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition and shRNA knockdown of ALOX15 each repressed formation of circular defects in vitro. Importantly, ALOX15 knockdown antagonized formation of lymph node metastasis in xenografted tumors. Furthermore, expression of lipoxygenase in human sentinel lymph node metastases correlated inversely with metastasis-free survival. These results provide evidence that lipoxygenase serves as a mediator of tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels and formation of lymph node metastasis in ductal mammary carcinomas. PMID:21540548

  10. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  11. Misleading appearance in cervical lymph node US diagnosis - a report on sarcoidosis, Warthin tumor and squamous cell carcinoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Irina; Lenghel, Manuela; Băciuţ, Grigore; Dinu, Cristian; Botar-Jid, Carolina; Vasilescu, Dan; Dudea, Sorin M

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonography, with its various techniques (grey-scale, color Doppler, sonoelastography) offers many signs for the differentiation between benign and malignant neck lymph nodes. In spite of recent progress, the US appearance may be misleading. We present three cases in which the ultrasonographic appearance of the lymph nodes was misleading as compared to the final diagnosis established by histopathology.

  12. Evaluation of sodium chlorate as a pre-harvest intervention for controlling Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate sodium chlorate as a potential pre-harvest intervention for reducing or eliminating Salmonella from the peripheral lymph nodes of experimentally-infected cattle. The peripheral lymph nodes of Holstein steers (approx. BW = 160 kg; 4 and 6 head in co...

  13. The diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for malignant cervical lymph nodes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for malignant cervical lymph nodes. We searched the Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for published studies regarding the use of shear wave elastography for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. The diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography was assessed using bivariate modelling and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic modelling. Meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis according to acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) and Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) were also performed. Eight eligible studies which included a total sample size of 481 patients with 647 cervical lymph nodes, were included. Shear wave elastography showed a summary sensitivity of 81 % (95 % CI: 72-88 %) and specificity of 85 % (95 % CI: 70-93 %). The results of meta-regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of malignant lymph nodes was a significant factor affecting study heterogeneity (p < .01). According to the subgroup analysis, the summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity did not differ between ARFI and SSI (p = .93). Shear wave elastography is an acceptable imaging modality for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. We believe that both ARFI and SSI may have a complementary role for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. • Shear wave elastography is acceptable modality for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes. • Shear wave elastography demonstrated summary sensitivity of 81 % and specificity of 85 %. • ARFI and SSI have complementary roles for diagnosing malignant cervical lymph nodes.

  14. Identification of genomic aberrations associated with lymph node metastasis in diffuse-type gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Young-Bae; Ahn, Ji Mi; Kim, Min Jae; Bae, Won Jung; Han, Sang-Uk; Woo, Hyun Goo; Lee, Dakeun

    2018-04-06

    Diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) is a GC subtype with heterogeneous clinical outcomes. Lymph node metastasis of DGC heralds a dismal progression, which hampers the curative treatment of patients. However, the genomic heterogeneity of DGC remains unknown. To identify genomic variations associated with lymph node metastasis in DGC, we performed whole exome sequencing on 23 cases of DGC and paired non-tumor tissues and compared the mutation profiles according to the presence (N3, n = 13) or absence (N0, n = 10) of regional lymph node metastasis. Overall, we identified 185 recurrently mutated genes in DGC, which included a significant novel mutation at CMTM2, as well as previously known mutations at CDH1, RHOA, and TP53. Noticeably, CMTM2 expression could predict the prognostic outcomes of DGC but not intestinal-type GC (IGC), indicating pivotal roles of CMTM2 in DGC progression. In addition, we identified a recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of DNA copy numbers at the 3p12-pcen locus in DGC. A comparison of N0 and N3 tumors showed that N3 tumors exhibited more frequent DNA copy number aberrations, including copy-neutral LOH and mutations of CpTpT trinucleotides, than N0 tumors (P = 0.2 × 10 -3 ). In conclusion, DGCs have distinct profiles of somatic mutations and DNA copy numbers according to the status of lymph node metastasis, and this might be helpful in delineating the pathobiology of DGC.

  15. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    undesired PMA attached to microbubble surface. Figure 1: One-pot polymer -lipid microbubbles. (a) Synthesis of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) with...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0215 TITLE: Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel...February 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b

  16. Photoacoustic imaging probe for detecting lymph nodes and spreading of cancer at various depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Jae; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Woo; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Noh, Hyung Wook; Sim, Joo Yong; Song, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Min Yong; Lee, Susung; Kim, Heewon; Zhang, Meihua; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    We propose a compact and easy to use photoacoustic imaging (PAI) probe structure using a single strand of optical fiber and a beam combiner doubly reflecting acoustic waves for convenient detection of lymph nodes and cancers. Conventional PAI probes have difficulty detecting lymph nodes just beneath the skin or simultaneously investigating lymph nodes located in shallow as well as deep regions from skin without any supplementary material because the light and acoustic beams are intersecting obliquely in the probe. To overcome the limitations and improve their convenience, we propose a probe structure in which the illuminated light beam axis coincides with the axis of the ultrasound. The developed PAI probe was able to simultaneously achieve a wide range of images positioned from shallow to deep regions without the use of any supplementary material. Moreover, the proposed probe had low transmission losses for the light and acoustic beams. Therefore, the proposed PAI probe will be useful to easily detect lymph nodes and cancers in real clinical fields.

  17. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  18. [Tuberculosis of the lymph nodes with esophageal-cutaneous fistula in a patient with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Garlicki, A; Kowalski, P; Kluba-Wojewoda, U; Kleinrok, K; Caban, J

    1996-06-01

    A case of patient with the tuberculosis of lymph nodes and esophago-cutaneous fistula in the course of AIDS has been presented. A valve has been formed within fistula enabling to visualize a free passage only after an oral contrast administration. It is worth noting that tuberculosis frequently accompany severe course of AIDS.

  19. Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomized to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy.

  20. Immunophenotyping does not improve predictivity of the local lymph node assay in mice.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Volker; Kolle, Susanne N; Honarvar, Naveed; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Faulhammer, Frank; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-04-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a regulatory accepted test for the identification of skin sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. However, there is evidence that LLNA is overestimating the sensitization potential of certain substance classes in particular those exerting skin irritation. Some reports describe the additional use of flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping to better discriminate irritants from sensitizing irritants in LLNA. In the present study, the 22 performance standards plus 8 surfactants were assessed using the radioactive LLNA method. In addition, lymph node cells were immunophenotyped to evaluate the specificity of the lymph node response using cell surface markers such as B220 or CD19, CD3, CD4, CD8, I-A(κ) and CD69 with the aim to allow a better discrimination above all between irritants and sensitizers, but also non-irritating sensitizers and non-sensitizers. However, the markers assessed in this study do not sufficiently differentiate between irritants and irritant sensitizers and therefore did not improve the predictive capacity of the LLNA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Structural alterations in tumor-draining lymph nodes before papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Andrew M; Massoll, Nicole A; Jolly, Lee Ann; Stack, Brendan C; Bodenner, Donald L; Franco, Aime T

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and characterize the thyroid tumor-draining lymph nodes in genetically engineered mice harboring thyroid-specific expression of oncogenic Braf V600E with and without Pten insufficiency. After intratumoral injection of methylene blue, the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland was visualized in real time. The thyroid gland/tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for histological analysis. Although mice harboring Braf V600E mutations were smaller in body size compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, the size of their thyroid glands and deep cervical lymph nodes were significantly larger. Additionally, the tumor-draining lymph nodes showed increased and enlarged lymphatic sinuses that were distributed throughout the cortex and medulla. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy and histiocytosis, but no frank metastases, were observed in all mice harboring Braf V600E mutations. The tumor-draining lymph nodes undergo significant structural alterations in immunocompetent mice, and this may represent a primer for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  3. Effects of pseudorabies virus infection on the tracheobronchial lymph node transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study represents the first swine transcriptome hiveplots created from GSEA data and provides a novel insight into the global transcriptome changes spanning the swine genome. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral iso...

  4. Extraction and visualization of the central chest lymph-node stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Merritt, Scott A.; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and is expected to account for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths in 2007. Central to the lung-cancer diagnosis and staging process is the assessment of the central chest lymph nodes. This assessment typically requires two major stages: (1) location of the lymph nodes in a three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution volumetric multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) image of the chest; (2) subsequent nodal sampling using transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA). We describe a computer-based system for automatically locating the central chest lymph-node stations in a 3D MDCT image. Automated analysis methods are first run that extract the airway tree, airway-tree centerlines, aorta, pulmonary artery, lungs, key skeletal structures, and major-airway labels. This information provides geometrical and anatomical cues for localizing the major nodal stations. Our system demarcates these stations, conforming to criteria outlined for the Mountain and Wang standard classification systems. Visualization tools within the system then enable the user to interact with these stations to locate visible lymph nodes. Results derived from a set of human 3D MDCT chest images illustrate the usage and efficacy of the system.

  5. Current advances in diagnosis and surgical treatment of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teymoortash, A.; Werner, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Still today, the status of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for head and neck cancer. So the individual treatment concept of the lymphatic drainage depends on the treatment of the primary tumor as well as on the presence or absence of suspect lymph nodes in the imaging diagnosis. Neck dissection may have either a therapeutic objective or a diagnostic one. The selective neck dissection is currently the method of choice for the treatment of patients with advanced head and neck cancers and clinical N0 neck. For oncologic reasons, this procedure is generally recommended with acceptable functional and aesthetic results, especially under the aspect of the mentioned staging procedure. In this review article, current aspects on pre- and posttherapeutic staging of the cervical lymph nodes are described and the indication and the necessary extent of neck dissection for head and neck cancer is discussed. Additionally the critical question is discussed if the lymph node metastasis bears an intrinsic risk of metastatic development and thus its removal in a most possible early stage plays an important role. PMID:23320056

  6. [Role of sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic mapping of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Ignatov, V; Temelkov, T; Madzhov, R

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of staging of colorectal cancer is dependable of number of lymph nodes, colected and investegated from the pathologist. Moreover 50% of newfounded cases with colorectal cancer are diagnosed as I or II stage of the desease. Between 15% and 20% of these patients develop regional or distant metastases around 5 years after the examination, despite of the radical surgery. This may be due to pathological "understaging" (decrease of the stage), becouse of missed micrometastases, which size often is smaller than 5 mm. High accurate and specific pathologoanatomical methods for "ultrastaging" are cost-expensive, therefore their selective application to labeled sentinel lymph nodes has a economical benefit and saves a time. Moreover it is decreasing the understaging effect, assosiated with convectional pathologoanatomical investigaton. In the future, the technical progress will develop the intensive competiton between the sentinel lymph node mapping and the improved imaging diagnostic techniques as flurodeoxyglucose (18FDG), positron emision tomography (PET), or the other molecular imaging techniques. Unfortunately, the limited spatial resolution of these techniques, do not allow to be used for tumor staging as sentinel lymph node techniques. Therefore the sentinel lymphnode mapping become the choice of the lymphnode staging technique.

  7. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Cutaneous Head and Neck Melanoma: Mapping the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Picon, Antonio I; Coit, Daniel G; Shaha, Ashok R; Brady, Mary S; Boyle, Jay O; Singh, Bhuvanesh B; Wong, Richard J; Busam, Klaus J; Shah, Jatin P; Kraus, Dennis H

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for primary cutaneous head and neck melanoma (CHNM) has been shown to be successful and is the current standard of care for intermediate-thickness melanoma. We evaluated our experience with CHNM associated with SLNB mapping to the region of the parotid gland. Retrospective review of a prospectively collected melanoma database identified 1014 CHNMs. Two-hundred twenty-three patients underwent SLNB, and 72 (32%) had mapping in the region of the parotid gland between May 1995 and June 2003. The mean number of SLNs per patient was 2.5. A sentinel lymph node (SLN) was successfully identified in 94% of patients, and in 12%, the SLN was positive for metastatic disease. Biopsy of intraparotid SLNs was performed in 51.4% and of periparotid SLNs in 26.4%, and a superficial parotidectomy was performed in 22.2%. Ten patients were found to have lymph nodes in the parotid region with metastatic disease (eight identified by SLNB), and two (20%) patients developed intraparotid lymph node recurrence in the setting of a negative SLNB. Same-basin recurrence in SLN-negative patients was 3.3% with a median follow-up of 26 months. Facial nerve dysfunction was identified in seven (10%) patients. Facial nerve function returned to preoperative status in all patients. SLNB for patients with primary CHNM mapping to the parotid gland can be performed with a high degree of accuracy and a low morbidity consisting of temporary facial nerve paresis.

  8. Orally incoculated Salmonella typhimurium is detected in the lymph nodes and synovial fluid of swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with illnesses from the consumption of meat products. Traditional carcass sampling techniques fail to account for contamination via atypical carcass reservoirs such as lymph nodes and synovial fluid that may harbor Salmonella. In this two-p...

  9. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided lymph node biopsy with transbronchial needle forceps: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herth, F J F; Schuler, H; Gompelmann, D; Kahn, N; Gasparini, S; Ernst, A; Schuhmann, M; Eberhardt, R

    2012-02-01

    One limitation of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the size of the available needles, frequently yielding only cells for cytological examination. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of newly developed needle forceps to obtain tissue for the histological diagnosis of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Patients with enlarged, positron emission tomography (PET)-positive lymph nodes were included. The transbronchial needle forceps (TBNF), a sampling instrument combining the characteristics of a needle (bevelled tip for penetrating through the bronchial wall) with forceps (two serrated jaws for grasping tissue) was used through the working channel of the EBUS-TBNA scope. Efficacy and safety was assessed. 50 patients (36 males and 14 females; mean age 51 yrs) with enlarged or PET-positive lymph nodes were included in this pilot study. In 48 (96%) patients penetration of the bronchial wall was possible and in 45 patients tissue for histological diagnosis was obtained. In three patients TBNF provided inadequate material. For patients in whom the material was adequate for a histological examination, a specific diagnosis was established in 43 (86%) out of 50 patients (nonsmall cell lung cancer: n=24; small cell lung cancer: n=7; sarcoidosis: n=4; Hodgkin's lymphoma: n=4; tuberculosis: n=2; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: n=2).No clinically significant procedure-related complications were encountered. This study demonstrated that EBUS-TBNF is a safe procedure and provides diagnostic histological specimens of mediastinal lymph nodes.

  10. Submandibular lymph node abscess caused by Actinomyces denticolens in a horse in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Aswin; Baird, John D.; Slavić, Đurda

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report of the isolation of Actinomyces denticolens, an opportunistic pathogen, from a draining submandibular lymph node abscess in a horse in Ontario. Due to the similarity of the clinical signs with strangles, this pathogen should be included in the differential diagnosis of submandibular lymphadenopathy in the horse. PMID:22043071

  11. Submandibular lymph node abscess caused by Actinomyces denticolens in a horse in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Beck, Aswin; Baird, John D; Slavić, Durda

    2011-05-01

    This is the first report of the isolation of Actinomyces denticolens, an opportunistic pathogen, from a draining submandibular lymph node abscess in a horse in Ontario. Due to the similarity of the clinical signs with strangles, this pathogen should be included in the differential diagnosis of submandibular lymphadenopathy in the horse.

  12. Influence of reserpine on in vivo localization of injected lymph node cells in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Bellavia, A; Micklem, H S

    1987-01-01

    The effects of reserpine, and other agents that affect the storage and availability of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), on the localization of injected 51Cr-labelled syngeneic lymph node cells have been investigated. A high dose (5 mg/kg) of reserpine to the recipients reduced localization in the lymph nodes and prevented the usual accumulation of lymphocytes in lymph nodes draining the site of an antigen (sheep erythrocytes: SE) injection. These effects were partially reversible by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor nialamide. This dose of reserpine produced deep sedation throughout the period of the experiment. Lower doses, up to 2.5 mg/kg, produced little sedation and had no effect on the localization of lymphocytes. Other workers had previously reported reduced localization of cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) lesions after treatment of the recipients with 5 mg/kg reserpine, and had interpreted this in terms of a role of 5HT in promoting vascular permeability and egress of blood cells. The effect of lower doses of reserpine was not reported. We suggest that the effects on cell localization in both sets of experiments may have been secondary to the general state of sedation and not attributable to a direct local influence of 5HT. Other effects of reserpine included prolonged retention of lymphocytes in lungs and blood, and a reduction of cellularity and DNA synthesis in the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes. PMID:3817871

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141.

    PubMed

    Gjurašin, Branimir; Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-04-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141

    PubMed Central

    Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J.; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-01-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection. PMID:29553338

  15. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cull and fed cattle at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Category: Pre-harvest pathogen reduction Objective: To evaluate the potential association between Salmonella enterica burden within bovine subiliac lymph nodes (LNs), animal type, season, and region of harvest. Methods: Bovine LNs (n = 4,764) were collected from 12 abattoirs, 8 that primarily h...

  16. Unusual late presentation of metastatic extrathoracic thymoma to gastrohepatic lymph node treated by surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Billè, Andrea; Sachidananda, Sandeep; Moreira, Andre L; Rizk, Nabil P

    2017-02-01

    In advanced stages, thymic tumors tend to spread locally. Distant metastatic disease is rare. We present the first report of single metastatic abdominal lymph node in a 37-year-old female patient and 5 years after an extrapleural pneumonectomy for stage IV thymoma followed by radiotherapy with no other evidence of abdominal disease successfully treated by robotic surgical resection.

  17. Immune complexes stimulate CCR7-dependent dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Clatworthy, Menna R.; Aronin, Caren E. Petrie; Mathews, Rebeccah J.; Morgan, Nicole; Smith, Kenneth G.C.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are critical for defence against a variety of microbes but may also be pathogenic in some autoimmune diseases. Many effector functions of antibody are mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), which are found on most immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are important antigen presenting cells and play a central role in inducing antigen-specific tolerance or immunity1,2. Following antigen acquisition in peripheral tissues, DCs migrate to draining lymph nodes via lymphatics to present antigen to T cells. In this study we demonstrate that FcγR engagement by IgG immune complexes (IC) stimulates DC migration from peripheral tissues to the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. In vitro, IC-stimulated murine and human DCs showed enhanced directional migration in a CCL19 gradient and increased CCR7 expression. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observed that local administration of IC resulted in dermal DC mobilisation. We confirmed that dermal DC migration to lymph nodes was CCR7-dependent and increased in the absence of the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIb. These observations have relevance to autoimmunity, because autoantibody-containing serum from mice and humans with SLE also increased dermal DC migration to lymph nodes in vivo, suggesting that this process may occur in lupus, potentially driving the inappropriate localisation of autoantigen-bearing DCs. PMID:25384086

  18. Salmonella persistence within the peripheral lymph nodes of cattle following experimental inoculation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Utilizing a transdermal method of inoculation developed in our laboratory, the duration of infection of Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of steers was examined. Thirty-six Holstein steers (mean body weight of 137 kg) were inoculated with Salmonella Montevideo (day 0) on each lower leg and b...

  19. DIETARY VITAMIN A ENHANCES SENSITIVITY OF THE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murine assays such as the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) and the local lymph node assay (LLNA) are popular alternatives to guinea pig models for the identification of contact sensitizers, yet there has been concern over the effectiveness of these assays to detect weak and moderat...

  20. Portable widefield imaging device for ICG-detection of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govone, Angelo Biasi; Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Carvalho, André Lopes; Capuzzo, Renato de Castro; Magalhães, Daniel Varela; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis is one of the major cancer complications, since the malignant cells detach from the primary tumor and reaches other organs or tissues. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymphatic structure to be affected by the malignant cells, but its location is still a great challenge for the medical team. This occurs due to the fact that the lymph nodes are located between the muscle fibers, making it visualization difficult. Seeking to aid the surgeon in the detection of the SLN, the present study aims to develop a widefield fluorescence imaging device using the indocyanine green as fluorescence marker. The system is basically composed of a 780nm illumination unit, optical components for 810nm fluorescence detection, two CCD cameras, a laptop, and dedicated software. The illumination unit has 16 diode lasers. A dichroic mirror and bandpass filters select and deliver the excitation light to the interrogated tissue, and select and deliver the fluorescence light to the camera. One camera is responsible for the acquisition of visible light and the other one for the acquisition of the ICG fluorescence. The software developed at the LabVIEW® platform generates a real time merged image where it is possible to observe the fluorescence spots, related to the lymph nodes, superimposed at the image under white light. The system was tested in a mice model, and a first patient with tongue cancer was imaged. Both results showed the potential use of the presented fluorescence imaging system assembled for sentinel lymph node detection.

  1. Electrosurgical operation of vulvar carcinoma with postoperative irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, H.; Weghaupt, K.

    1988-02-01

    The results of treatment in the department of 607 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva between 1952 and 1980 is described and analyzed. The absolute 5-year cure rate in these patients was 60.3%. Particular attention was given to lymph node status (TNM system) in the analysis of the last 141 patients treated. The absolute 5-year survival rate was 67% for the N0-N1 patients and 43% for the N2-N3 patients. Patients were treated uniformly by means of electrosurgical operation and postactinic irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Operative lymphadenectomy was performed only in 5% of cases when themore » diameter of inguinal lymph nodes was greater than 2 cm. This simple surgical technique, in combination with irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes, gives excellent results and avoids the complications associated with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Owing to its combination of electrosurgical operation of the vulva and irradiation of the inguinal regions as a standard procedure, the treatment involves extremely low strain on the patient and is almost free of complications. This seems to be particularly important as the results of our treatment are not less satisfactory than those of more aggressive procedures.« less

  2. Primary B-Cell Lymphoma of Submandibular Lymph Node in a Water Deer ( Hydropotes inermis ).

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Roh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Beom; Choi, Ul Soo; Kang, Seog Jin; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe a B-cell lymphoma of a submandibular lymph node with metastasis to the lung and facial subcutaneous tissues in a water deer ( Hydropotes inermis ). Neoplastic cells contained pleomorphic lymphocytes that were positive for CD79a, consistent with B-cell lymphoma. PCR for bovine leukemia virus was negative.

  3. First Case of the Cervical Lymph Node as the Only Site of Metastasis from Anal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Jaiswal, Sunny; Saif, Muhammad W

    2017-05-30

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma was a previously uncommon malignancy that has steadily increased in incidence with the increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anal squamous cell carcinoma is typically characterized by local and regional involvement and distant metastases are far less common. Here, we report a case of a 36-year-old female initially diagnosed with anal squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as an anal mass along with an enlarged inguinal lymph node. After receiving chemoradiation therapy, she remained disease-free until recently, when she presented with an isolated left infraclavicular lymph node found on physical examination followed by a biopsy that was consistent with recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. The positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) uptake of her original left inguinal lymph node was decreased, suggesting improved regional disease, and no other metastases were found. Our case represents a rare occurrence of metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma to an isolated distal lymph node and reminds physicians not to forget a unusual site of metastasis and prevent any delay in treatment.

  4. Lymph node retrieval during esophagectomy with and without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: prognostic and therapeutic impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Koen Talsma, A; Shapiro, Joel; Looman, Caspar W N; van Hagen, Pieter; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Gaast, Ate; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; van Lanschot, J Jan B; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Hospers, Geke A P; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; Cuesta, Miguel A; Blaisse, Reinoud J B; Busch, Olivier R C; ten Kate, Fiebo J W; Creemers, Geert-Jan; Punt, Cornelis J A; Plukker, John T M; Verheul, Henk M W; van Dekken, Herman; van der Sangen, Maurice J C; Rozema, Tom; Biermann, Katharina; Beukema, Jannet C; Piet, Anna H M; van Rij, Caroline M; Reinders, Janny G; Tilanus, Hugo W

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the association between total number of resected nodes and survival in patients after esophagectomy with and without nCRT. Most studies concerning the potentially positive effect of extended lymphadenectomy on survival have been performed in patients who underwent surgery alone. As nCRT is known to frequently "sterilize" regional nodes, it is unclear whether extended lymphadenectomy after nCRT is still useful. Patients from the randomized CROSS-trial who completed the entire protocol (ie, surgery alone or chemoradiotherapy + surgery) were included. With Cox regression models, we compared the impact of number of resected nodes as well as resected positive nodes on survival in both groups. One hundred sixty-one patients underwent surgery alone, and 159 patients received multimodality treatment. The median (interquartile range) number of resected nodes was 18 (12-27) and 14 (9-21), with 2 (1-6) and 0 (0-1) resected positive nodes, respectively. Persistent lymph node positivity after nCRT had a greater negative prognostic impact on survival as compared with lymph node positivity after surgery alone. The total number of resected nodes was significantly associated with survival for patients in the surgery-alone arm (hazard ratio per 10 additionally resected nodes, 0.76; P=0.007), but not in the multimodality arm (hazard ratio 1.00; P=0.98). The number of resected nodes had a prognostic impact on survival in patients after surgery alone, but its therapeutic value is still controversial. After nCRT, the number of resected nodes was not associated with survival. These data question the indication for maximization of lymphadenectomy after nCRT.

  5. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic Vessels during Open Prostatectomy using Indocyanine Green.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Keiji; Miura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Iori; Kiyosue, Akiko; Yamashita, Masuo

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the feasibility and validity of intraoperative fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels during open prostatectomy. Indocyanine green was injected into the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance just before surgery. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging was performed using a near-infrared camera system in 66 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after a 10-patient pilot test to optimize indocyanine green dosing, observation timing and injection method. Lymphatic vessels were visualized and followed to identify the sentinel lymph nodes. Confirmatory pelvic lymph node dissection including all fluorescent nodes and open radical prostatectomy were performed in all patients. Lymphatic vessels were successfully visualized in 65 patients (98%) and sentinel lymph nodes in 64 patients (97%). Sentinel lymph nodes were located in the obturator fossa, internal and external iliac regions, and rarely in the common iliac and presacral regions. A median of 4 sentinel lymph nodes per patient was detected. Three lymphatic pathways, the paravesical, internal and lateral routes, were identified. Pathological examination revealed metastases to 9 sentinel lymph nodes in 6 patients (9%). All pathologically positive lymph nodes were detected as sentinel lymph nodes using this imaging. No adverse reactions due to the use of indocyanine green were observed. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green during open prostatectomy enables the detection of lymphatic vessels and sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity. This novel method is technically feasible, safe and easy to apply with minimal additional operative time. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic Significance of the Location of Lymph Node Metastases in Patients With Adenocarcinoma of the Distal Esophagus or Gastroesophageal Junction.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Maarten C J; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Immanuel, Arul; Meijer, Sybren L; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Griffin, S Michael; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2016-11-01

    To identify the prognostic significance of the location of lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by esophagectomy. Detection of lymph node metastases in the upper mediastinum and around the celiac trunk after neoadjuvant therapy and resection does not alter the TNM classification of esophageal carcinoma. The impact of these distant lymph node metastases on survival remains unclear. Between March 2003 and September 2013, 479 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or GEJ who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with en bloc 2-field lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant therapy were included, and survival was analyzed according to the location of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen. Two hundred fifty-three patients had nodal metastases in the resection specimen. Of these patients, 92 patients had metastases in locoregional nodes, 114 patients in truncal nodes, 21 patients in the proximal field of the chest, and 26 patients had both positive truncal and proximal field nodes. Median disease-free survival was 170 months in the absence of nodal metastases, 35 months for metastases limited to locoregional nodes, 16 months for positive truncal nodes, 15 months for positive nodes in the proximal field, and 8 months for nodal metastases in both truncal and the proximal field. On multivariate analysis, location of lymph node metastases was independently associated with survival. Location of lymph node metastases is an independent predictor for survival. Relatively distant lymph node metastases along the celiac axis and/or the proximal field have a negative impact on survival. Location of lymph node metastases should therefore be considered in future staging systems of esophageal and GEJ adenocarcinoma.

  7. CXCR7/CXCL12 axis is involved in lymph node and liver metastasis of gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Qi; Zhang, Na; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qin; Cui, Yan-Fen; Zhang, Chuan-Shan; Ma, Zhe; Yang, Yan; Liu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)-7 and CXCL12 in lymph node and liver metastasis of gastric carcinoma. METHODS In 160 cases of gastric cancer, the expression of CXCR7 and CXCL12 in tumor and matched tumor-adjacent non-cancer tissues, in the lymph nodes around the stomach and in the liver was detected using immunohistochemistry to analyze the relationship between CXCR7/CXCL12 expression and clinicopathological features and to determine whether CXCR7 and CXCL12 constitute a biological axis to promote lymph node and liver metastasis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the CXCR7 gene was silenced and overexpressed in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, and cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness were measured by the MTT, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. RESULTS CXCR7 expression was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues (P = 0.011). CXCR7/CXCL12 expression was significantly related to high tumor stage and lymph node (r = 0.338, P = 0.000) and liver metastasis (r = 0.629, P = 0.000). The expression of CXCL12 in lymph node and liver metastasis was higher than that in primary gastric cancer tissues (χ2 = 6.669, P = 0.010; χ2 = 25379, P = 0.000), and the expression of CXCL12 in lymph node and liver metastasis of gastric cancer was consistent with the positive expression of CXCR7 in primary gastric cancer (r = 0.338, P = 0.000; r = 0.629, P = 0.000). Overexpression of the CXCR7 gene promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Silencing of the CXCR7 gene suppressed SGC-7901 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Human gastric cancer cell lines expressed CXCR7 and showed vigorous proliferation and migratory responses to CXCL12. CONCLUSION The CXCR7/CXCL12 axis is involved in lymph node and liver metastasis of gastric cancer. CXCR7 is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:28533662

  8. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, P<0.0001), age (<70 versus ≥70, P=0.01), sentinel lymph node metastasis pattern (patterns 2-5 versus 1, P=0.02), and immune status (immunocompetent versus suppressed, P=0.03) were independent predictors of outcome, and could be used to stratify Stage III patients into three groups with markedly different outcomes. In Merkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other

  9. Surgical management of sentinel lymph node biopsy outside major nodal basin in patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Caracò, Corrado; Marone, Ugo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Aloj, Luigi; Caracò, Corradina; Anniciello, Annamaria; Lastoria, Secondo; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    To assess the incidence of nonmajor lymphatic basin sentinel nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma in order to propose a correct nomenclature and inform appropriate surgical management. This was a retrospective review of 1,045 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy to identify sentinel node site. Nonmajor drainage sites were classified as uncommon (located in a minor lymphatic basin along the lymphatic drainage to a major classical nodal basin) or interval (located anywhere along the lymphatics between the primary tumor site and the nearest lymphatic basin) sentinel nodes. Nonclassical sentinel nodes were identified in 32 patients (3.0 %). Uncommon sentinel nodes were identified in 3.2 % (n = 17) of trunk melanoma primary disease and in 1.5 % (n = 7) of upper and lower extremity sites. Interval sentinel nodes were identified in 1.3 % (n = 7) of trunk primary lesions, with none from upper and lower extremities melanomas. The incidence of tumor-positive sentinel nodes was 24.1 % (245 of 1,013) in classical sites and 12.5 % (4 of 32) in uncommon/interval sites. The definition of uncommon and interval sentinel nodes allows the identification of different lymphatic pathways and inform appropriate surgical treatment. Wider experience with uncommon/interval sentinel nodes will better clarify the clinical implications and surgical management to be adopted in the management of uncommon and interval sentinel node sites.

  10. Endometrial Stromal Cells and Immune Cell Populations Within Lymph Nodes in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Fazleabas, A. T.; Braundmeier, A. G.; Markham, R.; Fraser, I. S.; Berbic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that immunological responses may be altered in endometriosis. The baboon (Papio anubis) is generally considered the best model of endometriosis pathogenesis. The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time immunological changes within uterine and peritoneal draining lymph nodes in a nonhuman primate baboon model of endometriosis. Paraffin-embedded femoral lymph nodes were obtained from 22 normally cycling female baboons (induced endometriosis n = 11; control n = 11). Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies for endometrial stromal cells, T cells, immature and mature dendritic cells, and B cells. Lymph nodes were evaluated using an automated cellular imaging system. Endometrial stromal cells were significantly increased in lymph nodes from animals with induced endometriosis, compared to control animals (P = .033). In animals with induced endometriosis, some lymph node immune cell populations including T cells, dendritic cells and B cells were increased, suggesting an efficient early response or peritoneal drainage. PMID:21617251

  11. Computed tomographic atlas for the new international lymph node map for lung cancer: A radiation oncologist perspective.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Rod; Pitson, Graham; Ball, David; Claude, Line; Sarrut, David

    2013-01-01

    To develop a reproducible definition for each mediastinal lymph node station based on the new TNM classification for lung cancer. This paper proposes an atlas using the new international lymph node map used in the seventh edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. Four radiation oncologists and 1 diagnostic radiologist were involved in the project to put forward a reproducible radiologic description for the lung lymph node stations. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node definitions for stations 1 to 11 have been described and illustrated on axial computed tomographic scan images using a certified radiotherapy planning system. This atlas will assist both diagnostic radiologists and radiation oncologists in accurately defining the lymph node stations on computed tomographic scan in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of three sonoelastographic scores for differentiation between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Botar Jid, Carolina; Bolboaca, Sorana D; Ciortea, Cristiana; Vasilescu, Dan; Baciut, Grigore; Dudea, Sorin M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the diagnostic value of three different sonoelastographic scoring systems (labeled S1-S3) for the differentiation between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes. The authors propose a six pattern scoring system of the elastographic images with pattern 1 - representing purely soft nodes, pattern 2 - predominantly soft nodes, pattern 3 - predominantly soft nodes with focal had area, pattern 4 - predominantly hard node, pattern 5 - entirely hard node and pattern 6 - node with necrosis. The sonoelastographic images of 50 benign and 70 malignant lymph nodes were assessed. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for the differentiation between benign vs. malignant and benign vs. metastatic nodes were analyzed for the three scoring systems. When all the malignant lymph nodes were considered, the S1 score showed an AUROC=0.873 (95%CI [0.805-0.918], where CI=confidence interval; p<0.001), sensibility (Se)=58.57%, and specificity (Sp)=96%. For S2 score the AUROC was 0.890 (95%CI [0.824-0.933], p<0.001), Se=92.86%, and Sp=72%. For S3 score, the AUROC was 0.852 (95%CI [0.778-0.902], p<0.001), Se=64.29%, and Sp=94%). When lymphomatous nodes were excluded, for S1 the AUROC was 0.884 (95%CI [0.809-0.932], p<0.001), Se=64%, and Sp=96%. For S2 the AUROC was 0.894 (95%CI [0.818-0.939], p<0.001), Se=92%, and Sp=72%. For S3, the AUROC was 0.856 (95%CI [0.771-0.911], p<0.001), Se=66%, and Sp=94%. In the S3 scoring system, setting the benign vs. malignant cut off at pattern 3 increases the sensibility (41-65%) with minimal loss of specificity (96-94%). From the gray-scale and Doppler criteria, changes of the nodular margins and the presence of the vessels in the cortical part of the lymph node showed both very high sensibility and specificity, the others criteria taken into account had either very good sensibility with low specificity or high specificity and low sensibility. Our study suggests that there are no significant differences between the

  13. A MicroRNA Signature Associated With Metastasis of T1 Colorectal Cancers to Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Kandimalla, Raju; Gao, Feng; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Hata, Keisuke; Nagata, Hiroshi; Okada, Satoshi; Izumi, Daisuke; Baba, Hideo; Fleshman, James; Wang, Xin; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Goel, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Most T1 colorectal cancers treated by radical surgery can now be cured by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Although 70%-80% of T1 colorectal cancers are classified as high risk, <16% of these patients actually have lymph node metastases. Biomarkers are needed to identify patients with T1 cancers with the highest risk of metastasis, to prevent unnecessary radical surgery. We collected data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified 5 microRNAs (MIR32, MIR181B, MIR193B, MIR195, and MIR411) with significant changes in expression in T1 and T2 colorectal cancers with vs without lymph node metastases. Levels of the 5 microRNAs identified patients with lymph node invasion by T1 or T2 cancers with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.84. We validated these findings in 2 cohorts of patients with T1 cancers, using findings from histology as the reference. The 5-microRNA signature identified T1 cancers with lymph node invasion in cohort 1 with an AUROC value of 0.83, and in cohort 2 with an AUROC value of 0.74. When we analyzed biopsy samples from untreated patients, the 5-microRNA signature identified cancers with lymph node metastases with an AUROC value of 0.77. The 5-microRNA therefore identifies high-risk T1 colorectal cancers with a greater degree of accuracy than currently used pathologic features. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  15. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells’ functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response. PMID:27087234

  16. Vaccine draining lymph nodes are a source of antigen-specific B cells.

    PubMed

    Pero, Stephanie C; Sun, Yu-Jing; Shukla, Girja S; Carman, Chelsea L; Krag, Christopher C; Teuscher, Cory; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Krag, David N

    2017-03-01

    Our research is focused on using vaccine draining lymph nodes as a source of immune cells to better understand the immune response and to attempt to generate new anti-cancer reagents. Following a vaccine, harvesting the lymph node can only be done once. We endeavored to determine the range of times that B cells secreting anti-KLH antibodies were present in the node of KLH-vaccinated mice. Following vaccination the total number of mononuclear cells (MNCs) increased in the vaccine-draining lymph node (VDN). The percentage of MNCs that were B cells nearly doubled. B cells recovered from the node that secreted anti-KLH antibodies were evident by day 7. The number continued to increase and then slowly decreased over the observed time range to 28days after vaccination. The VDN, compared to the spleen, the bone marrow and the nonVDN, contained a higher percentage of B cells that secreted anti-KLH antibodies. After a vaccine, there is a multi-week window of time when an increasing number of B cells are present in a VDN that secrete anti-KLH antibodies. These results support using the VDN as a source for B cells that secrete anti-vaccine antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sentinel lymph node dissection only versus complete axillary lymph node dissection in early invasive breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glechner, Anna; Wöckel, Achim; Gartlehner, Gerald; Thaler, Kylie; Strobelberger, Michaela; Griebler, Ursula; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    The Z0011-study, a landmark randomised controlled trial (RCT) challenged the benefits of complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) compared with sentinel lymph node dissection only (SLND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes. The study, however, has been criticised for lack of power and low applicability. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of ALND versus SLND for sentinel node positive breast cancer patients. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists of pertinent review articles from January 2006 to August 2011. We dually reviewed the literature and rated the risk of bias of each study. For effectiveness, we included RCTs and observational studies of at least 1 year follow-up. In addition, we considered studies conducted in sentinel node-negative women to assess the risk of harms. If data were sufficient, we conducted random effects meta-analysis of outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis of three studies with 50,120 patients indicated similar 5-year survival and regional recurrence rates between patients treated with ALND or SLND, although prognostic tumour characteristics varied among the 3 study-populations. Results from 6 studies on more than 11,500 patients reported a higher risk for harms for ALND than SLND. Long-term evidence on pertinent health outcomes is missing. The available evidence indicates that for some women with early invasive breast cancer SLND appears to be a justifiable alternative to ALND. Surgeons need to discuss advantages and disadvantages of both approaches with their patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization and Outcomes of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Vulvar Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cham, Stephanie; Chen, Ling; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Hu, Jim C; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    To examine the use and predictors of sentinel node biopsy in women with vulvar cancer. The Perspective database, an all-payer database that collects data from more than 500 hospitals, was used to perform a retrospective cohort study of women with vulvar cancer who underwent vulvectomy and lymph node assessment from 2006 to 2015. Multivariable models were used to determine factors associated with sentinel node biopsy. Length of stay and cost were compared between women who underwent sentinel node biopsy and lymphadenectomy. Among 2,273 women, sentinel node biopsy was utilized in 618 (27.2%) and 1,655 (72.8%) underwent inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Performance of sentinel node biopsy increased from 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0-22.0%) in 2006 to 39.1% (95% CI 27.1-51.0%) in 2015. In a multivariable model, women treated more recently were more likely to have undergone sentinel node biopsy, whereas women with more comorbidities and those treated at rural hospitals were less likely to have undergone the procedure. The median length of stay was shorter for those undergoing sentinel node biopsy (median 2 days, interquartile range 1-3) compared with women who underwent inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (median 3 days, interquartile range 2-4). The cost of sentinel node biopsy was $7,599 (interquartile range $5,739-9,922) compared with $8,095 (interquartile range $5,917-11,281) for lymphadenectomy. The use of sentinel node biopsy for vulvar cancer has more than doubled since 2006. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is associated with a shorter hospital stay and decreased cost compared with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy.

  19. Application of carbon nanoparticles in laparoscopic sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Wei, Jin-Ying; Yao, De-Sheng; Pan, Zhong-Mian; Yao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the value of carbon nanoparticles in identifying sentinel lymph nodes in early-stage cervical cancer. From January 2014 to January 2016, 40 patients with cervical cancer stage IA2-IIA, based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 criteria, were included in this study. The normal cervix around the tumor was injected with a total of 1 mL of carbon nanoparticles (CNP)at 3 and 9 o'clock. All patients then underwent laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection and radical hysterectomy. The black-dyed sentinel lymph nodes were removed for routine pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining. Among the 40 patients, 38 patients had at least one sentinel lymph node (SLN). The detection rate was 95% (38/40). One hundred seventy-three SLNs were detected with an average of 3.9 SLNs per side. 25 positive lymph nodes, which included 21 positive SLNs, were detected in 8 (20%) patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were localized in the obturator (47.97%), internal lilac (13.87%), external lilac (26.59%), parametrial (1.16%), and common iliac (8.67%) regions. The sensitivity of the SLN detection was 100% (5/5), the accuracy was 97.37% (37/38), and the negative predictive value was 100. 0% and the false negative rate was 0%. Sentinel lymph nodes can be used to accurately predict the pathological state of pelvic lymph nodes in early cervical cancer. The detection rates and accuracy of sentinel lymph node were high. Carbon nanoparticles can be used to trace the sentinel lymph node in early cervical cancer.

  20. Rapid detection of metastatic melanoma in lymph nodes using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Lean, Cynthia L; Bourne, Roger; Thompson, John F; Scolyer, Richard A; Stretch, Jonathan; Li, Ling-Xi Lawrence; Russell, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn

    2003-06-01

    Accurate staging of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma includes assessment of regional lymph nodes for the presence of micrometastatic disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is highly accurate but is an invasive surgical procedure with a 5-10% complication rate, and requires labour-intensive and expensive histological examination to identify disease. A rapid, accurate and cost-effective non-surgical technique able to detect micrometastatic deposits of melanoma in regional lymph nodes would be of great benefit. Fine needle aspiration biopsies and tissue specimens were obtained from lymph nodes from 18 patients undergoing node resection for metastatic melanoma and five patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy. One-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was undertaken at 360 MHz (8.5 T). Lymph nodes were cut into 3 mm thick slices and embedded. Four sequential 5 microm tissue sections were cut from each block and stained, with haematoxylin and eosin, for S100 protein, for HMB45, and again with haematoxylin and eosin, respectively. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy distinguished between benign and malignant lymph node tissue (P < 0.001, separate t-test) and benign and malignant lymph node fine needle aspiration biopsy (P < 0.012) based on the ratio of the integrals of resonances from lipid/other metabolites (1.8-2.5 p.p.m. region) and 'choline' (3.1-3.3 p.p.m. region). In conclusion, one-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a simple fine needle aspiration biopsy can distinguish lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma from uninvolved nodes, providing a rapid, accurate and cost-effective non-surgical technique to assess regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma.

  1. Is the non-sentinel lymph node compartment the next site for melanoma progression from the sentinel lymph node compartment in the regional nodal basin?

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Cantu, Andrei; Lu, Ying; Melendez-Elizondo, Victor; Chen, Michael; Gutierrez-Range, Alejandra; Fadaki, Niloofar; Thummala, Suresh; West-Coffee, Carla; Cleaver, James; Kashani–Sabet, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma patients with additional positive lymph nodes in the completion lymph node dissection (CLND) following a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy would have a poorer prognosis than patients with no additional positive lymph nodes. We hypothesize that the progression of disease from the SLN to the non-SLN compartment is orderly and is associated with the worsening of the disease status. Thus, the SLN and non-SLN compartments are biologically different in that cancer cells, in general, arrive in the SLN compartment before spreading to the non-SLN compartment. To validate this concept, we used a large cohort of melanoma patients from our prospective SLN database in an academic tertiary medical center. Adult cutaneous melanoma patients (n = 291) undergoing CLND after a positive SLN biopsy from 1994 to 2009 were analyzed. Comparison of 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival between positive (n = 66) and negative (n = 225) CLND groups was made. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 55% (95% CI 49–62%) for patients with no additional LN on CLND versus 14% (95% CI 8–26%) in patients with positive LN on CLND (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). The median disease-free survival time was 7.4 years with negative CLND (95% CI 4.4–15+ years) and 1.2 years with positive CLND (95% CI 1.0–1.8 years). The 5-year overall survival rates were 67% (95% CI 61–74%) for negative CLND versus 38% (95% CI 28–52%) for positive CLND (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). The median overall survival time was 12.1 years for negative CLND (95% CI 9.3–15+ years) and 2.5 years for positive CLND (95% CI 2.2–5.7 years). This study shows that CLND status is a significant prognostic factor for patients with positive SLNs undergoing CLND. Also, it suggests an orderly progression of metastasis from the SLN to the non-SLN compartment. Thus, the SLN in the regional nodal basin draining the primary melanoma may serve as an important gateway for metastasis to the non

  2. Is the non-sentinel lymph node compartment the next site for melanoma progression from the sentinel lymph node compartment in the regional nodal basin?

    PubMed

    Rios-Cantu, Andrei; Lu, Ying; Melendez-Elizondo, Victor; Chen, Michael; Gutierrez-Range, Alejandra; Fadaki, Niloofar; Thummala, Suresh; West-Coffee, Carla; Cleaver, James; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Leong, Stanley P L

    2017-06-01

    Melanoma patients with additional positive lymph nodes in the completion lymph node dissection (CLND) following a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy would have a poorer prognosis than patients with no additional positive lymph nodes. We hypothesize that the progression of disease from the SLN to the non-SLN compartment is orderly and is associated with the worsening of the disease status. Thus, the SLN and non-SLN compartments are biologically different in that cancer cells, in general, arrive in the SLN compartment before spreading to the non-SLN compartment. To validate this concept, we used a large cohort of melanoma patients from our prospective SLN database in an academic tertiary medical center. Adult cutaneous melanoma patients (n = 291) undergoing CLND after a positive SLN biopsy from 1994 to 2009 were analyzed. Comparison of 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival between positive (n = 66) and negative (n = 225) CLND groups was made. The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 55% (95% CI 49-62%) for patients with no additional LN on CLND versus 14% (95% CI 8-26%) in patients with positive LN on CLND (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). The median disease-free survival time was 7.4 years with negative CLND (95% CI 4.4-15+ years) and 1.2 years with positive CLND (95% CI 1.0-1.8 years). The 5-year overall survival rates were 67% (95% CI 61-74%) for negative CLND versus 38% (95% CI 28-52%) for positive CLND (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). The median overall survival time was 12.1 years for negative CLND (95% CI 9.3-15+ years) and 2.5 years for positive CLND (95% CI 2.2-5.7 years). This study shows that CLND status is a significant prognostic factor for patients with positive SLNs undergoing CLND. Also, it suggests an orderly progression of metastasis from the SLN to the non-SLN compartment. Thus, the SLN in the regional nodal basin draining the primary melanoma may serve as an important gateway for metastasis to the non

  3. Automatic identification of IASLC-defined mediastinal lymph node stations on CT scans using multi-atlas organ segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joanne; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Station-labeling of mediastinal lymph nodes is typically performed to identify the location of enlarged nodes for cancer staging. Stations are usually assigned in clinical radiology practice manually by qualitative visual assessment on CT scans, which is time consuming and highly variable. In this paper, we developed a method that automatically recognizes the lymph node stations in thoracic CT scans based on the anatomical organs in the mediastinum. First, the trachea, lungs, and spines are automatically segmented to locate the mediastinum region. Then, eight more anatomical organs are simultaneously identified by multi-atlas segmentation. Finally, with the segmentation of those anatomical organs, we convert the text definitions of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map into patient-specific color-coded CT image maps. Thus, a lymph node station is automatically assigned to each lymph node. We applied this system to CT scans of 86 patients with 336 mediastinal lymph nodes measuring equal or greater than 10 mm. 84.8% of mediastinal lymph nodes were correctly mapped to their stations.

  4. Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent clinical stage Ia epithelial ovarian cancer: Hacettepe experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of the staging system of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the extent of lymphadenectomy in the early stages of ovarian cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the lymph node involvement in unilateral epithelial ovarian cancer apparently confined to the one ovary (clinical stage Ia). Methods A prospective study of clinical stage I ovarian cancer patients is presented. Patient's characteristics and tumor histopathology were the variables evaluated. Results Thirty three ovarian cancer patients with intact ovarian capsule were evaluated. Intraoperatively, neither of the patients had surface involvement, adhesions, ascites or palpable lymph nodes (supposed to be clinical stage Ia). The mean age of the study group was 55.3 ± 11.8. All patients were surgically staged and have undergone a systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Final surgicopathologic reports revealed capsular involvement in seven patients (21.2%), contralateral ovarian involvement in two (6%) and omental metastasis in one (3%) patient. There were two patients (6%) with lymph node involvement. One of the two lymph node metastasis was solely in paraaortic node and the other metastasis was in ipsilateral pelvic lymph node. Ovarian capsule was intact in all of the patients with lymph node involvement and the tumor was grade 3. Conclusion In clinical stage Ia ovarian cancer patients, there may be a risk of paraaortic and pelvic lymph node metastasis. Further studies with larger sample size are needed for an exact conclusion. PMID:21114870

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hefeng; Ding, Zheyuan; Kota, Vishnu Goutham; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Jianwei

    2017-07-11

    Endometrial cancer is the most frequent tumor in the female reproductive system, while the sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for diagnostic efficacy of endometrial cancer is still controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of SLN in the assessment of lymph nodal involvement in endometrial cancer. Forty-four studies including 2,236 cases were identified. The pooled overall detection rate was 83% (95% CI: 80-86%). The pooled sensitivity was 91% (95% CI: 87-95%). The bilateral pelvic node detection rate was 56% (95% CI: 48-64%). Use of indocyanine green (ICG) increased the overall detection rate to 93% (95% CI: 89-96%) and robotic-assisted surgery also increased the overall detection rate to 86% (95% CI: 79-93%). In summary, our meta-analysis provides strong evidence that sentinel node mapping is an accurate and feasible method that performs well diagnostically for the assessment of lymph nodal involvement in endometrial cancer. Cervical injection, robot-assisted surgery, as well as using ICG, optimized the sensitivity and detection rate of the technique. Sentinel lymph mapping may potentially leading to a greater utilization by gynecologic surgeons in the future.

  6. Dissemination of bovine leukemia virus-infected cells from a newly infected sheep lymph node.

    PubMed

    Fulton, B E; Portella, M; Radke, K

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the early establishment of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, we injected BLV-infected or mock-infected allogeneic cells into the shoulder of sheep in which an efferent lymphatic duct of the draining prescapular lymph node had been cannulated. Rare mononuclear cells acting as centers of BLV infection in culture were present within 4 to 6 days in efferent lymph and within 6 to 10 days in blood. Soon after BLV injection, immunoglobulin M+ (IgM+) and CD8+ cells increased in efferent lymph and oscillated reciprocally in frequency. CD8+ blasts increased on days 4 to 6, when infectious centers increased 100-fold in lymph. On days 6 and 7, both lymph and blood were enriched with CD8+ cells that were labeled late on day 5 with an intravenous pulse of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Lymph, but not blood, was enriched with BrdU+ B cells on day 7. Capsid-specific antibodies became detectable in efferent lymph on days 6 to 8 and surface glycoprotein-specific antibodies on day 9, preceding their detection in serum by 9 to 14 days. Systemic dissemination of BLV-infected cells was thus accompanied by an increase in proliferating CD8+ cells and the onset of BLV-specific antibodies in lymph. Infectious centers reached maximum frequencies of 0.2% in lymph by days 11 to 13, and then their frequencies increased by 5- to 40-fold in blood cells, suggesting that many infected blood cells do not recirculate back into lymph. Beginning on days 10 to 13, a subpopulation of B cells having high levels of surface IgM increased sharply in peripheral blood. Such cells were not present in lymph. After a day 16 pulse of BrdU, recently proliferated cells that stained intensely for surface IgM appeared in blood within 15 h. Predominantly B lymphocytes contained the viral capsid protein when lymph and blood cells were cultured briefly to allow BLV expression. However, both early in lymph and later in blood, BrdU+ B cells greatly exceeded productively infected cells, indicating that

  7. Effectiveness of the Benign and Malignant Diagnosis of Mediastinal and Hilar Lymph Nodes by Endobronchial Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haidong; Huang, Zhiang; Wang, Qin; Wang, Xinan; Dong, Yuchao; Zhang, Wei; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Man, Yan-Gao; Schmidt, Wolfgang Hohenforst; Bai, Chong

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound elastography is a new technique for describing the stiffness of tissue during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). The aims of this study were to investigate the diagnostic value of Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography for distinguishing the difference between benign and malignant lymph nodes among mediastinal and hilar lymph node. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to August 2015, 47 patients confirmed of mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement through examination of Computed tomography (CT) were enrolled, and a total of 78 lymph nodes were evaluated by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). EBUS-guided elastography of lymph nodes was performed prior to EBUS-TBNA. A convex probe EBUS was used with a new EBUS processor to assess elastographic patterns that were classified based on color distribution as follows: Type 1, predominantly non-blue (green, yellow and red); Type 2, part blue, part non-blue (green, yellow and red); Type 3, predominantly blue. Pathological determination of malignant or benign lymph nodes was used as the gold standard for this study. The elastographic patterns were compared with the final pathologic results from EBUS-TBNA. Results: On pathological evaluation of the lymph nodes, 45 were benign and 33 were malignant. The lymph nodes that were classified as Type 1 on endobronchial ultrasound elastography were benign in 26/27 (96.3%) and malignant in 1/27 (3.7%); for Type 2 lymph nodes, 15/20 (75.0%) were benign and 5/20 (25.0%) were malignant; Type 3 lymph nodes were benign in 4/31 (12.9%) and malignant in 27/31 (87.1%). In classifying Type 1 as 'benign' and Type 3 as 'malignant,' the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy rates were 96.43%, 86.67%, 87.10%, 96.30%, 91.38%, respectively. Conclusion: EBUS elastography of mediastinal and

  8. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: Chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particlemore » was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the

  9. Clinically node negative breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy, sentinel lymph node procedure versus follow-up: a Dutch randomized controlled multicentre trial (BOOG 2013-08).

    PubMed

    van Roozendaal, L M; Vane, M L G; van Dalen, T; van der Hage, J A; Strobbe, L J A; Boersma, L J; Linn, S C; Lobbes, M B I; Poortmans, P M P; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Van de Vijver, K K B T; de Vries, J; Westenberg, A H; Kessels, A G H; de Wilt, J H W; Smidt, M L

    2017-07-01

    Studies showed that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in presence of positive sentinel lymph node(s) in breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy. Since the outcome of the sentinel lymph node biopsy has no clinical consequence, the value of the procedure itself is being questioned. The aim of the BOOG 2013-08 trial is to investigate whether the sentinel lymph node biopsy can be safely omitted in clinically node negative breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving therapy. The BOOG 2013-08 is a Dutch prospective non-inferiority randomized multicentre trial. Women with pathologically confirmed clinically node negative T1-2 invasive breast cancer undergoing breast conserving therapy will be randomized for sentinel lymph node biopsy versus no sentinel lymph node biopsy. Endpoints include regional recurrence after 5 (primary endpoint) and 10 years of follow-up, distant-disease free and overall survival, quality of life, morbidity and cost-effectiveness. Previous data indicate a 5-year regional recurrence free survival rate of 99% for the control arm and 96% for the study arm. In combination with a non-inferiority limit of 5% and probability of 0.8, this result in a sample size of 1.644 patients including a lost to follow-up rate of 10%. Primary and secondary endpoints will be reported after 5 and 10 years of follow-up. If the sentinel lymph node biopsy can be safely omitted in clinically node negative breast cancer patients undergoing breast conserving therapy, this study will cost-effectively lead to a decreased axillary morbidity rate and thereby improved quality of life with non-inferior regional control, distant-disease free survival and overall survival. The BOOG 2013-08 study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov since October 20, 2014, Identifier: NCT02271828. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02271828.

  10. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  11. The response of the regional lymph node to epididymal sperm granulomas after vasectomy.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S W; al Saffar, R; Scothorne, R J

    1991-01-01

    The cause of the variable immune response in the regional testicular lymph node of inbred Albino Swiss rats after vasectomy was investigated in two experiments. In the first, the ductus deferens was transected at its junction with the epididymis so that, in every case, sperm granulomas developed in the epididymis, from which lymph is known to drain invariably to the testicular node. In spite of this, not all testicular nodes showed histological signs of an immune response at 12 weeks after vasectomy. In the second experiment the contents of epididymal lymphatics were compared in vasectomised rats and sham-operated controls at intervals of up to 18 months after operation. Lymphatics in animals with an 'active' epididymal granuloma invariably contained numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, thought to be involved in antigen transport, while those of controls contained none. It is concluded that variations in the lymphatic drainage of vasal granulomas were not primarily responsible for the variable lymph node response to vasectomy previously reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917673

  12. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui