Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal magnetic resonance

  1. Spine abnormalities depicted by magnetic resonance imaging in adolescent rowers.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Marvin; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2011-02-01

    Most lesions of the spine of athletes, which often are detected incidentally, do not cause important symptoms or make the athletes discontinue their physical activities. To better understand the significance of these lesions, new imaging studies have been conducted with asymptomatic athletes in several sports, aiming to detect potentially deleterious and disabling abnormalities. To compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lumbar spine findings in a group of asymptomatic adolescent rowers and in a control group of adolescents matched according to age and sex who do not practice any regular physical activity. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. Our study evaluated 44 asymptomatic adolescent boys distributed in 2 groups of 22 rowers and 22 control subjects. All the examinations were performed using a 0.35-T open-field MRI unit and evaluated by 2 experienced radiologists blinded to the study groups. Each MRI scan was analyzed for the presence of disc degeneration/desiccation, herniated or bulging disc, pars interarticularis stress reaction, and spondylolysis. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were used for statistical analyses. Nine rowers (40.9%) had at least 1 abnormality detected by MRI in the lumbar spine, whereas only 2 participants (9.1%) in the control group had at least 1 MRI abnormality (P = .03). Seven disc changes (31.8%) and 6 pars abnormalities (27.3%) were found in the group of elite rowers. In the control group, 3 disc changes (13.6%) and no pars abnormalities were found in the MR scans. The comparison between groups showed statistically significant differences in stress reaction of the pars articularis. Disc disease and pars interarticularis stress reaction are prevalent abnormalities of the lumbar spine of high-performance rowers.

  2. Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, wheelchair propulsion, and gender.

    PubMed

    Boninger, Michael L; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Towers, Jeffrey D; Koontz, Alicia M; Souza, Aaron L

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between pushrim forces and the progression of shoulder injuries in manual wheelchair users. Longitudinal case series. Biomechanics laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facility at a Veterans Health Administration medical center and university hospital, respectively. Fourteen individuals with spinal cord injury (8 men, 6 women) who used manual wheelchairs. Subjects propelled their own wheelchairs on a dynamometer at 0.9 and 1.8m/s. Bilateral biomechanical data were obtained by using force and moment sensing pushrims at time 1. Bilateral shoulder MR images were also completed on 2 occasions, at time 1 and, approximately 2 years later, at time 2. The peak pushrim forces in a pushrim coordinate system were calculated, weight normalized and averaged over 5 strokes (presented as % body weight). MRI abnormalities were graded by using a summated scale. Differences between scores between times 1 and 2 were calculated. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on change in MRI score. Seven subjects were in the group with worsening scores (MRI+; mean, 8.14 points; range, 5-16), and 7 were in the group with improving or unchanging scores (MRI-; mean, -1.00 point; range, -5 to 1). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to age, body mass index, or years from injury. There were significantly more women in the MRI+ group (6 women, 1 man) than in the MRI- group (7 men) (P=.001). The MRI+ group used significantly greater weight-normalized radial force, or force directed toward the axle at time 1, to propel their wheelchairs at each speed (P<.01): MRI+ at 0.9m/s (mean radial force +/- standard deviation, 5.2%+/-1.0%) and MRI- at 0.9m/s (mean radial force, 3.2%+/-1.7%) (P=.028); and MRI+ at 1.8m/s (mean radial force, 6.6%+/-1.2%) (P=.023) and MRI- at 1.8m/s (mean radial force, 4.1%+/-2.2%). In a separate analysis, women were found to propel with a significantly higher radial force. A logistic regression found a

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of abnormal uterine masses.

    PubMed

    al-Ahwani, S; Assem, M; Belal, A; Abdel-Hamid, H

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen women with clinically diagnosed uterine masses were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic study was carried out in the coronal, sagittal and axial planes. Uterine leiomyomas were detected in 12 cases, while the remaining cases were one each of uterine sarcoma, invasive molar pregnancy, cervical malignancy with pyometra and haematometra with congenital cervical stenosis. The uterine origin of the masses could be clearly detected in all patients, as well as the nature of the masses, the presence of degenerative or malignant changes and the nature of the intrauterine fluid. MRI characteristic findings of the studied masses are presented and discussed.

  4. Patterns of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease correspond to phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed N; Alberico, Ronald A; Barczykowski, Amy L; Duffner, Patricia K

    2014-02-01

    Initial magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with Krabbe disease were analyzed to determine whether the pattern of abnormalities corresponded to the phenotype. This was a retrospective, nonblinded study. Families/patients diagnosed with Krabbe disease submitted medical records and magnetic resonance imaging discs for central review. Institutional review board approval/informed consents were obtained. Sixty-four magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed by two neuroradiologists and a child neurologist according to phenotype: early infantile (onset 0-6 months) = 39 patients; late infantile (onset 7-12 months) = 10 patients; later onset (onset 13 months-10 years) = 11 patients; adolescent (onset 11-20 years) = one patient; and adult (21 years or greater) = three patients. Local interpretations were compared with central review. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities differed among phenotypes. Early infantile patients had a predominance of increased intensity in the dentate/cerebellar white matter as well as changes in the deep cerebral white matter. Later onset patients did not demonstrate involvement in the dentate/cerebellar white matter but had extensive involvement of the deep cerebral white matter, parieto-occipital region, and posterior corpus callosum. Late infantile patients exhibited a mixed pattern; 40% had dentate/cerebellar white matter involvement while all had involvement of the deep cerebral white matter. Adolescent/adult patients demonstrated isolated corticospinal tract involvement. Local and central reviews primarily differed in interpretation of the early infantile phenotype. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in a large cohort of symptomatic patients with Krabbe disease demonstrated imaging abnormalities correspond to specific phenotypes. Knowledge of these patterns along with typical clinical signs/symptoms should promote earlier diagnosis and facilitate treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal findings on knee magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic NBA players.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.

  6. Correlation between blink reflex abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Eylem; Erdogan, Cagdas; Bir, Levent Sinan

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the correlation between brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and blink reflex abnormalities in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Twenty-six patients and 17 healthy subjects were included in this study. Blink reflex test (BRT) results were obtained using right and left stimulations; thus, 52 BRT results were recorded for the patient group, and 34 BRT results were recorded for the control group. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were classified based on the existence of brainstem lesions (hyperintense lesion on T2 weighted (W) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI or contrast-enhancing lesion on T1W MRI). Correlation analysis was performed for the BRT and MRI findings. The percentage of individuals with abnormal BRT results (including R1 latency, ipsilateral R2 latency, and contralateral R2 latency) was significantly higher in the patient group as compared to the control group (p values: 0.015, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between contralateral R2 latency abnormalities and brainstem lesions (p value: 0.011). Our results showed significant correlation correlations between contralateral R2 latency abnormalities and brainstem lesions and these results may be explained the effects of multiple demyelinating lesions of the brain stem of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

  7. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in congestive heart failure detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, C W; Lee, J H; Kim, J J; Park, S W; Hong, M K; Kim, S T; Lim, T H; Park, S J

    1999-04-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated cerebral metabolism and its determinants in congestive heart failure (CHF), and the effects of cardiac transplantation on these measurements. Few data are available about cerebral metabolism in CHF. Fifty patients with CHF (ejection fraction < or = 35%) and 20 healthy volunteers were included for this study. Of the patients, 10 patients underwent heart transplantation. All subjects performed symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was obtained from localized regions (8 to 10 ml) of occipital gray matter (OGM) and parietal white matter (PWM). Absolute levels of the metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol) were calculated. In PWM only creatine level was significantly lower in CHF than in control subjects, but in OGM all four metabolite levels were decreased in CHF. The creatine level was independently correlated with half-recovery time and duration of heart failure symptoms in PWM (r = -0.56, p < 0.05), and with peak oxygen consumption and serum sodium concentration in OGM (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Cerebral metabolic abnormalities were improved after successful cardiac transplantation. This study shows that cerebral metabolism is abnormally deranged in advanced CHF and it may serve as a potential marker of the disease severity.

  8. The Frequency and Severity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Infants with Mild Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian H; Neil, Jeffrey; Morey, JoAnn; Yang, Edward; Silvera, Michelle V; Inder, Terrie E; Ortinau, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system. Additional abnormalities not included in this classification system were also noted. The rate, pattern, and severity of abnormalities/injury were compared across the grades of neonatal encephalopathy. Eighty-nine infants received therapeutic hypothermia and met study criteria, 48 with mild neonatal encephalopathy, 35 with moderate neonatal encephalopathy, and 6 with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-eight infants (54%) had an abnormality on MRI. There was no difference in the rate of overall MRI abnormalities by grade of neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 54%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 54%, and severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P= .89). Basal ganglia/thalamic injury was more common in those with severe neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 4%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 9%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 34%; P = .03). In contrast, watershed injury did not differ between neonatal encephalopathy grades (mild neonatal encephalopathy 36%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 32%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P = .3). Mild neonatal encephalopathy is commonly associated with MRI abnormalities after therapeutic hypothermia. The grade of neonatal encephalopathy during the first hours of life may not discriminate adequately between infants with and without cerebral injury noted on MRI after therapeutic hypothermia

  9. Early primary biliary cholangitis is characterised by brain abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Grover, V P B; Southern, L; Dyson, J K; Kim, J U; Crossey, M M E; Wylezinska-Arridge, M; Patel, N; Fitzpatrick, J A; Bak-Bol, A; Waldman, A D; Alexander, G J; Mells, G F; Chapman, R W; Jones, D E J; Taylor-Robinson, S D

    2016-11-01

    Brain change can occur in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), potentially as a result of cholestatic and/or inflammatory processes. This change is linked to systemic symptoms of fatigue and cognitive impairment. To identify whether brain change occurs early in PBC. If the change develops early and is progressive, it may explain the difficulty in treating these symptoms. Early disease brain change was explored in 13 patients with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven precirrhotic PBC using magnetisation transfer, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results were compared to 17 healthy volunteers. Cerebral magnetisation transfer ratios were reduced in early PBC, compared to healthy volunteers, in the thalamus, putamen and head of caudate with no greater reduction in patients with greater symptom severity. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients were increased in the thalamus only. No 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities were seen. Serum manganese levels were elevated in all PBC patients, but no relationship was seen with imaging or symptom parameters. There were no correlations between neuroimaging data, laboratory data, symptom severity scores or age. This is the first study to be performed in this precirrhotic patient population, and we have highlighted that neuroimaging changes are present at a much earlier stage than previously demonstrated. The neuroimaging abnormalities suggest that the brain changes seen in PBC occur early in the pathological process, even before significant liver damage has occurred. If such changes are linked to symptom pathogenesis, this could have important implications for the timing of second-line-therapy use. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tumor or abnormality identification from magnetic resonance images using statistical region fusion based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Badri Narayan; Thangaraj, Veerakumar; Sankaralingam, Esakkirajan; Ghosh, Ashish

    2016-11-01

    In this article, a statistical fusion based segmentation technique is proposed to identify different abnormality in magnetic resonance images (MRI). The proposed scheme follows seed selection, region growing-merging and fusion of multiple image segments. In this process initially, an image is divided into a number of blocks and for each block we compute the phase component of the Fourier transform. The phase component of each block reflects the gray level variation among the block but contains a large correlation among them. Hence a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique is adhered to generate a singular value of each block. Then a thresholding procedure is applied on these singular values to identify edgy and smooth regions and some seed points are selected for segmentation. By considering each seed point we perform a binary segmentation of the complete MRI and hence with all seed points we get an equal number of binary images. A parcel based statistical fusion process is used to fuse all the binary images into multiple segments. Effectiveness of the proposed scheme is tested on identifying different abnormalities: prostatic carcinoma detection, tuberculous granulomas identification and intracranial neoplasm or brain tumor detection. The proposed technique is established by comparing its results against seven state-of-the-art techniques with six performance evaluation measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Temporal lobe abnormalities in semantic processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Kent A; Smith, Andra M; Mendrek, Adrianna; Forster, Bruce B; Hare, Robert D; Liddle, Peter F

    2004-04-30

    We tested the hypothesis that psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in semantic processing of linguistic information. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to elucidate and characterize the neural architecture underlying lexico-semantic processes in criminal psychopathic individuals and in a group of matched control participants. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which blocks of linguistic stimuli alternated with a resting baseline condition. In each lexical decision block, the stimuli were either concrete words and pseudowords or abstract words and pseudowords. Consistent with our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals, relative to controls, showed poorer behavioral performance for processing abstract words. Analysis of the fMRI data for both groups indicated that processing of word stimuli, compared with the resting baseline condition, was associated with neural activation in bilateral fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate, left middle temporal gyrus, right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and left and right inferior frontal gyrus. Analyses confirmed our prediction that psychopathic individuals would fail to show the appropriate neural differentiation between abstract and concrete stimuli in the right anterior temporal gyrus and surrounding cortex. The results are consistent with other studies of semantic processing in psychopathy and support the theory that psychopathy is associated with right hemisphere abnormalities for processing conceptually abstract material.

  13. Temporal lobe abnormalities in semantic processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Kent A; Smith, Andra M; Mendrek, Adrianna; Forster, Bruce B; Hare, Robert D; Liddle, Peter F

    2004-01-15

    We tested the hypothesis that psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in semantic processing of linguistic information. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to elucidate and characterize the neural architecture underlying lexico-semantic processes in criminal psychopathic individuals and in a group of matched control participants. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which blocks of linguistic stimuli alternated with a resting baseline condition. In each lexical decision block, the stimuli were either concrete words and pseudowords or abstract words and pseudowords. Consistent with our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals, relative to controls, showed poorer behavioral performance for processing abstract words. Analysis of the fMRI data for both groups indicated that processing of word stimuli, compared with the resting baseline condition, was associated with neural activation in bilateral fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate, left middle temporal gyrus, right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and left and right inferior frontal gyrus. Analyses confirmed our prediction that psychopathic individuals would fail to show the appropriate neural differentiation between abstract and concrete stimuli in the right anterior temporal gyrus and surrounding cortex. The results are consistent with other studies of semantic processing in psychopathy and support the theory that psychopathy is associated with right hemisphere abnormalities for processing conceptually abstract material.

  14. Abnormal brain chemistry in chronic back pain: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Grachev, I D; Fredrickson, B E; Apkarian, A V

    2000-12-15

    The neurobiology of chronic pain, including chronic back pain, is unknown. Structural imaging studies of the spine cannot explain all cases of chronic back pain. Functional brain imaging studies indicate that the brain activation patterns are different between chronic pain patients and normal subjects, and the thalamus, and prefrontal and cingulate cortices are involved in some types of chronic pain. Animal models of chronic pain suggest abnormal spinal cord chemistry. Does chronic pain cause brain chemistry changes? We examined brain chemistry changes in patients with chronic back pain using in vivo single- voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). In vivo (1)H-MRS was used to measure relative concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, inositol, glucose and lactate in relation to the concentration of creatine. These measurements were performed in six brain regions of nine chronic low back pain patients and 11 normal volunteers. All chronic back pain subjects underwent clinical evaluation and perceptual measures of pain and anxiety. We show that chronic back pain alters the human brain chemistry. Reductions of N-acetyl aspartate and glucose were demonstrated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cingulate, sensorimotor, and other brain regions showed no chemical concentration differences. In chronic back pain, the interrelationship between chemicals within and across brain regions was abnormal, and there was a specific relationship between regional chemicals and perceptual measures of pain and anxiety. These findings provide direct evidence of abnormal brain chemistry in chronic back pain, which may be useful in diagnosis and future development of more effective pharmacological treatments.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in familial temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory auras.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eliane; Santos, Neide F; Torres, Fabio R; Secolin, Rodrigo; Sardinha, Luiz A C; Lopez-Cendes, Iscia; Cendes, Fernando

    2003-11-01

    Two forms of familial temporal lobe epilepsy (FTLE) have been described: mesial FTLE and FTLE with auditory auras. The gene responsible for mesial FTLE has not been mapped yet, whereas mutations in the LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1) gene, localized on chromosome 10q, have been found in FTLE with auditory auras. To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with FTLE with auditory auras. We performed detailed clinical and molecular studies as well as MRI evaluation (including volumetry) in all available individuals from one family, segregating FTLE from auditory auras. We evaluated 18 of 23 possibly affected individuals, and 13 patients reported auditory auras. In one patient, auditory auras were associated with déjà vu; in one patient, with ictal aphasia; and in 2 patients, with visual misperception. Most patients were not taking medication at the time, although all of them reported sporadic auras. Two-point lod scores were positive for 7 genotyped markers on chromosome 10q, and a Zmax of 6.35 was achieved with marker D10S185 at a recombination fraction of 0.0. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the LGI1 gene showed a point mutation, VIIIS7(-2)A-G, in all affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 individuals (7 asymptomatic, 4 of them carriers of the affected haplotype on chromosome 10q and the VIIIS7[-2]A-G mutation). Lateral temporal lobe malformations were identified by visual analysis in 10 individuals, 2 of them with global enlargement demonstrated by volumetry. Mildly reduced hippocampi were observed in 4 individuals. In this family with FTLE with auditory auras, we found developmental abnormalities in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes in 53% of the affected individuals. In contrast with mesial FTLE, none of the affected individuals had MRI evidence of hippocampal sclerosis.

  16. Acute Versus Delayed Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Associated Abnormalities in Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Orvets, Nathan D.; Parisien, Robert L.; Curry, Emily J.; Chung, Justin S.; Eichinger, Josef K.; Murakami, Akira M.; Li, Xinning

    2017-01-01

    Background: The delayed management of patients with shoulder instability may increase the prevalence and severity of concomitant intra-articular shoulder injuries resulting from persistent subluxations and dislocations. Hypothesis: Patients with a longer delay from the initial dislocation event to undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrography will demonstrate more subluxations or dislocations and a greater amount of intra-articular shoulder damage. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 89 patients from a single institution with clinically and radiographically confirmed primary traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those undergoing MRI less than 6 months (n = 44; LT6) or greater than 6 months (n = 45; GT6) from the initial dislocation event. The MRI assessment included evaluation of soft tissue injuries, including the labrum, capsule, rotator cuff, and cartilage damage severity along with bone loss. Results: The delayed MRI group (GT6) demonstrated a greater degree of intra-articular abnormalities compared to the early MRI group (LT6). A greater percentage of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears (58% vs 34%, respectively) and cartilage damage (73% vs 27%, respectively) was present in the GT6 group compared to the LT6 group. Cartilage damage was 18% mild, 7% moderate, and 2% severe for the LT6 group as compared to 38% mild, 31% moderate, and 4% severe for the GT6 group. Additionally, more recurrent shoulder dislocations were seen in the GT6 group (n = 6) compared to the LT6 group (n = 2). In the LT6 group, there were more rotator cuff tears (50% vs 24%, respectively) and capsular tears (25% vs 9%, respectively) than the GT6 group. There was no difference in anterior glenoid bone loss, glenoid version, or humeral head subluxation between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Patients who undergo MRI greater than 6 months from the time of

  17. Reward abnormalities among women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2011-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (vs. tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (vs. tasteless solution). Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypofunctioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reward Abnormalities Among Women with Full and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Method Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Results Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (versus tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). Discussion Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypo-functioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. PMID:21997421

  19. Abnormal fear circuitry in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A controlled magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Andrea E; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Spencer, Thomas J; Bogucki, Olivia E; Pope, Amanda L; Plasencia, Natalie; Hughes, Brittany; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-04-30

    We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of conditioned response. Compared to healthy controls, ADHD subjects had significantly greater insular cortex activation during early extinction, lesser dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during late extinction, lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during late extinction learning and extinction recall, and greater hippocampal activation during extinction recall. Hippocampal and vmPFC deficits were similar to those documented in PTSD subjects compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. Non-traumatized, medication naive adults with ADHD had abnormalities in fear circuits during extinction learning and extinction recall, and some findings were consistent with those previously documented in subjects with PTSD compared to traumatized controls without PTSD. These findings could explain the significant association between ADHD and PTSD as well as impaired emotion regulation in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance angiography detection of abnormal carotid artery plaque in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Gialdini, Gino; Lerario, Michael P; Baradaran, Hediyeh; Giambrone, Ashley; Navi, Babak B; Marshall, Randolph S; Iadecola, Costantino; Kamel, Hooman

    2015-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid plaque can aid in stroke risk stratification in patients with carotid stenosis. However, the prevalence of complicated carotid plaque in patients with cryptogenic stroke is uncertain, especially as assessed by plaque imaging techniques routinely included in acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging protocols. We assessed whether the magnetic resonance angiography-defined presence of intraplaque high-intensity signal (IHIS), a marker of intraplaque hemorrhage, is associated with ipsilateral cryptogenic stroke. Cryptogenic stroke patients with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of unilateral anterior circulation infarction and without hemodynamically significant (≥50%) stenosis of the cervical carotid artery were identified from a prospective stroke registry at a tertiary-care hospital. High-risk plaque was assessed by evaluating for IHIS on routine magnetic resonance angiography source images using a validated technique. To compare the presence of IHIS on the ipsilateral versus contralateral side within individual patients, we used McNemar's test for correlated proportions. A total of 54 carotid arteries in 27 unique patients were included. A total of 6 patients (22.2%) had IHIS-positive nonstenosing carotid plaque ipsilateral to the side of ischemic stroke compared to 0 patients who had IHIS-positive carotid plaques contralateral to the side of stroke (P=0.01). Stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluations, and prevalence of vascular risk factors were not different between the IHIS-positive and IHIS-negative groups. Our findings suggest that a proportion of strokes classified as cryptogenic may be mechanistically related to complicated, nonhemodynamically significant cervical carotid artery plaque that can easily be detected by routine magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography acute stroke protocols. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Beyond static measures: A review of functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its potential to investigate dynamic glutamatergic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jelen, Luke A; King, Sinead; Mullins, Paul G; Stone, James M

    2018-05-01

    Abnormalities of the glutamate system are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia but their exact nature remains unknown. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), while fundamental in revealing glutamatergic alterations in schizophrenia, has, until recently, been significantly limited and thought to only provide static measures. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS), which uses sequential scans for dynamic measurement of a range of brain metabolites in activated brain areas, has lately been applied to a variety of task or stimulus conditions, producing interesting insights into neurometabolite responses to neural activation. Here, we summarise the existing 1 H-MRS studies of brain glutamate in schizophrenia. We then present a comprehensive review of research studies that have utilised fMRS, and lastly consider how fMRS methods might further the understanding of glutamatergic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Frequency, Prognosis and Surgical Treatment of Structural Abnormalities Seen with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Anne T.; Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions…

  3. Structural Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: A Cross-sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Rianne A; de Kanter, Janneke L M; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Verhaar, Jan A N; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Krestin, Gabriel P; Oei, Edwin H G; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint might play a role in the pathogenesis of patellofemoral pain (PFP), a common knee problem among young and physically active individuals. No previous study has investigated if PFP is associated with structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To investigate the presence of structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint on high-resolution MRI in patients with PFP compared with healthy control subjects. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with PFP and healthy control subjects between 14 and 40 years of age underwent high-resolution 3-T MRI. All images were scored using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Osteoarthritis Knee Score with the addition of specific patellofemoral features. Associations between PFP and the presence of structural abnormalities were analyzed using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and sports participation. A total of 64 patients and 70 control subjects were included in the study. Mean ± SD age was 23.2 ± 6.4 years, mean BMI ± SD was 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m(2), and 56.7% were female. Full-thickness cartilage loss was not present. Minor patellar cartilage defects, patellar bone marrow lesions, and high signal intensity of the Hoffa fat pad were frequently seen in both patients (23%, 53%, and 58%, respectively) and control subjects (21%, 51%, and 51%, respectively). After adjustment for age, BMI, sex, and sports participation, none of the structural abnormalities were statistically significantly associated with PFP. Structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint have been hypothesized as a factor in the pathogenesis of PFP, but the study findings suggest that structural abnormalities of the patellofemoral joint on MRI are not associated with PFP. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Mathematical models for the diffusion magnetic resonance signal abnormality in patients with prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Figini, Matteo; Alexander, Daniel C; Redaelli, Veronica; Fasano, Fabrizio; Grisoli, Marina; Baselli, Giuseppe; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Bizzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice signal hyperintensity in the cortex and/or in the striatum on magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) is a marker of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (sCJD). MR diagnostic accuracy is greater than 90%, but the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the signal abnormality are unknown. The aim of this prospective study is to combine an advanced DWI protocol with new mathematical models of the microstructural changes occurring in prion disease patients to investigate the cause of MR signal alterations. This underpins the later development of more sensitive and specific image-based biomarkers. DWI data with a wide a range of echo times and diffusion weightings were acquired in 15 patients with suspected diagnosis of prion disease and in 4 healthy age-matched subjects. Clinical diagnosis of sCJD was made in nine patients, genetic CJD in one, rapidly progressive encephalopathy in three, and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome in two. Data were analysed with two bi-compartment models that represent different hypotheses about the histopathological alterations responsible for the DWI signal hyperintensity. A ROI-based analysis was performed in 13 grey matter areas located in affected and apparently unaffected regions from patients and healthy subjects. We provide for the first time non-invasive estimate of the restricted compartment radius, designed to reflect vacuole size, which is a key discriminator of sCJD subtypes. The estimated vacuole size in DWI hyperintense cortex was in the range between 3 and 10 µm that is compatible with neuropathology measurements. In DWI hyperintense grey matter of sCJD patients the two bi-compartment models outperform the classic mono-exponential ADC model. Both new models show that T2 relaxation times significantly increase, fast and slow diffusivities reduce, and the fraction of the compartment with slow/restricted diffusion increases compared to unaffected grey matter of patients and healthy

  5. Neurovascular abnormalities in brain disorders: highlights with angiogenesis and magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Chen, Yu-Chen; Hsiao, Han-Yun; Chang, Chen; Chern, Yijuang

    2013-07-05

    The coupling between neuronal activity and vascular responses is controlled by the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises multiple cell types. Many different types of dysfunction in these cells may impair the proper control of vascular responses by the NVU. Magnetic resonance imaging, which is the most powerful tool available to investigate neurovascular structures or functions, will be discussed in the present article in relation to its applications and discoveries. Because aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling have been increasingly reported as being implicated in brain pathogenesis, this review article will refer to this hallmark event when suitable.

  6. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a tool for a better understanding of normal and abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the developing fetal brain is essential to detect abnormalities and understand their pathogenesis. Capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the brain in utero and to differentiate between its various tissues makes fetal MRI a potential diagnostic and research tool for the developing brain. This article provides an approach to understand the normal and abnormal brain development through schematic interpretation of fetal brain MR images. MRI is a potential screening tool in the second trimester of pregnancies in fetuses at risk for brain anomalies and helps in describing new brain syndromes with in utero presentation. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps genetic counseling, facilitates management decisions, and guides therapy. Fetal MRI can help in better understanding the pathogenesis of fetal brain malformations and can support research that could lead to disease-specific interventions.

  7. Relationship Between Clinical and Immunological Features with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Female Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Cui-Yan; Pan, Zheng-Lun; Zhao, Jun-Yu; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred neuroimaging method in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and immunological features with MRI abnormalities in female patients with NPSLE, to screen for the value of conventional MRI in NPSLE. Methods: A total of 59 female NPSLE patients with conventional MRI examinations were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients were classified into different groups according to MRI abnormalities. Both clinical and immunological features were compared between MRI abnormal and normal groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score for MRI abnormalities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated the correlation between immunological features, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and MRI abnormalities. Results: Thirty-six NPSLE patients (61%) showed a variety of MRI abnormalities. There were statistically significant differences in SLEDAI scores (P < 0.001), incidence of neurologic disorders (P = 0.001), levels of 24-h proteinuria (P = 0.001) and immunoglobulin M (P = 0.004), and incidence of acute confusional state (P = 0.002), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.004), and seizure disorder (P = 0.028) between MRI abnormal and normal groups. In the MRI abnormal group, SLEDAI scores for cerebral atrophy (CA), cortex involvement, and restricted diffusion (RD) were much higher than in the MRI normal group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.038, respectively). Statistically significant positive correlations between seizure disorder and cortex involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 14.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–151.70; P = 0.023) and cerebrovascular disease and infratentorial involvement (OR = 10.00; 95% CI, 1.70–60.00; P = 0.012) were found. Conclusions: MRI abnormalities in NPSLE, especially CA

  8. Magnetic Resonance Neurography Visualizes Abnormalities in Sciatic and Tibial Nerves in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vaeggemose, Michael; Pham, Mirko; Ringgaard, Steffen; Tankisi, Hatice; Ejskjaer, Niels; Heiland, Sabine; Poulsen, Per L; Andersen, Henning

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates whether diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance neurography (DTI-MRN), T2 relaxation time, and proton spin density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 49) were included-11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN), and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)-along with 30 healthy control subjects (HCs). Clinical examinations, nerve conduction studies, and vibratory perception thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN. DTI-MRN covered proximal (sciatic nerve) and distal (tibial nerve) nerve segments of the lower extremity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, as were T2 relaxation time and proton spin density obtained from DTI-MRN. All magnetic resonance findings were related to the presence and severity of neuropathy. FA of the sciatic and tibial nerves was lowest in the sDPN group. Corresponding with this, proximal and distal ADCs were highest in patients with sDPN compared with patients with mDPN and nDPN, as well as the HCs. DTI-MRN correlated closely with the severity of neuropathy, demonstrating strong associations with sciatic and tibial nerve findings. Quantitative group differences in proton spin density were also significant, but less pronounced than those for DTI-MRN. In conclusion, DTI-MRN enables detection in peripheral nerves of abnormalities related to DPN, more so than proton spin density or T2 relaxation time. These abnormalities are likely to reflect pathology in sciatic and tibial nerve fibers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of working memory abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew R; Morris, Nicholas A; Astur, Robert S; Calhoun, Vince D; Mathalon, Daniel H; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2006-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of working memory (WM) in schizophrenia, typically focusing on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, yield conflicting results, possibly because of varied choice of tasks and analysis techniques. We examined neural function changes at several WM loads to derive a more complete picture of WM dysfunction in schizophrenia. We used a version of the Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm to test WM function at five distinct loads. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 18 matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Patterns of both overactivation and underactivation in patients were observed depending on WM load. Patients' activation was generally less responsive to load changes than control subjects', and different patterns of between-group differences were observed for memory encoding and retrieval. In the specific case of successful retrieval, patients recruited additional neural circuits unused by control subjects. Behavioral effects were generally consistent with these imaging results. Differential findings of overactivation and underactivation may be attributable to patients' decreased ability to focus and allocate neural resources at task-appropriate levels. Additionally, differences between encoding and retrieval suggest that WM dysfunction may be manifested differently during the distinct phases of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval.

  10. Brain abnormalities detected on magnetic resonance imaging of amphetamine users presenting to an emergency department: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fatovich, Daniel M; McCoubrie, David L; Song, Swithin J; Rosen, David M; Lawn, Nick D; Daly, Frank F

    2010-09-06

    To determine the prevalence of occult brain abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging of active amphetamine users. Prospective convenience study in a tertiary hospital emergency department (ED). Patients presenting to the ED for an amphetamine-related reason were eligible for inclusion. We collected demographic data, drug use data, and performed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE). The proportion of patients with an abnormality on their MRI scan. Of 38 patients enrolled, 30 had MRI scans. Nineteen were male and their mean age was 26.7 +/- 5.4 years (range 19-41 years). The mean age of first amphetamine use was 18 years (range 13-26 years). Sixteen patients used crystal methamphetamine (mean amount 2.5 g/week), nine used amphetamine ("speed") (mean amount 2.9 g/week), and 23 used ecstasy (mean amount 2.3 tablets/week). Marijuana was smoked by 26 (mean amount 5.9 g/week), and 28 drank alcohol (mean amount 207 g/week). The median MMSE score was 27/30 (interquartile range, 26-29). Abnormalities on brain MRI scans were identified in six patients, most commonly an unidentified bright object (n = 4). In this pilot study of brain MRI of young people attending the ED with an amphetamine-related presentation, one in five had an occult brain lesion. While the significance of this is uncertain, it is congruent with evidence that amphetamines cause brain injury.

  11. Abnormal Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients With Anisometropic Amblyopia Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Angcang; Chen, Taolin; Zhang, Junran; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Longqian

    2017-09-01

    To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups. Compared with an age- and gender-matched control group, the anisometropic amblyopia group showed increased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous brain activity in the left superior temporal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left pons, and the right inferior semi-lunar lobe. The anisometropic amblyopia group also showed decreased amplitude of low frequency fluctuations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus. This study demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activities in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under Rs-fMRI, and these abnormalities might contribute to the neuropathological mechanisms of anisometropic amblyopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(5):303-310.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Abnormal left superior temporal gyrus volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Hsua; Nicoletti, Mark A; Hatch, John P; Sassi, Roberto B; Axelson, David; Brambilla, Paolo; Monkul, E Serap; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Ryan, Neal D; Birmaher, Boris; Soares, Jair C

    2004-06-03

    Abnormalities in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in adult bipolar patients. However, it is not known whether such abnormalities are already present early in the course of this illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric analysis of STG was performed in 16 DSM-IV children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age+/-SD 15.5+/-3.4 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-SD 16.9+/-3.8 years). Subjects underwent a 3D spoiled gradient recalled acquisition MRI examination. Using analysis of covariance with age, gender and intra-cranial brain volume as covariates, we found significantly smaller left total STG volumes in bipolar patients (12.5+/-1.5 cm(3)) compared with healthy controls (13.6+/-2.5 cm(3)) (F=4.45, d.f.=1, 32, P=0.04). This difference was accounted for by significantly smaller left and right STG white matter volumes in bipolar patients. Decreased white matter connections may be the core of abnormalities in STG, which is an important region for speech, language and communication, and could possibly underlie neurocognitive deficits present in bipolar patients.

  13. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    PubMed

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  14. Metabolic abnormality in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Eui; Choi, Nam-Gil; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-06-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS. The metabolic concentration of myo-inositol in patients with OCD increased significantly by 52% compared with the healthy controls, whereas glutamine/glutamate was decreased by 11%. However, there were no significant differences in N-acetylaspartate, choline, lactate and lipid between the two groups. These findings would be helpful to understand the pathophysiology of OCD associated with the brain metabolic abnormalities in the right DLPFC.

  15. Dose-related cerebellar abnormality in rats with prenatal exposure to X-irradiation by magnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya

    2013-09-01

    Cerebellar abnormalities in 4-week-old rats with a single whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy on embryonic day (ED) 15 were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry. A 3D T2 W-MRI anatomical sequence with high-spatial resolution at 11.7-tesla was acquired from the fixed rat heads. By MRI volumetry, whole cerebellar volumes decreased dose-dependently. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the cortical volume (standardized β=0.901; P<0.001) was a major explanatory variable for the whole cerebellar volume, whereas both volumes of the white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei also decreased depending on the X-irradiation dose. The present MRI volumetric analysis revealed a dose-related cerebellar cortical hypoplasia by prenatal exposure to X-irradiation on E15. © 2013 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2013 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Levothyroxine improves abnormal cardiac bioenergetics in subclinical hypothyroidism: a cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Madathil, Asgar; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Blamire, Andrew M; Razvi, Salman; Newton, Julia L; Taylor, Roy; Weaver, Jolanta U

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with mild cardiac dysfunction, but it is unknown whether there is an underlying impairment of cardiac bioenergetic function. The objective of the study was to quantify the cardiac phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate ratio (PCr to ATP) in SCH, compared with healthy controls, and to measure the effect of 6 months of levothyroxine treatment. This was a 6-month, prospective, case-controlled interventional study. The PCr to ATP ratio was measured using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in subjects with SCH at baseline and after levothyroxine therapy (1.6 μg/kg · d) and compared with age- and gender-matched euthyroid controls. All subjects were free of overt heart disease. Twenty-one subjects with SCH (normal free T4 and serum TSH between 4.1 and 10 mIU/L) and 17 controls were matched for age (mean age 40.5 vs 43.3 y) and sex (females 81% vs 82%) but differed in mean TSH (6.5 vs 2.1 mIU/L, P < .001). At baseline the mean (± SD) PCr to ATP ratio in SCH was lower than in controls (1.80 ± 0.26 vs 2.07 ± 0.20, P = .001). In the 16 subjects studied after levothyroxine treatment, the PCr to ATP ratio improved (from 1.74 ± 0.24 to 1.91 ± 0.26, P = .004) and approached controls (borderline loss of significance, P = .051). On multivariate analysis, SCH was independently associated with a reduced PCr to ATP ratio, even after adjusting for confounding variables (body mass index and fasting glucose) (P = .001). Our results demonstrate early cardiac bioenergetic impairment in SCH, which is reversible with levothyroxine therapy. This mechanistic insight provides justification for longitudinal trials to determine whether improvement in bioenergetic function improves cardiovascular outcome.

  17. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  18. Central nervous system abnormalities in Fanconi anaemia: patterns and frequency on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Robert; Wright, Neville B; Chandler, Kate; Bonney, Denise; Wynn, Robert F; Will, Andrew M; Punekar, Maqsood; Loughran, Sean; Kilday, John-Paul; Schindler, Detlev; Patel, Leena; Meyer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease associated with congenital and developmental abnormalities resulting from the disruption of a multigenic DNA damage response pathway. This study aimed to define the MRI appearances of the brain in patients with FA in correlation with their genetic and clinical features. Methods: A review of the brain MRI in 20 patients with FA was performed. Pituitary size and frequencies of the radiological findings of individuals with FA and age-matched controls were determined. Results: Abnormalities were identified in 18 (90%) patients with FA, the commonest being a small pituitary (68%, p < 0.01 females and p < 0.001 males). In five cases (25%, p = 0.02), the pituitary morphology was also abnormal. Posterior fossa abnormalities were seen in six cases (30%, p = 0.01) including Chiari I malformation (n = 3), Dandy–Walker variant (n = 2) and cerebellar atrophy (n = 2). Six patients (30%, p = 0.01) had morphological structural variation of the corpus callosum (CC). Conclusion: The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with a midline predominance that points to impact in the early stages of CNS development. MRI brain imaging is important for endocrine assessment and pre-transplant evaluation and can make an important contribution to clinical decision-making. Advances in knowledge: The incidence of brain structural abnormalities in FA is higher than previously reported, with abnormalities of the posterior fossa, CC and pituitary being common. There is an association with gender and reduction in pituitary size which does not strongly correlate with biochemically evident endocrine abnormality. PMID:26369989

  19. Defining the nature of the cerebral abnormalities in the premature infant: a qualitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Inder, Terrie E; Wells, Scott J; Mogridge, Nina B; Spencer, Carole; Volpe, Joseph J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define qualitatively the nature and extent of white and gray matter abnormalities in a longitudinal population-based study of infants with very low birth weight. Perinatal factors were then related to the presence and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. From November 1998 to December 2000, 100 consecutive premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Christchurch Women's Hospital were recruited (98% eligible) after informed parental consent to undergo an MRI scan at term equivalent. The scans were analyzed by a single neuroradiologist experienced in pediatric MRI, with a second independent scoring of the MRI using a combination of criteria for white matter (cysts, signal abnormality, loss of volume, ventriculomegaly, corpus callosal thinning, myelination) and gray matter (gray matter signal abnormality, gyration, subarachnoid space). Results were analyzed against individual item scores as well as the presence of moderate-severe white matter score, total gray matter score, and total brain score. The mean gestational age was 27.9+/-2.4 weeks (range, 23-32 weeks), and mean birth weight was 1063+/-292 g. The greatest univariate predictors for moderate-severe white matter abnormality were lower gestational age (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7; P<.01), maternal fever (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6; P<.04), proven sepsis in the infant at delivery (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6; P=0.03), inotropic support (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5-4.5; P<.001), patent ductus arteriosus (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8; P=.01), grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage (P=.015), and the occurrence of a pneumothorax (P=.05). There was a significant protective effect of intrauterine growth restriction (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99; P=.04). Gray matter abnormality was highly related to the presence and severity of white matter abnormality. A unique pattern of cerebral abnormality consisting of significant diffuse

  20. Kinetic magnetic resonance imaging analysis of abnormal segmental motion of the functional spine unit.

    PubMed

    Kong, Min Ho; Hymanson, Henry J; Song, Kwan Young; Chin, Dong Kyu; Cho, Yong Eun; Yoon, Do Heum; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-04-01

    The authors conducted a retrospective observational study using kinetic MR imaging to investigate the relationship between instability, abnormal sagittal segmental motion, and radiographic variables consisting of intervertebral disc degeneration, facet joint osteoarthritis (FJO), degeneration of the interspinous ligaments, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (LFH), and the status of the paraspinal muscles. Abnormal segmental motion, defined as > 10 degrees angulation and > 3 mm of translation in the sagittal plane, was investigated in 1575 functional spine units (315 patients) in flexion, neutral, and extension postures using kinetic MR imaging. Each segment was assessed based on the extent of disc degeneration (Grades I-V), FJO (Grades 1-4), interspinous ligament degeneration (Grades 1-4), presence of LFH, and paraspinal muscle fatty infiltration observed on kinetic MR imaging. These factors are often noted in patients with degenerative disease, and there are grading systems to describe these changes. For the first time, the authors attempted to address the relationship between these radiographic observations and the effects on the motion and instability of the functional spine unit. The prevalence of abnormal translational motion was significantly higher in patients with Grade IV degenerative discs and Grade 3 arthritic facet joints (p < 0.05). In patients with advanced disc degeneration and FJO, there was a lesser amount of motion in both segmental translation and angulation when compared with lower grades of degeneration, and this difference was statistically significant for angular motion (p < 0.05). Patients with advanced degenerative Grade 4 facet joint arthritis had a significantly lower percentage of abnormal angular motion compared to patients with normal facet joints (p < 0.001). The presence of LFH was strongly associated with abnormal translational and angular motion. Grade 4 interspinous ligament degeneration and the presence of paraspinal muscle fatty

  1. Interstudy reproducibility of dimensional and functional measurements between cine magnetic resonance studies in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Semelka, R C; Tomei, E; Wagner, S; Mayo, J; Caputo, G; O'Sullivan, M; Parmley, W W; Chatterjee, K; Wolfe, C; Higgins, C B

    1990-06-01

    The validity of geometric formulas to derive mass and volumes in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle is problematic. Imaging techniques that are tomographic and therefore inherently three-dimensional should be more reliable and reproducible between studies in such ventricles. Determination of reproducibility between studies is essential to define the limits of an imaging technique for evaluating the response to therapy. Sequential cine magnetic resonance (MR) studies were performed on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 11) and left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 8) within a short interval in order to assess interstudy reproducibility. Left ventricular mass, volumes, ejection fraction, and end-systolic wall stress were determined by two independent observers. Between studies, left ventricular mass was highly reproducible for hypertrophied and dilated ventricles, with percent variability less than 6%. Ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume showed close reproducibility between studies, with percent variability less than 5% End-systolic volume varied by 4.3% and 4.5% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 8.4% and 7.2% in left ventricular hypertrophy for the two observers. End-systolic wall stress, which is derived from multiple measurements, varied the greatest, with percent variability of 17.2% and 15.7% in dilated cardiomyopathy and 14.8% and 13% in left ventricular hypertrophy, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that mass, volume, and functional measurements are reproducible in morphologically abnormal ventricles.

  2. Comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and fetopathology in the evaluation of fetal posterior fossa non-cystic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tilea, B; Delezoide, A L; Khung-Savatovski, S; Guimiot, F; Vuillard, E; Oury, J F; Garel, C

    2007-06-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fetopathological findings in the evaluation of non-cystic fetal posterior fossa anomalies and to describe associated abnormalities. This was a prospective study from 2000 to 2005 of fetuses identified on ultrasound as having sonographic suspicion of posterior fossa malformation. All underwent a thorough MRI examination of the fetal brain, after which we classified each fetus as presenting one of the following pathologies: vermian hypoplasia or agenesis, cerebellar and/or brain stem hypoplasia, destructive or dysplastic lesions. All of the pregnancies were then terminated, after which the whole fetus underwent fetopathological examination. We compared the findings from MRI and fetopathological examinations and recorded the associated cerebral and extracerebral abnormalities. Twenty-five fetuses were included. MRI was performed at a mean gestational age of 31 weeks, and fetopathological examination at 33 weeks. In 12 cases we observed vermian hypoplasia, six had partial vermian agenesis, 11 had cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia, seven had brain stem hypoplasia, four had destructive lesions and six had dysplastic lesions. The two techniques were similar in their performance with respect to the detection of vermian agenesis, brain stem hypoplasia and destructive lesions. There were four false-positive results of MRI for vermian hypoplasia and a poor agreement regarding cerebellar hemisphere hypoplasia. No dysplastic lesions were diagnosed by MRI. None of the posterior fossa malformations was isolated and many cerebral and extracerebral abnormalities were found. A systematic analysis of the posterior fossa in fetal MRI makes it possible to diagnose accurately most posterior fossa malformations. These malformations never occurred in isolation in our study.

  3. Abnormal degree centrality in Alzheimer's disease patients with depression: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhongwei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Hou, Hongtao; Wei, Fuquan; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xingli

    2016-06-15

    Depression is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and occurs in AD patients with a prevalence of up to 40%. It reduces cognitive function and increases the burden on caregivers. Currently, there are very few medications that are useful for treating depression in AD patients. Therefore, understanding the brain abnormalities in AD patients with depression (D-AD) is crucial for developing effective interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at the voxel level in D-AD patients based on degree centrality (DC) as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Our study included 32 AD patients. All patients were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and further divided into two groups: 15 D-AD patients and 17 non-depressed AD (nD-AD) patients. R-fMRI datasets were acquired from these D-AD and nD-AD patients. First, we performed a DC analysis to identify voxels that showed altered whole brain functional connectivity (FC) with other voxels. We then further investigated FC using the abnormal DC regions to examine in more detail the connectivity patterns of the identified DC changes. D-AD patients had lower DC values in the right middle frontal, precentral, and postcentral gyrus than nD-AD patients. Seed-based analysis revealed decreased connectivity between the precentral and postcentral gyrus to the supplementary motor area and middle cingulum. FC also decreased in the right middle frontal, precentral, and postcentral gyrus. Thus, AD patients with depression fit a 'network dysfunction model' distinct from major depressive disorder and AD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Emotional Response Inhibition in Bipolar Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Trait- and State-Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Tom A.; Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Karne, Harish S.; Gunn, Abigail D.; Wang, Yang; Anand, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Background Impaired response inhibition and poor impulse control are hallmarks of the manic phase of bipolar disorder but are also present during depressive and, to a lesser degree, euthymic periods. The neural mechanisms underlying these impairments are poorly understood, including how mechanisms are related to bipolar trait or state effects. Methods One-hundred four unmedicated participants with bipolar mania (BM) (n = 30), bipolar depression (BD) (n = 30), bipolar euthymia (BE) (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 30) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotional and nonemotional go/no-go tasks. The go/no-go task requires participants to press a button for go stimuli, while inhibiting the response to no-go trials. In separate blocks, participants inhibited the response to happy faces, sad faces, or letters. Results The BE group had higher insula activity during happy face inhibition and greater activity in left inferior frontal gyrus during sad face inhibition, demonstrating bipolar trait effects. Relative to the BE group, BD and BM groups demonstrated lower insula activity during inhibition of happy faces, though the depressed sample had lower activity than manic patients. The BD and BM groups had a greater response to inhibiting sad faces in emotion processing and regulation regions, including putamen, insula, and lateral prefrontal cortex. The manic group also had higher activity in insula and putamen during neutral letter inhibition. Conclusions These results suggest distinct trait- and state-related neural abnormalities during response inhibition in bipolar disorder, with implications for future research and treatment. PMID:22871393

  5. Possible structural abnormality of the brainstem in unipolar depressive illness: a transcranial ultrasound and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Steele, J D; Bastin, M E; Wardlaw, J M; Ebmeier, K P

    2005-11-01

    Most empirically derived antidepressants increase monoamine levels. The nuclei of cells synthesising these monoamines are located in the brainstem, and projection tracts such as the medial forebrain bundle reach virtually all other brain areas. Two studies of unipolar depressive illness using transcranial ultrasound have reported reduced echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients. This may be consistent with disruption of white matter tracts, including the medial forebrain bundle, and it has been suggested that the effect of such disruption could be reversed by antidepressants. To replicate these findings in a group of unipolar depressed patients and controls. Fifteen unipolar depressed patients and 15 controls were studied using transcranial ultrasound imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). No difference in echogenicity of the brainstem midline of unipolar depressed patients was found. A possible trend (Cohen's d = 0.39) in the direction of previous studies was found. Although the echogenicity of the brainstem midline of the control group was found to be similar to previous reports, there was no reduction in the patient group. Additionally, no structural abnormality of the brainstem was identified using DT-MRI. While these data do not replicate the findings of previous studies reporting a significant reduction in the echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients, the ultrasound investigation indicated that there may be a trend in this direction. Given the importance of identifying the causes of depressive illness, it is important that other groups attempt similar studies.

  6. Abnormalities in metabolite concentrations in tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder-A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Siyan; Cath, Danielle C; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schöls, Caroline; Veltman, Dick J; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal glutamatergic transmission in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the current study aimed to investigate regional concentrations of glutamatergic compounds in TD and OCD patients in comparison to healthy control subjects (HC). Twenty-three TD patients, 20 OCD patients and 22 HC were included. Short echo-time single-voxel 3T MRS was obtained from dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and midline bilateral thalamus. The 3-group comparison showed a significant difference in choline concentration in the thalamus. Thalamic choline was highest in OCD patients, showing a significant difference with TD, and a trend compared to HC (post-hoc analyses). Glutamine in dACC correlated negatively with tic severity scores in TD patients, while glutamate in thalamus correlated positively with anxiety severity scores in OCD patients. These findings suggest subtle differences in metabolites in CSTC areas between TD and OCD. Alterations of choline concentrations seem to be both regional (only in thalamus, not in dACC) and disease specific in OCD pathology. The findings need replication in larger groups, but encourage further research into glutamatergic metabolites in TD and OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein abnormalities in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes and their association with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Amor, Antonio J; Catalan, Marta; Pérez, Antonio; Herreras, Zoe; Pinyol, Montserrat; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Cofán, Montserrat; Gilabert, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is common in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and predicts cardiovascular disease, but information on the association of its components with atherosclerosis is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in the lipoprotein profile in newly-diagnosed T2DM and matched control individuals and their associations with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis. In a case-control study, we evaluated lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and determined carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque presence (IMT ≥1.5 mm) by B-mode ultrasonography. We assessed 96 T2DM patients (median age 63 years, 44% women, 19% smokers, 54% hypertension, 38% dyslipidemia) and 90 non-diabetic controls matched for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. In T2DM VLDL-particles (mainly large and enriched in cholesterol and triglycerides) were increased, and large HDL-particles (enriched in triglycerides and depleted in cholesterol) were reduced (p < 0.05; all comparisons). Regarding associations with preclinical atherosclerosis, VLDL triglyceride content (odds ratio [OR], 8.975; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.330-34.576), total number of VLDL particles (OR, 2.713; CI, 1.601-4.598) and VLDL size (OR, 2.044; CI, 1.320-3.166), and the ratio cholesterol/triglycerides in HDL (OR, 0.638; CI, 0.477-0.852) were associated with plaque burden (≥3 plaques) independently of confounders, including conventional lipid levels. NMR-assessed advanced lipoprotein profile identifies lipid abnormalities associated with newly-diagnosed T2DM and preclinical atherosclerosis that are not captured by the traditional lipid profile. At this early stage of diabetes, NMR lipoproteins could be useful to identify candidates for a more comprehensive cardiovascular risk prevention strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volume and Asymmetry Abnormalities of Insula in Antipsychotic-Naive Schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Virupaksha, Harve Shanmugam; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ‘antipsychotic-treated’ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28). Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.9) by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85). Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Results: Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; P<0.00001) and right (F=11.9; P=0.001) insula after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and intracranial volume. Patients with predominantly negative symptoms had a significantly deficient right posterior insula volume than those with predominantly positive symptoms (F=6.3; P=0.02). Asymmetry index analysis revealed anterior insular asymmetry to be significantly reversed (right>left) in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right) (t=2.7; P=0.01). Conclusions: Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another

  9. Volume and asymmetry abnormalities of insula in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: a 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Virupaksha, Harve Shanmugam; Kalmady, Sunil V; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2012-04-01

    Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of 'antipsychotic-treated' schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28). Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.9) by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85). Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; P<0.00001) and right (F=11.9; P=0.001) insula after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and intracranial volume. Patients with predominantly negative symptoms had a significantly deficient right posterior insula volume than those with predominantly positive symptoms (F=6.3; P=0.02). Asymmetry index analysis revealed anterior insular asymmetry to be significantly reversed (right>left) in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right) (t=2.7; P=0.01). Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another novel observation of sex-specific anterior insular asymmetry

  10. Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis: Regional Abnormalities and Response to Airway Clearance Therapy Using Pulmonary Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Svenningsen, Sarah; Guo, Fumin; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy. Fifteen participants with non-CF bronchiectasis and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers provided written informed consent to an ethics board-approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol and underwent spirometry, plethysmography, computed tomography (CT), and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI. Bronchiectasis patients also completed a Six-Minute Walk Test, the St. George's Respiratory questionnaire, and Patient Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ), and returned for a follow-up visit after 3 weeks of daily oscillatory positive expiratory pressure use. CT evidence of bronchiectasis was qualitatively reported by lobe, and MRI ventilation defect percent (VDP) was measured for the entire lung and individual lobes. CT evidence of bronchiectasis and abnormal VDP (14 ± 7%) was observed for all bronchiectasis patients and no healthy volunteers. There was CT evidence of bronchiectasis in all lobes for 3 patients and in 3 ± 1 lobes (range = 1-4) for 12 patients. VDP in lobes with CT evidence of bronchiectasis (19 ± 12%) was significantly higher than in lobes without CT evidence of bronchiectasis (8 ± 5%, P = .001). For patients, VDP in lung lobes with (P < .0001) and without CT evidence of bronchiectasis (P = .006) was higher than in healthy volunteers (3 ± 1%). For all patients, mean PEQ-ease-bringing-up-sputum (P = .048) and PEQ-patient-global-assessment (P = .01) were significantly improved post-oscillatory positive expiratory

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  12. Establishing a baseline phase behavior in magnetic resonance imaging to determine normal vs. abnormal iron content in the brain.

    PubMed

    Haacke, E Mark; Ayaz, Muhammad; Khan, Asadullah; Manova, Elena S; Krishnamurthy, Bharani; Gollapalli, Lakshman; Ciulla, Carlo; Kim, I; Petersen, Floyd; Kirsch, Wolff

    2007-08-01

    To establish a baseline of phase differences between tissues in a number of regions of the human brain as a means of detecting iron abnormalities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A fully flow-compensated, three-dimensional (3D), high-resolution, gradient-echo (GRE) susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence was used to collect magnitude and phase data at 1.5 T. The phase images were high-pass-filtered and processed region by region with hand-drawn areas. The regions evaluated included the motor cortex (MC), putamen (PUT), globus pallidus (GP), caudate nucleus (CN), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN). A total of 75 subjects, ranging in age from 55 to 89 years, were analyzed. The phase was found to have a Gaussian-like distribution with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.046 radians on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Most regions of interest (ROIs) contained at least 100 pixels, giving a standard error of the mean (SEM) of 0.0046 radians or less. In the MC, phase differences were found to be roughly 0.273 radians between CSF and gray matter (GM), and 0.083 radians between CSF and white matter (WM). The difference between CSF and the GP was 0.201 radians, and between CSF and the CN (head) it was 0.213 radians. For CSF and the PUT (the lower outer part) the difference was 0.449 radians, and between CSF and the RN (third slice vascularized region) it was 0.353 radians. Finally, the phase difference between CSF and SN was 0.345 radians. The Gaussian-like distributions in phase make it possible to predict deviations from normal phase behavior for tissues in the brain. Using phase as an iron marker may be useful for studying absorption of iron in diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), Alzheimer's, and multiple sclerosis (MS), and other iron-related diseases. The phases quoted here will serve as a baseline for future studies that look for changes in iron content. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Similarities of biochemical abnormalities between major depressive disorder and bipolar depression: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuming; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Guoxiang; Xiang, Qi; Ling, Xueying; Liu, Sirun; Huang, Li; Jia, Yanbin

    2014-10-01

    Depression in the context of bipolar disorder (BD) is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD), leading to mistreatments and poor clinical outcomes for many bipolar patients. Previous neuroimaging studies found mixed results on brain structure, and biochemical metabolism of the two disorders. To eliminate the compounding effects of medication, and aging, this study sought to investigate the brain biochemical changes of treatment-naïve, non-late-life patients with MDD and BD in white matter in prefrontal (WMP) lobe, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Three groups of participants were recruited: 26 MDD patients, 20 depressed BD patients, and 13 healthy controls. The multi-voxel (1)H-MRS [repetition time (TR)=1000ms; echo-time (TE)=144ms] was used for the measurement of N-acetylaspartate(NAA), choline containg compounds (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in three brain locations: white matter in prefrontal (WMP) lobe, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Two ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr as a measure of brain biochemical changes were compared among three experimental groups. On the comparison of brain biochemical changes, both MDD patients and BD patients showed many similarities compared to the controls. They both had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio in the left WMP lobe. There were no significant differences among three experimental groups for Cho/Cr ratio in the WMP lobe, and for the ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the bilateral ACC and hippocampus. The only difference between MDD and BD patients existed for the NAA/Cr ratio in the right WMP lobe. While MDD patients had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio than controls, BD patients showed no such differences. On the comparison of correlation of medical variables and brain biochemical changes, all participants demonstrated no significant correlations. Reduced NAA/Cr ratio at the left WMP lobe indicated the dysfunction of neuronal

  14. The prevalence of abnormal preoperative neurological examination in Scheuermann kyphosis: correlation with X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woojin; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; Hu, Guangxun; Buchowski, Jacob M; Dorward, Ian G; Pahys, Joshua M; Cho, Samuel K; Kang, Matthew M; Zebala, Lukas P; Koester, Linda A

    2014-10-01

    Retrospective. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of abnormal neurological findings detected by physical examination in Scheuermann kyphosis and to correlate it to radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and results of operative treatment. There have been sporadic reports about abnormal neurological findings in patients with Scheuermann kyphosis. Among 82 patients with Scheuermann kyphosis who underwent corrective surgery, 69 primary cases were selected. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively in terms of pre and postoperative neurological examinations. Sensory or motor change was defined as an abnormal neurological examination. Their duration, associated problems, and various parameters on preoperative radiographs and MRI examinations were also measured to search for any atypical findings associated with an abnormal neurological examination. There were 6 cases (9%) (group AbN), with an abnormal neurological examination ranging from severe myelopathy to a subtle change (e.g., sensory paresthesias on trunk). Five patients recovered to a normal neurological examination after corrective surgery. The remaining 1 patient with severe myelopathy also showed marked improvement and was ambulatory unassisted by 2-year follow-up. In patients with a normal neurological examination (group N, n = 63), only 1 patient had neurological sequelae because of anterior spinal artery syndrome after combined anterior-posterior correction. No preoperative radiographical parameters were significantly different between groups. Average age was 21.3 (AbN) and 18.6 (N) years (P = 0.55). Average preoperative T5-12 kyphosis was 69.0° (AbN) and 72.5° (N) (P = 0.61). Forty-two magnetic resonance images were obtained and all showed typical findings of Scheuermann kyphosis. Five patients in the AbN group (1 patient underwent computed tomography/myelography) and 37 patients in the N group underwent an MRI. The prevalence of abnormal neurological findings in

  15. The value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostics and prediction of morbidity in cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Algebally, Ahmed M; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients' files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97-100% and 94-100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient's morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI.

  16. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  17. Metabolic differentiation and classification of abnormal Savda Munziq's pharmacodynamic role on rat models with different diseases by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Batur; Xia, Guo; Mijit, Mahmut; Hizbulla, Mawlanjan; Kurbantay, Nazuk; You, Li; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uyghur herbal preparation used as a therapy for abnormal Savda-related diseases. In this study, we investigate ASMq's dynamic effects on abnormal Savda rat models under different disease conditions. Abnormal Savda rat models with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and asthma dosed of ASMq. Serum samples of each animal tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analyzed by orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis. Compared with healthy controls, HCC rats had higher concentrations of amino acids, fat-related metabolites, lactate, myoinositol, and citrate, but lower concentrations of α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine. Following ASMq treatment, the serum acetone very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, unsaturated lipids, acetylcysteine, and pyruvate concentration decreased, but α-glucose, β-glucose, and glutamine concentration increased (P < 0.05). T2DM rats had higher concentrations of α- and β-glucose, but lower concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, tyrosine, creatine, alanine, carnitine, and phenylalanine. After ASMq treated T2DM groups showed reduced α- and β-glucose and increased creatine levels (P < 0.05). Asthma rats had higher acetate, carnitine, formate, and phenylalanine levels, but lower concentrations of glutamine, glycoprotein, lactate, VLDL, LDL, and unsaturated lipids. ASMq treatment showed increased glutamine and reduced carnitine, glycoprotein, formate, and phenylalanine levels (P < 0.05). Low immune function, decreased oxidative defense, liver function abnormalities, amino acid deficiencies, and energy metabolism disorders are common characteristics of abnormal Savda-related diseases. ASMq may improve the abnormal metabolism and immune function of rat models with different diseases combined abnormal Savda.

  18. A magnetic resonance imaging study of abnormalities of the patella and patellar tendon that predispose children to acute patellofemoral dislocation.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Barış; Çiçek, Esin Derin; Şirin, Evrim; Özdemir, Güzelali; Karakuş, Özgün; Muratlı, Hasan Hilmi

    This study compared 20 children hospitalised with acute patellofemoral dislocation with an age-matched healthy control group with no history of knee problems or patellar dislocation. The following morphological parameters were significantly different between the groups: the mean patellar width and length, mean sulcus depth, mean patellar tendon width and total patellar volume. The magnetic resonance imaging findings of this study suggested that structurally smaller than normal patella and patellar tendon volumes are predisposing factors for acute patellofemoral dislocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome or Suspected Craniovertebral or Cervical Spine Abnormalities: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder affecting the connective tissue. EDS can manifest with symptoms attributable to the spine or craniovertebral junction (CVJ). In addition to EDS, numerous congenital, developmental, or acquired disorders can increase ligamentous laxity in the CVJ and cervical spine. Resulting abnormalities can lead to morbidity and serious neurologic complications. Appropriate imaging and diagnosis is needed to determine patient management and need for complex surgery. Some spinal abnormalities cause symptoms or are more pronounced while patients sit, stand, or perform specific movements. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) allows imaging of the spine or CVJ with patients in upright, weight-bearing positions and can be combined with dynamic maneuvers, such as flexion, extension, or rotation. Imaging in these positions could allow diagnosticians to better detect spinal or CVJ abnormalities than recumbent MRI or even a combination of other available imaging modalities might allow. Objectives To determine the diagnostic impact and clinical utility of pMRI for the assessment of (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS and (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 1998, to September 28, 2014. Review Methods Studies comparing pMRI to recumbent MRI or other available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of spinal or CVJ abnormalities were reviewed. All studies of spinal or CVJ imaging in people with EDS were included as well as studies among people with suspected major CVJ or cervical spine abnormalities (cervical or craniovertebral spine instability, basilar invagination, cranial settling, cervical stenosis, spinal cord compression, Chiari

  1. An investigation into the relationship between vigabatrin, movement disorders, and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Fong, Choong Yi; Osborne, John P; Edwards, Stuart W; Hemingway, Cheryl; Hancock, Eleanor; Johnson, Anthony L; Kennedy, Colin R; Kneen, Rachel; Likeman, Marcus; Lux, Andrew L; Mordekar, Santosh R; Murugan, Velayutham; Newton, Richard W; Pike, Michael; Quinn, Michael; Spinty, Stefan; Vassallo, Grace; Verity, Christopher M; Whitney, Andrea; O'Callaghan, Finbar J K

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between movement disorders, changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and vigabatrin therapy in children with infantile spasms. Retrospective review and brain MRI analysis of children enrolled in the International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS) who developed a movement disorder on vigabatrin therapy. Comparisons were made with controls within ICISS who had no movement disorder. Ten of 124 infants had a movement disorder and in eight it had developed on vigabatrin therapy. Two had a movement disorder that resolved on dose-reduction of vigabatrin, one had improvement on withdrawing vigabatrin, two had resolution without any dose change, and in three it persisted despite vigabatrin withdrawal. The typical brain MRI changes associated with vigabatrin therapy were noted in two infants. Ten control infants were identified. Typical MRI changes noted with vigabatrin were noted in three controls. It is possible that in two out of eight cases, vigabatrin was associated with the development of a movement disorder. In six out of eight cases a causal relationship was less plausible. The majority of infants treated with vigabatrin did not develop a movement disorder. MRI changes associated with vigabatrin do not appear to be specifically related to the movement disorder. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Abnormal baseline brain activity in Alzheimer's disease patients with depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Guo, Zhongwei; Ding, Yanping; Li, Jiapeng; Wang, Gang; Hou, Hongtao; Chen, Xingli; Yu, Enyan

    2017-07-01

    As one of the most common mental disorders and the most important precursor of suicide in Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression is associated with a decline in both well-being and daily functioning. At present, the diagnosis of AD patients with depression (D-AD) is largely dependent on clinical signs and symptoms, and the precise neural correlate underlying D-AD is still not fully understood. The current study sought to investigate low-frequency oscillations at the voxel level in D-AD patients based on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) measured using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined 22 D-AD patients and 21 non-depressed AD (nD-AD) patients. The results revealed that D-AD patients exhibited increased ALFF values in the left caudate and thalamus and decreased ALFF values in the left middle temporal pole compared with nD-AD patients. These findings may provide further insight into the underlying neuropathophysiology of AD with depression.

  3. [A comparative analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with or without abnormal findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Zhao; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Ping; Xie, Li-Na; Yi, Xiao-Li; Ren, Hai-Tao; Yang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%). All children had positive anti-NMDAR antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid, and 29 children (88%) had positive serum antibody. Of all the children, 15 (46%) had increased leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid, 3 (9%) had an increase in protein, and 29 (88%) had positive oligoclonal band; 26 children (79%) had electroencephalographic abnormalities (epileptic wave, slow wave, or a combination of these two types of waves). One child experienced respiratory failure. One child was found to have germinoma in the sellar region during follow-up. Of all the 33 children, 13 (39%) had abnormal cranial MRI findings, with hypointensity or isointensity on T1W1 and hyperintensity on T2WI and T2-FLAIR; 2 children had dural enhancement. As for the location of lesion, 5 children (38%) had lesions in the temporal lobe, 3 (23%) in the frontal lobe, 3 (23%) in the basal ganglia, 2 (15%) in the parietal lobe, 2 (15%) in the occipital lobe, 2 (15%) in the brainstem, 1 (8%) in the thalamus, and 1 (8%) in the cerebellum. Among the 13 children with abnormal cranial MRI findings, 5 (38%) had lesions mainly in the grey matter and 8 (62%) had lesions mainly in the white matter. Compared with the children with normal cranial MRI findings, the children with abnormal cranial MRI findings had significantly higher

  4. A prospective study of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with cluster of seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, S A; Cherukuri, Pavankumar; Mridula, Rukmini; Harshavardhana, K R; Gaddamanugu, Padmaja; Sarva, Sailaja; Meena, A K; Borgohain, Rupam; Jyotsna Rani, Y

    2017-04-01

    To study the frequency, imaging characteristics, and clinical predictors for development of periictal diffusion weighted MRI abnormalities. We prospectively analyzed electro clinical and imaging characteristic of adult patients with cluster of seizures or status epilepticus between November 2013 and November 2015, in whom the diffusion weighted imaging was done within 24h after the end of last seizure (clinical or electrographic). There were thirty patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty patients (66%) had periictal MRI abnormalities. Nine patients (34%) did not have any MRI abnormality. All the patients with PMA had abnormalities on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Hippocampal abnormalities were seen in nine (53%), perisylvian in two (11.7%), thalamic in five (30%), splenium involvement in two (11.7%) and cortical involvement (temporo-occipital, parieto-occipital, temporo-parietal, fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal) in sixteen (94.1%) patients. Complete reversal of DWI changes was noted in sixteen (80%) patients and four (20%) patients showed partial resolution of MRI abnormalities. Mean duration of seizures was significantly higher among patients with PMA (59.11+20.97h) compared to those without MRI changes (27.33+9.33h) (p<0.001). Diffusion abnormalities on MRI are common in patients with cluster of seizures and status epilepticus and were highly concordant with clinical semiology and EEG activity. Patients with longer duration of seizures/status were more likely to have PMA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible involvement of rumination in gray matter abnormalities in persistent symptoms of major depression: an exploratory magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Machino, Akihiko; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Ueda, Kazutaka; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2014-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies has identified brain regions with gray matter (GM) abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A few studies addressing GM abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have yielded inconsistent results. Moreover, although TRD patients tend to exhibit ruminative thoughts, it remains unclear whether rumination is related to GM abnormalities in such patients or not. We conducted structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify GM differences among 29 TRD patients and 29 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. A response style questionnaire was used to assess the respective degrees of rumination in TRD patients. Structural correlates of rumination were examined. TRD patients showed several regions with smaller GM volume than in healthy subjects: the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right ventral ACC, right superior frontal gyrus, right cerebellum (Crus I), and cerebellar vermis. GM volumes in these regions did not correlate to rumination. However, whole-brain analysis revealed that rumination was positively correlated with the GM volume in the right superior temporal gyrus in TRD patients. Structural correlates of rumination were examined only in TRD patients. Our data provide additional evidence supporting the hypothesis that TRD patients show GM abnormalities compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, this report is the first to describe a study identifying brain regions for which the GM volume is correlated with rumination in TRD patients. These results improve our understanding of the anatomical characteristics of TRD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is magnetic resonance spectroscopy capable of detecting metabolic abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 1 that are not revealed in brain parenchyma of normal appearance?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos Pondé; Ferraz-Filho, José Roberto Lopes; Torres, Ulysses S; da Rocha, Antônio José; Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Souza, Antônio Soares; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in normal-appearing brain and in non-neoplastic brain lesions in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have been discrepant. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyze the metabolic patterns in the basal ganglia of patients with NF1 and examine their correlation with focal hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images (T2-weighted hyperintensities). We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy data of 42 individuals with NF1 (18 with and 24 without T2- weighted hyperintensities) and 25 controls matched for gender and age. A single-voxel technique was employed by manually placing a region of interest with a uniform size over a predetermined anatomical region including the globus pallidum and putamen (capsulolenticular region). We further analyzed the ratios of choline/creatine, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine, and myoinositol/creatine metabolites and the occurrence of T2-weighted hyperintensities in these regions in individuals with NF1. There was a significant difference between the NF1 and control groups with regard to the mean values of myoinositol/creatine and choline/creatine, with higher metabolite values observed in the NF1 group (P < 0.001). Only the myoinositol/creatine ratio was able to discriminate between NF1 subgroups with and without T2-weighted hyperintensities. For the NAA/creatine ratio, there was no significant difference between the NF1 and the control groups. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows the characterization of tissue abnormalities not demonstrable in the structural images of individuals with NF1 through choline and myoinositol metabolite analysis. Yet the preserved NAA values argue against demyelination and axonal degeneration occurring in the region, suggesting instead a functional neuronal stability. Taken in association with the findings of lack of clinical manifestations and the known transient nature of T2-weighted hyperintensities in NF1 as demonstrated by other

  7. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Electromagnetic Modeling Related ... Resonance Imaging Equipment in Clinical Use (March 2015) FDA/CDER: Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Safety ...

  8. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to characterize abnormal body composition phenotypes in youth with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orsso, Camila E; Mackenzie, Michelle; Alberga, Angela S; Sharma, Arya M; Richer, Lawrence; Rubin, Daniela A; Prado, Carla M; Haqq, Andrea M

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides detailed assessment of body composition compartments. No studies have employed state-of-the-art MRI methods to accurately examine abdominal adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle in youth with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Therefore, this study aimed to describe AT distribution and skeletal muscle in the abdominal region of youth with PWS using MRI. Anthropometric measures and whole-abdominal T1-weighted MRI were performed in sixteen (5 males and 11 females) youth diagnosed with PWS, and seventeen (10 males and 7 females) youth who did not have PWS (controls). Volume of subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and total AT, and skeletal muscle in the abdominal region were quantified using a semiautomatic procedure. Results were summarized using median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th-75th), and ANCOVA test was used (with age and sex as covariates) to examine differences in body composition compartments between PWS and control group. PWS group had similar age (10.5, 6.6-13.9 vs. 12.8, 10.0-14.4years; P=0.14) and BMI z-score (0.5, 0.2-1.3 vs. 0.2, -0.3 to 1.0; P=0.33) when compared with controls. Significant differences were observed in absolute volumes of total AT (PWS: 4.1, 2.0-6.6L; control: 2.9, 2.0-4.5L; P=0.01), subcutaneous AT (PWS: 2.8, 1.4-4.8L; control: 1.8, 1.1-3.2L; P=0.01), and intermuscular AT (PWS: 0.3, 0.1-0.4L; control: 0.3, 0.2-0.3L; P<0.005). Visceral AT/subcutaneous AT was lower in PWS (0.4, 0.3-0.5) compared to controls (0.5, 0.4-0.6), P=0.01. In addition, skeletal muscle volume was lower in PWS (1.5, 1.0-2.6L) compared to controls (3.1, 1.6-3.9L), P=0.03. Ratios of abdominal AT compartments to skeletal muscle were all higher in PWS compared to controls (all P<0.005). PWS youth have greater abdominal adiposity, particularly subcutaneous AT and intermuscular AT, and lower volume of skeletal muscle compared to controls. The decreased ratio of visceral AT/subcutaneous AT in youth with PWS suggests an

  9. Use of a Novel High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography Protocol to Detect Abnormal Dorsal Root Ganglia in Sjögren Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients

  10. The adult spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities syndrome: magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings in adults with spinal cord injuries having normal radiographs and computed tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Kasimatis, Georgios B; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Megas, Panagiotis; Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Gliatis, John; Tyllianakis, Minos; Lambiris, Elias

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORA) is thought to represent mostly a pediatric entity and its incidence in adults is rather underreported. Some authors have also proposed the term spinal cord injury without radiologic evidence of trauma, as more precisely describing the condition of adult SCIWORA in the setting of cervical spondylosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate adult patients with cervical spine injuries and radiological-clinical examination discrepancy, and to discuss their characteristics and current management. During a 16-year period, 166 patients with a cervical spine injury were admitted in our institution (Level I trauma center). Upper cervical spine injuries (occiput to C2, 54 patients) were treated mainly by a Halo vest, whereas lower cervical spine injuries (C3-T1, 112 patients) were treated surgically either with an anterior, or posterior procedure, or both. Seven of these 166 patients (4.2%) had a radiologic-clinical mismatch, i.e., they presented with frank spinal cord injury with no signs of trauma, and were included in the study. Magnetic resonance imaging was available for 6 of 7 patients, showing intramedullary signal changes in 5 of 6 patients with varying degrees of compression from the disc and/or the ligamentum flavum, whereas the remaining patient had only traumatic herniation of the intervertebral disc and ligamentum flavum bulging. Follow-up period was 6.4 years on average (1-10 years). This retrospective chart review provides information on adult patients with cervical spinal cord injuries whose radiographs and computed tomography studies were normal. It furthers reinforces the pathologic background of SCIWORA in an adult population, when evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Particularly for patients with cervical spondylosis, special attention should be paid with regard to vascular compromise by predisposing factors such as smoking or vascular disease, since they probably contribute in

  11. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  12. The putaminal abnormalities on 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging: can they separate parkinsonism-predominant multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie-Ying; Huang, Biao; Yang, Wan-Qun; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Wang, Li-Min; Wang, Li-Juan; Zhong, Xiao-Ling

    2015-03-01

    The putaminal abnormalities detected on 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as putaminal atrophy, slit-like hyperintense rim, and hypointensity in the putamen on T2-weighted (T2W) imaging are important signs on differentiating multiple system atrophy with parkinsonism (MSA-P) from Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the putaminal abnormalities may have different manifestations on 3.0 T from those on 1.5 T. To investigate the diagnostic value of putaminal abnormalities on 3.0 T MRI for differentiating MSA-P from PD. The study included a MSA-P group (9 men, 9 women), a PD group (12 men, 14 women), and a control group (11 men, 13 women). All subjects were examined with 3.0 T MRI using the conventional protocol. Putaminal atrophy, T2-hypointensity in the dorsolateral putamenat, and a slit-like hyperintense rim on the lateral putamen were evaluated in each subject. There were no significant differences in the slit-like hyperintense rim (P = 0.782) or T2-hypointensity in the dorsolateral putamen (P = 0.338) among the three groups. Bilateral putaminal atrophy was found in 44.4% (8 of 18) of the MSA-P patients, in only 7.7% (2 of 26) of the PD patients, and in none of the controls. The proportion of subjects with putaminal atrophy was significantly higher in the MAS-P group (P = 0.008) and control group (P < 0.001). The specificity and sensitivity of putaminal atrophy for distinguishing MSA-P from PD was 92.3% and 44.4%, respectively. The signal changes in the putamen on T2W imaging on 3.0 T MRI, including slit-like hyperintense rim and putaminal hypointensity, are not specific signs for MSA-P. Putaminal atrophy is highly specific for differentiating MSA-P from PD and healthy controls, but its insufficient sensitivity limits its diagnostic value. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Noncontrast Magnetic Resonance Lymphography.

    PubMed

    Arrivé, Lionel; Derhy, Sarah; El Mouhadi, Sanaâ; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Menu, Yves; Becker, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Different imaging techniques have been used for the investigation of the lymphatic channels and lymph glands. Noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography has significant advantages in comparison with other imaging modalities. Noncontrast MR lymphography uses very heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences which obtain a nearly complete signal loss in tissue background and specific display of lymphatic vessels with a long T2 relaxation time. The raw data can be processed with different algorithms such as maximum intensity projection algorithm to obtain an anatomic representation. Standard T2-weighted MR images easily demonstrate the location of edema. It appears as subcutaneous infiltration of soft tissue with a classical honeycomb pattern. True collection around the muscular area may be demonstrated in case of severe lymphedema. Lymph nodes may be normal in size, number, and signal intensity; in other cases, lymph nodes may be smaller in size or number of lymph nodes may be restricted. MR lymphography allows a classification of lymphedema in aplasia (no collecting vessels demonstrated); hypoplasia (a small number of lymphatic vessels), and numerical hyperplasia or hyperplasia (with an increased number of lymphatic vessels of greater and abnormal diameter). Noncontrast MR lymphography is a unique noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of lymphedema. It can be used for positive diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and specific evaluation of lymphedema severity. It may also be used for follow-up evaluation after treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS) in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI). Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses. PMID:21114820

  15. Relations of insulin resistance and glycemic abnormalities to cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of cardiac structure and function: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Velagaleti, Raghava S; Gona, Philimon; Chuang, Michael L; Salton, Carol J; Fox, Caroline S; Blease, Susan J; Yeon, Susan B; Manning, Warren J; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Data regarding the relationships of diabetes, insulin resistance, and subclinical hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia with cardiac structure and function are conflicting. We sought to apply volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a free-living cohort to potentially clarify these associations. A total of 1603 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants (age, 64+/-9 years; 55% women) underwent CMR to determine left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM to end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/LVEDV), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction, cardiac output, and left atrial size. Data regarding insulin resistance (homeostasis model, HOMA-IR) and glycemia categories (normal, impaired insulinemia or glycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) were determined. In a subgroup (253 men, 290 women) that underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, we related 2-hour insulin and glucose with CMR measures. In both men and women, all age-adjusted CMR measures increased across HOMA-IR quartiles, but multivariable-adjusted trends were significant only for LVM/ht(2.7) and LVM/LVEDV. LVM/LVEDV and RWT were higher in participants with prediabetes and diabetes (in both sexes) in age-adjusted models, but these associations remained significant after multivariable adjustment only in men. LVM/LVEDV was significantly associated with 2-hour insulin in men only, and RWT was significantly associated with 2-hour glucose in women only. In multivariable stepwise selection analyses, the inclusion of body mass index led to a loss in statistical significance. Although insulin and glucose indices are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure, insulin resistance and worsening glycemia are consistently and independently associated with LVM/LVEDV. These data implicate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in concentric LV remodeling.

  16. Relations of Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Abnormalities to Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Measures of Cardiac Structure and Function: the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Velagaleti, Raghava S.; Gona, Philimon; Chuang, Michael L.; Salton, Carol J.; Fox, Caroline S.; Blease, Susan J.; Yeon, Susan B.; Manning, Warren J.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Data regarding the relationships of diabetes, insulin resistance and sub-clinical hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia with cardiac structure and function are conflicting. We sought to apply volumetric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a free-living cohort to potentially clarify these associations. Methods and Results A total of 1603 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants (age 64±9 years; 55% women) underwent CMR to determine left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM to end-diastolic volume ratio (LVM/LVEDV), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO) and left atrial size (LAD). Data regarding insulin resistance (homeostasis model, HOMA-IR) and glycemia categories (normal, impaired insulinemia or glycemia, pre-diabetes and diabetes) were determined. In a subgroup (253 men, 290 women) that underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, we related 2-hr insulin and glucose with CMR measures. In both men and women, all age-adjusted CMR measures increased across HOMA-IR quartiles, but multivariable-adjusted trends were significant only for LVM/ht2.7 and LVM/LVEDV. LVM/LVEDV and RWT were higher in participants with pre-diabetes and diabetes (in both sexes) in age-adjusted models, but these associations remained significant after multivariable-adjustment only in men. LVM/LVEDV was significantly associated with 2-hr insulin in men only, and RWT was significantly associated with 2-hr glucose in women only. In multivariable stepwise selection analyses, the inclusion of BMI led to a loss in statistical significance. Conclusions While insulin and glucose indices are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure, insulin resistance and worsening glycemia are consistently and independently associated with LVM/LVEDV. These data implicate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in concentric LV remodeling. PMID:20208015

  17. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  18. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Shift Reagents: Abnormal 13C Shifts Produced by Complexation of Lanthanide Chelates with Saturated Amines and n-Butyl Isocyanide

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Claude; Leibfritz, Dieter; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Roberts, John D.

    1973-01-01

    Lanthanide-induced shfits of 13C nuclear magnetic resonances are reported for several amines and n-butyl isocyanide. Contact contributions to such shifts, especially of β carbons, are clearly important for the chelates of Eu+3 and Pr+3. The importance of contact terms is shown to change in a rather predictable manner with the structure of the amine. PMID:16592062

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging changes of sacroiliac joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain: inter-reader reliability and prevalence of abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Heuft-Dorenbosch, Liesbeth; Weijers, René; Landewé, Robert; van der Linden, Sjef; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2006-01-01

    To study the inter-reader reliability of detecting abnormalities of sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to study the prevalence of inflammation and structural changes at various sites of the SI joints. Sixty-eight patients with inflammatory back pain (at least four of the five following criteria: symptom onset before age 40, insidious onset, morning stiffness, duration >3 months, improvement with exercise--or three out of five of these plus night pain) were included (38% male; mean age, 34.9 years [standard deviation 10.3]; 46% HLA-B27-positive; mean symptom duration, 18 months), with symptom duration <2 years. A MRI scan of the SI joints was made in the coronal plane with the following sequences: T1-weighted spin echo, short-tau inversion recovery, T2-weighted fast-spin echo with fat saturation, and T1-spin echo with fat saturation after the administration of gadolinium. Both SI joints were scored for inflammation (separately for subchondral bone and bone marrow, joint space, joint capsule, ligaments) as well as for structural changes (erosions, sclerosis, ankylosis), by two observers independently. Agreement between the two readers was analysed by concordance and discordance rates and by kappa statistics. Inflammation was present in 32 SI joints of 22 patients, most frequently located in bone marrow and/or subchondral bone (29 joints in 21 patients). Readers agreed on the presence of inflammation in 85% of the cases in the right SI joint and in 78% of the cases in the left SI joint. Structural changes on MRI were present in 11 patients. Ten of these 11 patients also showed signs of inflammation. Agreement on the presence or absence of inflammation and structural changes of SI joints by MRI was acceptable, and was sufficiently high to be useful in ascertaining inflammatory and structural changes due to sacroiliitis. About one-third of patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  1. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-03-14

    Magnetic resonance is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of a magnetic resonance experiment has remained largely unchanged for almost 50 years, being mainly restricted to the qualitative probing of only a limited set of the properties that can in principle be accessed by this technique. Here we introduce an approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization--which we term 'magnetic resonance fingerprinting' (MRF)--that permits the simultaneous non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue. MRF thus provides an alternative way to quantitatively detect and analyse complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to identify the presence of a specific target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity and speed of a magnetic resonance study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern-recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and can thus improve measurement accuracy.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining detailed ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Griswold, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic Resonance (MR) is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of an MR experiment has remained nearly constant for almost 50 years. Here we introduce a novel paradigm, Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) that permits the non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue simultaneously through a new approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. MRF provides a new mechanism to quantitatively detect and analyze complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to specifically identify the presence of a target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity, and speed of an MR study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and thus can improve accuracy compared to previous approaches. PMID:23486058

  4. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  5. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  6. Intrinsic brain abnormalities in young healthy adults with childhood trauma: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang

    2017-06-01

    Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Intra-regional brain activity was evaluated by regional homogeneity method and compared between groups. Areas with altered regional homogeneity were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Statistical analyses were performed by setting current depression and anxiety as covariates. Adults with childhood trauma showed decreased regional homogeneity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus and insula, and the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as increased regional homogeneity in the right cerebellum and left middle temporal gyrus. Regional homogeneity values in the left middle temporal gyrus, right insula and right cerebellum were correlated with childhood trauma severity. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited altered default mode network, cerebellum-default mode network and insula-default mode network connectivity when the left middle temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and right insula were selected as seed area, respectively. The present outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with disturbed intrinsic brain function, especially the default mode network, in adults even without psychiatric diagnoses, which may mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders in later life.

  7. Abnormal Patella Height Based on Insall-Salvati Ratio and its Correlation with Patellar Cartilage Lesions: An Extremity-Dedicated Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of 1703 Chinese Cases.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Yang, J; Chen, S; Zhu, Y; Zhu, C

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic performance of patellar position for patellar cartilage lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the abnormal patella height and its correlation with chondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint in China. A total of 1703 consecutive patients who performed knee joint examination using an extremity-dedicated low-field magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled in this study. Patellar cartilage lesions were diagnosed based on the result of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data. Patella height was defined as the ratio of patellar tendon length to patellar length according to Insall-Salvati index. Patella alta and infera were defined as tendon length/patellar length >1.2 and <0.8, respectively. The total prevalence of patellar cartilage lesions was 38.0%. The prevalence in females was significantly higher than that in males (46.4% vs 28.8%, p < 0.001). Age notably increased the incidence of patellar cartilage lesions (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that tendon length/patellar length ratio was significantly correlated with patellar cartilage lesions (odds ratio = 6.380, p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with cartilage lesions showed significantly higher rates of patella alta and infera (p < 0.001). In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that abnormal patella height had statistical significance in diagnosing cartilage lesions (p < 0.001). However, the area under the curve (0.596; 95% confidence interval: 0.568-0.624) and sensitivity (47.0%) were relatively low, while the specificity was 72.2%. Patients with patellar cartilage lesions have an increased tendon length/patellar length ratio. The abnormal patella height is significantly correlated with chondral lesions and can be used as a potential diagnostic marker. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  8. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  9. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality.

  10. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Characteristic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint: Focus on Abnormal Bone Marrow Signal of the Mandibular Condyle, Pannus, and Lymph Node Swelling in the Parotid Glands.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Naohisa; Kaneda, Takashi; Muraoka, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Taiga; Ito, Kotaro; Kawashima, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicating bone and soft tissue involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Twenty-one patients with RA and TMJ pain who underwent MRI examination of the TMJs at the authors' hospital from August 2006 to December 2014 were included in this study. Twenty-two patients with normal TMJs who underwent MRI examination at the authors' hospital from November to December 2014 were included as controls. MRI findings were compared between the 2 groups. MRI findings of RA in the TMJ included 1) abnormal disc position (95.2%), 2) abnormal disc morphology (83.3%), 3) joint effusion (30.9%), 4) osseous changes in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), 5) synovial proliferation (pannus; 85.7%), 6) erosion of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (9.52%), 7) deformity of the articular eminence and glenoid fossa (16.6%), 8) abnormal bone marrow signal in the mandibular condyle (83.3%), and 9) swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands (78.5%). The abnormal bone marrow signal and pannus in the mandibular condyle and lymph node swelling in the parotid glands were markedly more common in patients with RA than in controls. MRI findings of RA of the TMJs were characterized by bone and soft tissue involvement, including abnormal bone marrow signal of the mandibular condyle, pannus, and swelling of lymph nodes in the parotid glands. These characteristic MRI findings could be useful in detecting RA in the TMJ in a clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional Microstructural and Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Abnormalities in the Corpus Callosum of Neonates With Congenital Heart Defect Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Cornelia; Singer, Jitka; Latal, Beatrice; Knirsch, Walter; Makki, Malek

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the structural development of the corpus callosum in term neonates with congenital heart defect before and after surgery using diffusion tensor imaging and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared parallel and radial diffusions, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy, and volume of 5 substructures of the corpus callosum: genu, rostral body, body, isthmus, and splenium. Compared to healthy controls, we found a significantly lower volume of the splenium and total corpus callosum and a higher radial diffusion and lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of patients presurgery; a lower volume in all substructures in the postsurgery group; higher radial diffusion in the rostral body, body, and splenium; and a higher apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of postsurgery patients. Similar fractional anisotropy changes in congenital heart defect patients were reported in preterm infants. Our findings in apparent diffusion coefficient in the splenium of these patients (pre and postsurgery) are comparable to findings in preterm neonates with psychomotor delay. Delayed maturation of the isthmus was also reported in preterm infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Abnormalities in emotion processing within cortical and subcortical regions in criminal psychopaths: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using pictures with emotional content.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jürgen L; Sommer, Monika; Wagner, Verena; Lange, Kirsten; Taschler, Heidrun; Röder, Christian H; Schuierer, Gerhardt; Klein, Helmfried E; Hajak, Göran

    2003-07-15

    Neurobiology of psychopathy is important for our understanding of current neuropsychiatric questions. Despite a growing interest in biological research in psychopathy, its neural underpinning remains obscure. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the influence of affective contents on brain activation in psychopaths. Series containing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System were shown to six male psychopaths and six male control subjects while 100 whole-brain echo-planar-imaging measurements were acquired. Differences in brain activation were evaluated using BrainVoyager software 4.6. In psychopaths, increased activation through negative contents was found right-sided in prefrontal regions and amygdala. Activation was reduced right-sided in the subgenual cingulate and the temporal gyrus, and left-sided in the dorsal cingulate and the parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation through positive contents was found left-sided in the orbitofrontal regions. Activation was reduced in right medial frontal and medial temporal regions. These findings underline the hypotheses that psychopathy is neurobiologically reflected by dysregulation and disturbed functional connectivity of emotion-related brain regions. These findings may be interpreted within a framework including prefrontal regions that provide top-down control to and regulate bottom-up signals from limbic areas. Because of the small sample size, the results of this study have to be regarded as preliminary.

  14. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics revealing the intrinsic relationships between neurochemical alterations and neurobehavioral and neuropathological abnormalities in rats exposed to tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqun; Zhao, Fei; Fang, Yanjun; Li, Li; Li, Chaonan; Ta, Na

    2018-06-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) is a widely used environmental organic pollutant. Studies have revealed the presence of both TCEP and its metabolites in environmental media. The neurotoxicity of TCEP has been investigated in vitro but rarely in mammals. This study aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of TCEP on rats and to explore the possible intrinsic relationships between neurochemical alterations and the neurotoxic effects. For this, 6-week-old female SD rats were administered 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg/d TCEP daily by oral gavage for 60 days. TCEP exposure produced neurotoxicity in the female SD rats. The Morris water maze results revealed a dose-dependent decline in spatial learning and memory functions of exposed rats. In addition, pathological examination of the brain showed apoptotic and necrotic lesions in the CA1 field pyramidal cells of the hippocampus; further, rats treated with the highest TCEP dose showed inflammatory cells and calcified/ossified foci in the cortex areas. Furthermore, 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics results revealed that TCEP exposure interfered with normal biological processes, including amino acid and neurotransmitter metabolism, energy metabolism, and cell membrane function integrity by changing the concentrations of glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl-d-aspartate, creatine, and lactic acid metabolites in the brain of treated rats. However, the changes in the concentrations of taurine, myo-inositol, creatine, and choline metabolites, which are associated with antioxidant physiological processes, might be a neuroprotective mechanism to prevent the neurotoxicity induced by TCEP. Thus, metabolomics combined with neuropathology and neurobehavioral analyses provided critical insights to investigate the TCEP-induced neurotoxic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ventrolateral Motor Thalamus Abnormal Connectivity in Essential Tremor Before and After Thalamotomy: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Najdenovska, Elena; Régis, Jean; Witjas, Tatiana; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jérôme; Faouzi, Mohamed; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventrolateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy and compared against healthy controls (HCs). In total, 17 consecutive patients with ET and 10 HCs were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using the ventrolateral ventral (VLV) thalamic nucleus as the region of interest, extracted with automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal correlations of VLV at whole brain level were evaluated by comparing drug-naïve patients with ET with HCs, and longitudinally, 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy. 1 year thalamotomy MR signature was always located inside VLV and did not correlate with any of FC measures (P > 0.05). This suggested presence of longitudinal changes in VLV FC independently of the MR signature volume. Pretherapeutic ET displayed altered VLV FC with left primary sensory-motor cortex, pedunculopontine nucleus, dorsal anterior cingulate, left visual association, and left superior parietal areas. Pretherapeutic negative FC with primary somatosensory cortex and pedunculopontine nucleus correlated with poorer baseline tremor scores (Spearman = 0.04 and 0.01). Longitudinal study displayed changes within right dorsal attention (frontal eye-fields and posterior parietal) and salience (anterior insula) networks, as well as areas involved in hand movement planning or language production. Our results demonstrated that patients with ET and HCs differ in their left VLV FC to primary somatosensory and supplementary motor, visual association, or brainstem areas (pedunculopontine nucleus). Longitudinal changes display reorganization of dorsal attention and salience networks after thalamotomy. Beside attentional gateway, they are also known for their major role in facilitating a rapid access to the motor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Dynamic Pelvic Floor Dynamic pelvic floor magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of pelvic floor MRI? What is dynamic pelvic floor MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  18. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  19. Back pain and degenerative abnormalities in the spine of young elite divers: a 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Baranto, Adad; Hellström, Mikael; Nyman, Rickard; Lundin, Olof; Swärd, Leif

    2006-09-01

    Several studies have been published on disc degeneration among young athletes in sports with great demands on the back, but few on competitive divers; however, there are no long-term follow-up studies. Twenty elite divers between 10 and 21 years of age, with the highest possible national ranking, were selected at random without knowledge of previous or present back injuries or symptoms for an MRI study of the thoraco-lumbar spine in a 5-year longitudinal study. The occurrence of MRI abnormalities and their correlation with back pain were evaluated. Eighty-nine percent of the divers had a history of back pain and the median age at the first episode of back pain was 15 years. Sixty-five percent of the divers had MRI abnormalities in the thoraco-lumbar spine already at baseline. Only one diver without abnormalities at baseline had developed abnormalities at follow-up. Deterioration of any type of abnormality was found in 9 of 17 (53%) divers. Including all disc levels in all divers, the total number of abnormalities increased by 29% at follow-up, as compared to baseline. The most common abnormalities were reduced disc signal, Schmorl's nodes, and disc height reduction. Since almost all divers had previous or present back pain, a differentiated analysis of the relationship between pain and MRI findings was not possible. However, the high frequency of both back pain and MRI changes suggests a causal relationship. In conclusion, elite divers had high frequency of back pain at young ages and they run a high risk of developing degenerative abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine, probably due to injuries to the spine during the growth spurt.

  20. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  4. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  5. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  6. Magnetic resonance enterography in pediatric celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Koc, Gonca; Doganay, Selim; Sevinc, Eylem; Deniz, Kemal; Chavhan, Govind; Gorkem, Sureyya B; Karacabey, Neslihan; Dogan, Mehmet S; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Aslan, Duran

    To assess if magnetic resonance enterography is capable of showing evidence/extent of disease in pediatric patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease by comparing with a control group, and to correlate the magnetic resonance enterography findings with anti-endomysial antibody level, which is an indicator of gluten-free dietary compliance. Thirty-one pediatric patients (mean age 11.7±3.1 years) with biopsy-proven celiac disease and 40 pediatric patients as a control group were recruited in the study. The magnetic resonance enterography images of both patients with celiac disease and those of the control group were evaluated by two pediatric radiologists in a blinded manner for the mucosal pattern, presence of wall thickening, luminal distention of the small bowel, and extra-intestinal findings. Patient charts were reviewed to note clinical features and laboratory findings. The histopathologic review of the duodenal biopsies was re-conducted. The mean duration of the disease was 5.6±1.8 years (range: 3-7.2 years). In 24 (77%) of the patients, anti-endomysial antibody levels were elevated (mean 119.2±66.6RU/mL). Magnetic resonance enterography revealed normal fold pattern in all the patients. Ten (32%) patients had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Although a majority of the patients had elevated anti-endomysial antibody levels indicating poor dietary compliance, magnetic resonance enterography did not show any mucosal abnormality associated with the inability of magnetic resonance enterography to detect mild/early changes of celiac disease in children. Therefore, it may not be useful for the follow-up of pediatric celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Knoop, Jesper; Dekker, Joost; Klein, Jan-Paul; van der Leeden, Marike; van der Esch, Martin; Reiding, Dick; Voorneman, Ramon E; Gerritsen, Martijn; Roorda, Leo D; Steultjens, Martijn P M; Lems, Willem F

    2012-10-05

    We aimed to explore the associations between knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography (CR) and by high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as biomechanical factors and findings from physical examination in patients with knee OA. This was an explorative cross-sectional study of 105 patients with knee OA. Index knees were imaged using CR and MRI. Multiple features from CR and MRI (cartilage, osteophytes, bone marrow lesions, effusion and synovitis) were related to biomechanical factors (quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, proprioceptive accuracy and varus-valgus laxity) and physical examination findings (bony tenderness, crepitus, bony enlargement and palpable warmth), using multivariable regression analyses. Quadriceps weakness was associated with cartilage integrity, effusion, synovitis (all detected by MRI) and CR-detected joint space narrowing. Knee joint laxity was associated with MRI-detected cartilage integrity, CR-detected joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation. Multiple tissue abnormalities including cartilage integrity, osteophytes and effusion, but only those detected by MRI, were found to be associated with physical examination findings such as crepitus. We observed clinically relevant findings, including a significant association between quadriceps weakness and both effusion and synovitis, detected by MRI. Inflammation was detected in over one-third of the participants, emphasizing the inflammatory component of OA and a possible important role for anti-inflammatory therapies in knee OA. In general, OA-related tissue abnormalities of the knee, even those detected by MRI, were found to be discordant with biomechanical and physical examination features.

  8. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  10. Magnetic resonance for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ravanelli, Marco; Farina, Davide

    2014-04-01

    This review summarizes the most recent experiences on the integration of magnetic resonance in assessing the local extent of laryngeal cancer and detecting submucosal recurrences. Advances in magnetic resonance have been characterized by the development of technical solutions that shorten the acquisition time, thereby reducing motion artifacts, and increase the spatial resolution. Phased-array surface coils, directly applied to the neck, enable the use of parallel-imaging techniques, which greatly reduce the acquisition time, and amplify the signal intensity, being closer to the larynx. One of the most important drawbacks of this technique is the small field-of-view, restricting the imaged area to the larynx. Furthermore, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has increased the set of magnetic resonance sequences. Differently from computed tomography (CT), which has only two variables (precontrast/postcontrast), magnetic resonance is based on a multiparameter analysis (T2-weighting and T1-weighting, DWI, and postcontrast acquisition). This multiparameter approach amplifies the contrast resolution. It has, also, permitted to differentiate scar tissue (after laser resection) from submucosal recurrent disease. In addition, DWI sequences have the potential of a more precise discrimination of peritumoral edema from neoplastic tissue, which may lead to improve the assessment of paraglottic space invasion. Magnetic resonance of the larynx is technically challenging. The use of surface coils and motion-reducing techniques is critical to achieve adequate image quality. The intrinsic high-contrast resolution is further increased by the integration of information from different sequences. When CT has not been conclusive, magnetic resonance is indicated in the pretreatment local assessment and in the suspicion of submucosal recurrence.

  11. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Jasper A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1982-01-01

    Means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial component of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  12. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, J.A.; Cooper, R.K.

    1980-10-10

    The patent consists of means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial correspondent of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  13. Magnetic Resonance with Squeezed Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Bienfait, A.; Campagne-Ibarcq, P.; Kiilerich, A. H.

    2017-10-17

    Vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field set a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a variety of measurements, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report the use of squeezed microwave fields, which are engineered quantum states of light for which fluctuations in one field quadrature are reduced below the vacuum level, to enhance the detection sensitivity of an ensemble of electronic spins at millikelvin temperatures. By shining a squeezed vacuum state on the input port of a microwave resonator containing the spins, we obtain a 1.2-dB noise reduction at the spectrometer output compared to the case of a vacuum input. Thismore » result constitutes a proof of principle of the application of quantum metrology to magnetic resonance spectroscopy.« less

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binoj; Singh, Navdeep; George, Regi A.N; Gilvaz, Sareena

    2013-01-01

    Placenta accreta (PA) is a severe pregnancy complication which occurs when the chorionic villi (CV) invade the myometrium abnormally. Optimal management requires accurate prenatal diagnosis. Ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities for prenatal diagnosis of PA, although USG remains the primary investigation of choice. MRI is a complementary technique and reserved for further characterization when USG is inconclusive or incomplete. Breath-hold T2-weighted half-Fourier rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and balanced steady-state free precession imaging in the three orthogonal planes is the key MRI technique. Markedly heterogeneous placenta, thick intraplacental dark bands on half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE), and disorganized abnormal intraplacental vascularity are the cardinal MRI features of PA. MRI is less reliable in differentiating between different degrees of placental invasion, especially between accreta vera and increta. PMID:24604945

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed

    Goh, R H; Somers, S; Jurriaans, E; Yu, J

    1999-09-01

    To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients.

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hope, P L; Moorcraft, J

    1991-09-01

    MRS is a noninvasive technique that does not use ionizing radiation and can be used to measure relative metabolite concentrations in human tissues and organs in vivo. Phosphorus MRS can be used to study energy metabolites and intracellular pH. The first neonatal applications were described in 1983 in a study of cerebral metabolism. Since then, the value of cerebral MRS as research tool and an investigative technique has been confirmed, and its prognostic power in asphyxiated infants has been established. Techniques of spatial localization and quantitation have been developed, but studies of other organs and the use of other nuclei remain at a very preliminary stage. Considering the huge potential of MRS and the proliferation of high field magnets primarily designed for imaging, there has been a disappointing lack of progress in the development of clinical and research applications of spectroscopy. The logistic differences of studying sick infants in strong magnetic fields make MRS a time-consuming and labor-intensive investigation, which will inevitably limit its widespread routine use. Research studies are hampered by the diversity of spectroscopic and signal processing techniques, which make comparisons of data from different groups impossible. Some techniques for the assessment of cerebral hemodynamics such as doppler ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy have the advantage of being available at the cotside, but MRS is unique in providing quantitative information about a wide range of intracellular metabolites. The altricial development of MRS as a clinical investigative tool in neonatology can be ascribed partly to practical difficulties, but these should not detract from the exciting possibilities opened up by a technique that gives a noninvasive insight into intracellular chemistry. The metabolic information from MRS is an invaluable addition to the information provided by other techniques and will certainly play an important role in unraveling the

  17. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter, Sir

    2002-10-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit.

  18. Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear…

  19. Detailed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis in Infantile Spasms.

    PubMed

    Harini, Chellamani; Sharda, Sonal; Bergin, Ann Marie; Poduri, Annapurna; Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Peters, Jurriaan M; Rakesh, Kshitiz; Kapur, Kush; Pearl, Phillip L; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in infantile spasms, correlate them to clinical characteristics, and describe repeat imaging findings. A retrospective review of infantile spasm patients was conducted, classifying abnormal MRI into developmental, acquired, and nonspecific subgroups. MRIs were abnormal in 52 of 71 infantile spasm patients (23 developmental, 23 acquired, and 6 nonspecific) with no correlation to the clinical infantile spasm characteristics. Both developmental and acquired subgroups exhibited cortical gray and/or white matter abnormalities. Additional abnormalities of deep gray structures, brain stem, callosum, and volume loss occurred in the structural acquired subgroup. Repeat MRI showed better definition of the extent of existing malformations. In structural infantile spasms, developmental/acquired subgroups showed differences in pattern of MRI abnormalities but did not correlate with clinical characteristics.

  20. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  1. Pharmacological Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Chotenimitkhun, Runyawan; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved into a cardiac stress testing modality that can be used to diagnose myocardial ischemia using intravenous dobutamine or vasodilator perfusion agents such as adenosine or dipyridamole. Because CMR produces high-resolution tomographic images of the human heart in multiple imaging planes, it has become a highly attractive noninvasive testing modality for those suspected of having myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic utility of stress CMR testing for patients with (or suspected of having) coronary artery disease. PMID:21566427

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in Tietze's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Volterrani, L; Mazzei, M A; Giordano, N; Nuti, R; Galeazzi, M; Fioravanti, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Tietze's syndrome which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in the literature. Twelve consecutive outpatients with clinical features of Tietze's syndrome underwent evaluation, including the anamnesis, clinical general examination, clinical evaluation of costosternal and sternoclavicular joints (SCJ) and biochemical and instrumental investigations. Twenty normal subjects age- and sex-matched to the patients' group were examined in a similar manner. MRI of costosternal and SCJ was performed using a 1.5 Tesla unit (Gyroscan NT 1.5 Philips, The Netherlands and GE Signa Excite HD, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wis., USA). The MRI pattern of primary Tietze's syndrome was characterized as follows: enlargement and thickening of cartilage at the site of complaint (12/12 patients); focal or widespread increased signal intensities of affected cartilage on both TSE T2-weighted and STIR or FAT SAT images (10/12 patients); bone marrow oedema in the subcondral bone (5/12 patients); vivid gadolinium uptake in the areas of thickened cartilage, in the subcondral bone marrow and/or in capsule and ligaments (10/12, 4/12 and 7/12 patients respectively). Magnetic resonance is an excellent technique to evidence both the cartilage and bone abnormalities, therefore it represents the elective method in the investigation of primary Tietze's syndrome, due to its high sensitivity, diagnostic reliability and biological advantages thanks to the lack of ionizing radiation.

  3. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  4. Malformations of cortical development: 3T magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Ince, Selami; Akgun, Veysel; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ozcan, Emrah; Tasar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a term representing an inhomogeneous group of central nervous system abnormalities, referring particularly to embriyological aspect as a consequence of any of the three developmental stages, i.e., cell proliferation, cell migration and cortical organization. These include cotical dysgenesis, microcephaly, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, lissencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, heterotopia and focal cortical dysplasia. Since magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice that best identifies the structural anomalies of the brain cortex, we aimed to provide a mini review of MCD by using 3T magnetic resonance scanner images. PMID:26516429

  5. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  6. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Britton, Melanie M

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as one of the most important tools in medical diagnosis and research. However, MRI is also well placed to image chemical reactions and processes, determine the concentration of chemical species, and look at how chemistry couples with environmental factors, such as flow and heterogeneous media. This tutorial review will explain how magnetic resonance imaging works, reviewing its application in chemistry and its ability to directly visualise chemical processes. It will give information on what resolution and contrast are possible, and what chemical and physical parameters can be measured. It will provide examples of the use of MRI to study chemical systems, its application in chemical engineering and the identification of contrast agents for non-clinical applications. A number of studies are presented including investigation of chemical conversion and selectivity in fixed-bed reactors, temperature probes for catalyst pellets, ion mobility during tablet dissolution, solvent dynamics and ion transport in Nafion polymers and the formation of chemical waves and patterns.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  9. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of sports injuries of the foot and ankle: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Riley, Geoffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is playing an increasingly important role in evaluation of the injured athlete's foot and ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging allows accurate detection of bony abnormalities, such as stress fractures, and soft-tissue abnormalities, including ligament tears, tendon tears, and tendinopathy. The interpreter of magnetic resonance images should systematically review the images, noting normal structures and accounting for changes in soft-tissue and bony signal.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  12. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  13. Magnetic field detection using magnetorheological optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Edoardo; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a magnetic field sensor that is based on a magnetorheological micro-optical resonator. The optical resonator has a spherical shape and a diameter of a few hundred micrometers. The resonator is fabricated by using a polymeric matrix made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol with embedded magnetically polarizable micro-particles. When the optical resonator is subjected to an external magnetic field, the morphology (radius and refractive index) of the resonator is perturbed by the magnetic forces acting on it, leading to a shift of the optical resonances also known as whispering gallery modes (WGM). In this study, the effect of a static and harmonic magnetic field, as well as the concentration of the magnetic micro-particles on the optical mode shift is investigated. The optical resonances obtained with the PVC plastisol resonator showed a quality factor of 106 . The dynamical behavior of the optical resonator is investigated in the range between 0 and 200 Hz. The sensitivity of the optical resonator reaches a maximum value for a ratio between micro-particles and the polymeric matrix of 2:1 in weight. Experimental results indicate a sensitivity of 0.297 pm/mT leading to a resolution of 336 μT.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of glenohumeral joint instability.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Lynne S

    2005-03-01

    Shoulder instability is common, especially anterior subluxation and dislocation. The sequelae are well seen on magnetic resonance imaging and include tears of the labrum, glenohumeral ligaments, capsule, tendons, and muscles. This article seeks to discuss and illustrate common pitfalls and lesions associated with instability. Anatomic and technical considerations, including the use of magnetic resonance arthrography, are also addressed.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  16. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  17. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dental materials and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hubálková, Hana; Hora, Karel; Seidl, Zdenek; Krásenský, Jan

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the reaction of selected dental materials in the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging device to determine a possible health risk. The following dental materials were tested in vitro during magnetic resonance imaging: 15 dental alloys, four dental implants, one surgical splint and two wires for fixation of maxillofacial fractures. Possible artefacts (corresponding with magnetic properties), heating and force effects were tested. Results concerning movement and heating were in agreement with the literature. The artefacts seen were significant: for the surgical splint, a spherical artefact with a diameter of 55 mm; for the wires, up to 22 mm; and for the dental blade implant, an artefact of 28 x 20 mm. The results of our tests of selected dental appliances indicate that their presence in the human organism is safe for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging procedures. The presence of artefacts can substantially influence the magnetic resonance imaging results.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Postal, M; Lapa, A Tamires; Reis, F; Rittner, L; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 0.1% of the general population. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been more frequently recognized and reported in recent years, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the disease course. Magnetic resonance imaging is known to be a useful tool for the detection of structural brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients because of the excellent soft-tissue contrast observed with MRI and the ability to acquire multiplanar images. In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to evaluate the presence of atrophy and white matter lesions, several different magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been used to identify microstructural or functional abnormalities. This review will highlight different magnetic resonance imaging techniques, including the advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods used to determine central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  20. Functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Anja Christina Sophie

    2003-07-01

    The study of small animal models of human cardiovascular disease is critical to our understanding of the origin, progression, and treatment of this pervasive disease. Complete analysis of disease pathophysiology in these animal models requires measuring structural and functional changes at the level of the whole heart---a task for which an appropriate non-invasive imaging method is needed. The purpose of this work was thus to develop an imaging technique to support in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function in rat and mouse models of cardiovascular disease. Whereas clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides accurate assessment of the human heart, the extension of cardiac MRI from humans to rodents presents several formidable scaling challenges. Acquiring images of the mouse heart with organ definition and fluidity of contraction comparable to that achieved in humans requires an increase in spatial resolution by a factor of 3000 and an increase in temporal resolution by a factor of ten. No single technical innovation can meet the demanding imaging requirements imposed by the small animal. A functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy technique was developed by integrating improvements in physiological control, imaging hardware, biological synchronization of imaging, and pulse sequence design to achieve high-quality images of the murine heart with high spatial and temporal resolution. The specific methods and results from three different sets of imaging experiments are presented: (1) 2D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 175 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms; (2) 3D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 100 mum 2 x 500 mum and temporal resolution of 30 ms; and (3) 2D functional imaging in the mouse with spatial resolution down to 100 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms. The cardiac microscopy technique presented here represents a novel collection of technologies capable

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in pediatric bilateral vocal fold dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Joel I; Fink, A Michelle; Berkowitz, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    We studied the findings of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in infants with idiopathic congenital bilateral vocal fold dysfunction (CBVFD). We performed a retrospective investigation of a case series. We identified 26 children (14 male, 12 female) over 11 years. Three children were excluded. Thirteen patients required airway interventions, including continuous positive airway pressure (4 patients), endotracheal intubation (1), and tracheostomy (8). The findings on brain MRI were abnormal in 8 patients (35%). Tracheostomy was required in 3 patients (38%) with abnormal MRI findings, as compared with 5 of 15 patients (33%) with normal MRI findings. The MRI abnormalities involved evidence of white matter injury (2), abnormal white matter signal (1), subdural blood (3), cerebral swelling (1), and perisylvian polymicrogyria (1). The cranial ultrasound findings were abnormal in 4 of 11 patients. The MRI findings were abnormal in 2 of 7 children in whom the cranial ultrasound findings were normal, and in 2 of the 4 patients in whom the cranial ultrasound findings were abnormal. The MRI abnormalities were nonspecific; however, they may indicate unrecognized perinatal intracranial injury as being related to CBVFD. In addition, MRI may reveal an underlying structural brain anomaly. Cranial ultrasound has poor sensitivity and specificity. Hence, MRI should be considered as part of the routine assessment of neonates with CBVFD.

  2. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  3. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  4. Resonance magnetoplasticity in ultralow magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance relaxation displacements of dislocations in NaCl crystals placed in crossed static and alternating ultralow magnetic fields in the electron paramagnetic resonance scheme are discussed. The Earth's magnetic field B Earth ≈ 50μT and other fields in the range of 26-261 μT are used as the static field. New strongly anisotropic properties of the effect have been revealed. Frequency spectra including numerous peaks of paths at low pump frequencies beginning with 10 kHz, as well as the quartet of equidistant peaks at high frequencies ( 1.4 MHz at B= B Earth), have been measured. The effect is also observed in the pulsed pump field with a resonance duration of 0.5 μs. Resonance changes have been detected in the microhardness of ZnO, triglycine sulfate, and potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals after their exposure in the Earth's magnetic field in the same electron paramagnetic resonance scheme.

  5. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... mild sedative prior to the examination. For more information about Magnetic Resonance Angiography of MRA or any ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  7. Miniature Magnet for Electron Spin Resonance Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, L. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes commercially available permanent magnets that have been incorporated in a compact and inexpensive structure providing both field sweep and modulation suitable for electron spin resonance at microwave frequencies. (MLH)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of appendicular musculoskeletal infection.

    PubMed

    Lalam, Radhesh K; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tins, Bernhard J

    2007-06-01

    Appendicular skeletal infection includes osseous and extraosseous infections. Skeletal infection needs early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to diagnose skeletal infection early in most circumstances. This article describes the role of magnetic resonance imaging in relation to the other available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of skeletal infection. Special circumstances such as diabetic foot, postoperative infection, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis are discussed separately.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Potter, Hollis G; Chong, Le Roy; Sneag, Darryl B

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an important noninvasive modality in characterizing cartilage morphology, biochemistry, and function. It serves as a valuable objective outcome measure in diagnosing pathology at the time of initial injury, guiding surgical planning, and evaluating postsurgical repair. This article reviews the current literature addressing the recent advances in qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the preoperative setting, and in patients who have undergone cartilage repair techniques such as microfracture, autologous cartilage transplantation, or osteochondral transplantation.

  10. Correlation between Clinical Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Lumbar Disc Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S S; Lakhey, R B; Sharma, P; Pokhrel, R K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely done for diagnosis of lumbar disc prolapse. Many abnormalities of disc are observed even in asymptomatic patient.This study was conducted tocorrelate these abnormalities observed on Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. A This prospective analytical study includes 57 cases of lumbar disc prolapse presenting to Department of Orthopedics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to August 2012. All patientshad Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine and the findings regarding type, level and position of lumbar disc prolapse, any neural canal or foraminal compromise was recorded. These imaging findings were then correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Chi-square test was used to find out p-value for correlation between clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings using SPSS 17.0. This study included 57 patients, with mean age 36.8 years. Of them 41(71.9%) patients had radicular leg pain along specific dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 104 lumbar disc prolapselevel. Disc prolapse at L4-L5 and L5-S1 level constituted 85.5%.Magnetic resonance imaging findings of neural foramina compromise and nerve root compression were fairly correlated withclinical findings of radicular pain and neurological deficit. Clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings of lumbar discprolasehad faircorrelation, but all imaging abnormalities do not have a clinical significance.

  11. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miall-Allen, V. M.; Kemp, G. J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Taylor, D. J.; Radda, G. K.; Haworth, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of studying myocardial and skeletal muscle bioenergetics using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in babies and young children with congenital heart disease. SUBJECTS: 16 control subjects aged 5 months to 24 years and 18 patients with CHD, aged 7 months to 23 years, of whom 11 had cyanotic CHD, five had cardiac failure, and two had had a Senning procedure. DESIGN: 31P MRS was carried out using a 1.9 Tesla horizontal 65 cm bore whole body magnet to study the myocardium in 10 patients and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) in 14 patients, eight of whom were exercised, together with appropriate controls. RESULTS: In hypoxaemic patients, in skeletal muscle at rest intracellular pH (pHi) was abnormally high [7.06 (SEM 0.04) v 7.04 (0.05), P < 0.01] and showed a positive correlation with haemoglobin (P < 0.03). On exercise, hypoxaemic patients fatigued more quickly but end-exercise pHi and phosphocreatine recovery were normal, implying that an equivalent but smaller amount of work had been performed. End-exercise ADP concentration was lower. On recovery, the initial rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis was low. Skeletal muscle bioenergetics were within normal limits in those in heart failure. In the myocardium, the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio was similar in controls and hypoxaemic subjects, but low in those in heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: In heart failure, the myocardial phosphocreatine/ATP ratio was reduced, as in adults, while resting skeletal muscle studies were normal. By contrast, hypoxaemic children had normal myocardial bioenergetics, but showed skeletal muscle alkalinity, and energy reserves were more readily depleted on exercise. On recovery, the initially slow phosphocreatine resynthesis rate reflects a low rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, probably due to an inadequate oxygen supply. 31P MRS offers a safe, non-invasive method of studying myocardial and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in children as young as 5 months

  12. Evaluation of the fetal cerebellum by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Llorens Salvador, R; Viegas Sainz, A; Montoya Filardi, A; Montoliu Fornas, G; Menor Serrano, F

    Obstetric protocols dictate that the fetal cerebellum should always be assessed during sonograms during pregnancy. For various reasons, including technical limitations or inconclusive sonographic findings, suspicion of cerebellar abnormalities is one of the most common indications for prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although sonography is the imaging technique of choice to assess the cerebellum, MRI shows the anatomy of the posterior fossa and abnormalities in the development of the fetal cerebellum in greater detail and thus enables a more accurate prenatal diagnosis. We describe and illustrate the normal anatomy of the fetal cerebellum on MRI as well as the different diseases that can affect its development. Moreover, we review the most appropriate terminology to define developmental abnormalities, their differential diagnoses, and the role of MRI in the prenatal evaluation of the posterior fossa. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of laser polarized xenon magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based investigations of a new biomedical diagnostic technology: nuclear magnetic resonance of laser polarized noble gas are addressed. The specific research tasks discussed are: (1) Development of a large-scale noble gas polarization system; (2) biomedical investigations using laser polarized noble gas in conventional (high magnetic field) NMR systems; and (3) the development and application of a low magnetic field system for laser polarized noble gas NMR.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging estimation of somatic iron overload. This review will discuss the need and principles of magnetic resonance imaging-based iron measurements, the validation of liver and cardiac iron measurements, and the key institutional requirements for implementation. Recent findings Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver and cardiac iron has achieved critical levels of availability, utility, and validity to serve as the primary endpoint of clinical trials. Calibration curves for the magnetic resonance imaging parameters R2 and R2* (or their reciprocals, T2 and T2*) have been developed for the liver and the heart. Interscanner variability for these techniques has proven to be on the order of 5–7%. Summary Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of tissue iron is becoming increasingly important in the management of transfusional iron load because it is noninvasive, relatively widely available and offers a window into presymptomatic organ dysfunction. The techniques are highly reproducible within and across machines and have been chemically validated in the liver and the heart. These techniques will become the standard of care as industry begins to support the acquisition and postprocessing software. PMID:17414205

  16. Magnetic resonance conditional paramagnetic choke for suppression of imaging artifacts during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kevin J; Gregory, T Stan; Boland, Brian L; Zhao, Wujun; Cheng, Rui; Mao, Leidong; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2018-06-01

    Higher risk patient populations require continuous physiological monitoring and, in some cases, connected life-support systems, during magnetic resonance imaging examinations. While recently there has been a shift toward wireless technology, some of the magnetic resonance imaging devices are still connected to the outside using cabling that could interfere with the magnetic resonance imaging's radio frequency during scanning, resulting in excessive heating. We developed a passive method for radio frequency suppression on cabling that may assist in making some of these devices magnetic resonance imaging compatible. A barrel-shaped strongly paramagnetic choke was developed to suppress induced radio frequency signals which are overlaid onto physiological monitoring leads during magnetic resonance imaging. It utilized a choke placed along the signal lines, with a gadolinium solution core. The choke's magnetic susceptibility was modeled, for a given geometric design, at increasing chelate concentration levels, and measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Radio frequency noise suppression versus frequency was quantified with network-analyzer measurements and tested using cabling placed in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Temperature-elevation and image-quality reduction due to the device were measured using American Society for Testing and Materials phantoms. Prototype chokes with gadolinium solution cores exhibited increasing magnetic susceptibility, and insertion loss (S21) also showed higher attenuation as gadolinium concentration increased. Image artifacts extending <4 mm from the choke were observed during magnetic resonance imaging, which agreed well with the predicted ∼3 mm artifact from the electrochemical machining simulation. An accompanying temperature increase of <1 °C was observed in the magnetic resonance imaging phantom trial. An effective paramagnetic choke for radio frequency suppression during magnetic resonance imaging was developed

  17. Quantitative analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syh, Hon-Wei; Chu, Wei-Kom; Ong, Chin-Sing

    1992-06-01

    High intensity lesions around ventricles have recently been observed in T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images for patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy. The exact etiology that causes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray scale changes has not been totally understood. The objective of our study was to investigate, through quantitative means, (1) the amount of changes to brain white matter due to the disease process, and (2) the extent and distribution of these high intensity lesions, since it is believed that the abnormality may not be entirely limited to the white matter only. Eleven patients with proven haptic encephalopathy and three normal persons without any evidence of liver abnormality constituted our current data base. Trans-axial, sagittal, and coronal brain MRI were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All processing was carried out on a microcomputer-based image analysis system in an off-line manner. Histograms were decomposed into regular brain tissues and lesions. Gray scale ranges coded as lesion were then brought back to original images to identify distribution of abnormality. Our results indicated the disease process involved pallidus, mesencephalon, and subthalamic regions.

  18. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, E O; Creber, S A; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Johns, M L

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast implants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mala; Tanna, Neil; Margolies, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have significantly evolved since their introduction half a century ago, yet implant rupture remains a common and expected complication, especially in patients with earlier-generation implants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary modality for assessing the integrity of silicone implants and has excellent sensitivity and specificity, and the Food and Drug Administration currently recommends periodic magnetic resonance imaging screening for silent silicone breast implant rupture. Familiarity with the types of silicone implants and potential complications is essential for the radiologist. Signs of intracapsular rupture include the noose, droplet, subcapsular line, and linguine signs. Signs of extracapsular rupture include herniation of silicone with a capsular defect and extruded silicone material. Specific sequences including water and silicone suppression are essential for distinguishing rupture from other pathologies and artifacts. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about the integrity of silicone implants and associated complications.

  1. Tutte polynomial in functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Castillón, Marlly V.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of graph theory are applied to the processing of functional magnetic resonance images. Specifically the Tutte polynomial is used to analyze such kind of images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging provide us connectivity networks in the brain which are represented by graphs and the Tutte polynomial will be applied. The problem of computing the Tutte polynomial for a given graph is #P-hard even for planar graphs. For a practical application the maple packages "GraphTheory" and "SpecialGraphs" will be used. We will consider certain diagram which is depicting functional connectivity, specifically between frontal and posterior areas, in autism during an inferential text comprehension task. The Tutte polynomial for the resulting neural networks will be computed and some numerical invariants for such network will be obtained. Our results show that the Tutte polynomial is a powerful tool to analyze and characterize the networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, J.H.; Reicher, M.A.; Crues, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Introducing a comprehensive, practical guide to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and evaluating knee disorders and planning arthroscopic surgery) This book integrates MRI findings with pertinent anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs to assist radiologists in selecting imaging protocols and interpreting scans. Detailed chapters focus on magnetic resonance imaging of the menisci and ligaments and evaluation of osteonecrosis, osteochondrosis, and osteochondritis. The authors demonstrate the potential of MRI for diagnosing various knee disorders such as arthritis, fractures, popliteal cysts, synovial disease, plicae, popliteal artery aneurysms, tumors, and bone marrow disorders.

  3. Iatrogenic hyperthermia during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Mulkern, Robert V; Holzman, Robert S

    2004-10-01

    We report the occurrence of accidental hyperthermia in a young child undergoing anesthesia for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Although the tendency during anesthesia is to develop hypothermia, the absorbed radiofrequency energy from magnetic resonance scanning is added to metabolic energy and must be balanced by appropriate heat loss to maintain normothermia. In addition to stressing the clinical importance of temperature monitoring, this report suggests that the recommended specific absorption rates to prevent excessive patient heating may need to be revised for infants and young children.

  4. Granular convection observed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ehrichs, E E; Jaeger, H M; Karczmar, G S; Knight, J B; Kuperman, V Y; Nagel, S R

    1995-03-17

    Vibrations in a granular material can spontaneously produce convection rolls reminiscent of those seen in fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a sensitive and noninvasive probe for the detection of these convection currents, which have otherwise been difficult to observe. A magnetic resonance imaging study of convection in a column of poppy seeds yielded data about the detailed shape of the convection rolls and the depth dependence of the convection velocity. The velocity was found to decrease exponentially with depth; a simple model for this behavior is presented here.

  5. A simple anaesthetic and monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rejger, V S; Cohn, B F; Vielvoye, G J; de Raadt, F B

    1989-09-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a digital tomographic technique which utilizes radio waves emitted by hydrogen protons in a powerful magnetic field to form an image of soft-tissue structures and abnormalities within the body. Unfortunately, because of the relatively long scanning time required and the narrow deep confines of the MRI tunnel and Faraday cage, some patients cannot be examined without the use of heavy sedation or general anaesthesia. Due to poor access to the patient and the strong magnetic field, several problems arise in monitoring and administering anaesthesia during this procedure. In this presentation these problems and their solutions, as resolved by our institution, are discussed. Of particular interest is the anaesthesia circuit specifically adapted for use during MRI scanning.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric neck: an overview.

    PubMed

    Shekdar, Karuna V; Mirsky, David M; Kazahaya, Ken; Bilaniuk, Larissa T

    2012-08-01

    Evaluation of neck lesions in the pediatric population can be a diagnostic challenge, for which magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is extremely valuable. This article provides an overview of the value and utility of MR imaging in the evaluation of pediatric neck lesions, addressing what the referring clinician requires from the radiologist. Concise descriptions and illustrations of MR imaging findings of commonly encountered pathologic entities in the pediatric neck, including abnormalities of the branchial apparatus, thyroglossal duct anomalies, and neoplastic processes, are given. An approach to establishing a differential diagnosis is provided, and critical points of information are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic elliptical polarization of Schumann resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic ellipticity found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours.

  8. Magnetic resonance investigation of magnetic-labeled baker's yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Morais, J. P. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Silva, L. P.; Lacava, Z. G. M.; Báo, S. N.; Silva, O.; Pelegrini, F.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Morais, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    In this study, the interaction of DMSA-coated magnetite nanoparticles (5 and 10 nm core-size) with Saccharomyces cerevisae was investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs revealed magnetite nanoparticles attached externally to the cell wall. The MR data support the strong interaction among the nanoparticles supported by the cells. A remarkable shift in the resonance field was used as signature of particle attachment to the cell wall.

  9. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  10. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of semicircular canals.

    PubMed Central

    Sbarbati, A; Leclercq, F; Zancanaro, C; Antonakis, K

    1992-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of the first investigation of the semicircular canals in a living, small animal by means of high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. This procedure is noninvasive and allows identification of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces yielding a morphology quite consistent with direct anatomical examination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1506290

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technology for Medical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Thomas F.; Lauterbur, Paul C.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the status of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from theoretical and clinical perspectives, reviewing NMR theory and relaxation parameters relevant to NMR imaging. Also reviews literature related to modern imaging strategies, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast agents, in vivo spectroscopy, spectroscopic imaging, clinical applications, and…

  13. Liver Function Assessment by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images. Simple visual assessment of signal intensity at hepatobiliary phase images is important for the diagnosis of different patterns of liver dysfunction including diffuse, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental forms. Furthermore, preoperative assessment of liver function is feasible before oncologic hepatic surgery, which may be important to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and to estimate future remnant volume. Functional magnetic resonance cholangiography obtained by T1-weighted images at hepatobiliary phase can allow diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, biliary leakage, bile reflux to the stomach, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, and lesions with communication to biliary tree. Functional information can be easily obtained when Gd-EOB-DTPA is used for liver magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Morphometry Using Anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal, Ravi; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in studying the morphological features of various regions of the brain is described, also providing the steps used in the processing and studying of the images. The ability to correlate these features with several clinical and psychological measures can help in using anatomical MRI to…

  15. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yumin

    2013-12-01

    It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE) is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs), which is more sensitive than previous parameters-shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  16. [Magnetic Resonance Imaging Conversion Predictors of Clinically Isolated Syndrome to Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Sara; Abreu, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Clinically isolated syndrome may be the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis, a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and it is defined by a single clinical episode suggestive of demyelination. However, patients with this syndrome, even with long term follow up, may not develop new symptoms or demyelinating lesions that fulfils multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria. We reviewed, in clinically isolated syndrome, what are the best magnetic resonance imaging findings that may predict its conversion to multiple sclerosis. A search was made in the PubMed database for papers published between January 2010 and June 2015 using the following terms: 'clinically isolated syndrome', 'cis', 'multiple sclerosis', 'magnetic resonance imaging', 'magnetic resonance' and 'mri'. In this review, the following conventional magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities found in literature were included: lesion load, lesion location, Barkhof's criteria and brain atrophy related features. The non conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques studied were double inversion recovery, magnetization transfer imaging, spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging. The number and location of demyelinating lesions have a clear role in predicting clinically isolated syndrome conversion to multiple sclerosis. On the other hand, more data are needed to confirm the ability to predict this disease development of non conventional techniques and remaining neuroimaging abnormalities. In forthcoming years, in addition to the established predictive value of the above mentioned neuroimaging abnormalities, different clinically isolated syndrome neuroradiological findings may be considered in multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria and/or change its treatment recommendations.

  17. Optimization of T2-weighted imaging for shoulder magnetic resonance arthrography by synthetic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young Han; Hahn, Seok; Yang, Jaemoon; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-01-01

    Background Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows reformatting of various synthetic images by adjustment of scanning parameters such as repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE). Optimized MR images can be reformatted from T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values to achieve maximum tissue contrast between joint fluid and adjacent soft tissue. Purpose To demonstrate the method for optimization of TR and TE by synthetic MRI and to validate the optimized images by comparison with conventional shoulder MR arthrography (MRA) images. Material and Methods Thirty-seven shoulder MRA images acquired by synthetic MRI were retrospectively evaluated for PD, T1, and T2 values at the joint fluid and glenoid labrum. Differences in signal intensity between the fluid and labrum were observed between TR of 500-6000 ms and TE of 80-300 ms in T2-weighted (T2W) images. Conventional T2W and synthetic images were analyzed for diagnostic agreement of supraspinatus tendon abnormalities (kappa statistics) and image quality scores (one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis). Results Optimized mean values of TR and TE were 2724.7 ± 1634.7 and 80.1 ± 0.4, respectively. Diagnostic agreement for supraspinatus tendon abnormalities between conventional and synthetic MR images was excellent (κ = 0.882). The mean image quality score of the joint space in optimized synthetic images was significantly higher compared with those in conventional and synthetic images (2.861 ± 0.351 vs. 2.556 ± 0.607 vs. 2.750 ± 0.439; P < 0.05). Conclusion Synthetic MRI with optimized TR and TE for shoulder MRA enables optimization of soft-tissue contrast.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance properties of lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, D.; Weeks, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of Na-23, Al-27, and P-31 in fines samples 10084,60 and 14163,168 and in crystalline rock samples 12021,55 and 14321,166, have been recorded over a range of frequencies up to 20 MHz. A shift in the field at which maximum absorption occurs for all of the spectra relative to the field at which maximum absorption occurs for terrestrial analogues is attributed to a sample-dependent magnetic field at the Na, Al, and P sites opposing the laboratory field. The magnitude of these fields internal to the samples is sample dependent and varies from 5 to 10 G. These fields do not correlate with the iron content of the samples. However, the presence of single-domain particles of iron distributed throughout the plagioclase fraction that contains the principal fraction of Na and Al is inferred from electron magnetic resonance spectra shapes.

  19. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assisted by neuronavigation of magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, N. Angeline; Alcauter, S. Sarael; Barrios, A. Fernando; González, O. Jorge J.; Márquez, F. Jorge A.

    2012-10-01

    Technological advance has improved the way scientists and doctors can learn about the brain and treat different disorders. A non-invasive method used for this is Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) based on neuron excitation by electromagnetic induction. Combining this method with functional Magnetic Resonance Images (fMRI), it is intended to improve the localization technique of cortical brain structures by designing an extracranial localization system, based on Alcauter et al. work.

  1. Allan Cormack, Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT), and Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov Websites

    Radiopharmaceuticals, DOE Technical Report, 1977 Emission Computed Tomography: A New Technique for the Quantitative Extending the Power of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Techniques Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research Top Some

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine What's in this article? What ...

  3. [Magnetic resonance compatibility research for coronary mental stents].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Li; Wang, Shuo; Shang, Ruyao; Wang, Chunren

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.

  4. Basic physics of nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Patz, S

    1986-01-01

    This review of basic physics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) discusses precession of magnetic nuclei in a static external field, introduces the concept of the rotating frame, and describes excitation of nuclei by an RF field. Treats subject of T1 and T2 relaxation from the dual viewpoints of (1) phenomena of relaxation times for both the longitudinal and transverse magnetization and (2) relaxation resulting from local field fluctuations. It describes practical ways in which T1 and T2 are measured (i.e., inversion recovery and spin-echo) and gives the value of the nuclear magnetization in thermodynamic equilibrium with a static external field. It discusses the reduction of NMR signal resulting from saturation. These concepts are related to clinical use with a set of four spin-echo images of a human head.

  5. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10−3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  6. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E; Highton, Louise A R; Kenny, Stephen M; Green, Gary G R; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all ¹H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10⁻³ Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  7. Comparison of radiography and magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the extent of nasal neoplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Petite, A F B; Dennis, R

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in veterinary practice and, in some centres, is part of the diagnostic work-up of small animals with nasal disease. However, there are no published studies which critically evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging for this purpose. The purpose of this work was to assess the changes seen using magnetic resonance imaging and to compare them with radiography. The study included 12 dogs that had undergone both radiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the nasal cavity and had a histopathological diagnosis of malignant nasal neoplasia. Two pairs of board-certified radiologists scored the radiographs and the MRI scans, evaluating 10 signs of abnormality using a simple scoring system. Magnetic resonance imaging features were described in detail, and radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging scores for each sign as well as total scores were compared. Magnetic resonance imaging often showed that the tumour was more extensive than it had appeared on radiography but occasionally showed that radiographs had overestimated its size. Although radiography was reliable for assessment of the presence and size of a mass and for the extent of turbinate destruction, it usually failed to show occlusion of the major airway passages that were evident on magnetic resonance imaging. Extension of the tumour into the opposite nasal cavity, frontal sinus, orbit and cranial cavity was shown much better on magnetic resonance imaging. Minor but significant extension beyond the nasal cavity, which is important for treatment planning and prognosis, requires magnetic resonance imaging for demonstration, although radiography shows major changes reliably.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal infection.

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard J; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K

    2007-06-01

    This article reviews the pathophysiology of spinal infection and its relevance for imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality with by far the best sensitivity and specificity for spinal infection. The imaging appearances of spinal infection in MRI are outlined, and imaging techniques are discussed. The problems of clinical diagnosis are outlined. There is some emphasis on the MRI differentiation of pyogenic and nonpyogenic infection and on the differential diagnosis of spinal infection centered on the imaging presentation.

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance in myocardial disease.

    PubMed

    Sechtem, U; Mahrholdt, H; Vogelsberg, H

    2007-12-01

    For a number of patients it is difficult to diagnose the cause of cardiac disease. In such patients cardiac magnetic resonance is useful for helping to make a differential diagnosis between ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy; identifying patients with myocarditis; diagnosing cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis and Chagas' disease; identifying patients with unusual forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and those with continuing myocardial damage; and defining the sequelae of ablation treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

  10. [Magnetic resonance imaging of brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, P C

    2002-01-01

    Investigating intracranial tumors, different MR-related methods permit not only morphological visualization of lesions but also give insights into their metabolism, resulting in information about the biological qualities of the respective tumor. Magnetic resonance protocols are selected based on the type and timing of onset of clinical signs. Combined information from imaging studies and spectroscopy facilitates the differential diagnosis between blastomatous and non-blastomatous lesions before and after therapy.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of diabetic foot complications

    PubMed Central

    Low, Keynes TA; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the various manifestations of the diabetic foot on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The utility of MR imaging and its imaging features in the diagnosis of pedal osteomyelitis are illustrated. There is often difficulty encountered in distinguishing osteomyelitis from neuroarthropathy, both clinically and on imaging. By providing an accurate diagnosis based on imaging, the radiologist plays a significant role in the management of patients with complications of diabetic foot. PMID:25640096

  12. MRI and magnetic resonance angiography findings in patients with multiple sclerosis mimicked by stroke.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Abdullatif Al; Canaple, Sandrine; Monet, Pauline; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    We report a 45-year-old woman who presented with a first demyelinating event with abnormalities seen on both MRI and magnetic resonance angiography that were highly suggestive of acute ischemic stroke. This report highlights the problem of differential diagnosis of acute neurological symptoms in adult subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    PubMed

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strózik-Kotlorz, D.

    2014-01-01

    I give a brief description of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the human brain examinations. MRS allows a noninvasive chemical analysis of the brain using a standard high field MR system. Nowadays, the dominant form of MR brain spectroscopy is proton spectroscopy. Two main techniques of MRS, which utilize the chemical shift of metabolites in the external magnetic field, are SVS (single voxel) and CSI (single slice). The major peaks in the spectrum of a normal brain include NAA, Cr, Cho and m-Ins, which are neuronal, energetic, membrane turnover and glial markers, respectively. In disease, two pathological metabolites can be found in the brain spectra: Lac, which is end product of anaerobic glycolysis and Lip, which is a marker of membrane breakdown, occurring in necrosis. The common way to analyze clinical spectra is to determine metabolite ratios, e.g. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA. This analysis permits a safe and noninvasive examination of the brain tissue as each disease state has its own characteristic spectroscopic image. MRS is a valuable diagnostic tool in such clinical applications as detecting brain tumors and differentiating tumors from inflammatory and infectious processes. Proton MRS is also very helpful in diagnostic of ischemic lesions, Alzheimer's disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The MRS brain spectra should always be correlated with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results and alone cannot make neurological diagnosis.

  16. Extrinsic wrist ligaments: prevalence of injury by magnetic resonance imaging and association with intrinsic ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Atul K; Bredella, Miriam A; Chang, Connie Y; Joseph Simeone, F; Kattapuram, Susan V; Torriani, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of extrinsic wrist ligament injury by magnetic resonance imaging and its association with intrinsic ligament tears. We reviewed conventional magnetic resonance images performed over a 5-year period from adult patients in the setting of wrist trauma. Two musculoskeletal radiologists examined the integrity of wrist ligaments and presence of bone abnormalities. In a cohort of 75 subjects, extrinsic ligament injury was present in 75%, with radiolunotriquetral being most frequently affected (45%). Intrinsic ligament injury was present in 60%. Almost half of subjects had combined intrinsic and extrinsic ligament injury. Bone abnormalities were seen in 69%. The rate of extrinsic injury was higher in subjects with bone injury (P = 0.008). There is high prevalence of extrinsic ligament injury in the setting of wrist trauma, especially in the presence of bone abnormalities, with combined injury of intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments in about half of cases.

  17. I. I. Rabi, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Radar

    Science.gov Websites

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis I. I. Rabi, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Radar Nobel Prize in Physics "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic the atomic clock, the laser and the diagnostic scanning of the human body by nuclear magnetic

  18. Magnetic Field Gradient Calibration as an Experiment to Illustrate Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Steven J.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2008-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described that encompasses both qualitative and quantitative pedagogical goals. Qualitatively, the experiment illustrates how images are obtained in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Quantitatively, students experience the…

  19. Magnetic resonance studies of dissolving particulate solids.

    PubMed

    Johns, M L; Gladden, L F

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance methods have been used to elucidate the internal pore structure of particulate solids, in particular detergent tablets. Such information is essential to a comprehensive understanding of the dissolution characteristics of these materials and how this property is related to processing conditions during tablet formation. In particular 3-D images of porosity are produced and 2-D self-diffusion maps are acquired as a function of observation time, which enables pore size to be quantified as a function of position via the extracted surface-to-volume ratio of the pore space. These properties are determined as a function of processing parameters, in particular the compression force used in tablet formation.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Neeraj; Moshiri, Mariam; Lee, Jean H; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is largely a complex problem of multiparous and postmenopausal women and is associated with pelvic floor or organ descent. Physical examination can underestimate the extent of the dysfunction and misdiagnose the disorders. Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is emerging as a promising tool to evaluate the dynamics of the pelvic floor and use for surgical triage and operative planning. This article reviews the anatomy and pathology of pelvic floor dysfunction, typical imaging findings, and the current role of functional MR imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting Started with Magnetic Resonance Neurography.

    PubMed

    Andreisek, Gustav; Bolog, Nicolae V

    2018-07-01

    This article provides a review of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and how to get started. It explains step by step how to establish MRN at an institution: how to set up MRN protocols, how to train technicians, what a report needs to contain, and how relevant findings should be communicated to the referring physician. Advanced imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging are only briefly discussed at the end of the article because most of those techniques are difficult for beginners and are still not considered standard in the clinical routine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension. PMID:22559053

  4. Hair product artifact in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chenji, Sneha; Wilman, Alan H; Mah, Dennell; Seres, Peter; Genge, Angela; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The presence of metallic compounds in facial cosmetics and permanent tattoos may affect the quality of magnetic resonance imaging. We report a case study describing a signal artifact due to the use of a leave-on powdered hair dye. On reviewing the ingredients of the product, it was found to contain several metallic compounds. In lieu of this observation, we suggest that MRI centers include the use of metal- or mineral-based facial cosmetics or hair products in their screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance-guided prostate interventions.

    PubMed

    Haker, Steven J; Mulkern, Robert V; Roebuck, Joseph R; Barnes, Agnieska Szot; Dimaio, Simon; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M C

    2005-10-01

    We review our experience using an open 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) interventional unit to guide procedures in the prostate. This system allows access to the patient and real-time MR imaging simultaneously and has made it possible to perform prostate biopsy and brachytherapy under MR guidance. We review MR imaging of the prostate and its use in targeted therapy, and describe our use of image processing methods such as image registration to further facilitate precise targeting. We describe current developments with a robot assist system being developed to aid radioactive seed placement.

  6. New magnetic resonance imaging methods in nephrology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morrell, Glen; Rusinek, Henry; Sigmund, Eric; Chandarana, Hersh; Lerman, Lilach O.; Prasad, Pottumarthi Vara; Niles, David; Artz, Nathan; Fain, Sean; Vivier, Pierre H.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Lee, Vivian S.

    2013-01-01

    Established as a method to study anatomic changes, such as renal tumors or atherosclerotic vascular disease, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to interrogate renal function has only recently begun to come of age. In this review, we briefly introduce some of the most important MRI techniques for renal functional imaging, and then review current findings on their use for diagnosis and monitoring of major kidney diseases. Specific applications include renovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal transplants, renal masses, acute kidney injury and pediatric anomalies. With this review, we hope to encourage more collaboration between nephrologists and radiologists to accelerate the development and application of modern MRI tools in nephrology clinics. PMID:24067433

  7. Magnetic Resonance of Pelvic and Gastrointestinal Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Dattwyler, Matthew; Abujudeh, Hani H; Singh, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is gaining increased acceptance in the emergency setting despite the continued dominance of computed tomography. MR has the advantages of more precise tissue characterization, superior soft tissue contrast, and a lack of ionizing radiation. Traditional barriers to emergent MR are being overcome by streamlined imaging protocols and newer rapid-acquisition sequences. As the utilization of MR imaging in the emergency department increases, a strong working knowledge of the MR appearance of the most commonly encountered abdominopelvic pathologies is essential. In this article, MR imaging protocols and findings of acute pelvic, scrotal, and gastrointestinal pathologies are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Bobak; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of myocardial ischemia in symptomatic patients remains a common and challenging clinical situation faced by physicians. Risk stratification by presence of ischemia provides important utility for both prognostic assessment and management. Unfortunately, current noninvasive modalities possess numerous limitations and have limited prognostic capacity. More recently, ischemia assessment by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been shown to be a safe, available, and potentially cost-effective alternative with both high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance has numerous advantages over other noninvasive methods, including high temporal and spatial resolution, relatively few contraindications, and absence of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, studies assessing the clinical utility and cost effectiveness of CMR in the short-term setting for patients without evidence of an acute myocardial infarction have also demonstrated favorable results. This review will cover techniques of ischemia assessment with CMR by both stress-induced wall motion abnormalities as well as myocardial perfusion imaging. The diagnostic and prognostic performance studies will also be reviewed, and the use of CMR for ischemia assessment will be compared with other commonly used noninvasive modalities. PMID:22014487

  9. Comprehensive Review on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dona, Olga; Thompson, Jeff; Druchok, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, definitive diagnosis of AD is only achievable postmortem and currently relies on clinical neurological evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate brain changes typical of AD, including brain atrophy, presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, and functional and biochemical abnormalities. Structural MRI (sMRI) has historically been used to assess the inherent brain atrophy present in AD. However, new techniques have recently emerged that have refined sMRI into a more precise tool to quantify the thickness and volume of AD-sensitive cerebral structures. Aβ plaques, a defining pathology of AD, are widely believed to contribute to the progressive cognitive decline in AD, but accurate assessment is only possible on autopsy. In vivo MRI of plaques, although currently limited to mouse models of AD, is a very promising technique. Measuring changes in activation and connectivity in AD-specific regions of the brain can be performed with functional MRI (fMRI). To help distinguish AD from diseases with similar symptoms, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to look for differing metabolite concentrations in vivo. Together, these MR techniques, evaluating various brain changes typical of AD, may help to provide a more definitive diagnosis and ease the assessment of the disease over time, noninvasively.

  10. [Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Brain pathologies applications].

    PubMed

    Menuel, C; Guillevin, R; Costalat, R; Perrin, M; Sahli-Amor, M; Martin-Duverneuil, N; Chiras, J

    2010-05-01

    Until recent years, brain applications of (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy were poor. Arising of clinical high field strength magnets (three Tesla) as well as dedicated brain coils (eg: bird cage), using specific and useful sequences providing appropriate spatial localisation and signal to noise ratio brought highlights on multinuclear spectroscopy. Better understanding of brain metabolism emphasizes the role of phosphoenergetic compounds and its potential issues in tumoral, metabolic and degenerative diseases. In the present paper, we report 1 year of experience and preliminary results for 40 patients as well as review of the literature. By successive in vivo determination and quantitation of numerous metabolites it allows, multinuclear spectroscopy may provide additional information to biomathematical models of brain metabolism. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  12. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.

    1986-05-01

    During the past year the Woodlands Baylor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facility became fully operational. A detailed description of this facility is given. One significant instrument addition this year was the 100 MHz, 40cm bore superconducting imaging spectrometer. This instrument gives researchers the capability to acquire high energy phosphate spectra. This will be used to investigate ATP, phosphocreatinine and inorganic phosphate changes in normal and atrophied muscle before, during and after exercise. An exercise device for use within the bore of the imaging magnet is under design/construction. The results of a study of T sub 1 and T sub 2 changes in atrophied muscle in animals and human subjects are given. The imaging and analysis of the lower leg of 15 research subjects before and after 5 weeks of complete bedrest was completed. A compilation of these results are attached.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the preterm infant brain.

    PubMed

    Doria, Valentina; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David A

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in neonatal care, survivors of preterm birth are still at a significantly increased risk of developing life-long neurological difficulties including cerebral palsy and cognitive difficulties. Cranial ultrasound is routinely used in neonatal practice, but has a low sensitivity for identifying later neurodevelopmental difficulties. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to identify intracranial abnormalities with greater diagnostic accuracy in preterm infants, and theoretically might improve the planning and targeting of long-term neurodevelopmental care; reducing parental stress and unplanned healthcare utilisation; and ultimately may improve healthcare cost effectiveness. Furthermore, MR imaging offers the advantage of allowing the quantitative assessment of the integrity, growth and function of intracranial structures, thereby providing the means to develop sensitive biomarkers which may be predictive of later neurological impairment. However further work is needed to define the accuracy and value of diagnosis by MR and the techniques's precise role in care pathways for preterm infants.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Colliot, O; Hamelin, L; Sarazin, M

    2013-10-01

    A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detecting different types of structural and functional abnormalities at an early stage of the disease. Anatomical MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The recent diagnostic criteria of "mild cognitive impairment due to AD" include hippocampal atrophy, which is considered a marker of neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in the hippocampus and throughout the whole brain. Recent modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI provide additional measures that could contribute to the early diagnosis but require further validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sedation of Pediatric Patients in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-03

    f-U. 7. SEDATION OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Alesia D. Ricks APPROVED: ll^fll JohnJ>. McDonough,-CRNA, Ed.D., Chair...any copyrighted material in the thesis entitled: " Sedation of Pediatric Patients in Magnetic Resonance Imaging" beyond brief excerpts is with the...arise from such copyright violations. IV f SEDATION OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING By CAPT ALESIA D. RICKS, RN, BSN, NQUSAF

  16. Suppressing magnetic island growth by resonant magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the growth of magnetic islands is investigated based on two-fluid equations. It is found that if the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity at the resonant surface is sufficiently large, static RMPs of the same helicity and of moderate amplitude can suppress the growth of magnetic islands in high-temperature plasmas. These islands will otherwise grow, driven by an unfavorable plasma current density profile and bootstrap current perturbation. These results indicate that the error field can stabilize island growth, if the error field amplitude is not too large and the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity is not too low. They also indicate that applied rotating RMPs with an appropriate frequency can be utilized to suppress island growth in high-temperature plasmas, even for a low bi-normal electron fluid velocity. A significant change in the local equilibrium plasma current density gradient by small amplitude RMPs is found for realistic plasma parameters, which are important for the island stability and are expected to be more important for fusion reactors with low plasma resistivity.

  17. [Surface coils for magnetic-resonance images].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Alfredo Odón; Amador-Baheza, Ricardo; Rojas-Jasso, Rafael; Barrios-Alvarez, Fernando Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging in Mexico, the development of this important medical imaging technology has been almost non-existing in our country. The very first surface coil prototypes for clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging has been developed at the Center of Research in Medical Imaging and Instrumentation of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (Metropolitan Autonomous University, Campus Iztapalapa). Two surface coil prototypes were built: a) a circular-shaped coil and b) a square-shaped coil for multiple regions of the body, such as heart, brain, knee, hands, and ankles. These coils were tested on the 1.5T imager of the ABC Hospital-Tacubaya, located in Mexico City. Brain images of healthy volunteers were obtained in different orientations: sagittal, coronal, and axial. Since images showed a good-enough clinical quality for diagnosis, it is fair to say that these coil prototypes can be used in the clinical environment, and with small modifications, they can be made compatible with almost any commercial scanner. This type of development can offer new alternatives for further collaboration between the research centers and the radiology community, in the search of new applications and developments of this imaging technique.

  18. Smart Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Tóth, Éva

    2016-01-01

    By visualizing bioactive molecules or biological parameters in vivo, molecular imaging is searching for information at the molecular level in living organisms. In addition to contributing to earlier and more personalized diagnosis in medicine, it also helps understand and rationalize the molecular factors underlying physiological and pathological processes. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complexes of paramagnetic metal ions, mostly lanthanides, are commonly used to enhance the intrinsic image contrast. They rely either on the relaxation effect of these metal chelates (T(1) agents), or on the phenomenon of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST agents). In both cases, responsive molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes can be designed to report on various biomarkers of biological interest. In this context, we review recent work in the literature and from our group on responsive T(1) and PARACEST MRI agents for the detection of biogenic metal ions (such as calcium or zinc), enzymatic activities, or neurotransmitter release. These examples illustrate the general strategies that can be applied to create molecular imaging agents with an MRI detectable response to biologically relevant parameters.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    PubMed Central

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Trad, Henrique Simão; Schmidt, André

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. Objective To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Methods Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Results Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). Conclusion CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility. PMID:23887734

  20. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of the Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan

    1999-11-01

    The lung presents both challenges and opportunities for study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The technical challenges arise from respiratory and cardiac motion, limited signal from the tissues, and unique physical structure of the lung. These challenges are heightened in magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) where the spatial resolution may be up to a million times higher than that of conventional MRI. The development of successful techniques for MRM of the lung present enormous opportunities for basic studies of lung structure and function, toxicology, environmental stress, and drug discovery by permitting investigators to study this most essential organ nondestructively in the live animal. Over the last 15 years, scientists at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy have developed techniques for MRM in the live animal through an interdisciplinary program of biology, physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and computer science. This talk will focus on the development of specialized radiofrequency coils for lung imaging, projection encoding methods to limit susceptibility losses, specialized support structures to control and monitor physiologic motion, and the most recent development of hyperpolarized gas imaging with ^3He and ^129Xe.

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ross, B; Bluml, S

    2001-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR; synonymous with NMR = nuclear magnetic resonance) is a universal physical technique best known for non-invasive detection and anatomical mapping of water protons (H). MR-spectroscopy (MRS) records protons from tissue chemicals other than water, intrinsic phosphorus containing metabolites, sodium, potassium, carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine. MRS is therefore an imaging technique with the potential to record human and animal biochemistry in vivo. As a result of wide availability of MRI equipment in research laboratories and hospitals, MRS is a serious competitor with PET to define normal body composition and its perturbation by pharmacological and pathological events. This article describes practical aspects of in vivo MRS with particular emphasis on the brain, where novel metabolites have been described. A survey of these new aspects of neurochemistry emphasize their practical utility as neuronal and axonal markers, measures of energy status, membrane constituents, and osmolytes, as well as some xenobiotics, such as alcohol. The concept of multinuclear in vivo MRS is illustrated by diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of several human brain disorders. Although these methods are currently most frequently encountered in human studies, as well as with transgenic and knockout mouse models, MRS adds a new dimension to anatomic and histopathologic descriptions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic resonance in studies of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fiedorowicz, Michał; Dyda, Wojciech; Rejdak, Robert; Grieb, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Summary Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. It affects retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve. However, there is emerging evidence that glaucoma also affects other components of the visual pathway and visual cortex. There is a need to employ new methods of in vivo brain evaluation to characterize these changes. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are well suited for this purpose. We review data on the MR evaluation of the visual pathway and the use of MR techniques in the study of glaucoma, both in humans and in animal models. These studies demonstrated decreases in optic nerve diameter, localized white matter loss and decrease in visual cortex density. Studies on rats employing manganese-enhanced MRI showed that axonal transport in the optic nerve is affected. Diffusion tensor MRI revealed signs of degeneration of the optic pathway. Functional MRI showed decreased response of the visual cortex after stimulation of the glaucomatous eye. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated changes in metabolite levels in the visual cortex in a rat model of glaucoma, although not in glaucoma patients. Further applications of MR techniques in studies of glaucomatous brains are indicated. PMID:21959626

  5. Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Techniques and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Michael; Sharif, Behzad; Arheden, Håkan; Kumar, Andreas; Axel, Leon; Li, Debiao; Neubauer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has become the gold standard for evaluating myocardial function, volumes, and scarring. Additionally, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is unique in its comprehensive tissue characterization, including assessment of myocardial edema, myocardial siderosis, myocardial perfusion, and diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has become an indispensable tool in the evaluation of congenital heart disease, heart failure, cardiac masses, pericardial disease, and coronary artery disease. This review will highlight some recent novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging techniques, concepts, and applications. PMID:28611116

  6. Resonance of magnetization excited by voltage in magnetoelectric heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoliang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Li, Yuanxun; Li, Jie; Zhang, Dainan; Sun, Nian

    2018-04-01

    Manipulation of magnetization dynamics is critical for spin-based devices. Voltage driven magnetization resonance is promising for realizing low-power information processing systems. Here, we show through Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations that magnetization resonance in nanoscale magnetic elements can be generated by a radio frequency (rf) voltage via the converse magnetoelectric (ME) effect. The magnetization dynamics induced by voltage in a ME heterostructures is simulated by taking into account the magnetoelastic and piezoelectric coupling mechanisms among magnetization, strain and voltage. The frequency of the excited magnetization resonance is equal to the driving rf voltage frequency. The proposed voltage driven magnetization resonance excitation mechanism opens a way toward energy-efficient spin based device applications.

  7. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  8. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.; Kiang, Nelson Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 μPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager’s permanent magnet and the room air handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions. PMID:11051496

  9. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection ofmore » contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  10. Multidataset Refinement Resonant Diffraction, and Magnetic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scope of Rietveld and other powder diffraction refinements continues to expand, driven by improvements in instrumentation, methodology and software. This will be illustrated by examples from our research in recent years. Multidataset refinement is now commonplace; the datasets may be from different detectors, e.g., in a time-of-flight experiment, or from separate experiments, such as at several x-ray energies giving resonant information. The complementary use of x rays and neutrons is exemplified by a recent combined refinement of the monoclinic superstructure of magnetite, Fe3O4, below the 122 K Verwey transition, which reveals evidence for Fe2+/Fe3+ charge ordering. Powder neutron diffraction data continue to be used for the solution and Rietveld refinement of magnetic structures. Time-of-flight instruments on cold neutron sources can produce data that have a high intensity and good resolution at high d-spacings. Such profiles have been used to study incommensurate magnetic structures such as FeAsO4 and β–CrPO4. A multiphase, multidataset refinement of the phase-separated perovskite (Pr0.35Y0.07Th0.04Ca0.04Sr0.5)MnO3 has been used to fit three components with different crystal and magnetic structures at low temperatures. PMID:27366599

  11. Magnetic resonance tracking of fluorescent nanodiamond fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J. P.; Panich, A. M.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Treussart, F.; Vul', A. Ya

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques (electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) are used for tracking the multi-stage process of the fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) produced by high-energy electron irradiation, annealing, and subsequent nano-milling. Pristine commercial high pressure and high temperature microdiamonds (MDs) with mean size 150 μm contain ~5  ×  1018 spins/g of singlet (S = 1/2) substitutional nitrogen defects P1, as well as sp3 C-C dangling bonds in the crystalline lattice. The half-field X-band EPR clearly shows (by the appearance of the intense ‘forbidden’ g = 4.26 line) that high-energy electron irradiation and annealing of MDs induce a large amount (~5  ×  1017 spins/g) of triplet (S = 1) magnetic centers, which are identified as negatively charged nitrogen vacancy defects (NV-). This is supported by EPR observations of the ‘allowed’ transitions between Zeeman sublevels of the triplet state. After progressive milling of the fluorescent MDs down to an ultrasubmicron scale (≤100 nm), the relative abundance of EPR active NV- defects in the resulting fluorescent NDs (FND) substantially decreases and, vice versa, the content of C-inherited singlet defects correlatively increases. In the fraction of the finest FNDs (mean particle size <20 nm), which are contained in the dried supernatant of ultracentrifuged aqueous dispersion of FNDs, the NV- content is found to be reduced by one order of magnitude whereas the singlet defects content increases up to ~2  ×  1019 spins/g. In addition, another triplet-type defect, which is characterized by the g = 4.00 ‘forbidden’ line, appears. On reduction of the particle size below the 20 nm limit, the ‘allowed’ EPR lines become practically unobservable, whereas the ‘forbidden’ lines remain as a reliable fingerprint of the presence of NV- centers in small ND systems. The same size reduction causes the disappearance of the

  12. [Functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic neuroanatomy of addictive disorders].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M E; Shtark, M B

    2014-01-01

    Research into the cerebral patterns that govern the formation and development of addictive behavior is one of the most interesting goals of neurophysiology. Authors of contemporary papers on the matter define a number of symptoms that are all part of substance or non-substance dependence, each one of them leading to abnormalities in the corresponding system of the brain. During the last twenty years the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMR1) technology has been instrumental in locating such abnormalities, identifying specific parts of the brain that, when dysfunctional, may enhance addiction and cause its positive or negative symptoms. This article reviews fMRI studies aimed toward locating areas in the brain that are responsible for cognitive, emotional, and motivational dysfunction. Cerebral correlatives of impulsiveness, behavior control, and drug cravings are reviewed separately. The article also contains an overview of possibilities to further investigate the Selves of those dependent on substances, identify previously unknown diagnostic markers of substance dependence, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. The research under review in this article provides data that points to a special role of the nucleus caudatus as well as the nucleus accumbens, the thalamus, the insular cortex (IC), the anterior cingulate, prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas in psychological disorders that are part of substance dependence. General findings of the article are in accordance with contemporary models of addictive pattern.

  13. Advances in magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance-compatible neonatal incubators allow sick neonates to be transported to the MR scanner, and neonatal head coils can improve signal-to-noise ratio, critical for advanced MR imaging techniques. Refinement of conventional imaging techniques include the use of PROPELLER techniques for motion correction. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and diffusion tensor imaging provide quantitative assessment of both brain development and brain injury in the newborn with respect to metabolite abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic injury. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in MR spectroscopy metabolite concentration and diffusion tensor metrics is essential to interpret pathological cases. Perfusion MR and functional MR can provide additional physiological information. Both MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide additional information in the differential of neonatal encephalopathy, including perinatal white matter injury, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, metabolic disease, infection, and birth injury.

  14. Plasma-induced magnetic responses during nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields duringmore » the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.« less

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian

    1993-01-01

    A number of physiological changes were demonstrated in bone, muscle, and blood from exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long-duration space missions is an important NASA goal. Historically, NASA has had to rely on tape measures, x-ray, and metabolic balance studies with collection of excreta and blood specimens to obtain this information. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility of greatly extending these early studies in ways not previously possible; MRI is also non-invasive and safe; i.e., no radiation exposure. MRI provides both superb anatomical images for volume measurements of individual structures and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. This investigation will apply MRI technology to measure muscle, intervertebral disc, and bone marrow changes resulting from exposure to microgravity.

  16. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1993-01-01

    The West Virginia State College Community College Division NASA Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) study is described. During this contract period, the two most significant and professionally rewarding events were the presentation of the research activity at the Sir Isaac Newton Conference in St. Petersburg, Russia, and the second Day of Discovery Conference, focusing on economic recovery in West Virginia. An active antenna concept utilizing a signal feedback principle similar to regenerative receivers used in early radio was studied. The device has potential for ELF research and other commercial applications for improved signal reception. Finally, work continues to progress on the development of a prototype monitoring station. Signal monitoring, data display, and data storage are major areas of activity. In addition, we plan to continue our dissemination of research activity through presentations at seminars and other universities.

  17. Myocardial Tissue Characterization by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Piechnik, Stefan K.; Robson, Matthew D.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a well-established noninvasive imaging modality in clinical cardiology. Its unsurpassed accuracy in defining cardiac morphology and function and its ability to provide tissue characterization make it well suited for the study of patients with cardiac diseases. Late gadolinium enhancement was a major advancement in the development of tissue characterization techniques, allowing the unique ability of CMR to differentiate ischemic heart disease from nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Using T2-weighted techniques, areas of edema and inflammation can be identified in the myocardium. A new generation of myocardial mapping techniques are emerging, enabling direct quantitative assessment of myocardial tissue properties in absolute terms. This review will summarize recent developments involving T1-mapping and T2-mapping techniques and focus on the clinical applications and future potential of these evolving CMR methodologies. PMID:24576837

  18. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  19. Nanoplatforms for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cywińska, Monika A.; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Bystrzejewski, Michał; Popławska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Summary The application of biomedical nanotechnology in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expect to have a major impact leading to the development of new contrast drug candidates on the nanoscale (1–100 nm) that are able to react with specific biological targets at a molecular level. One of the major challenges in this regard is the construction of nanomaterials, especially used in molecular MRI diagnostics of cancer in vivo, specialized antitumor drug delivery or real-time evaluation of the efficacy of the implemented cancer treatment. In this paper, we tried to gain further insights into current trends of nanomedicine, with special focus on preclinical MRI studies in translation cancer research. PMID:22802828

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies. PMID:26752822

  2. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    PubMed

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  3. Skeletonization applied to magnetic resonance angiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nystroem, Ingela

    1998-06-01

    When interpreting and analyzing magnetic resonance angiography images, the 3D overall tree structure and the thickness of the blood vessels are of interest. This shape information may be easier to obtain from the skeleton of the blood vessels. Skeletonization of digital volume objects denotes either reduction to a 2D structure consisting of 3D surfaces, and curves, or reduction to a 1D structure consisting of 3D curves only. Thin elongated objects, such as blood vessels, are well suited for reduction to curve skeletons. Our results indicate that the tree structure of the vascular system is well represented by the skeleton. Positions for possible artery stenoses may be identified by locating local minima in curve skeletons, where the skeletal voxels are labeled with the distance to the original background.

  4. [Prostate biopsy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance].

    PubMed

    Kuplevatskiy, V I; CherkashiN, M A; Roshchin, D A; Berezina, N A; Vorob'ev, N A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most important problems in modern oncology. According to statistical data, PC ranks second in the cancer morbidity structure in the Russian Federation and developed countries and its prevalence has been progressively increasing over the past decade. A need for early diagnosis and maximally accurate morphological verification of the diagnosis in difficult clinical cases (inconvenient tumor location for standard transrectal biopsy; gland scarring changes concurrent with prostatitis and hemorrhage; threshold values of prostate-specific antigen with unclear changes in its doubling per unit time; suspicion of biochemical recurrence or clinical tumor progression after special treatment) leads to revised diagnostic algorithms and clinically introduced new high-tech invasive diagnostic methods. This paper gives the first analysis of literature data on Russian practice using one of the new methods to verify prostate cancer (transrectal prostate cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance). The have sought the 1995-2015 data in the MEDLINE and Pubmed.

  5. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasingly important role in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, delineating the structural and functional alterations determined by these conditions. Advanced MRI techniques are of special interest for their potential to characterize the signature of each neurodegenerative condition and aid both the diagnostic process and the monitoring of disease progression. This aspect will become crucial when disease-modifying (personalized) therapies will be established. MRI techniques are very diverse and go from the visual inspection of MRI scans to more complex approaches, such as manual and automatic volume measurements, diffusion tensor MRI, and functional MRI. All these techniques allow us to investigate the different features of neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the use of MRI in some of the most important neurodegenerative conditions, putting an emphasis on the advanced techniques.

  6. Pharmaceutical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Richardson, J Craig; Bowtell, Richard W; Mäder, Karsten; Melia, Colin D

    2005-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that provides internal images of materials and living organisms on a microscopic and macroscopic scale. It is non-invasive and non-destructive, and one of very few techniques that can observe internal events inside undisturbed specimens in situ. It is versatile, as a wide range of NMR modalities can be accessed, and 2D and 3D imaging can be undertaken. Despite widespread use and major advances in clinical MRI, it has seen limited application in the pharmaceutical sciences. In vitro studies have focussed on drug release mechanisms in polymeric delivery systems, but isolated studies of bioadhesion, tablet properties, and extrusion and mixing processes illustrate the wider potential. Perhaps the greatest potential however, lies in investigations of pharmaceuticals in vivo, where pilot human and animal studies have demonstrated we can obtain unique insights into the behaviour of gastrointestinal, topical, colloidal, and targeted drug delivery systems.

  7. Magnetic resonance image segmentation using multifractal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue-e.; Wang, Fang; Liu, Li-lin

    2015-11-01

    In order to delineate target region for magnetic resonance image (MRI) with diseases, the classical multifractal spectrum (MFS)-segmentation method and latest multifractal detrended fluctuation spectrum (MF-DFS)-based segmentation method are employed in our study. One of our main conclusions from experiments is that both of the two multifractal-based methods are workable for handling MRIs. The best result is obtained by MF-DFS-based method using Lh10 as local characteristic. The anti-noises experiments also suppot the conclusion. This interest finding shows that the features can be better represented by the strong fluctuations instead of the weak fluctuations for the MRIs. By comparing the multifractal nature between lesion and non-lesion area on the basis of the segmentation results, an interest finding is that the gray value's fluctuation in lesion area is much severer than that in non-lesion area.

  8. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization. PMID:26915119

  9. OPTIMAL EXPERIMENT DESIGN FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FINGERPRINTING

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Haldar, Justin P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance. PMID:28268369

  10. Optimal experiment design for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Bo Zhao; Haldar, Justin P; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance.

  11. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  12. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  13. Geometric Computation of Human Gyrification Indexes from Magnetic Resonance Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    GEOMETRIC COMPUTATION OF HUMAN GYRIFICATION INDEXES FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES By Shu Su Tonya White Marcus Schmidt Chiu-Yen Kao and Guillermo...00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Geometric Computation of Human Gyrification Indexes from Magnetic Resonance Images 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Geometric Computation of Gyrification Indexes Chiu-Yen Kao 1 Geometric Computation of Human Gyrification

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Alzheimer' Disease Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Holiga, Stefan; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Klöppel, Stefan; Dukart, Juergen

    2018-01-01

    While now commonly applied for studying human brain function the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging in drug development has only recently been recognized. Here we describe the different functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques applied in Alzheimer's disease drug development with their applications, implementation guidelines, and potential pitfalls.

  15. The Diagnostic Performance of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Significant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J E; van Leeuwen, P J; Moses, D; Shnier, R; Brenner, P; Delprado, W; Pulbrook, M; Böhm, M; Haynes, A M; Hayen, A; Stricker, P D

    2016-05-01

    We assess the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for significant prostate cancer detection before diagnostic biopsy in men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination. A total of 388 men underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging before biopsy. Two radiologists used PI-RADS to allocate a score of 1 to 5 for suspicion of significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with more than 5% grade 4). PI-RADS 3 to 5 was considered positive. Transperineal template guided mapping biopsy of 18 regions (median 30 cores) was performed with additional manually directed cores from magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. The anatomical location, size and grade of individual cancer areas in the biopsy regions (18) as the primary outcome and in prostatectomy specimens (117) as the secondary outcome were correlated to the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions. Of the 388 men who were enrolled in the study 344 were analyzed. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was positive in 77.0% of patients, 62.5% had prostate cancer and 41.6% had significant prostate cancer. The detection of significant prostate cancer by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 36%, negative predictive value of 92% and positive predictive value of 52%. Adding PI-RADS to the multivariate model, including prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, prostate volume and age, improved the AUC from 0.776 to 0.879 (p <0.001). Anatomical concordance analysis showed a low mismatch between the magnetic resonance imaging positive regions and biopsy positive regions (4 [2.9%]), and the significant prostate cancer area in the radical prostatectomy specimen (3 [3.3%]). In men with an abnormal prostate specific antigen/digital rectal examination, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging detected significant prostate cancer

  16. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losby, Joseph; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Grandmont, Dylan T.; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob A.; Compton, Shawn R.; Hiebert, Wayne K.; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory E.; Thomson, Douglas J.; Freeman, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    An optomechanical platform for magnetic resonance spectroscopy will be presented. The method relies on frequency mixing of orthogonal RF fields to yield a torque amplitude (arising from the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment, in analogy to magnetic resonance detection by electromagnetic induction) on a miniaturized resonant mechanical torsion sensor. In contrast to induction, the method is fully broadband and allows for simultaneous observation of the equilibrium net magnetic moment alongside the associated magnetization dynamics. To illustrate the method, comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a mesoscopic, single-crystal YIG disk at room temperature will be presented, along with situations where torque spectroscopy can offer complimentary information to existing magnetic resonance detection techniques. The authors are very grateful for support from NSERC, CRC, AITF, and NINT. Reference: Science 350, 798 (2015).

  17. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging: pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Henzler, Thomas; Shirinova, Aysel; Apfaltrer, Paul; Wasser, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Ongoing technical developments have substantially improved the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of the pulmonary circulation. These developments includes improved magnet and hardware design, new k-space sampling techniques (ie, parallel imaging), and alternative contrast materials. With these techniques, not only can pulmonary vessels be visualized by MR angiography with high spatial resolution but also the perfusion of the lungs and its changes in relation to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) can be assessed. Considering venous thromboembolism as a systemic disease, MR venography might be added for the diagnosis of underlying deep venous thrombosis. A unique advantage of MRI over other imaging tests is its potential to evaluate changes in cardiac function as a result of obstruction of the pulmonary circulation, which may have a significant impact on patient monitoring and treatment. Finally, MRI does not involve radiation, which is advantageous, especially in young patients. Over the years, a number of studies have shown promising results not only for MR angiography but also for MRI of lung perfusion and for MR venography. This review article summarizes and discusses the current evidence on pulmonary MRI for patients with suspected PE.

  18. Functional Nanoparticles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinpei; Xu, Jiadi; Cui, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have received much attention over the past decade. By virtue of a high payload of magnetic moieties, enhanced accumulation at disease sites, and a large surface area for additional modification with targeting ligands, nanoparticle-based contrast agents offer promising new platforms to further enhance the high resolution and sensitivity of MRI for various biomedical applications. T2* superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) first demonstrated superior improvement on MRI sensitivity. The prevailing SPION attracted growing interest in the development of refined nanoscale versions of MRI contrast agents. Afterwards, T1-based contrast agents were developed, and became the most studied subject in MRI due to the positive contrast they provide that avoids the susceptibility associated with MRI signal reduction. Recently, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents have emerged and rapidly gained popularity. The unique aspect of CEST contrast agents is that their contrast can be selectively turned “on” and “off” by radiofrequency (RF) saturation. Their performance can be further enhanced by incorporating a large number of exchangeable protons into well-defined nanostructure. Besides activatable CEST contrast agents, there is growing interest in developing nanoparticle-based activatable MRI contrast agents responsive to stimuli (pH, enzyme, etc.), which improves sensitivity and specificity. In this review, we summarize the recent development of various types of nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents, and have focused our discussions on the key advantages of introducing nanoparticles in MRI. PMID:27040463

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection of early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Foy, Catherine; Poppe, Michaela; Cooper, Allison; Murphy, Declan; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder and early detection is of great importance if new therapies are to be effectively administered. We have investigated whether the discrimination between early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elderly healthy control subjects can be improved by adding magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. In this study 30 AD patients and 36 control subjects were included. High resolution T1-weighted axial magnetic resonance images were obtained from each subject. Automated regional volume segmentation and cortical thickness measures were determined for the images. 1H MRS was acquired from the hippocampus and LCModel was used for metabolic quantification. Altogether, this yielded 58 different volumetric, cortical thickness and metabolite ratio variables which were used for multivariate analysis to distinguish between subjects with AD and Healthy controls. Combining MRI and MRS measures resulted in a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 94% compared to using MRI or MRS measures alone (sensitivity: 87%, 76%, specificity: 86%, 83% respectively). Adding the MRS measures to the MRI measures more than doubled the positive likelihood ratio from 6 to 17. Adding MRS measures to a multivariate analysis of MRI measures resulted in significantly better classification than using MRI measures alone. The method shows strong potential for discriminating between Alzheimer's disease and controls.

  20. Broadband excitation in nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along withmore » computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system

  1. Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.

    PubMed

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Objective Modality to Identify the Pathology of Breast Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Zealand Journal or Surgery Appendix IV: Attached Manuscript published in Life Sciences Appendix V: Attached Figures 1-13 Appendix VI: Attached Tables 1... early diagnosis and effective management. The triage of mammography, clinical examination and fine needle aspiration biopsy is currently used to...identify early breast cancers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been added to select women with breast abnormalities requiring biopsy. However

  3. Magnetic resonance cholangiographic evaluation of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct variations

    PubMed Central

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Biliary anatomy and its common and uncommon variations are of considerable clinical significance when performing living donor transplantation, radiological interventions in hepatobiliary system, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and liver resection (hepatectomy, segmentectomy). Because of increasing trend found in the number of liver transplant surgeries being performed, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has become the modality of choice for noninvasive evaluation of abnormalities of the biliary tract. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomic variations of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree. PMID:27081220

  4. Computer simulation of magnetic resonance spectra employing homotopy.

    PubMed

    Gates, K E; Griffin, M; Hanson, G R; Burrage, K

    1998-11-01

    Multidimensional homotopy provides an efficient method for accurately tracing energy levels and hence transitions in the presence of energy level anticrossings and looping transitions. Herein we describe the application and implementation of homotopy to the analysis of continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. The method can also be applied to electron nuclear double resonance, electron spin echo envelope modulation, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Bott-Silverman, C.

    1984-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) involves the myocardium in 90% of cases and may present as apparent ischemia, vascular disease, or congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography (echo) has proven useful in the diagnosis, particularly in differentiating AL from constrictive pericarditis. The findings of thickened RV and LV myocardium, normal LV cavity dimension, and a diffuse hyperrefractile ''granular sparkling'' appearance are virtually diagnostic. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may improve the resolution of anatomic changes seen in cardiac AL and has the potential to provide more specific information based on biochemical tissue alterations. In this preliminary study, the authors obtained both MR and echomore » images in six patients with AL and biopsy-proven myocardial involvement. 5/6 patients also had Tc-99 PYP myocardial studies including emission tomography (SPECT). MR studies utilized a 0.6 Tesla superconductive magnet. End diastolic gated images were obtained with TE=30msec and TR=R-R interval on the ECG. 6/6 pts. showed LV wall thickening which was concentric and included the septum. Papillary muscles were identified in all and were enlarged in 3/6. 4/6 pts. showed RV wall thickening but to a lesser degree than LV. Pericardial effusions were present in 4 cases. These findings correlated well with the results of echo although MR gave better RV free wall resolution. PYP scans were positive in 3 pts. but there was no correlation with degree of LV thickening. The authors conclude that there are no identifiable MR findings in patients with cardiac AL which encourage further attempts to characterize myocardial involvement by measurement of MR relaxation times in vivo.« less

  6. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  7. Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Finian M; Page, Lisa; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Bolton, Patrick; Sharma, Ajay; Baird, Gillian; Daly, Eileen; Hallahan, Brian; Conroy, Ronán M; Foy, Catherine; Curran, Sarah; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-11-30

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, including Asperger syndrome) may have developmental abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC). However, in vivo, age-related comparisons of both volume and neuronal integrity of the AHC have not yet been carried out in people with Asperger syndrome (AS) versus controls. We compared structure and metabolic activity of the right AHC of 22 individuals with AS and 22 healthy controls aged 10-50 years and examined the effects of age between groups. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to measure the volume of the AHC, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), myo-inositol (mI) and choline (Cho). The bulk volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus did not differ significantly between groups, but there was a significant difference in the effect of age on the hippocampus in controls. Compared with controls, young (but not older) people with AS had a significantly higher AHC concentration of NAA and a significantly higher NAA/Cr ratio. People with AS, but not controls, had a significant age-related reduction in NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio. Also, in people with AS, but not controls, there was a significant relationship between concentrations of choline and age so that choline concentrations reduced with age. We therefore suggest that people with AS have significant differences in neuronal and lipid membrane integrity and maturation of the AHC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amplitude-integrated EEG in newborns with critical congenital heart disease predicts preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Yap, Vivien L; Bai, Shasha; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Glasier, Charles M; Bornemeier, Renee A; Schmitz, Michael L; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2015-06-01

    The study aims are to evaluate cerebral background patterns using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in newborns with critical congenital heart disease, determine if amplitude-integrated electroencephalography is predictive of preoperative brain injury, and assess the incidence of preoperative seizures. We hypothesize that amplitude-integrated electroencephalography will show abnormal background patterns in the early preoperative period in infants with congenital heart disease that have preoperative brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-four newborns with congenital heart disease requiring surgery at younger than 30 days of age were prospectively enrolled within the first 3 days of age at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Infants had amplitude-integrated electroencephalography for 24 hours beginning close to birth and preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging. The amplitude-integrated electroencephalographies were read to determine if the background pattern was normal, mildly abnormal, or severely abnormal. The presence of seizures and sleep-wake cycling were noted. The preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were used for brain injury and brain atrophy assessment. Fifteen of 24 infants had abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography at 0.71 (0-2) (mean [range]) days of age. In five infants, the background pattern was severely abnormal. (burst suppression and/or continuous low voltage). Of the 15 infants with abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, 9 (60%) had brain injury. One infant with brain injury had a seizure on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography. A severely abnormal background pattern on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography was associated with brain atrophy (P = 0.03) and absent sleep-wake cycling (P = 0.022). Background cerebral activity is abnormal on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography following birth in newborns with congenital heart disease who have findings of

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Méndez Fernández, R; Barrera Ortega, J

    Endometriosis is common in women of reproductive age; it can cause pelvic pain and infertility. It is important to diagnose endometriosis and to thoroughly evaluate its extension, especially when surgical treatment is being considered. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with careful examination technique and interpretation enables more accurate and complete diagnosis and staging than ultrasonography, especially in cases of deep pelvic endometriosis. Furthermore, MRI can identify implants in sites that can be difficult to access in endoscopic or laparoscopic explorations. In this article, we describe the appropriate MRI protocol for the study of pelvic endometriosis and the MRI signs of pelvic organ involvement. It is necessary to know the subtle findings and to look for them so we can ensure that they are not overlooked. We describe clinical grading systems for endometriosis and review the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in comparison with other imaging techniques and surgery. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. INVITED TOPICAL REVIEW: Parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkman, David J.; Nunes, Rita G.

    2007-04-01

    Parallel imaging has been the single biggest innovation in magnetic resonance imaging in the last decade. The use of multiple receiver coils to augment the time consuming Fourier encoding has reduced acquisition times significantly. This increase in speed comes at a time when other approaches to acquisition time reduction were reaching engineering and human limits. A brief summary of spatial encoding in MRI is followed by an introduction to the problem parallel imaging is designed to solve. There are a large number of parallel reconstruction algorithms; this article reviews a cross-section, SENSE, SMASH, g-SMASH and GRAPPA, selected to demonstrate the different approaches. Theoretical (the g-factor) and practical (coil design) limits to acquisition speed are reviewed. The practical implementation of parallel imaging is also discussed, in particular coil calibration. How to recognize potential failure modes and their associated artefacts are shown. Well-established applications including angiography, cardiac imaging and applications using echo planar imaging are reviewed and we discuss what makes a good application for parallel imaging. Finally, active research areas where parallel imaging is being used to improve data quality by repairing artefacted images are also reviewed.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging in glenohumeral instability

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Manisha; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2011-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint of the body and anterior instability is the most common type of shoulder instability. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and more recently, MR arthrography, have become the essential investigation modalities of glenohumeral instability, especially for pre-procedure evaluation before arthroscopic surgery. Injuries associated with glenohumeral instability are variable, and can involve the bones, the labor-ligamentous components, or the rotator cuff. Anterior instability is associated with injuries of the anterior labrum and the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament, in the form of Bankart lesion and its variants; whereas posterior instability is associated with reverse Bankart and reverse Hill-Sachs lesion. Multidirectional instability often has no labral pathology on imaging but shows specific osseous changes such as increased chondrolabral retroversion. This article reviews the relevant anatomy in brief, the MR imaging technique and the arthrographic technique, and describes the MR findings in each type of instability as well as common imaging pitfalls. PMID:22007285

  13. Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Russell T; Sweeney, Elizabeth M; Goldsmith, Jeff; Shiee, Navid; Mateen, Farrah J; Calabresi, Peter A; Jarso, Samson; Pham, Dzung L; Reich, Daniel S; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M

    2014-01-01

    While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Ultrahigh Fields

    PubMed Central

    Uğurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultra-high fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

  15. BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael E; Jordan, Jennifer H; Juncos, Luis A; Hundley, W Gregory; Hall, John E

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues. PMID:29559807

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in congenital Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to elucidate the etiology of Brown syndrome by evaluating the trochlea position, morphologic characteristics of the extraocular muscles including superior oblique muscle/tendon complex, and the presence of the cranial nerves (CN) III, IV, and VI using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in eight patients with unilateral congenital Brown syndrome and one patient with bilateral congenital Brown syndrome. Nine consecutive patients diagnosed with congenital Brown syndrome had a comprehensive ocular examination and MRI for the CN III, CN VI, and the extraocular muscles. Five of the nine patients underwent additional high resolution MRI for CN IV. The distance from the annulus of Zinn to the trochlea was measured. Normal sized CN III, IV, and VI, as well as all extraocular muscles, could be identified bilaterally in all patients with available MRI. The distance from the annulus of Zinn to the trochlea was the same in both eyes. The findings for our patients, particularly in those who underwent additional high resolution MRI, did not provide evidence of a lack of CN IV as a cause of Brown syndrome.

  17. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

    2008-02-21

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within a tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit, and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans.

  18. Vibration safety limits for magnetic resonance elastography

    PubMed Central

    Ehman, E C; Rossman, P J; Kruse, S A; Sahakian, A V; Glaser, K J

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been demonstrated to have potential as a clinical tool for assessing the stiffness of tissue in vivo. An essential step in MRE is the generation of acoustic mechanical waves within tissue via a coupled mechanical driver. Motivated by an increasing volume of human imaging trials using MRE, the objectives of this study were to audit the vibration amplitude of exposure for our IRB-approved human MRE studies, to compare these values to a conservative regulatory standard for vibrational exposure, and to evaluate the applicability and implications of this standard for MRE. MRE displacement data were examined from 29 MRE exams, including the liver, brain, kidney, breast, and skeletal muscle. Vibrational acceleration limits from a European Union directive limiting occupational exposure to whole-body and extremity vibrations (EU 2002/44/EC) were adjusted for time and frequency of exposure, converted to maximum displacement values, and compared to the measured in vivo displacements. The results indicate that the vibrational amplitudes used in MRE studies are below the EU whole-body vibration limit and the EU guidelines represent a useful standard that could be readily accepted by Institutional Review Boards to define standards for vibrational exposures for MRE studies in humans. PMID:18263949

  19. Cardiovascular applications of magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, Peter W.; Wisenberg, Gerald; Prato, Frank S.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a unique imaging modality that is gaining rapid acceptance for a variety of medical indications. Diagnostic information is obtained noninvasively, without the potential hazards of ionizing radiation. The spatial resolution and anatomic detail of MR imaging rival those of other currently available imaging methods. By gating to an electrocardiographic signal cardiac imaging is possible. Since March 1983 the authors have had experience with cardiac MR imaging in both animals and humans. Cardiac anatomy is well shown by this technique, which allows detection and characterization of intracardiac masses, congenital heart disease and anomalies of the great vessels. Myocardial infarction has been detected in both animals and humans without the use of contrast agents, and acute cardiac transplant rejection has been visualized in an animal model. Limitations of MR imaging primarily have been lengthy imaging times and the sensitivity of the images to motion. With further investigation and experience this technique may become useful for studying a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:3904969

  20. Magnetic resonance tomography of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Puig, Stefan; Kuruvilla, Yojena Chittazhathu Kurian; Ebner, Lukas; Endel, Gottfried

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in terms of sensitivity and specificity using a field strength of <1.0 T (T) versus ≥1.5 T for diagnosing or ruling out knee injuries or knee pathologies. The systematic literature research revealed more than 10,000 references, of which 1598 abstracts were reviewed and 87 full-text articles were retrieved. The further selection process resulted in the inclusion of four systematic reviews and six primary studies. No differences could be identified in the diagnostic performance of low- versus high-field MRI for the detection or exclusion of meniscal or cruciate ligament tears. Regarding the detection or grading of cartilage defects and osteoarthritis of the knee, the existing evidence suggests that high-field MRI is tolerably specific but not very sensitive, while there is literally no evidence for low-field MRI because only a few studies with small sample sizes and equivocal findings have been performed. We can recommend the use of low-field strength MRI systems in suspected meniscal or cruciate ligament injuries. This does, however, not apply to the diagnosis and grading of knee cartilage defects and osteoarthritis because of insufficient evidence.

  1. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  2. Prenatal Imaging: Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Uma M.; Filly, Roy A.; Copel, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop on September 18–19, 2006, to summarize the available evidence on the role and performance of current fetal imaging technology and to establish a research agenda. Ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice for pregnancy evaluation due to its relatively low cost, real-time capability, safety, and operator comfort and experience. First-trimester ultrasonography extends the available window for fetal observation and raises the possibility of performing an early anatomic survey. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has the potential to expand the clinical application of ultrasonography by permitting local acquisition of volumes and remote review and interpretation at specialized centers. New advances allow performance of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without maternal or fetal sedation, with improved characterization and prediction of prognosis of certain fetal central nervous system anomalies such as ventriculomegaly when compared with ultrasonography. Fewer data exist on the usefulness of fetal MRI for non–central nervous system anomalies. PMID:18591320

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial nerve schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew L; Aviv, Richard I; Chen, Joseph M; Nedzelski, Julian M; Yuen, Heng-Wai; Fox, Allan J; Bharatha, Aditya; Bartlett, Eric S; Symons, Sean P

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes the magnetic resonance (MR) appearances of facial nerve schwannoma (FNS). We hypothesize that the extent of FNS demonstrated on MR will be greater compared to prior computed tomography studies, that geniculate involvement will be most common, and that cerebellar pontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) involvement will more frequently result in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Retrospective study. Clinical, pathologic, and enhanced MR imaging records of 30 patients with FNS were analyzed. Morphologic characteristics and extent of segmental facial nerve involvement were documented. Median age at initial imaging was 51 years (range, 28-76 years). Pathologic confirmation was obtained in 14 patients (47%), and the diagnosis reached in the remainder by identification of a mass, thickening, and enhancement along the course of the facial nerve. All 30 lesions involved two or more contiguous segments of the facial nerve, with 28 (93%) involving three or more segments. The median segments involved per lesion was 4, mean of 3.83. Geniculate involvement was most common, in 29 patients (97%). CPA (P = .001) and IAC (P = .02) involvement was significantly related to SNHL. Seventeen patients (57%) presented with facial nerve dysfunction, manifesting in 12 patients as facial nerve weakness or paralysis, and/or in eight with involuntary movements of the facial musculature. This study highlights the morphologic heterogeneity and typical multisegment involvement of FNS. Enhanced MR is the imaging modality of choice for FNS. The neuroradiologist must accurately diagnose and characterize this lesion, and thus facilitate optimal preoperative planning and counseling.

  4. Compression-sensitive magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Sebastian; Beyer, Frauke; Guo, Jing; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Tzschaetzsch, Heiko; Braun, Juergen; Sack, Ingolf

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) quantifies the shear modulus of biological tissue to detect disease. Complementary to the shear elastic properties of tissue, the compression modulus may be a clinically useful biomarker because it is sensitive to tissue pressure and poromechanical interactions. In this work, we analyze the capability of MRE to measure volumetric strain and the dynamic bulk modulus (P-wave modulus) at a harmonic drive frequency commonly used in shear-wave-based MRE. Gel phantoms with various densities were created by introducing CO2-filled cavities to establish a compressible effective medium. The dependence of the effective medium's bulk modulus on phantom density was investigated via static compression tests, which confirmed theoretical predictions. The P-wave modulus of three compressible phantoms was calculated from volumetric strain measured by 3D wave-field MRE at 50 Hz drive frequency. The results demonstrate the MRE-derived volumetric strain and P-wave modulus to be sensitive to the compression properties of effective media. Since the reconstruction of the P-wave modulus requires third-order derivatives, noise remains critical, and P-wave moduli are systematically underestimated. Focusing on relative changes in the effective bulk modulus of tissue, compression-sensitive MRE may be useful for the noninvasive detection of diseases involving pathological pressure alterations such as hepatic hypertension or hydrocephalus.

  5. Multiscale Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Eric Y.; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To reduce acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. Methods An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in-vivo data using the highly-undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. Results The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD) and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256×256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2s, representing a 3-fold reduction in acquisition time. Conclusions The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. PMID:26132462

  6. Measurement Consistency from Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dongjun; Chung, Moo K.; Durtschi, Reid B.; Lindell, R. Gentry; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives In quantifying medical images, length-based measurements are still obtained manually. Due to possible human error, a measurement protocol is required to guarantee the consistency of measurements. In this paper, we review various statistical techniques that can be used in determining measurement consistency. The focus is on detecting a possible measurement bias and determining the robustness of the procedures to outliers. Materials and Methods We review correlation analysis, linear regression, Bland-Altman method, paired t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). These techniques were applied to measurements, obtained by two raters, of head and neck structures from magnetic resonance images (MRI). Results The correlation analysis and the linear regression were shown to be insufficient for detecting measurement inconsistency. They are also very sensitive to outliers. The widely used Bland-Altman method is a visualization technique so it lacks the numerical quantification. The paired t-test tends to be sensitive to small measurement bias. On the other hand, ANOVA performs well even under small measurement bias. Conclusion In almost all cases, using only one method is insufficient and it is recommended to use several methods simultaneously. In general, ANOVA performs the best. PMID:18790405

  7. Artifacts Affecting Musculoskeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Their Origins and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eira; Hoff, Michael; Richardson, Michael L; Ha, Alice S; Porrino, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Among articles within the radiology literature, few present the manifestations of magnetic resonance imaging artifacts in a clinically oriented manner. Recognizing such artifacts is imperative given the increasing clinical use of magnetic resonance imaging and the emphasis by the American Board of Radiology on practical physics applications. The purpose of this article is to present magnetic resonance physics principles visually and conceptually in the context of common musculoskeletal radiology artifacts and their solutions, described using nonmathematical explanations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian estimation of multicomponent relaxation parameters in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    McGivney, Debra; Deshmane, Anagha; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-07-01

    To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown. Assuming that only a few entries from the dictionary contribute to a mixed signal, sparsity-promoting priors can be placed upon the solution. An iterative algorithm is applied to compute the maximum a posteriori estimator of the posterior probability density to determine the magnetic resonance fingerprinting dictionary entries that contribute most significantly to mixed or pure voxels. Simulation results show that the algorithm is robust in finding the component tissues of mixed voxels. Preliminary in vivo data confirm this result, and show good agreement in voxels containing pure tissue. The Bayesian framework and algorithm shown provide accurate solutions for the partial-volume problem in magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The flexibility of the method will allow further study into different priors and hyperpriors that can be applied in the model. Magn Reson Med 80:159-170, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-07

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed.

  10. Resonant Raman scattering from silicon nanoparticles enhanced by magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Pavel A; Baranov, Denis G; Milichko, Valentin A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Samusev, Anton K; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2016-05-05

    Enhancement of optical response with high-index dielectric nanoparticles is attributed to the excitation of their Mie-type magnetic and electric resonances. Here we study Raman scattering from crystalline silicon nanoparticles and reveal that magnetic dipole modes have a much stronger effect on the scattering than electric modes of the same order. We demonstrate experimentally a 140-fold enhancement of the Raman signal from individual silicon spherical nanoparticles at the magnetic dipole resonance. Our results confirm the importance of the optically-induced magnetic response of subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles for enhancing light-matter interactions.

  11. Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Tourette's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Timothy J.; Drost, Dick J.; Pavlosky, William; Neufeld, Richard W.J.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; McKinlay, B. Duncan; Williamson, Peter C.; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Although abnormalities of neural circuits involving the cortex, striatum, and thalamus are hypothesized to underlie Tourette's disorder, the neuronal abnormalities within components of these circuits are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the cellular neurochemistry within these circuits in Tourette's disorder using…

  12. Inhalant-Abuse Myocarditis Diagnosed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishnasree; Matulevicius, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple reports of toxic myocarditis from inhalant abuse have been reported. We now report the case of a 23-year-old man found to have toxic myocarditis from inhalation of a hydrocarbon. The diagnosis was made by means of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance to diagnose myocarditis has become increasingly common in clinical medicine, although there is not a universally accepted criterion for diagnosis. We appear to be the first to document a case of toxic myocarditis diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance. In patients with a history of drug abuse who present with clinical findings that suggest myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance can be considered to support the diagnosis. PMID:27303242

  13. Inhalant-Abuse Myocarditis Diagnosed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Dinsfriend, William; Rao, Krishnasree; Matulevicius, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Multiple reports of toxic myocarditis from inhalant abuse have been reported. We now report the case of a 23-year-old man found to have toxic myocarditis from inhalation of a hydrocarbon. The diagnosis was made by means of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance to diagnose myocarditis has become increasingly common in clinical medicine, although there is not a universally accepted criterion for diagnosis. We appear to be the first to document a case of toxic myocarditis diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance. In patients with a history of drug abuse who present with clinical findings that suggest myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance can be considered to support the diagnosis.

  14. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  15. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Huberty, John P.; White, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  16. Identification of cortex in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanMeter, John W.; Sandon, Peter A.

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of the work described here is to make available to the neurosurgeon in the operating room an on-line, three-dimensional, anatomically labeled model of the patient brain, based on pre-operative magnetic resonance (MR) images. A stereotactic operating microscope is currently in experimental use, which allows structures that have been manually identified in MR images to be made available on-line. We have been working to enhance this system by combining image processing techniques applied to the MR data with an anatomically labeled 3-D brain model developed from the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Here we describe the process of identifying cerebral cortex in the patient MR images. MR images of brain tissue are reasonably well described by material mixture models, which identify each pixel as corresponding to one of a small number of materials, or as being a composite of two materials. Our classification algorithm consists of three steps. First, we apply hierarchical, adaptive grayscale adjustments to correct for nonlinearities in the MR sensor. The goal of this preprocessing step, based on the material mixture model, is to make the grayscale distribution of each tissue type constant across the entire image. Next, we perform an initial classification of all tissue types according to gray level. We have used a sum of Gaussian's approximation of the histogram to perform this classification. Finally, we identify pixels corresponding to cortex, by taking into account the spatial patterns characteristic of this tissue. For this purpose, we use a set of matched filters to identify image locations having the appropriate configuration of gray matter (cortex), cerebrospinal fluid and white matter, as determined by the previous classification step.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of female prostate pathology.

    PubMed

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Tscherney, Robert; Stackl, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The female prostate (paraurethral glands) is a well-known, yet poorly understood, anatomic structure. Imaging studies of the female prostate, its physiology, and pathologies are still highly controversial. To study the anatomy of the female prostate with contemporary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and correlate these findings to clinical features. Female prostate pathologic anatomy on MRI. Women with clinical signs of function (or dysfunction) of paraurethral glands have been examined with 1.5 or 3 Tesla MRI and urethroscopy. Seven women aged 17 to 62 years (median 40 years) have been prospectively included into the study. Clinically, one of the seven women reported ejaculation at orgasm, whereas three women presented with occasional secretions independent of sexual stimulation. In two women, paraurethral glands have been randomly found on MRI that has been performed in the diagnostic workup of other diseases. One woman presented with swelling of the external urethral meatus at puberty. In this woman, a paraurethral gland has been found, besides the erectile tissue at the external meatus. Two women reported lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with mainly urethral symptoms (recurrent infections in one and paraurethral stones in the other). On MRI, paraurethral glands could be visualized in six of the seven patients. There was no relation between glandular volume and ejaculation status. In cases where glands or related pathologies could be found on physical examination, there was a clear correlation with MRI anatomy. MRI has the potential to become the standard imaging modality for female prostate pathology. Exact visualization of this highly variable structure is possible by tailored MRI protocols. This tool can aid in understanding an individual woman's symptoms related to paraurethral glands with an impact on her sexual life.

  18. Magnetic resonance features of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Yadav, P; Sharma, R; Kumar, S; Kumar, U

    2008-06-01

    Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients.

  19. [Magnetic resonance imaging without sedation in neonates].

    PubMed

    Ureta-Velasco, N; Martínez-de Aragón, A; Moral-Pumarega, M T; Núñez-Enamorado, N; Bergón-Sendín, E; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without sedation in the neonatal period increases patient safety, availability and profitability of the diagnostic tool. The aim in this study was to evaluate a new protocol of MRI without sedation during a 20-month period. In the protocol, the patients are prepared in the neonatal unit. Prospective descriptive study, from May 2012 to December 2013. Patients included were neonates requiring MRI, clinically stable and not requiring ventilatory support. The method was based on the application of developmental centered care and the use of a vacuum matress to immobilize the baby. The principal outcome parameter of interest was the percentage of succesfully completed MRIs. The duration of the MRI and the number of interruptions, was also studied from October 2012. A total of 43 MRIs without sedation were carried out on 42 patients: 41 cerebral and 2 spinal. The success rate was 97.7% (42/43). The mean MRI time was 26.3 minutes (95% CI 23.3-29.3 mins; range 16-50 mins). MRIs were completed without interruption in 20 of the 34 cases (58%) in which the duration was recorded. The number of interruptions per procedure varied from 0 to 3, with a mean of 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-0.8) and a median of 0. The protocol had a success rate of over 90%. Thus MRI without sedation seems applicable in Spanish hospitals, with most of the preparation being performed in the neonatal unit, in order to reduce the occupation of the MRI unit, as well as minimizing stress to the baby. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  1. Flow Quantification by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anthony Tienhuan

    1994-01-01

    In this dissertation, a robust method for the measurement and visualization of flow field in laminar, complex and turbulent flows by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging utilizing flow induced Adiabatic Fast Passage (AFP) principle will be presented. This dissertation focuses on the application of AFP in spatially resolvable size vessels. We first review two main flow effects in NMR: time-of-flight and phase dispersion. The discussion of NMR flow imaging application - flow measurements and NMR angiography will be given. The theoretical framework of adiabatic passage will be discussed in order to explain the principle of flow-induced adiabatic passage tagging for flow imaging applications. From a knowledge of the basic flow-induced adiabatic passage principle, we propose a multi-zone AFP excitation scheme to deal with flow in a curved tube, branches and constrictions, i.e. complex and turbulent flow regimes. The technique provides a quick and simple way to acquire flow profiles simultaneously at several locations and arbitrary orientations inside the field-of-view. The flow profile is the time-averaged evolution of the labeled flowing material. Results obtained using a carotid bifurcation and circular jet phantoms are similar to the previous experimental studies employing laser Doppler Anemometry, and other flow visualization techniques. In addition, the preliminary results obtained with a human volunteer support the feasibility of the technique for in vivo flow quantification. Finally, a quantitative comparison of flow measurement of the new proposed techniques with the more established Phase Contrast MRA was performed. The results show excellent correlation between the two methods and with the standard volumetric flow rate measurement indicating that the flow measurements obtained using this technique are reliable and accurate under various flow regimes.

  2. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging THESIS MARCH 2016 Kyle A. Palko, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT...declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER THROUGH BRAIN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kyle

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the saccular otolithic mass.

    PubMed Central

    Sbarbati, A; Leclercq, F; Antonakis, K; Osculati, F

    1992-01-01

    The frog's inner ear was studied in vivo by high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla. The vestibule, the internal acoustic meatus, and the auditory tube have been identified. The large otolithic mass contained in the vestibule showed a virtual absence of magnetic resonance signal probably due to its composition of closely packed otoconia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:1295875

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign and Malignant Uterine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leursen, Gustavo; Gardner, Carly Susan; Sagebiel, Tara; Patnana, Madhavi; de CastroFaria, Silvana; Devine, Catherine E; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-08-01

    Benign and malignant uterine masses can be seen in the women. Some of these are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered, whereas others can be symptomatic. With the soft tissue contrast resolution magnetic resonance imaging can render a definitive diagnosis, which can further help streamline patient management. In this article we show magnetic resonance imaging examples of benign and malignant masses of the uterus and their treatment strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rapid Evaluation of Platelet Function With T2 Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Cuker, Adam; Husseinzadeh, Holleh; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Marturano, Joseph E.; Massefski, Walter; Lowery, Thomas J.; Lambert, Michele P.; Abrams, Charles S.; Weisel, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). Methods: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide. Results: Blood from 21 healthy donors was studied. T2MR showed 100% agreement with LTA with each of the four agonists and their cognate inhibitors tested. T2MR successfully detected abnormalities in each of seven patients with known QPDs, with the exception of one patient with a novel mutation leading to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. T2MR appeared to detect platelet function at similar or lower platelet counts than LTA. Conclusions: T2MR may provide a clinically useful approach to diagnose QPDs using small volumes of whole blood, while also providing new insight into platelet biology not evident using plasma-based platelet aggregation tests. PMID:28028118

  6. 4H Leukodystrophy: A Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Vrij-van den Bos, Suzanne; Hol, Janna A; La Piana, Roberta; Harting, Inga; Vanderver, Adeline; Barkhof, Frederik; Cayami, Ferdy; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Pouwels, Petra J W; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Bernard, Geneviève; Wolf, Nicole I

    2017-06-01

    4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy (4H) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating white matter (WM) disorder with neurologic, dental, and endocrine abnormalities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for 4H. A scoring system (0-54) was developed to quantify hypomyelination and atrophy of different brain regions. Pons diameter and bicaudate ratio were included as measures of cerebral and brainstem atrophy, and reference values were determined using controls. Five independent raters completed the scoring system in 40 brain MRI scans collected from 36 patients with genetically proven 4H. Interrater reliability (IRR) and correlations between MRI scores, age, gross motor function, gender, and mutated gene were assessed. IRR for total MRI severity was found to be excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.92) but varied between different items with some (e.g., myelination of the cerebellar WM) showing poor IRR. Atrophy increased with age in contrast to hypomyelination scores. MRI scores (global, hypomyelination, and atrophy scores) significantly correlated with clinical handicap ( p  < 0.01 for all three items) and differed between the different genotypes. Our 4H MRI scoring system reliably quantifies hypomyelination and atrophy in patients with 4H, and MRI scores reflect clinical disease severity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging.

  8. Detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications using advanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Shewei; Bai, Yan; Shandil, Ankit; Ding, Degang; Shi, Dapeng; Haacke, E Mark; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications have a high incidence in elderly men. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic capabilities of susceptibility-weighted imaging in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications. A total number of 156 men, including 34 with prostate cancer and 122 with benign prostate were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and susceptibility-weighted imaging were performed on all the patients. One hundred and twelve prostatic calcifications were detected in 87 patients. The sensitivities and specificities of the conventional magnetic resonance imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient, and susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostate cancer and prostatic calcifications were calculated. McNemar's Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in sensitivities and specificities between the techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic cancer were greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-filtered phase images in detecting prostatic calcifications were comparable to that of computed tomography and greater than that of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (P < 0.05). Given the high incidence of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) abnormality in prostate cancer, we conclude that susceptibility-weighted imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and computed tomography in detecting prostate cancer. Furthermore, susceptibility-weighted imaging can identify prostatic calcifications similar to computed tomography, and it is much better than conventional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. PMID:27004542

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder with good versus poor insight.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Martin; Zitterl, Werner; Prayer, Daniela; Demal, Ulrike; Bach, Michael; Prayer, Lucas; Stompe, Thomas; Lenz, Gerhard

    2005-11-30

    The DSM-IV provides two subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), labelled as OCD with insight and OCD with poor insight. For the latter, patients generally fail to recognize that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. Several studies have shown significant brain abnormalities in OCD patients. However, at present, it remains unclear whether a specific pattern of structural brain abnormalities is related to poor insight in OCD. In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were compared in OCD patients with insight versus those with poor insight. Outpatients with diagnoses of OCD according to DSM-IV (300.30) and ICD-10 (F42) (n = 84; mean age 38+/-13; 35 females, 49 males) were dichotomized into the two subtypes. All subjects underwent an MRI examination. MRI findings were rated as "MRI abnormality" and "normal MRI." In our sample, 48% of the patients had MRI abnormalities. There was a highly significant difference between the two groups according to frequencies of MRI abnormalities, with 83% of the patients with poor insight showing MRI abnormalities compared with only 21% of the patients with insight. The specifier "poor insight" helps to identify a subgroup of OCD with a higher frequency of brain abnormalities of various types. This distinction should be taken into account in future studies concerning the course and therapeutic outcome of OCD.

  10. Virtual special issue: Magnetic resonance at low fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    It appears to be a common understanding that low magnetic fields need to be avoided in magnetic resonance, as sensitivity and the frequency dispersion of the chemical shift increase with increasing field strength. But there many reasons to explore magnetic resonance at low fields. The instrumentation tends to be far less expensive than high-field equipment, magnets are smaller and lighter, internal gradients in heterogeneous media are smaller, conductive media and even metals become transparent at low frequencies to electromagnetic fields, and new physics and phenomena await to be discovered. On account of an increasing attention of the scientific community to magnetic resonance at low field, we have decided to launch JMR's Virtual Special Issue Series with this compilation about Low-Field Magnetic Resonance. This topic, for which we have chosen to focus on articles reporting measurements at fields lower than 2 T, is of widespread interest to our readership. We are therefore happy to offer to this constituency a selected outlook based on papers published during the last five years (volumes 214-270) in the pages of The Journal of Magnetic Resonance. A brief survey of the topics covered in this Virtual Special Issue follows.

  11. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, V A; Oberman, B S; Zacharia, T T; Isildak, H

    2017-07-01

    To identify and evaluate cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with Ménière's disease. Seventy-eight patients with a documented diagnosis of Ménière's disease and 35 controls underwent 1.5 T or 3 T magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Patients also underwent otological, vestibular and audiometric examinations. Lack of visualisation of the left and right vestibular aqueducts was identified as statistically significant amongst Ménière's disease patients (left, p = 0.0001, odds ratio = 0.02; right, p = 0.0004, odds ratio = 0.03). Both vestibular aqueducts were of abnormal size in the Ménière's disease group, albeit with left-sided significance (left, p = 0.008, odds ratio = 10.91; right, p = 0.49, odds ratio = 2.47). Lack of vestibular aqueduct visualisation on magnetic resonance imaging was statistically significant in Ménière's disease patients compared to the general population. The study findings suggest that magnetic resonance imaging can be useful to rule out retrocochlear pathology and provide radiological data to support the clinical diagnosis of Ménière's disease.

  13. Oral glutamine challenge and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three patients with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, María; Córdoba, Juan; Alonso, Juli; Rovira, Alex; Quiroga, Sergi; Jacas, Carlos; Esteban, Rafael; Guardia, Jaume

    2004-03-01

    Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare abnormalities of liver vasculature that can cause neurological symptoms, probably secondarily to the effects of the metabolism of ammonia in the brain. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between capillary blood ammonia after oral glutamine challenge and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three patients with congenital portosystemic shunts. Neuropsychological tests, oral glutamine challenge and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up in three patients with congenital portosystemic shunts. The results were compared to those obtained in a group of six cirrhotic patients with prior episodes of hepatic encephalopathy and healthy controls. Patients with congenital portosystemic shunts exhibited abnormalities of neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a response to the oral glutamine challenge similar to those observed in patients with cirrhosis. The intensity of the rise of brain glutamine was correlated to the area under the curve of ammonia after the oral glutamine challenge (R=0.72). Neurological manifestations of patients with congenital portosystemic shunts are mediated through similar mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the curve appears to be the better parameter that defines the response to the oral glutamine challenge.

  14. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Shelton, Julie B; Glasier, Charles M; Phillips, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to identify hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) because they are at risk for developmental delay, seizures, or death. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of neurohypophyseal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with ONH. Cross-sectional study. One hundred one children with clinical ONH who underwent MRI of the brain and orbits and a detailed pediatric endocrinologic evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on 1.5-Tesla scanners. The imaging protocol included sagittal T1-weighted images, axial fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery/T2-weighted images, and diffusion-weighted images of the brain. Orbital imaging included fat-saturated axial and coronal images and high-resolution axial T2-weighted images. The MRI studies were reviewed by 2 pediatric neuroradiologists for optic nerve hypoplasia, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, absent pituitary infundibulum, absent septum pellucidum, migration anomalies, and hemispheric injury. Medical records were reviewed for clinical examination findings and endocrinologic status. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist and a standardized panel of serologic testing that included serum insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free thyroxine levels. Radiologists were masked to patients' endocrinologic status and funduscopic findings. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI findings for the detection of hypopituitarism. Neurohypophyseal abnormalities, including absent pituitary infundibulum, ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot, and absent posterior pituitary bright spot, occurred in 33 children. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed neurohypophyseal abnormalities in 27 of the 28 children with hypopituitarism (sensitivity, 96%). A

  15. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-05-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.

  16. Dynamical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Micron-scale Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixta, Aimee; Choate, Alexandra; Maeker, Jake; Bogat, Sophia; Tennant, Daniel; Mozaffari, Shirin; Markert, John

    We report our efforts in the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) for dynamical imaging of liquid media at the micron scale. Our probe contains microfluidic samples sealed in thin-walled (µm) quartz tubes, with a micro-oscillator sensor nearby in vacuum to maintain its high mechanical resonance quality factor. Using 10 µm spherical permalloy magnets at the oscillator tips, a 3D T1-resolved image of spin density can be obtained by reconstruction from our magnetostatics-modelled resonance slices; as part of this effort, we are exploring single-shot T1 measurements for faster dynamical imaging. We aim to further enhance imaging by using a 2 ω technique to eliminate artifact signals during the cyclic inversion of nuclear spins. The ultimate intent of these efforts is to perform magnetic resonance imaging of individual biological cells.

  17. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  18. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  19. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  20. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  1. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Surgical Implants Made from Weak Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogola, D.; Krafčík, A.; Štrbák, O.; Frollo, I.

    2013-08-01

    Materials with high magnetic susceptibility cause local inhomogeneities in the main field of the magnetic resonance (MR) tomograph. These inhomogeneities lead to loss of phase coherence, and thus to a rapid loss of signal in the image. In our research we investigated inhomogeneous field of magnetic implants such as magnetic fibers, designed for inner suture during surgery. The magnetic field inhomogeneities were studied at low magnetic planar phantom, which was made from four thin strips of magnetic tape, arranged grid-wise. We optimized the properties of imaging sequences with the aim to find the best setup for magnetic fiber visualization. These fibers can be potentially exploited in surgery for internal stitches. Stitches can be visualized by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method after surgery. This study shows that the imaging of magnetic implants is possible by using the low field MRI systems, without the use of complicated post processing techniques (e.g., IDEAL).

  3. One-pot synthesis of magnetic nanoclusters enabling atherosclerosis-targeted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Aastha; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kang, Byunghoon; Choi, Yuna; Lee, Taeksu; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dextran-encrusted magnetic nanoclusters (DMNCs) were synthesized using a one-pot solution phase method for detection of atherosclerosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Pyrenyl dextran was used as a surfactant because of its electron-stabilizing effect and its amphiphilic nature, rendering the DMNCs stable and water-dispersible. The DMNCs were 65.6±4.3 nm, had a narrow size distribution, and were superparamagnetic with a high magnetization value of 60.1 emu/g. Further, they showed biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency, as indicated by a strong interaction between dextran and macrophages. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the ability of DMNCs to act as an efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent capable of targeted detection of atherosclerosis. In view of these findings, it is concluded that DMNCs can be used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents to detect inflammatory disease.

  4. Computerized tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study in hypothalamic-pituitary and parasellar pathology.

    PubMed

    Webb, S M; Ruscalleda, J; Schwarzstein, D; Calaf-Alsina, J; Rovira, A; Matos, G; Puig-Domingo, M; de Leiva, A

    1992-05-01

    We wished to analyse the relative value of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance in patients referred for evaluation of pituitary and parasellar lesions. We performed a separate evaluation by two independent neuroradiologists of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance images ordered numerically and anonymously, with no clinical data available. We studied 40 patients submitted for hypothalamic-pituitary study; 31 were carried out preoperatively, of which histological confirmation later became available in 14. The remaining nine patients were evaluated postoperatively. Over 40 parameters relating to the bony margins, cavernous sinuses, carotid arteries, optic chiasm, suprasellar cisterns, pituitary, pituitary stalk and extension of the lesion were evaluated. These reports were compared with the initial ones offered when the scans were ordered, and with the final diagnosis. Concordance between initial computerized tomography and magnetic resonance was observed in 27 cases (67.5%); among the discordant cases computerized tomography showed the lesion in two, magnetic resonance in 10, while in the remaining case reported to harbour a microadenoma on computerized tomography the differential diagnosis between a true TSH-secreting microadenoma and pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones is still unclear. Both neuroradiologists coincided in their reports in 32 patients (80%); when the initial report was compared with those of the neuroradiologists, concordance was observed with at least one of them in 34 instances (85%). Discordant results were observed principally in microadenomas secreting ACTH or PRL and in delayed puberty. In the eight patients with Cushing's disease (histologically confirmed in six) magnetic resonance was positive in five and computerized tomography in two; the abnormal image correctly identified the side of the lesion at surgery. In patients referred for evaluation of Cushing's syndrome or hyperprolactinaemia (due to microadenomas) or

  5. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, L., E-mail: jinliang@nankai.edu.cn

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmissionmore » zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.« less

  6. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-09

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Digital Subtraction Angiography Investigation of Childhood Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Song, Peiji; Qin, Jing; Lun, Han; Qiao, Penggang; Xie, Anming; Li, Gongjie

    2017-11-01

    Because digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is not an ideal angiographic examination for moyamoya disease in the pediatric population, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) provides a noninvasive contrast-free angiographic examination; whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior spatial resolution and soft-tissue contrast for lesion assessment. Ninety patients with moyamoya disease were examined by MRI and DSA to assess the distribution of lesions and their diagnostic agreement between modalities. MRI examination revealed 439 lesions. Punctate lesions were the most abundant, followed by patchy lesions. These lesions generally covered a smaller area than the abnormal-vascular corresponding brain parenchyma. Steno-occlusive changes at bilateral anterior, medial, and posterior cerebral arteries were identified by MRA and DSA. MRI showed moderate agreement in identifying lesions after steno-occlusive changes in anterior and medial cerebral arteries, and good agreement in posterior cerebral arteries; 6% to 11% of cases were misdiagnosed by MRA.

  8. Edward Purcell and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

    Science.gov Websites

    "development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in educated and inspired a generation of physicists, who refer to it often, and depend on it utterly.1 Purcell : A Precise Determination of the Proton Magnetic Moment in Bohr Magnetons; Physical Review, Vol. 76

  9. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance in paediatric surgery: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and new sequences.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, S; Vanzulli, A; Del Maschio, A; Tomaselli, V; Dell' Agnola, C A

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate fast magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) sequences as an alternative and safe investigation method for neonatal and children's pancreaticobiliary diseases. Between January 2000 and December 2000, five children (age: 1 month 14 years; mean: 7 years) affected by pancreaticobiliary diseases or already operated for biliary pathologies were studied. Patients were evaluated by 1.5 T magnet single shot T2-weighted sequences (1 image per s, TR = infinite, TE = 150-180 ms). T1-weighted conventional sequences were obtained to study parenchymal tissue. No patient needed general anaesthetic. Only in one case was sedation necessary. Fast MRCP sequences provided very precise information on biliary tract anatomy. They revealed the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts, the gallbladder, the common bile duct and the bilio-pancreatic junction in all cases investigated. MRCP allowed us to evaluate Roux-en-Y type bilio-enteric anastomosis as accurately as percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). In addition MRCP was the only reliable study in evaluating Roux-en-Y type anastomosis where ultrasonography (US) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) could not be used. In conclusion MRCP is an accurate and non-invasive method with which to investigate the anatomy of the pancreaticobiliary tract in children. It could become the investigation of choice after US in the case of biliary and pancreatic diseases.

  10. Novel detection schemes of nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging: applications from analytical chemistry to molecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Harel, Elad; Schröder, Leif; Xu, Shoujun

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-established analytical technique in chemistry. The ability to precisely control the nuclear spin interactions that give rise to the NMR phenomenon has led to revolutionary advances in fields as diverse as protein structure determination and medical diagnosis. Here, we discuss methods for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance experiments, moving away from the paradigm of traditional NMR by separating the encoding and detection steps of the experiment. This added flexibility allows for diverse applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip flow imaging and biological sensors to optical detection of magnetic resonance imaging at low magnetic fields. We aim to compare and discuss various approaches for a host of problems in material science, biology, and physics that differ from the high-field methods routinely used in analytical chemistry and medical imaging.

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging methods for pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Mantle, M D

    2011-09-30

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in pharmaceutical research is now well established and the current literature covers a multitude of different pharmaceutically relevant research areas. This review focuses on the use of quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques and how they have been exploited to extract information that is of direct relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. The article is divided into two main areas. The first half outlines the theoretical aspects of magnetic resonance and deals with basic magnetic resonance theory, the effects of nuclear spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and molecular diffusion upon image quantitation, and discusses the applications of rapid magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition to the theory, the review aims to provide some practical guidelines for the pharmaceutical researcher with an interest in MRI as to which MRI pulse sequences/protocols should be used and when. The second half of the article reviews the recent advances and developments that have appeared in the literature concerning the use of quantitative micro-imaging methods to pharmaceutically relevant research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We report an approach for the detection of magnetic resonance imaging without superconducting magnets and cryogenics: optical atomic magnetometry. This technique possesses a high sensitivity independent of the strength of the static magnetic field, extending the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging to low magnetic fields and eliminating imaging artifacts associated with high fields. By coupling with a remote-detection scheme, thereby improving the filling factor of the sample, we obtained time-resolved flow images of water with a temporal resolution of 0.1 s and spatial resolutions of 1.6 mm perpendicular to the flow and 4.5 mm along the flow. Potentially inexpensive, compact, and mobile, our technique provides a viable alternative for MRI detection with substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution for various situations where traditional MRI is not optimal. PMID:16885210

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging for the study of fossils.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has long been used for investigating palaeontological specimens, as it is a nondestructive technique which avoids the need to dissolve or ionize the fossil sample. However, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently gained ground as analytical tools for examination of palaeontological samples, by nondestructively providing information about the structure and composition of fossils. While MRI techniques are able to reveal the three-dimensional geometry of the trace fossil, MRS can provide information on the chemical composition of the samples. The multidimensional nature of MR (magnetic resonance) signals has potential to provide rich three-dimensional data on the palaeontological specimens and also to help in elucidating paleopathological and paleoecological questions. In this work the verified applications and the emerging uses of MRI and MRS in paleontology are reviewed, with particular attention to fossil spores, fossil plants, ambers, fossil invertebrates, and fossil vertebrate studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A technique for magnetic resonance imaging of equine cadaver specimens.

    PubMed

    Widmer, W R; Buckwalter, K A; Hill, M A; Fessler, J F; Ivancevich, S

    1999-01-01

    We tested an adaptation of a technique for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of human cadaver limbs in the horse. The forelimbs from a normal horse were collected, frozen, and sealed with a paraffin-polymer combination prior to imaging with either a high- or midfield magnetic resonance scanner. Each forelimb was defrosted, scanned, and refrozen on two separate occasions. A five-point scale was used to evaluate the quality of each set of sagittal and transverse, T1-weighted images of each digit. There was no difference in image quality between first and second scans of either specimen (p > 0.05). We conclude that this technique allows investigators to bank tissue specimens for future magnetic resonance imaging without significant loss of image quality.

  15. Mesoscopic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Remote Spin Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianyu; Shi, Fazhan; Chen, Sanyou; Guo, Maosen; Chen, Yisheng; Zhang, Yixing; Yang, Yu; Gao, Xingyu; Kong, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Tateishi, Kenichiro; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Bo; Du, Jiangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Quantum sensing based on nitrogen-vacancy (N -V ) centers in diamond has been developed as a powerful tool for microscopic magnetic resonance. However, the reported sensor-to-sample distance is limited within tens of nanometers resulting from the cubic decrease of the signal of spin fluctuation with the increasing distance. Here we extend the sensing distance to tens of micrometers by detecting spin polarization rather than spin fluctuation. We detect the mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electrons of a pentacene-doped crystal, measure its two typical decay times, and observe the optically enhanced spin polarization. This work paves the way for the N -V -based mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging at ambient conditions.

  16. Silicon Nanoparticles as Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Jacob W.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Johnson, Alexander C.; Barton, Robert A.; Lee, Menyoung; Ogier, Alexander C.; Vo, Chinh; Anahtar, Melis N.; Ren, Yin; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Cory, David G.; Hill, Alison L.; Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized nuclei provides high image contrast with little or no background signal. To date, in-vivo applications of pre-hyperpolarized materials have been limited by relatively short nuclear spin relaxation times. Here, we investigate silicon nanoparticles as a new type of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent. Nuclear spin relaxation times for a variety of Si nanoparticles are found to be remarkably long, ranging from many minutes to hours at room temperature, allowing hyperpolarized nanoparticles to be transported, administered, and imaged on practical time scales. Additionally, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles can be surface functionalized using techniques common to other biologically targeted nanoparticle systems. These results suggest that Si nanoparticles can be used as a targetable, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent with a large range of potential applications. PMID:19950973

  17. Silicon nanoparticles as hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Cassidy, Maja C; Johnson, Alexander C; Barton, Robert A; Lee, Menyoung; Ogier, Alexander C; Vo, Chinh; Anahtar, Melis N; Ren, Yin; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Cory, David G; Hill, Alison L; Mair, Ross W; Rosen, Matthew S; Walsworth, Ronald L; Marcus, Charles M

    2009-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized nuclei provides high image contrast with little or no background signal. To date, in vivo applications of prehyperpolarized materials have been limited by relatively short nuclear spin relaxation times. Here, we investigate silicon nanoparticles as a new type of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent. Nuclear spin relaxation times for a variety of Si nanoparticles are found to be remarkably long, ranging from many minutes to hours at room temperature, allowing hyperpolarized nanoparticles to be transported, administered, and imaged on practical time scales. Additionally, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles can be surface functionalized using techniques common to other biologically targeted nanoparticle systems. These results suggest that Si nanoparticles can be used as a targetable, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent with a large range of potential applications.

  18. Plasmon-Induced Magnetic Resonance Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Zhang, Yuejiao; Shih, Tien-Mo; Yang, Weimin; Hu, Shu; Hu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianfeng; Ren, Bin; Mao, Bingwei; Yang, Zhilin; Tian, Zhongqun

    2018-04-11

    Plasmon-induced magnetic resonance has shown great potentials in optical metamaterials, chemical (bio)-sensing, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Here, we have theoretically and experimentally revealed (1) a correspondence of the strongest near-field response to the far-field scattering valley and (2) a significant improvement in Raman signals of probing molecules by the plasmon-induced magnetic resonance. These revelations are accomplished by designing a simple and practical metallic nanoparticle-film plasmonic system that generates magnetic resonances at visible-near-infrared frequencies. Our work may provide new insights for understanding the enhancement mechanism of various plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies and also helps further explore light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Velocity Mapping in Chemical Engineering Applications.

    PubMed

    Gladden, Lynn F; Sederman, Andrew J

    2017-06-07

    This review aims to illustrate the diversity of measurements that can be made using magnetic resonance techniques, which have the potential to provide insights into chemical engineering systems that cannot readily be achieved using any other method. Perhaps the most notable advantage in using magnetic resonance methods is that both chemistry and transport can be followed in three dimensions, in optically opaque systems, and without the need for tracers to be introduced into the system. Here we focus on hydrodynamics and, in particular, applications to rheology, pipe flow, and fixed-bed and gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. With increasing development of industrially relevant sample environments and undersampling data acquisition strategies that can reduce acquisition times to <1 s, magnetic resonance is finding increasing application in chemical engineering research.

  20. Vascular hand-arm vibration syndrome--magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Poole, C J M; Cleveland, T J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of vascular hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) requires consistent symptoms, photographic evidence of digital blanching and sufficient exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV; A(8) > 2.5 m/s2). There is no reliable quantitative investigation for distinguishing HAVS from other causes of Raynaud's phenomenon and from normal individuals. Hypothenar and thenar hammer syndromes produce similar symptoms to HAVS but are difficult to diagnose clinically and may be confused with HAVS. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a safe and minimally invasive method of visualizing blood vessels. Three cases of vascular HAVS are described in which MRA revealed occlusions of the ulnar, radial and superficial palmar arteries. It is proposed that HTV was the cause of these occlusions, rather than blows to the hand unrelated to vibration, the assumed mechanism for the hammer syndromes. All three cases were advised not to expose their hands to HTV despite one of them being at Stockholm vascular stage 2 (early). MRA should be the investigation of choice for stage 2 vascular HAVS or vascular HAVS with unusual features or for a suspected hammer syndrome. The technique is however technically challenging and best done in specialist centres in collaboration with an occupational physician familiar with the examination of HAVS cases. Staging for HAVS should be developed to include anatomical arterial abnormalities as well as symptoms and signs of blanching. Workers with only one artery supplying a hand, or with only one palmar arch, may be at increased risk of progression and therefore should not be exposed to HTV irrespective of their Stockholm stage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging: towards optimized patient information.

    PubMed

    Leithner, K; Pörnbacher, S; Assem-Hilger, E; Krampl-Bettelheim, E; Prayer, D

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the perception of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by women confronted with the necessity of a targeted prenatal examination because of suspicion of an abnormality, in order to develop a pre-scan information leaflet tailored to the information requirements of these women. Sixty-two women were assessed by qualitative interview immediately before and after scanning. Data were analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. The transcribed interviews were coded within established categories, including knowledge of the purpose of the exam, understanding of the procedure, expectation of the baby's reaction, satisfaction with pre-information, experience of fetal MRI, distressing conditions during scanning, anxiety and suggestions for improvement of the scanning procedure. Pre-scan interviews indicated 66% of our sample to be well-informed about the purpose of fetal MRI. A realistic, detailed description of the examination was given by 37%. Only 32% expected the scanning to be safe for their baby. Despite the overall good tolerance of fetal MRI (63%), post-scan interviews revealed that 58% of women had experienced anxiety during MRI, which was partly due to the fearful perception of intensified fetal body movements during scanning. The quality of the pre-information leaflet was rated as sufficiently informative by 68% of the women. Suggestions for improvement were centered on physical conditions, the presence of the partner during scanning, and the availability of pre-scan briefings. Based on women's needs, detailed information about the fetal MRI procedure should be provided, containing clear-cut explanations about the purpose, course, method and possible distressing conditions. A leaflet describing these details should be given to women by the referring physician well in advance of the examination, and the woman given the opportunity to discuss unclear points.

  2. Use magnetic resonance imaging to assess articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E.; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables a noninvasive, three-dimensional assessment of the entire joint, simultaneously allowing the direct visualization of articular cartilage. Thus, MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in both clinical and research settings of musculoskeletal diseases, particular for osteoarthritis (OA). Although radiography, the current gold standard for the assessment of OA, has had recent significant technical advances, radiographic methods have significant limitations when used to measure disease progression. MRI allows accurate and reliable assessment of articular cartilage which is sensitive to change, providing the opportunity to better examine and understand preclinical and very subtle early abnormalities in articular cartilage, prior to the onset of radiographic disease. MRI enables quantitative (cartilage volume and thickness) and semiquantitative assessment of articular cartilage morphology, and quantitative assessment of cartilage matrix composition. Cartilage volume and defects have demonstrated adequate validity, accuracy, reliability and sensitivity to change. They are correlated to radiographic changes and clinical outcomes such as pain and joint replacement. Measures of cartilage matrix composition show promise as they seem to relate to cartilage morphology and symptoms. MRI-derived cartilage measurements provide a useful tool for exploring the effect of modifiable factors on articular cartilage prior to clinical disease and identifying the potential preventive strategies. MRI represents a useful approach to monitoring the natural history of OA and evaluating the effect of therapeutic agents. MRI assessment of articular cartilage has tremendous potential for large-scale epidemiological studies of OA progression, and for clinical trials of treatment response to disease-modifying OA drugs. PMID:22870497

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of paracoccidioidomycosis in the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Leonor G; Monsignore, Lucas M; de Andrade Hernandes, Mateus; Martinez, Roberto; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2015-10-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in musculoskeletal paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Retrospective case series study after IRB approval. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed in consensus the MRI findings of 11 patients with microbiologically and/or pathologically proven osteoarticular PCM. The MRI evaluation included discrimination of abnormalities in joints, bones and soft tissues. Mean age of patients was 29 years (10-55 years), eight men and three women. Musculoskeletal involvement was the only or the primary presentation of the disease in seven patients (63%). Osteomyelitis was the most common presentation, with seven cases (63%). Primary arthritis was found in one patient (9%). Isolated extra-articular soft tissue PCM was found in three patients: myositis (2) and subcutaneous infection (1). All cases showed regions with signal intensity higher than or similar to the signal of muscle on T1-weighted images. Penumbra sign was present in five cases (45%). T2-weighted images showed reactive soft tissue oedema in eight cases (72%). Post-gadolinium images showed peripheral (8/9) or heterogeneous (1/9) enhancement. Synovial enhancement was present in all cases of joint involvement (6/6). Lipomatosis arborescens was documented in one case of chronic knee involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first case series describing MRI findings of musculoskeletal PCM. Musculoskeletal involvement was the primary presentation of the disease in most cases, and therefore, neoplasms were initially in the differential diagnosis. Osteomyelitis was the most common presentation, often with secondary involvement of joint and or soft tissue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic stroke using diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Yash V; Lu, Jianfei; Shen, Qiang; Cerqueira, Bianca; Duong, Timothy Q

    2017-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (K w ) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using K w magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group K w magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal K w . Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals. (ii) At two days after stroke, K w magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant blood-brain barrier disruption. Regions with abnormal K w showed substantial overlap with regions of hyperintense T 2 (vasogenic edema) and hyperperfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology confirmed these findings in the same animals. The K w values in the normal contralesional hemisphere and the ipsilesional ischemic core two days after stroke were: 363 ± 17 and 261 ± 18 min -1 , respectively (P < 0.05, n = 9). K w magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to blood-brain barrier permeability changes in stroke, consistent with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue extravasation. K w magnetic resonance imaging offers advantages over existing techniques because contrast agent is not needed and repeated measurements can be made for longitudinal monitoring or averaging.

  5. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Domenico; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited. PMID:15104797

  6. Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bone cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, F M; Algra, P R; Maas, M; Dijkstra, P F; Falke, T H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the contents of intraosseous cysts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the signal intensity characteristics on gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS--The hand or foot joints of nine patients with the cystic form of RA (where the initial radiological abnormality consisted of intraosseous cysts without erosions) were imaged before and after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. A 0.6 unit, T1 weighted spin echo and T2* weighted gradient echo were used to obtain images in at least two perpendicular planes. RESULTS--Most cysts showed a low signal intensity on the non-enhanced T1 weighted (spin echo) images and a high signal intensity on the T2* weighted (gradient echo) images, consistent with a fluid content. No cyst showed an enhancement of signal intensity on the T1 weighted images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA, whereas synovium hyperplasia at the site of bony erosions did show an increased signal intensity after Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance imaging detected more cysts (as small as 2 mm) than plain films, and the cysts were located truly intraosseously. In six patients no other joint abnormalities were identified by magnetic resonance imaging; the three other patients also showed, after Gd-DTPA administration, an enhanced synovium at the site of bony erosions. CONCLUSIONS--It is suggested that intraosseous bone cysts in patients with RA do not contain hyperaemic synovial proliferation. The bone cysts in patients with the cystic form of RA may be the only joint abnormality. Images PMID:8257207

  7. Amygdala Volumetry in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Paramdeep; Kaur, Rupinderjeet; Saggar, Kavita; Singh, Gagandeep; Aggarwal, Simmi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background It has been suggested that the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy may relate to abnormalities in various brain structures, including the amygdala. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) without MRI abnormalities (MTLE-NMRI) represent a challenge for diagnosis of the underlying abnormality and for presurgical evaluation. To date, however, only few studies have used quantitative structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based techniques to examine amygdalar pathology in these patients. Material/Methods Based on clinical examination, 24-hour video EEG recordings and MRI findings, 50 patients with EEG lateralized TLE and normal structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging results were included in this study. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the amygdalas and hippocampi were conducted in 50 non-epileptic controls (age 7–79 years) and 50 patients with MTLE with normal MRI on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Visual assessment and amygdalar volumetry were performed on oblique coronal T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images respectively. The T2 relaxation times were measured using the 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence (TE, 22–352). Volumetric data were normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Results were assessed by SSPS statistic program. Results Individual manual volumetric analysis confirmed statistically significant amygdala enlargement (AE) in eight (16%) patients. Overall, among all patients with AE and a defined epileptic focus, 7 had predominant increased volume ipsilateral to the epileptic focus. The T2 relaxometry demonstrated no hyperintense signal of the amygdala in any patient with significant AE. Conclusions This paper presented AE in a few patients with TLE and normal MRI. These findings support the hypothesis that there might be a subgroup of patients with MTLE-NMRI in which the enlarged amygdala could be related to the epileptogenic process. PMID:27231493

  8. A magnetic anti-cancer compound for magnet-guided delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Haruki; Umemura, Masanari; Kurotani, Reiko; Fukumura, Hidenobu; Sato, Itaru; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Hoshino, Yujiro; Lee, Jin; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Sato, Motohiko; Hirata, Kunio; Singh, David J.; Masuda, Takatsugu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Urano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Mamoru; Inoue, Seiichi; Aoki, Ichio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Research on controlled drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy has focused mainly on ways to deliver existing anti-cancer drug compounds to specified targets, e.g., by conjugating them with magnetic particles or encapsulating them in micelles. Here, we show that an iron-salen, i.e., μ-oxo N,N'- bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine iron (Fe(Salen)), but not other metal salen derivatives, intrinsically exhibits both magnetic character and anti-cancer activity. X-Ray crystallographic analysis and first principles calculations based on the measured structure support this. It promoted apoptosis of various cancer cell lines, likely, via production of reactive oxygen species. In mouse leg tumor and tail melanoma models, Fe(Salen) delivery with magnet caused a robust decrease in tumor size, and the accumulation of Fe(Salen) was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Fe(Salen) is an anti-cancer compound with magnetic property, which is suitable for drug delivery and imaging. We believe such magnetic anti-cancer drugs have the potential to greatly advance cancer chemotherapy for new theranostics and drug-delivery strategies. PMID:25779357

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease.

  10. A combined confocal and magnetic resonance microscope for biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majors, Paul D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Holtom, Gary R.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Parkinson, Christopher I.; Weber, Thomas J.; Wind, Robert A.

    2002-12-01

    Complementary data acquired with different microscopy techniques provide a basis for establishing a more comprehensive understanding of cell function in health and disease, particularly when results acquired with different methodologies can be correlated in time and space. In this article, a novel microscope is described for studying live cells simultaneously with both confocal scanning laser fluorescence optical microscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy. The various design considerations necessary for integrating these two complementary techniques are discussed, the layout and specifications of the instrument are given, and examples of confocal and magnetic resonance images of large frog cells and model tumor spheroids obtained with the compound microscope are presented.

  11. Algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atia, Yosi; Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level; namely, it reduces the qubit system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering, an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of C132-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic-resonance spectroscopy.

  12. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  14. Identifying homologous anatomical landmarks on reconstructed magnetic resonance images of the human cerebral cortical surface

    PubMed Central

    MAUDGIL, D. D.; FREE, S. L.; SISODIYA, S. M.; LEMIEUX, L.; WOERMANN, F. G.; FISH, D. R.; SHORVON, S. D.

    1998-01-01

    Guided by a review of the anatomical literature, 36 sulci on the human cerebral cortical surface were designated as homologous. These sulci were assessed for visibility on 3-dimensional images reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brains of 20 normal volunteers by 2 independent observers. Those sulci that were found to be reproducibly identifiable were used to define 24 landmarks around the cortical surface. The interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of measurement of the 24 landmarks were calculated. These reliably reproducible landmarks can be used for detailed morphometric analysis, and may prove helpful in the analysis of suspected cerebral cortical structured abnormalities in patients with such conditions as epilepsy. PMID:10029189

  15. Segmentation of magnetic resonance images using fuzzy algorithms for learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, N B; Pai, P I

    1999-02-01

    This paper evaluates a segmentation technique for magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain based on fuzzy algorithms for learning vector quantization (FALVQ). These algorithms perform vector quantization by updating all prototypes of a competitive network through an unsupervised learning process. Segmentation of MR images is formulated as an unsupervised vector quantization process, where the local values of different relaxation parameters form the feature vectors which are represented by a relatively small set of prototypes. The experiments evaluate a variety of FALVQ algorithms in terms of their ability to identify different tissues and discriminate between normal tissues and abnormalities.

  16. Effect of liver transplantation on brain magnetic resonance imaging pathology in Wilson disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Litwin, T; Dzieżyc, K; Poniatowska, R; Członkowska, A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a 28-year-old patient with hepatic, but no neurological, signs of Wilson disease, with pathological changes in both the globi pallidi and caudate found with routine brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was recommended for liver transplantation by hepatologists, and during the two years of observation after liver transplantation, MRI brain abnormalities due to Wilson disease completely regressed. On the basis of this case, the authors present an argument for the prognostic significance of brain MRI in Wilson disease as well as current recommendations concerning liver transplantation in Wilson disease.

  17. Biomedical Investigations with Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    We are developing laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (e.g., of lung ventilation) as well as studies of tissue perfusion. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (He-3 and Xe-129) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive detection, opening the door to practical MRI at very low magnetic fields with an open, lightweight, and low-power device. We are pursuing two specific aims in this research. The first aim is to develop a low-field (< 0.01 T) instrument for noble gas MRI of humans, and the second aim is to develop functional MRI of the lung using laser-polarized Xe-129 and related techniques.

  18. Biomedical Investigations with Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We pursued advanced technology development of laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This new multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation-as well as studies of tissue perfusion. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 129Xe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive detection, opening the door to practical MRI at very low magnetic fields with an open, lightweight, and low-power device. We pursued two technology development specific aims: (1) development of low-field (less than 0.01 T) noble gas MRI of humans; and (2) development of functional MRI of the lung using laser-polarized noble gas and related techniques.

  19. Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; ...

    2016-07-01

    The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. Thesemore » measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.« less

  20. Terahertz Magnetic Mirror Realized with Dielectric Resonator Antennas.

    PubMed

    Headland, Daniel; Nirantar, Shruti; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Gutruf, Philipp; Abbott, Derek; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Fumeaux, Christophe; Sriram, Sharath

    2015-11-25

    Single-crystal silicon is bonded to a metal-coated substrate and etched in order to form an array of microcylinder passive terahertz dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). The DRAs exhibit a magnetic response, and hence the array behaves as an efficient artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), with potential for terahertz antenna and sensing applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Self-sustained magnetoelectric oscillations in magnetic resonant tunneling structures.

    PubMed

    Ertler, Christian; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2008-08-15

    The dynamic interplay of transport, electrostatic, and magnetic effects in the resonant tunneling through ferromagnetic quantum wells is theoretically investigated. It is shown that the carrier-mediated magnetic order in the ferromagnetic region not only induces, but also takes part in intrinsic, robust, and sustainable high-frequency current oscillations over a large window of nominally steady bias voltages. This phenomenon could spawn a new class of quantum electronic devices based on ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  2. The economic effect of using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance ultrasound fusion biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan C; Costa, Daniel N; Lotan, Yair

    2016-07-01

    Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a maturing imaging modality that has been used to improve detection and staging of prostate cancer. The goal of this review is to evaluate the economic effect of the use of MRI and MRI fusion in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A literature review was used to identify articles regarding efficacy and cost of MRI and MRI-guided biopsies. There are currently a limited number of studies evaluating cost of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. These studies are primarily models projecting cost estimates based on meta-analyses of the literature. There is considerable variance in the effectiveness of MRI-guided biopsies, both cognitive and fusion, based on user experience, type of MRI (3T vs. 1.5T), use of endorectal coil and type of scoring system for abnormalities such that there is still potential for improvement in accuracy. There is also variability in assumed costs of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. The addition of MRI to the diagnostic algorithm for prostate cancer has caused a shift in how we understand the disease and in what tumors are found on initial and repeat biopsies. Further risk stratification may allow more men to pursue noncurative therapy, which in and of itself is cost-effective in properly selected men. As prostate cancer care comes under increasing scrutiny on a national level, there is pressure on providers to be more accurate in their diagnoses. This in turn can lead to additional testing including Multiparametric MRI, which adds upfront cost. Whether the additional cost of prostate MRI is warranted in detection of prostate cancer is an area of intense research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min

    2015-03-01

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a π / 2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5 μT static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  4. The Efficacy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy in Risk Classification for Patients with Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Recabal, Pedro; Assel, Melissa; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Lee, Daniel; Laudone, Vincent P; Touijer, Karim; Eastham, James A; Vargas, Hebert A; Coleman, Jonathan; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-08-01

    We determined whether multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies may replace systematic biopsies to detect higher grade prostate cancer (Gleason score 7 or greater) and whether biopsy may be avoided based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging among men with Gleason 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance. We identified men with previously diagnosed Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and a followup prostate biopsy. Suspicion for higher grade cancer was scored on a standardized 5-point scale. All patients underwent a systematic biopsy. Patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging regions of interest also underwent magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy. The detection rate of higher grade cancer was estimated for different multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores with the 3 biopsy strategies of systematic, magnetic resonance imaging targeted and combined. Of 206 consecutive men on active surveillance 135 (66%) had a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging region of interest. Overall, higher grade cancer was detected in 72 (35%) men. A higher multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging score was associated with an increased probability of detecting higher grade cancer (Wilcoxon-type trend test p <0.0001). Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy detected higher grade cancer in 23% of men. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy alone missed higher grade cancers in 17%, 12% and 10% of patients with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scores of 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsies increased the detection of higher grade cancer among men on active surveillance compared to systematic biopsy alone. However, a clinically relevant proportion of higher grade cancer was detected using only systematic biopsy. Despite the improved detection of disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging

  5. Calculation of ferromagnetic resonance spectra for chains of magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a taxonomically diverse group of bacteria that have chains of ferromagnetic crystals inside. These bacteria mostly live in the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) of aquatic environments. The magnetic chains orient the bacteria parallel to the Earth's magnetic field and help them to maintain their position near the OAI. These chains show the fingerprint of natural selection acting to optimize the magnetic moment per unit iron. This is achieved in a number of ways: the alignment in chains, a narrow size range, crystallographic perfection and chemical purity. Because of these distinctive characteristics, the particles can still be identified after the bacteria have died. Such magnetofossils are useful both as records of bacterial evolution and environmental markers. They can most reliably be identified by microscopy, but that is very labor-intensive. A number of magnetic measurements have been developed to identify magnetofossils quickly and non-invasively. However, the only test that can specifically identify the chain structure is ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), which measures the response to a magnetic field oscillating at microwave frequencies. Although the experimental side of ferromagnetic resonance is well developed, the theoretical models for interpreting them have been limited. A new method is presented for calculating resonance frequencies as well as complete power spectra for chains of interacting magnetic particles. Spectra are calculated and compared with data for magnetotactic bacteria.

  6. Magnetic resonance T1 gradient-echo imaging in hepatolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Safar, F; Kamura, T; Okamuto, K; Sasai, K; Gejyo, F

    2005-01-01

    We examined the role of magnetic resonance T1-weighted gradient-echo (MRT1-GE) imaging in hepatolithiasis. MRT1-GE, precontrast computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of 10 patients with hepatolithiasis were compared for their diagnostic accuracies in the detection and localization of intrahepatic calculi. The diagnosis of hepatolithiasis was confirmed by surgery. For localization of the stone, we divided the bile ducts into six areas: right and left hepatic ducts and bile ducts of the lateral, medial, right anterior, and right posterior segments of the liver. Chemical analysis of the stones was performed in eight patients. The total number of segments proved by surgery to contain stones was 18. Although not significantly different, the sensitivity of MRT1-GE was 77.8% (14 of 18 segments), higher than that of MRCP (66.7%, 12 of 18 segments) and that of CT (50%, nine of 18 segments). The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRCP + MRT1) was significantly higher than that of CT (p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the result of surgery was significantly affected only by the result of magnetic resonance imaging. On MRT1-GE, all the depicted stones appeared as high-intensity signal areas within the low-intensity bile duct irrespective of their chemical composition. MRT1-GE imaging provides complementary information concerning hepatolithiasis.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: trauma, degeneration, and repair.

    PubMed

    Potter, Hollis G; Foo, Li F

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of articular cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging has seen considerable advances in recent years. Cartilage morphologic characteristics can now be evaluated with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility using dedicated pulse sequences, which are becoming standard at many institutions. These techniques detect clinically unsuspected traumatic cartilage lesions, allowing the physician to study their natural history with longitudinal evaluation and also to assess disease status in degenerative osteoarthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging also provides a more objective assessment of cartilage repair to augment the information obtained from more subjective clinical outcome instruments. Newly developed methods that provide detail at an ultrastructural level offer an important addition to cartilage evaluation, particularly in the detection of early alterations in the extracellular matrix. These methods have created an undeniably important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the reproducible, noninvasive, and objective evaluation and monitoring of cartilage. An overview of the advances, current techniques, and impact of magnetic resonance imaging in the setting of trauma, degenerative arthritides, and surgical treatment for cartilage injury is presented.

  8. Molecular aspects of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well known diagnostic tool in radiology that produces unsurpassed images of the human body, in particular of soft tissue. However, the medical community is often not aware that MRI is an important yet limited segment of magnetic resonance (MR) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as this method is called in basic science. The tremendous morphological information of MR images sometimes conceal the fact that MR signals in general contain much more information, especially on processes on the molecular level. NMR is successfully used in physics, chemistry, and biology to explore and characterize chemical reactions, molecular conformations, biochemical pathways, solid state material, and many other applications that elucidate invisible characteristics of matter and tissue. In medical applications, knowledge of the molecular background of MRI and in particular MR spectroscopy (MRS) is an inevitable basis to understand molecular phenomenon leading to macroscopic effects visible in diagnostic images or spectra. This review shall provide the necessary background to comprehend molecular aspects of magnetic resonance applications in medicine. An introduction into the physical basics aims at an understanding of some of the molecular mechanisms without extended mathematical treatment. The MR typical terminology is explained such that reading of original MR publications could be facilitated for non-MR experts. Applications in MRI and MRS are intended to illustrate the consequences of molecular effects on images and spectra.

  9. C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance in organic geochemistry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Study of C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of polycyclic fused systems. The fingerprint qualities of the natural abundance in C-13 NMR spectra permitting unequivocal identification of these compounds is discussed. The principle of structural additivity of C-13 NMR information is exemplified on alpha and beta androstanes, alpha and beta cholestanes, ergostanes, sitostanes, and isodecanes.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance Images
    T. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  11. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  12. 76 FR 58281 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Public Workshop.'' The... (MRI) and approaches to mitigate risks. The overall goal is to discuss strategies to minimize patient and staff risk in the MRI environment. DATES: The public workshop will be held on October 25, 2011...

  13. A Scalable Framework For Segmenting Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Hore, Prodip; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Gu, Yuhua; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Darkazanli, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    A fast, accurate and fully automatic method of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain is introduced. The approach scales well allowing fast segmentations of fine resolution images. The approach is based on modifications of the soft clustering algorithm, fuzzy c-means, that enable it to scale to large data sets. Two types of modifications to create incremental versions of fuzzy c-means are discussed. They are much faster when compared to fuzzy c-means for medium to extremely large data sets because they work on successive subsets of the data. They are comparable in quality to application of fuzzy c-means to all of the data. The clustering algorithms coupled with inhomogeneity correction and smoothing are used to create a framework for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain. The framework is applied to a set of normal human brain volumes acquired from different magnetic resonance scanners using different head coils, acquisition parameters and field strengths. Results are compared to those from two widely used magnetic resonance image segmentation programs, Statistical Parametric Mapping and the FMRIB Software Library (FSL). The results are comparable to FSL while providing significant speed-up and better scalability to larger volumes of data. PMID:20046893

  14. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  15. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    Here, we consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  16. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    We consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  17. Voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Katine, J A; Rowlands, Graham E; Chen, Yu-Jin; Duan, Zheng; Alzate, Juan G; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Langer, Juergen; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L; Krivorotov, Ilya N

    2012-05-11

    We demonstrate excitation of ferromagnetic resonance in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by the combined action of voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) and spin transfer torque (ST). Our measurements reveal that GHz-frequency VCMA torque and ST in low-resistance MTJs have similar magnitudes, and thus that both torques are equally important for understanding high-frequency voltage-driven magnetization dynamics in MTJs. As an example, we show that VCMA can increase the sensitivity of an MTJ-based microwave signal detector to the sensitivity level of semiconductor Schottky diodes.

  18. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    DOE PAGES

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Here, we consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  19. Three-tesla magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus in cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Sueyoshi, Takeshi; Suwazono, Shugo; Suehara, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    There have been no reports of the use of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (3T MRN) to characterize cervical radiculopathy. In particular, there are no reports of MRN of brachial plexus involvement in patients with cervical radiculopathy. We reviewed retrospectively 12 consecutive patients with cervical radiculopathy who underwent 3T MRN. The median age was 54.5 years. Eleven of 12 patients were men. The distribution of nerve-root signal abnormality was correlated with intervertebral foraminal stenosis and the presence of muscles that exhibited weakness and/or signs of denervation on electromyography. MRN abnormalities were found to extend into the distal part of the brachial plexus in 10 patients. This study demonstrates that MRN is potentially useful for diagnosis in patients with suspected cervical radiculopathy. Moreover, the finding of brachial plexus involvement on MRN may indicate a possible pathophysiological relationship between cervical radiculopathy and brachial plexopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumors with the Use of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Semkina, A S; Abakumov, M A; Grinenko, N F; Lipengolts, A A; Nukolova, N V; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-04-01

    We studied the possibility of using BSA-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma, 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, and RS-1 hepatic mucous carcinoma. In all three cases, magnetic nanoparticles accumulated in the tumor and its large vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent allows visualization of the tumor tissue and its vascularization.

  1. Optical investigation of domain resonances in magnetic garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlmann, N.; Gerhardt, R.; Dötsch, H.

    1996-08-01

    Magnetic garnet films of composition (Y,Bi) 3(Fe,Al) 5O 12 are grown by liquid phase epitaxy on [111] oriented substrates of Gd 3Ga 5O 12. Lattices of parallel stripe domains are stabilized by a static induction applied in the film plane. The two branches DR ± of the domain resonance and the domain wall resonance DWR are excited by microwave magnetic fields in the frequency range up to 6 GHz. Light passing the stripe domain lattice parallel to the film normal is modulated at the excitation frequency. A modulation bandwidth of more than 2 GHz is observed. The resonances can be calculated with high accuracy by a hybridization model, if the quality factor Q of the film exceeds 0.5. For Q < 0.5 a simple approximation is used to describe the superposition of the DR + and DR - resonances. The superposition model predicts two stability states of the resonance DR + which are observed experimentally. From the optical measurements precession angles of the resonance DR - of nearly 6° and wall oscillation amplitudes up to 25 nm are derived.

  2. Multi-frequency interpolation in spiral magnetic resonance fingerprinting for correction of off-resonance blurring.

    PubMed

    Ostenson, Jason; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Welch, E Brian

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) pulse sequences often employ spiral trajectories for data readout. Spiral k-space acquisitions are vulnerable to blurring in the spatial domain in the presence of static field off-resonance. This work describes a blurring correction algorithm for use in spiral MRF and demonstrates its effectiveness in phantom and in vivo experiments. Results show that image quality of T1 and T2 parametric maps is improved by application of this correction. This MRF correction has negligible effect on the concordance correlation coefficient and improves coefficient of variation in regions of off-resonance relative to uncorrected measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A variable torque motor compatible with magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeck, W. W.; Ha, S.-H.; Farmaka, S.; Nalcioglu, O.

    2009-04-01

    High magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) do not allow the employment of conventional motors due to various incompatibility issues. This paper reports on a new motor that can operate in or near high field magnets used for MRI. The motor was designed to be operational with the MRI equipment and could be used in a rotating imaging gantry inside the magnet designed for dual modality imaging. Furthermore, it could also be used for image guided robotic interventional procedures inside a MRI system if so desired. The prototype motor was developed using magnetic resonance (MR) compatible materials, and its functionality with MR imaging was evaluated experimentally by measuring the performance of the motor and its effect on the MR image quality. Since in our application, namely, single photon emission tomography, the motor has to perform precise stepping of the gantry in small angular steps the most important parameter is the start-up torque. The experimental results showed that the motor has a start-up torque up to 1.37 Nm and rotates at 196 rpm when a constant voltage difference of 12 V is applied at a magnetic field strength of 1 T. The MR image quality was quantified by measuring the signal-to-noise of images acquired under different conditions. The results presented here indicate that the motor is MR compatible and could be used for rotating an imaging gantry or a surgical device inside the magnet.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report reviews the current applications of magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Since its introduction into the clinical environment in the early 1980's, this technology has had a major impact on the practice of neurology. It has proved to be superior to computed tomography for imaging many diseases of the brain and spine. In some instances it has clearly replaced computed tomography. It is likely that it will replace myelography for the assessment of cervicomedullary junction and spinal regions. The magnetic field strengths currently used appear to be entirely safe for clinical application in neurology except inmore » patients with cardiac pacemakers or vascular metallic clips. Some shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging include its expense, the time required for scanning, and poor visualization of cortical bone.« less

  5. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging of the evolution of acute deep vein thrombosis of the leg.

    PubMed

    Westerbeek, R E; Van Rooden, C J; Tan, M; Van Gils, A P G; Kok, S; De Bats, M J; De Roos, A; Huisman, M V

    2008-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relevant to avoid improper diagnosis and unnecessary life-long anticoagulant treatment. Compression ultrasound has high accuracy for a first episode of DVT, but is often unreliable in suspected recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MR DTI) has been shown to accurately detect acute DVT. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the MR signal change during 6 months follow-up in patients with acute DVT. This study was a prospective study of 43 consecutive patients with a first episode of acute DVT demonstrated by compression ultrasound. All patients underwent MR DTI. Follow-up was performed with MR-DTI and compression ultrasound at 3 and 6 months respectively. All data were coded, stored and assessed by two blinded observers. MR direct thrombus imaging identified acute DVT in 41 of 43 patients (sensitivity 95%). There was no abnormal MR-signal in controls, or in the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT (specificity 100%). In none of the 39 patients available at 6 months follow-up was the abnormal MR-signal at the initial acute DVT observed, whereas in 12 of these patients (30.8%) compression ultrasound was still abnormal. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging normalizes over a period of 6 months in all patients with diagnosed DVT, while compression ultrasound remains abnormal in a third of these patients. MR-DTI may potentially allow for accurate detection in patients with acute suspected recurrent DVT, and this should be studied prospectively.

  6. Alternating current circuit theory and pulsed NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, B. C.

    1987-06-01

    Pulsed NMR, by definition, deals with time varying excitations. These excitations, supplied by resonant circuits which provide a pulse of radiofrequency (frequencies in the megahertz region) power to a resonant circuit containing, among other things, a coil of wire, or inductor, in which a sample under investigation is placed for purposes of the nuclear magnetic resonance experiment. There are therefore two features of the pulse NMR experiment. First is the fact that we have available a source of continuous wave (CW) alternating current at some angular frequency, omega, measured in radians per second. This source is generally supplied by an ultrastable device called a frequency synthesizer. The second feature of the pulsed NMR experiment is that the sample is not continuously irradiated, but a pulse of radiofrequency oscillation is applied to the sample. This report discusses alternating current theory, resonant circuits and the equipment used in this experiment.

  7. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configurationmore » of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.« less

  8. The comparison of multiple F-wave variable studies and magnetic resonance imaging examinations in the assessment of cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chu-Hsu; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Chien-Min; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Wu, Chun-Yen; Hong, Chang-Zern

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of the findings of multiple median and ulnar F-wave variables and magnetic resonance imaging examinations in the prediction of cervical radiculopathy. The data of 68 patients who underwent both nerve conduction studies of the upper extremities and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging within 3 mos of the nerve conduction studies were retrospectively reviewed and reinterpreted. The associations between multiple median and ulnar F-wave variables (including persistence, chronodispersion, and minimal, maximal, and mean latencies) and magnetic resonance imaging evidence of lower cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (i.e., C7, C8, and T1 radiculopathy) were investigated. Patients with lower cervical radiculopathy exhibited reduced right median F-wave persistence (P = 0.011), increased right ulnar F-wave chronodispersion (P = 0.041), and a trend toward increased left ulnar F-wave chronodispersion (P = 0.059); however, there were no other consistent significant differences in the F-wave variables between patients with and patients without magnetic resonance imaging evidence of lower cervical radiculopathy. In comparison with normal reference values established previously, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of F-wave variable abnormalities for predicting lower cervical radiculopathy were low. There was a low correlation between F-wave studies and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. The diagnostic utility of multiple F-wave variables in the prediction of cervical radiculopathy was not supported by this study.

  9. Recent trends in high spin sensitivity magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Aharon; Twig, Ygal; Ishay, Yakir

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance is a very powerful methodology that has been employed successfully in many applications for about 70 years now, resulting in a wealth of scientific, technological, and diagnostic data. Despite its many advantages, one major drawback of magnetic resonance is its relatively poor sensitivity and, as a consequence, its bad spatial resolution when examining heterogeneous samples. Contemporary science and technology often make use of very small amounts of material and examine heterogeneity on a very small length scale, both of which are well beyond the current capabilities of conventional magnetic resonance. It is therefore very important to significantly improve both the sensitivity and the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. The quest for higher sensitivity led in recent years to the development of many alternative detection techniques that seem to rival and challenge the conventional ;old-fashioned; induction-detection approach. The aim of this manuscript is to briefly review recent advances in the field, and to provide a quantitative as well as qualitative comparison between various detection methods with an eye to future potential advances and developments. We first offer a common definition of sensitivity in magnetic resonance to enable proper quantitative comparisons between various detection methods. Following that, up-to-date information about the sensitivity capabilities of the leading recently-developed detection approaches in magnetic resonance is provided, accompanied by a critical comparison between them and induction detection. Our conclusion from this comparison is that induction detection is still indispensable, and as such, it is very important to look for ways to significantly improve it. To do so, we provide expressions for the sensitivity of induction-detection, derived from both classical and quantum mechanics, that identify its main limiting factors. Examples from current literature, as well as a description of

  10. Hemispheric asymmetries in dorsal language pathway white-matter tracts: A magnetic resonance imaging tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme; Citterio, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that the arcuate fasciculus has a leftward asymmetry in right-handers that could be correlated with the language lateralisation defined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, information about the asymmetry of the other fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway is scarce. Objectives This study investigated the asymmetry of the white-matter tracts involved in the dorsal language pathway through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, in relation to language hemispheric dominance determined by task-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods We selected 11 patients (10 right-handed) who had been studied with task-dependent fMRI for language areas and DTI and who had no language impairment or structural abnormalities that could compromise magnetic resonance tractography of the fibres involved in the dorsal language pathway. Laterality indices (LI) for fMRI and for the volumes of each tract were calculated. Results In fMRI, all the right-handers had left hemispheric lateralisation, and the ambidextrous subject presented right hemispheric dominance. The arcuate fasciculus LI was strongly correlated with fMRI LI ( r = 0.739, p = 0.009), presenting the same lateralisation of fMRI in seven subjects (including the right hemispheric dominant). It was not asymmetric in three cases and had opposite lateralisation in one case. The other tracts presented predominance for rightward lateralisation, especially superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/III (nine subjects), but their LI did not correlate (directly or inversely) with fMRI LI. Conclusion The fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway have an asymmetric distribution in the cerebral hemispheres. Only the asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus is correlated with fMRI language lateralisation.

  11. Detection of magnetism in the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Slowik, T J; Green, B L; Thorvilson, H G

    1997-01-01

    Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) workers, queens, and alates were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the presence of natural magnetism. Images of ants showed distortion patterns similar to those of honey bees and monarch butterflies, both of which possess ferromagnetic material. The bipolar ring patterns of MRI indicated the presence in fire ants of small amounts of internal magnetic material, which may be used in orientation behaviors, as in the honey bees.

  12. Diagnostic Imaging of Pregnant Women – The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Mądzik, Jarosław; Szopa-Krupińska, Martyna; Maciejewski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Presentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in pregnant women in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland. Material/Methods Forty-three symptomatic pregnant women underwent MRI between 9 and 33 weeks of gestation (mean of 23 weeks). Moreover, we included 2 pregnant women who underwent fetal MRI and had incidental abnormalities. Results In 9 cases, we excluded the suspected brain abnormalities. In 4 cases, we found unremarkable changes in the brain without clinical significance. One patient was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, one with cortical dysplasia, one with pineal hemorrhage and one with a brain tumor. On abdominal MRI, 2 patients had normal findings, one patient had colon cancer with a hepatic metastasis, one patient had a hepatic angioma, one patient had an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma, one patient had an abscess in the iliopsoas muscle, 9 patients had myomas, two patients had ovarian simple cysts, two endometrial cysts, three dermoid cysts, one patient had sacrococcygeal teratoma, one patient had a cystadenofibroma (partial borderline tumor), one patient had an androgenic ovarian tumor and two patients had hyperreactio luteinalis. One patient was diagnosed with transient osteoporosis of the hip and one with a stress fracture of the sacral bone. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for pregnant women. Although ultrasonography is the method of choice, doubtful cases as well as structures that cannot be examined with ultrasonography can be non-invasively evaluated with MRI. PMID:28507642

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  14. Magnetic circuit modifications in resonant vibration harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fiala, Pavel; Dohnal, Premysl

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the conclusions obtained from a research centered on a vibration-powered milli- or micro generator (MG) operating as a harvester to yield the maximum amount of energy transferred by the vibration of an independent system. The investigation expands on the results proposed within papers that theoretically define the properties characterizing the basic configurations of a generator based on applied Faraday's law of induction. We compared two basic principles of circuit closing in a magnetic circuit that, fully or partially, utilizes a ferromagnetic material, and a large number of generator design solutions were examined and tested. In the given context, the article brings a compact survey of the rules facilitating energy transformation and the designing of harvesters.

  15. Diagnostic yield of a routine magnetic resonance imaging in tinnitus and clinical relevance of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery loops.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Prijs, Vera F; van Zanten, Gijsbert A

    2015-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic yield of a routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in patients with (unilateral) chronic tinnitus, to define the frequency of incidental findings, and to assess the clinical relevance of potentially found anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) loops. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary Tinnitus Care Group at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Three hundred twenty-one patients with chronic tinnitus. Routine diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnostic auditory brainstem responses (ABR) when an AICA loop was found. Relationship between abnormalities on MRI and tinnitus. In 138 patients (45%), an abnormality on the MRI scan was described. In only 7 patients (2.2%), the abnormality probably related to the patient's tinnitus. Results were not significantly better in patients with unilateral tinnitus (abnormalities in 3.2%). Incidental findings, not related to the tinnitus, were found in 41% of the patients. In 70 patients (23%), an AICA loop was found in the internal auditory canal. No significant relationships were found between the presence of an AICA loop and the side of the tinnitus, abnormalities on the ABR or complaints specific to nerve compression syndrome. A routine MRI is of little or no value in patients with tinnitus with persistent complaints. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery loops are often encountered on an MRI scan but rarely relate to the tinnitus and should thus be considered incidental findings. It is advised to only perform an MRI when on clinical grounds a specific etiology with tinnitus as the symptom seems probable.

  16. Glioma Selectivity of Magnetically Targeted Nanoparticles: A Role of Abnormal Tumor Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E.; Huang, Yongzhuo; Yang, Victor C.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic targeting is a promising strategy for achieving localized drug delivery. Application of this strategy to treat brain tumors, however, is complicated by their deep intracranial location, since magnetic field density cannot be focused at a distance from an externally applied magnet. This study intended to examine whether, with magnetic targeting, pathological alteration in brain tumor flow dynamics could be of value in discriminating the diseased site from healthy brain. To address this question, the capture of magnetic nanoparticles was first assessed in vitro using a simple flow system under theoretically estimated glioma and normal brain flow conditions. Secondly, accumulation of nanoparticles via magnetic targeting was evaluated in vivo using 9L-glioma bearing rats. In vitro results that predicted a 7.6-fold increase in nanoparticle capture at glioma-versus contralateral brain-relevant flow rates were relatively consistent with the 9.6-fold glioma selectivity of nanoparticle accumulation over the contralateral brain observed in vivo. Based on these finding, the in vitro ratio of nanoparticle capture can be viewed as a plausible indicator of in vivo glioma selectivity. Overall, it can be concluded that the decreased blood flow rate in glioma, reflecting tumor vascular abnormalities, is an important contributor to glioma-selective nanoparticle accumulation with magnetic targeting. PMID:17628157

  17. Glioma selectivity of magnetically targeted nanoparticles: a role of abnormal tumor hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E; Huang, Yongzhuo; Yang, Victor C

    2007-10-08

    Magnetic targeting is a promising strategy for achieving localized drug delivery. Application of this strategy to treat brain tumors, however, is complicated by their deep intracranial location, since magnetic field density cannot be focused at a distance from an externally applied magnet. This study intended to examine whether, with magnetic targeting, pathological alteration in brain tumor flow dynamics could be of value in discriminating the diseased site from healthy brain. To address this question, the capture of magnetic nanoparticles was first assessed in vitro using a simple flow system under theoretically estimated glioma and normal brain flow conditions. Secondly, accumulation of nanoparticles via magnetic targeting was evaluated in vivo using 9L-glioma bearing rats. In vitro results that predicted a 7.6-fold increase in nanoparticle capture at glioma- versus contralateral brain-relevant flow rates were relatively consistent with the 9.6-fold glioma selectivity of nanoparticle accumulation over the contralateral brain observed in vivo. Based on these finding, the in vitro ratio of nanoparticle capture can be viewed as a plausible indicator of in vivo glioma selectivity. Overall, it can be concluded that the decreased blood flow rate in glioma, reflecting tumor vascular abnormalities, is an important contributor to glioma-selective nanoparticle accumulation with magnetic targeting.

  18. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering ellipsometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.; Gluskin, E.

    1996-09-01

    It is very difficult to characterize the polarization of a synchrotron radiation source in the soft and/or intermediate x-ray energy region particularly from 1 to 2 keV. Conventional multilayer mirror or single-crystal polarimeters do not work over this energy region because their throughput (the reflectivities combined with the phase shift) becomes insignificant. In this paper, we present a new ellipsometer scheme that is able to fully characterize the polarization of synchrotron radiation sources in this energy region. It is based on the dichroic x-ray resonant ferromagnetic scattering that yields information on both the polarization of the x-ray and the materialmore » (element specific) dielectric-constant tensor [C.-C. Kao {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. B {bold 50}, 9599 (1994)] due to the interband ferromagnetic Kerr effect [B.R. Cooper, Phys. Rev. A {bold 139}, 1504 (1965)]. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  19. [Role of cardiac magnetic resonance in cardiac involvement of Fabry disease].

    PubMed

    Serra, Viviana M; Barba, Miguel Angel; Torrá, Roser; Pérez De Isla, Leopoldo; López, Mónica; Calli, Andrea; Feltes, Gisela; Torras, Joan; Valverde, Victor; Zamorano, José L

    2010-09-04

    Fabry disease is a hereditary disorder. Clinical manifestations are multisystemic. The majority of the patients remain undiagnosed until late in life, when alterations could be irreversible. Early detection of cardiac symptoms is of major interest in Fabry's disease (FD) in order to gain access to enzyme replacement therapy. Echo-Doppler tissular imaging (TDI) has been used as a cardiologic early marker in FD. This study is intended to determine whether the cardiac magnetic resonance is as useful tool as TDI for the early detection of cardiac affectation in FD. Echocardiography, tissue Doppler and Cardio magnetic resonance was performed in 20 patients with confirmed Fabry Disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as septum and left ventricular posterior wall thickness ≥12 mm. An abnormal TDI velocity was defined as (Sa), (Ea) and/or (Aa) velocities <8 cm/s at either the septal or lateral corner. Late phase gadolinium-enhanced images sequences were obtained using magnetic resonance. Twenty patients included in the study were divided into three groups: 1. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy nor tissue Doppler impairment 2. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy and tissue Doppler impairment 3. Those with left ventricular hypertrophy and Tissue Doppler impairment. Late gadolinium enhancement was found in only one patient, who has already altered DTI and LVH. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is the only diagnostic tool able to provide early detection of cardiac affectation in patients with FD. Magnetic resonance provides information of the disease severity in patients with LVH, but can not be used as an early marker of cardiac disease in patients with FD. However MRI could be of great value for diagnostic stratification. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism in resonant and non-resonant Gd 4f photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Gammon, W.J.; Pappas, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The enhancement of the magnetic linear dichroism in resonant 4f photoemission (MLDRPE) is studied from a 50 monolayer film of Gd/Y(0001). The ALS at beamline 7.0.1 provided the source of linearly polarized x-rays used in this study. The polarized light was incident at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the film plane, and the sample magnetization was perpendicular to the photon polarization. The linear dichroism of the 4f core levels is measured as the photon energy is tuned through the 4d-4f resonance. The authors find that the MLDRPE asymmetry is strongest at the resonance. Near the threshold the asymmetrymore » has several features which are out of phase with the fine structure of the total yield.« less

  1. Surprising connections: the diverse world of magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Paul

    2004-10-01

    When Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus he could not possibly have imagined that it might be a window to understanding molecular biology, or how the brain works. And yet so it has come to pass. It is the through the magnetism of the nucleus that these insights, and so much more, are possible. The phenomenon of ``Nuclear Magnetic Resonance'' has proven an essential tool in physics, it has revolutionised chemistry and biochemistry, it has made astonishing contributions to medicine, and is now making an impact in geophysics, chemical engineering and food technology. It is even finding applications in new security technologies and in testing fundamental ideas concerning quantum computing. But the story of Magnetic Resonance is much more than the application of a well-established method to new areas of science. The technique itself continues to evolve. Magnetic Resonance has now garnered 6 Nobel prizes, two of them in the last two years. For a technique that has been around for nearly 60 years, it is really quite extraordinary that such accolades are still being given to new developments in the methodology. This talk will explain why the nuclear spin is so ubiquitous and interdisciplinary, and so rich in its fundamental physics. It will illustrate how unpredictable and surprising are the consequences of a major scientific discovery. For funding agencies determined to direct research activities towards predicted benefits, the conclusion drawn may provide a salutary lesson.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-02-28

    To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20(th), 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients' age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant

  4. Lock-in detection for pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Behrends, Jan; Fehr, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Lips, Klaus; Schnegg, Alexander; Suckert, Max; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S.

    2012-04-01

    We show that in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance (pEDMR) signal modulation in combination with a lock-in detection scheme can reduce the low-frequency noise level by one order of magnitude and in addition removes the microwave-induced non-resonant background. This is exemplarily demonstrated for spin-echo measurements in phosphorus-doped silicon. The modulation of the signal is achieved by cycling the phase of the projection pulse used in pEDMR for the readout of the spin state.

  5. [Magnetic resonance imaging study and cochlear implantation in post-meningitic deaf patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuli; Yao, Yiwen; He, Guili; Zhai, Lijie

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in post-meningitic patients and its impact on surgical decision. The pre-operative MRI data and auditory brainstem response (ABR) examination of five post-meningitic patients were studied. They were implanted with cochleas. The interval between the onset of bacterial meningitis and the hearing loss was (15.8 +/- 15.0)d and it was longer in children than adults. Five ears showed membranous cochlear labyrinth abnormality; 3 ears had vestibule vestibule abnormality; 8 ears demonstrated semicircular canal abnormality on MRI examinations in totally 10 ears. The mean hearing threshold of 10 ears was (102.0 +/- 7.1)dB HL,that of the operated ears was (98.0 +/- 5.7)dB HL and that of the un-operated ears was (106.0 +/- 6.5)dB HL. It was (15.8 +/- 15.0)d from the bacterial meningitis onset to hearing loss. The interval is longer in children than adults. There were 3 ears that electrodes could not be inserted completely. The bacterial meningitis may cause the abnormalities of inner ears and the MRI before surgery is essential for the pre-operative planning of cochlear implant.

  6. Clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging findings in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Musluoğlu, L; Celik, M; Tabak, H; Forta, H

    2004-01-01

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to compare them with electrophysiological findings. Routine motor and sensory nerve conduction examinations and needle EMG were performed in 42 hands of 22 patients, who were clinically diagnosed as having CTS in at least one wrist. Of 29 wrists with clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed CTS, MRI could detect abnormality in 18 wrists (62%). Median nerve was found to be abnormal in MRI in 1 of 2 wrists with suspected clinical symptoms and proven CTS by electrophysiological examination. MRI was abnormal in 1 of 4 wrists with normal clinical and electrophysiological examination. MRI was abnormal in 46, 7% of wrists with mild CTS, in 61.6% of moderate CTS and in 100% of severe CTS. Volar bulging of the flexor retinaculum was detected in a single wrist with severe CTS. Enlargement of median nerve was observed in 3 of 5 severe CTS. MRI could be useful in the diagnosis of unproven cases in CTS. It also provides anatomical information that correlate well with electrophysiological findings in regard of the severity of median nerve compression.

  7. Normal pituitary volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Hsuan; Nicoletti, Mark; Sanches, Marsal; Hatch, John P; Sassi, Roberto B; Axelson, David; Brambilla, Paolo; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Soares, Jair C

    2004-01-01

    The volume of the pituitary gland in adults with bipolar disorder has previously been reported to be smaller than that of healthy controls. Such abnormalities would be consistent with the HPA dysfunction reported in this illness. We conducted a study of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder to determine whether size abnormalities in the pituitary gland are already present early in illness course. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric analysis of the pituitary gland was carried out in 16 DSM-IV children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age+/-sd=15.5+/-3.4 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-sd=16.9+/-3.8 years). Subjects underwent a 1.5 T MRI, with 3-D Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR) acquisition. There was no statistically significant difference between pituitary gland volumes of bipolar patients compared to healthy controls (ANCOVA, age, gender, and ICV as covariates; F=1.77, df=1,32, P=.19). There was a statistically significant direct relationship between age and pituitary gland volume in both groups (r=.59, df=17, P=.007 for healthy controls; r=.61, df=12, P=.008 for bipolar patients). No evidence of size abnormalities in the pituitary gland was found in child and adolescent bipolar patients, contrary to reports involving adult bipolar patients. This suggests that anatomical abnormalities in this structure may develop later in illness course as a result of continued HPA dysfunction. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  9. Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ).

    PubMed

    Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Årestedt, Kristofer; Engvall, Jan; Maret, Eva; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Anxiety Questionnaire. Questionnaires measuring patients' anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients' experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach's alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Parahydrogen-enhanced zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, T.; Ganssle, P.; Kervern, G.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, conventionally detected in magnetic fields of several tesla, is a powerful analytical tool for the determination of molecular identity, structure and function. With the advent of prepolarization methods and detection schemes using atomic magnetometers or superconducting quantum interference devices, interest in NMR in fields comparable to the Earth's magnetic field and below (down to zero field) has been revived. Despite the use of superconducting quantum interference devices or atomic magnetometers, low-field NMR typically suffers from low sensitivity compared with conventional high-field NMR. Here we demonstrate direct detection of zero-field NMR signals generated through parahydrogen-induced polarization, enabling high-resolution NMR without the use of any magnets. The sensitivity is sufficient to observe spectra exhibiting 13C-1H scalar nuclear spin-spin couplings (known as J couplings) in compounds with 13C in natural abundance, without the need for signal averaging. The resulting spectra show distinct features that aid chemical fingerprinting.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Objective The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac MRI viability imaging, the following outcomes were examined: the diagnostic accuracy in predicting functional recovery and the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) 1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts

  12. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín L; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A; García-Ramírez, Pedro J; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  13. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Magnetic resonance imaging inside metallic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2010-10-01

    We introduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements inside metallic vessels. Until now, MRI has been unusable inside metallic vessels because of eddy currents in the walls. We have solved the problem and generated high quality images by employing a magnetic field gradient monitoring method. The ability to image within metal enclosures and structures means many new samples and systems are now amenable to MRI. Most importantly this study will form the basis of new MRI-compatible metallic pressure vessels, which will permit MRI of macroscopic systems at high pressure.

  15. Miniature cyclotron resonance ion source using small permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An ion source using the cyclotron resonance principle is described. A miniaturized ion source device is used in an air gap of a small permanent magnet with a substantially uniform field in the air gap of about 0.5 inch. The device and permanent magnet are placed in an enclosure which is maintained at a high vacuum (typically 10 to the minus 7th power) into which a sample gas can be introduced. The ion beam end of the device is placed very close to an aperture through which an ion beam can exit into the apparatus for an experiment.

  16. General magnetic transition dipole moments for electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Nehrkorn, Joscha; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Stoll, Stefan

    2015-01-09

    We present general expressions for the magnetic transition rates in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments of anisotropic spin systems in the solid state. The expressions apply to general spin centers and arbitrary excitation geometry (Voigt, Faraday, and intermediate). They work for linear and circular polarized as well as unpolarized excitation, and for crystals and powders. The expressions are based on the concept of the (complex) magnetic transition dipole moment vector. Using the new theory, we determine the parities of ground and excited spin states of high-spin (S=5/2) Fe(III) in hemin from the polarization dependence of experimental EPR line intensities.

  17. Magnetically driven oscillator and resonance: a teaching tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, M.; Çolak, İ. Ö.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports a simple magnetically driven oscillator, designed and resolved in order to achieve a better student understanding and to overcome certain instructional difficulties. The apparatus is mainly comprised of an ordinary spring pendulum with a neodymium magnet attached to the bottom, a coil placed in the same vertical direction, an ordinary function generator, an oscilloscope and a smartphone. Driven oscillation and resonance is basically managed by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the coil and tuning the driving frequency to the natural frequency of the pendulum. The resultant oscillation is recorded by a smartphone video application and analyzed via a video analysis programme. The designed apparatus can easily be employed in basic physics laboratories to achieve an enhanced and deeper understanding of driven oscillation and resonance.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Visualize Disintegration of Oral Formulations.

    PubMed

    Curley, Louise; Hinton, Jordan; Marjoribanks, Cameron; Mirjalili, Ali; Kennedy, Julia; Svirskis, Darren

    2017-03-01

    This article demonstrates that magnetic resonance imaging can visualize the disintegration of a variety of paracetamol containing oral formulations in an in vitro setting and in vivo in the human stomach. The different formulations had unique disintegration profiles which could be imaged both in vitro and in vivo. No special formulation approaches or other contrast agents were required. These data demonstrate the potential for further use of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate and understand the disintegration behavior of different formulation types in vivo, and could potentially be used as a teaching tool in pharmaceutical and medical curricula. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art*

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Schuch, Alice; Hochhegger, Bruno; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Chojniak, Rubens; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    In the investigation of tumors with conventional magnetic resonance imaging, both quantitative characteristics, such as size, edema, necrosis, and presence of metastases, and qualitative characteristics, such as contrast enhancement degree, are taken into consideration. However, changes in cell metabolism and tissue physiology which precede morphological changes cannot be detected by the conventional technique. The development of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques has enabled the functional assessment of the structures in order to obtain information on the different physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment, such as oxygenation levels, cellularity and vascularity. The detailed morphological study in association with the new functional imaging techniques allows for an appropriate approach to cancer patients, including the phases of diagnosis, staging, response evaluation and follow-up, with a positive impact on their quality of life and survival rate. PMID:25741058

  20. Wireless power using magnetic resonance coupling for neural sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Sang H.; Sanford, Larry D.; Geddis, Demetris; Lee, Kunik; Kim, Jaehwan; Song, Kyo D.

    2012-04-01

    Various wireless power transfer systems based on electromagnetic coupling have been investigated and applied in many biomedical applications including functional electrical stimulation systems and physiological sensing in humans and animals. By integrating wireless power transfer modules with wireless communication devices, electronic systems can deliver data and control system operation in untethered freely-moving conditions without requiring access through the skin, a potential source of infection. In this presentation, we will discuss a wireless power transfer module using magnetic resonance coupling that is specifically designed for neural sensing systems and in-vivo animal models. This research presents simple experimental set-ups and circuit models of magnetic resonance coupling modules and discusses advantages and concerns involved in positioning and sizing of source and receiver coils compared to conventional inductive coupling devices. Furthermore, the potential concern of tissue heating in the brain during operation of the wireless power transfer systems will also be addressed.

  1. Diagnosis and quantification of the iron overload through Magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Alústiza Echeverría, J M; Barrera Portillo, M C; Guisasola Iñiguiz, A; Ugarte Muño, A

    There are different magnetic resonance techniques and models to quantify liver iron concentration. T2 relaxometry methods evaluate the iron concentration in the myocardium, and they are able to discriminate all the levels of iron overload in the liver. Signal intensity ratio methods saturate with high levels of liver overload and can not assess iron concentration in the myocardium but they are more accessible and are very standardized. This article reviews, in different clinical scenarios, when Magnetic Resonance must be used to assess iron overload in the liver and myocardium and analyzes the current challenges to optimize the aplication of the technique and to be it included in the clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normalmore » physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.« less

  3. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Dependent on Blood Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T. M.; Kay, A. R.; Tank, D. W.

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high fields, we demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complements other techniques that are attempting to provide positron emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography as indexes of muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothesis is tested that exercise-induced magnetic resonance (MR) contrast shifts would relate to electromyography (EMG) amplitude if both measures reflect muscle use during exercise. Both magnetic resonance images (MRI) and EMG data were obtained for separate eccentric (ECC) and cocentric (CON) exercise of increasing intensity for seven subjects 30-32 yr old. CON and ECC actions caused increased integrated EMG (IEMG) and T2 values which were strongly related with relative resistance. The rate of increase and absolute value of both T2 and IEMG were found to be greater for CON than for ECC actions. For both actions IEMG and T2 were correlated. Data obtained suggest that surface IEMG accurately reflects the contractile behavior of muscle and exercise-induced increases in MRI T2 values reflect certain processes that scale with muscle use.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23292717

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging based functional imaging in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Manias, Karen A; Gill, Simrandip K; MacPherson, Lesley; Foster, Katharine; Oates, Adam; Peet, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    Imaging is central to management of solid tumours in children. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging modality for tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) and limbs and is increasingly used in the abdomen. It provides excellent structural detail, but imparts limited information about tumour type, aggressiveness, metastatic potential or early treatment response. MRI based functional imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging, probe tissue properties to provide clinically important information about metabolites, structure and blood flow. This review describes the role of and evidence behind these functional imaging techniques in paediatric oncology and implications for integrating them into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of isolated congenital anosmia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-feng; Wang, Jian; You, Hui; Ni, Dao-feng; Yang, Da-zhang

    2010-05-25

    To report a series of patients with isolated congenital anosmia and summarize their clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics. Twenty patients with isolated congenital anosmia were reviewed retrospectively. A thorough medical and chemosensory history, physical examination, nasal endoscopy, T&T olfactory testing, olfactory event-related potentials, sinonasal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance image of olfactory pathway were performed in all patients. Neither ENT physical examination nor nasal endoscopy was remarkable. Subjective olfactory testing indicated all of them were of anosmia. No olfactory event-related potentials to maximal stimulus were obtained. Computed tomography scan was normal. MRI revealed the absence of olfactory bulbs and tracts in all cases. And hypoplasia or aplasia of olfactory sulcus was found in all cases. All the patients had normal sex hormone level. The diagnosis of isolated congenital anosmia is established on chief complaints, physical examination, olfactory testing and olfactory imaging. MRI of olfactory pathway is indispensable.

  8. [Fetal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    PubMed

    Sebastià, C; Garcia, R; Gomez, O; Paño, B; Nicolau, C

    2014-01-01

    A diaphragmatic hernia is defined as the protrusion of abdominal viscera into the thoracic cavity through a normal or pathological orifice. The herniated viscera compress the lungs, resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension, which are the leading causes of neonatal death in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is diagnosed by sonography in routine prenatal screening. Although magnetic resonance imaging is fundamentally used to determine whether the liver is located within the abdomen or has herniated into the thorax, it also can provide useful information about other herniated structures and the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. The aim of this article is to review the fetal magnetic resonance findings for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the signs that enable us to establish the neonatal prognosis when evaluating pulmonary hypoplasia. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Magnetic resonances in perovskite-type layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, K.; Geick, R.

    1981-08-01

    We have studied the q=0 magnetic excitations of the perovskite-type layer structures A 2MnCl 4 with A=Rb, C nH 2n+1NH 3 (n=1,2,3), and NH 3(CH 2) mNH 3MnCl 4 (m=2,4,5) in the antiferromagnetic and in the spin flop regime by means of magnetic resonance in the mm-wave range (30-130GHz) and microwave range (9.2GHz). The length of the organic molecules determines the separation of the MnCl 6 octahedra. With increasing separation the Néel temperature and the antiferromagnetic resonance frequency decrease, which mainly originates from a decrease of the anisotropy field.

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Schuch, Alice; Hochhegger, Bruno; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Chojniak, Rubens; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    In the investigation of tumors with conventional magnetic resonance imaging, both quantitative characteristics, such as size, edema, necrosis, and presence of metastases, and qualitative characteristics, such as contrast enhancement degree, are taken into consideration. However, changes in cell metabolism and tissue physiology which precede morphological changes cannot be detected by the conventional technique. The development of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques has enabled the functional assessment of the structures in order to obtain information on the different physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment, such as oxygenation levels, cellularity and vascularity. The detailed morphological study in association with the new functional imaging techniques allows for an appropriate approach to cancer patients, including the phases of diagnosis, staging, response evaluation and follow-up, with a positive impact on their quality of life and survival rate.

  12. Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance as a Sensitive Detector of Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance allows for noninvasive measurements of biochemical reactions in vivo. Although this technique provides a unique tool for assaying enzymatic activities in intact organs, the scope of its application is still elusive for the wider scientific community. The purpose of this review is to provide key principles and parameters to guide the researcher interested in adopting this technology to address a biochemical, biomedical, or medical issue. It is presented in the form of a compendium containing the underlying essential physical concepts as well as suggestions to help assess the potential of the technique within the framework of specific research environments. Explicit examples are used to illustrate the power as well as the limitations of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance. PMID:25369537

  13. Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Scherzinger, Ann L.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. ImagesFigure 9. PMID:3911591

  14. Fast magnetic resonance imaging based on high degree total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sujie; Lu, Liangliang; Zheng, Junbao; Jiang, Mingfeng

    2018-04-01

    In order to eliminating the artifacts and "staircase effect" of total variation in Compressive Sensing MRI, high degree total variation model is proposed for dynamic MRI reconstruction. the high degree total variation regularization term is used as a constraint to reconstruct the magnetic resonance image, and the iterative weighted MM algorithm is proposed to solve the convex optimization problem of the reconstructed MR image model, In addtion, one set of cardiac magnetic resonance data is used to verify the proposed algorithm for MRI. The results show that the high degree total variation method has a better reconstruction effect than the total variation and the total generalized variation, which can obtain higher reconstruction SNR and better structural similarity.

  15. AIR-MRF: Accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Cline, Christopher C; Chen, Xiao; Mailhe, Boris; Wang, Qiu; Pfeuffer, Josef; Nittka, Mathias; Griswold, Mark A; Speier, Peter; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2017-09-01

    Existing approaches for reconstruction of multiparametric maps with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are currently limited by their estimation accuracy and reconstruction time. We aimed to address these issues with a novel combination of iterative reconstruction, fingerprint compression, additional regularization, and accelerated dictionary search methods. The pipeline described here, accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting (AIR-MRF), was evaluated with simulations as well as phantom and in vivo scans. We found that the AIR-MRF pipeline provided reduced parameter estimation errors compared to non-iterative and other iterative methods, particularly at shorter sequence lengths. Accelerated dictionary search methods incorporated into the iterative pipeline reduced the reconstruction time at little cost of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Task-oriented lossy compression of magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Mark C.; Atkins, M. Stella; Vaisey, Jacques

    1996-04-01

    A new task-oriented image quality metric is used to quantify the effects of distortion introduced into magnetic resonance images by lossy compression. This metric measures the similarity between a radiologist's manual segmentation of pathological features in the original images and the automated segmentations performed on the original and compressed images. The images are compressed using a general wavelet-based lossy image compression technique, embedded zerotree coding, and segmented using a three-dimensional stochastic model-based tissue segmentation algorithm. The performance of the compression system is then enhanced by compressing different regions of the image volume at different bit rates, guided by prior knowledge about the location of important anatomical regions in the image. Application of the new system to magnetic resonance images is shown to produce compression results superior to the conventional methods, both subjectively and with respect to the segmentation similarity metric.

  17. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for assessment of human body composition.

    PubMed

    Kamba, M; Kimura, K; Koda, M; Ogawa, T

    2001-02-01

    The usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based techniques for assessment of human body composition has not been established. We compared a proton MRS-based technique with the total body water (TBW) method to determine the usefulness of the former technique for assessment of human body composition. Proton magnetic resonance spectra of the chest to abdomen, abdomen to pelvis, and pelvis to thigh regions were obtained from 16 volunteers by using single, free induction decay measurement with a clinical magnetic resonance system operating at 1.5 T. The MRS-derived metabolite ratio was determined as the ratio of fat methyl and methylene proton resonance to water proton resonance. The peak areas for the chest to abdomen and the pelvis to thigh regions were normalized to an external reference (approximately 2200 g benzene) and a weighted average of the MRS-derived metabolite ratios for the 2 positions was calculated. TBW for each subject was determined by the deuterium oxide dilution technique. The MRS-derived metabolite ratios were significantly correlated with the ratio of body fat to lean body mass estimated by TBW. The MRS-derived metabolite ratio for the abdomen to pelvis region correlated best with the ratio of body fat to lean body mass on simple regression analyses (r = 0.918). The MRS-derived metabolite ratio for the abdomen to pelvis region and that for the pelvis to thigh region were selected for a multivariate regression model (R = 0.947, adjusted R(2) = 0.881). This MRS-based technique is sufficiently accurate for assessment of human body composition.

  18. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic properties of ALHA 81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Seven chips of primarily matrix material from the Antarctic meteorite ALHA 81005 were analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetic hysteresis techniques. The FMR spectra of two chips have a resonance at g of about 2.1 that resembles the g of about 2.1 resonance that is characteristic of lunar soils. Thus the FMR spectra are consistent with the lunar regolith being a progenitor for the matrix material. For the two chips, the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index was about 5 units, which is equivalent to a value for an immature lunar soil. The total concentration of metallic iron is on the order of 0.11 equivalent wt. pct, which is within the observed range for Apollo 16 rocks and soils.

  19. Tearing mode velocity braking due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the tearing mode (TM) velocity is studied in EXTRAP T2R. Experimental results show that the RMP produces TM braking until a new steady velocity or wall locking is reached. The braking is initially localized at the TM resonance and then spreads to the other TMs and to the rest of the plasma producing a global velocity reduction via the viscous torque. The process has been used to experimentally estimate the kinematic viscosity profile, in the range 2-40 m2 s-1, and the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP, which is strongly localized at the TM resonance. Experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model which gives a reasonable qualitative explanation of the entire process.

  20. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sacchi, M.; Hague, C.F.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of themore » first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.« less

  1. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    73(2):614-22. doi: 10.1002/ mrm .25174. Epub 2014 Mar 6) and in generating spinal cord myelin maps (Magnetization transfer from inhomogeneously...Rangwala N, Alsop DC, Duhamel G. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Mar 9. doi: 10.1002/ mrm .26134. [Epub ahead of print]) The third aim, to extend quantitative...resolution and gradient stability that off the shelf alternatives. However, the incompatibility of the coil and software with the new instrument introduced

  2. Brain lymphoma: usefulness of the magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taillibert, Sophie; Guillevin, Rémy; Menuel, Carole; Sanson, Marc; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Chiras, Jacques; Duffau, Hugues

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) should always be considered as an emergency because of the therapeutic consequences it implies. In immunocompetent patients, it relies on stereotactic biopsy. Unfortunately, clinical and radiological features may be misleading and delay the diagnostic procedure. The case we report here illustrates the contribution of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnostic approach of a very atypical PCNSL.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Nonneoplastic Musculoskeletal Pathologies in the Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Sindhura; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Komarraju, Aparna; Guidry, Carey; Pandey, Tarun

    2017-06-01

    Musculoskeletal pathologies in the pelvis encompass a wide variety of lesions including femoroacetabular impingement, athletic pubalgia, ischiofemoral impingement, and apophyseal avulsion injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging is the noninvasive imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and management of these lesions. In this article, the authors discuss the nonneoplastic musculoskeletal lesions in the pelvis, with illustrations and relevant case examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in cancer: Technique, analysis, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Kay M.; Ehman, Richard L.; McGee, Kiaran P.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties are significantly altered with the development of cancer. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive technique capable of quantifying tissue mechanical properties in vivo. This review describes the basic principles of MRE and introduces some of the many promising MRE methods that have been developed for the detection and characterization of cancer, evaluation of response to therapy, and investigation of the underlying mechanical mechanisms associated with malignancy. PMID:26592944

  5. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Outcomes 6 Conclusions 6 References 6-29 Appendices Introduction During the first year we pursued studies of Magnetic Resonance q-space imaging...QSI) of the spinal cord and myelin imaging. The QSI studies extended our previous work establishing our ability to define the distribution of axon...Conventional MR imaging of the central nervous systems studies water protons exclusively. Although other compounds, such a lipid and proteins, have

  6. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stroke in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    CHOPP, Michael; LI, Lian; ZHANG, Li; ZHANG, Zheng-gang; LI, Qing-jiang; JIANG, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a routine neuroimaging tool in the clinic. Throughout all phases of stroke from acute to chronic, MRI plays an important role to diagnose, evaluate and monitor the cerebral tissue undergoing stroke. This review provides a description of various MRI methods and an overview of selected MRI studies, with an embolic stroke model of rat, performed in the MRI laboratory of Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US. PMID:24920874

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy for detection of choline kinase inhibition in the treatment of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Arlauckas, Sean P.; Saksena, Sona; Verma, Gaurav; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Pickup, Stephen; Popov, Anatoliy V.; Delikatny, Edward J.; Poptani, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal choline metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and is associated with oncogenesis and tumor progression. Increased choline is consistently observed in both pre-clinical tumor models and in human brain tumors by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, inhibition of choline metabolism using specific choline kinase inhibitors such as MN58b may be a promising new strategy for treatment of brain tumors. We demonstrate the efficacy of MN58b in suppressing phosphocholine production in three brain tumor cell lines. In vivo MRS studies of rats with intra-cranial F98-derived brain tumors showed a significant decrease in tumor total choline concentration after treatment with MN58b. High resolution MRS of tissue extracts confirmed that this decrease was due to a significant reduction in phosphocholine. Concomitantly, a significant increase in poly-unsaturated lipid resonances was also observed in treated tumors, indicating apoptotic cell death. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based volume measurements demonstrated a significant growth arrest in the MN58b-treated tumors in comparison to saline-treated controls. Histologically, MN58b-treated tumors showed decreased cell density, as well as increased apoptotic cells. These results suggest that inhibition of choline kinase can be used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy in the treatment of brain tumors and that decreases in total choline observed by MRS can be used as an effective phamacodynamic biomarker of treatment response. PMID:25657334

  9. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals.

  10. LC and ferromagnetic resonance in soft/hard magnetic microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Bin; Vazquez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic behavior of soft/hard biphase microwires is introduced here. The microwires consist of a Co59.1Fe14.8Si10.2B15.9 soft magnetic nucleus and a Co90Ni10 hard outer shell separated by an intermediate insulating Pyrex glass microtube. By comparing the resistance spectrums of welding the ends of metallic core (CC) or welding the metallic core and outer shell (CS) to the connector, it is found that one of the two peaks in the resistance spectrum is because the LC resonance depends on the inductor and capacitors in which one is the capacitor between the metallic core and outer shell, and the other is between the outer shell and connector. Correspondingly, another peak is for the ferromagnetic resonance of metallic core. After changing the capacitance of the capacitors, the frequency of LC resonance moves to high frequency band, and furthermore, the peak of LC resonance in the resistance spectrum disappeared. These magnetostatically coupled biphase systems are thought to be of large potential interest as sensing elements in sensor devices.

  11. Role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri: a unique pattern of normal choline but elevated Myo-inositol metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Mohana-Borges, Aurea V R; Imbesi, Steven G; Dietrich, Rosalind; Alksne, John; Amjadi, Darius K

    2004-01-01

    A patient with histologically proven gliomatosis cerebri presented with a normal choline level but a markedly abnormal elevated myo-inositol level on magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. We describe the case presentation, imaging findings (in particular, the unique MR spectroscopic pattern), and their significance regarding the diagnosis of this relatively rare neoplasm.

  12. Transurethral prostate magnetic resonance elastography: prospective imaging requirements.

    PubMed

    Arani, Arvin; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    Tissue stiffness is known to undergo alterations when affected by prostate cancer and may serve as an indicator of the disease. Stiffness measurements can be made with magnetic resonance elastography performed using a transurethral actuator to generate shear waves in the prostate gland. The goal of this study was to help determine the imaging requirements of transurethral magnetic resonance elastography and to evaluate whether the spatial and stiffness resolution of this technique overlapped with the requirements for prostate cancer detection. Through the use of prostate-mimicking gelatin phantoms, frequencies of at least 400 Hz were necessary to obtain accurate stiffness measurements of 10 mm diameter inclusions, but the detection of inclusions with diameters as small as 4.75 mm was possible at 200 Hz. The shear wave attenuation coefficient was measured in vivo in the canine prostate gland, and was used to predict the detectable penetration depth of shear waves in prostate tissue. These results suggested that frequencies below 200 Hz could propagate to the prostate boundary with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 60 and an actuator capable of producing 60 μm displacements. These requirements are achievable with current imaging and actuator technologies, and motivate further investigation of magnetic resonance elastography for the targeting of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Brain lesions in septic shock: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sharshar, Tarek; Carlier, Robert; Bernard, Francis; Guidoux, Céline; Brouland, Jean-Philippe; Nardi, Olivier; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Aboab, Jérôme; Gray, Françoise; Menon, David; Annane, Djillali

    2007-05-01

    Understanding of sepsis-induced brain dysfunction remains poor, and relies mainly on data from animals or post-mortem studies in patients. The current study provided findings from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in septic shock. Nine patients with septic shock and brain dysfunction [7 women, median age 63 years (interquartile range 61-79 years), SAPS II: 48 (44-56), SOFA: 8 (6-10)] underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including gradient echo T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted and diffusion isotropic images, and mapping of apparent diffusion coefficient. Brain imaging was normal in two patients, showed multiple ischaemic strokes in two patients, and in the remaining patients showed white matter lesions at the level of the centrum semiovale, predominating around Virchow-Robin spaces, ranging from small multiple areas to diffuse lesions, and characterised by hyperintensity on FLAIR images. The main lesions were also characterised by reduced signal on diffusion isotropic images and increased apparent diffusion coefficient. The lesions of the white matter worsened with increasing duration of shock and were correlated with Glasgow Outcome Score. This preliminary study showed that sepsis-induced brain lesions can be documented by magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions predominated in the white matter, suggesting increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and were associated with poor outcome.

  14. Ability of Magnetic Resonance Elastography to Assess Taut Bands

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Basford, Jeffery; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Background Myofascial taut bands are central to diagnosis of myofascial pain. Despite their importance, we still lack either a laboratory test or imaging technique capable of objectively confirming either their nature or location. This study explores the ability of magnetic resonance elastography to localize and investigate the mechanical properties of myofascial taut bands on the basis of their effects on shear wave propagation. Methods This study was conducted in three phases. The first involved the imaging of taut bands in gel phantoms, the second a finite element modeling of the phantom experiment, and the third a preliminary evaluation involving eight human subjects-four of whom had, and four of whom did not have myofascial pain. Experiments were performed with a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Shear wave propagation was imaged and shear stiffness was reconstructed using matched filtering stiffness inversion algorithms. Findings The gel phantom imaging and finite element calculation experiments supported our hypothesis that taut bands can be imaged based on its outstanding shear stiffness. The preliminary human study showed a statistically significant 50-100% (p=0.01) increase of shear stiffness in the taut band regions of the involved subjects relative to that of the controls or in nearby uninvolved muscle. Interpretation This study suggests that magnetic resonance elastography may have a potential for objectively characterizing myofascial taut bands that have been up to now detectable only by the clinician's fingers. PMID:18206282

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging for the study of mummies.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Carnieri, Emiliano; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic imaging for mummies study has a long tradition and high-resolution images of the samples morphology have been extensively acquired by using computed tomography (CT). However, although in early reports no signal or image was obtained because of the low water content, mummy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was demonstrated able to generate images of such ancient specimens by using fast imaging techniques. Literature demonstrated the general feasibility of nonclinical MRI for visualizing historic human tissues, which is particularly interesting for archeology. More recently, multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was demonstrated able to detect numerous organic biochemicals from such remains. Although the quality of these images is not yet comparable to that of clinical magnetic resonance (MR) images, and further research will be needed for determining the full capacity of MR in this topic, the information obtained with MR can be viewed as complementary to the one provided by CT and useful for paleoradiological studies of mummies. This work contains an overview of the state of art of the emerging uses of MRI in paleoradiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging based clinical research in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Nicolás; Modrego, Pedro J; Salinas, Gulillermo Rojas; Gazulla, José

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people in western countries. However important goals are unmet in the issue of early diagnosis and the development of new drugs for treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volumetry of the medial temporal lobe structures are useful tools for diagnosis. Positron emission tomography is one of the most sensitive tests for making an early diagnosis of AD but the cost and limited availability are important caveats for its utilization. The importance of magnetic resonance techniques has increased gradually to the extent that most clinical works based on AD use these techniques as the main aid to diagnosis. However, the accuracy of structural MRI as biomarker of early AD generally reaches an accuracy of 80%, so additional biomarkers should be used to improve predictions. Other structural MRI (diffusion weighted, diffusion-tensor MRI) and functional MRI have also added interesting contribution to the understanding of the pathophysiology of AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has proven useful to monitor progression and response to treatment in AD, as well as a biomarker of early AD in mild cognitive impairment.

  17. Tissue discrimination in magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, G. J.; Comas, D. S.; González, M. A.; Capiel, C.; Ballarin, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of diseases of the muscles within the rotator cuff can be done using different modalities, being the Magnetic Resonance the method more widely used. There are criteria to evaluate the degree of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy, but these have low accuracy and show great variability inter and intra observer. In this paper, an analysis of the texture features of the rotator cuff muscles is performed to classify them and other tissues. A general supervised classification approach was used, combining forward-search as feature selection method with kNN as classification rule. Sections of Magnetic Resonance Images of the tissues of interest were selected by specialist doctors and they were considered as Gold Standard. Accuracies obtained were of 93% for T1-weighted images and 92% for T2-weighted images. As an immediate future work, the combination of both sequences of images will be considered, expecting to improve the results, as well as the use of other sequences of Magnetic Resonance Images. This work represents an initial point for the classification and quantification of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy degree. From this initial point, it is expected to make an accurate and objective system which will result in benefits for future research and for patients’ health.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, G A

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-five patients with a wide range of sinus disease have been investigated by magnetic resonance (MR): these included congenital conditions, allergic and inflammatory sinus disease, fungus infections, and the necrotizing granulomata. In addition, a variety of benign and malignant tumours have been examined, and in the more recent sinus malignancies the paramagnetic contrast agent, Gadolinium (Gd) DTPA (Schering Health Care) has been used. This experience of magnetic resonance scanning has shown that it is superior to computed tomography in demonstrating the extent of malignant disease in the nose and sinuses; most especially when Gd DTPA is used, reaching an accuracy of over 96% by biopsy correlation. An additional advantage of this technique is the wide coverage of the head and neck for the assessment of malignant disease, provided by direct 3 plane imaging and the multislice facility. The main disadvantage of magnetic resonance of the sinuses is the poor demonstration of calcification and bone. For this reason the MR scans may need to be augmented by high resolution CT performed specifically to show bone detail. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:2926770

  19. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1989-01-01

    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  20. A voxel based comparative analysis using magnetization transfer imaging and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, Mangalore; Saini, Jitender; Pasha, Shaik Afsar; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) tissue damage occurs in specific cortical and subcortical regions. Voxel based analysis using T1-weighted images depict quantitative gray matter (GM) atrophy changes. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging depicts qualitative changes in the brain parenchyma. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether MT imaging could indicate abnormalities in PSP. Settings and Design: A total of 10 patients with PSP (9 men and 1 woman) and 8 controls (5 men and 3 women) were studied with T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3DMT imaging. Voxel based analysis of T1-weighted MRI was performed to investigate brain atrophy while MT was used to study qualitative abnormalities in the brain tissue. We used SPM8 to investigate group differences (with two sample t-test) using the GM and white matter (WM) segmented data. Results: T1-weighted imaging and MT are equally sensitive to detect changes in GM and WM in PSP. Magnetization transfer ratio images and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo revealed extensive bilateral volume and qualitative changes in the orbitofrontal, prefrontal cortex and limbic lobe and sub cortical GM. The prefrontal structures involved were the rectal gyrus, medial, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus and lingual gyrus of limbic lobe and subcortical structures such as caudate, thalamus, insula and claustrum were also involved. Cerebellar involvement mainly of anterior lobe was also noted. Conclusions: The findings suggest that voxel based MT imaging permits a whole brain unbiased investigation of central nervous system structural integrity in PSP. PMID:25024571

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of succinate dehydrogenase-related infantile leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Helman, Guy; Caldovic, Ljubica; Whitehead, Matthew T; Simons, Cas; Brockmann, Knut; Edvardson, Simon; Bai, Renkui; Moroni, Isabella; Taylor, J Michael; Van Haren, Keith; Taft, Ryan J; Vanderver, Adeline; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient leukoencephalopathy is a complex II-related mitochondrial disorder for which the clinical phenotype, neuroimaging pattern, and genetic findings have not been comprehensively reviewed. Nineteen individuals with succinate dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukoencephalopathy were reviewed for neuroradiological, clinical, and genetic findings as part of institutional review board-approved studies at Children's National Health System (Washington, DC) and VU University Medical Center (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). All individuals had signal abnormalities in the central corticospinal tracts and spinal cord where imaging was available. Other typical findings were involvement of the cerebral hemispheric white matter with sparing of the U fibers, the corpus callosum with sparing of the outer blades, the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellar white matter, and elevated succinate on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The thalamus was involved in most studies, with a predilection for the anterior nucleus, pulvinar, and geniculate bodies. Clinically, infantile onset neurological regression with partial recovery and subsequent stabilization was typical. All individuals had mutations in SDHA, SDHB, or SDHAF1, or proven biochemical defect. Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare leukoencephalopathy, for which improved recognition by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with advanced sequencing technologies allows noninvasive diagnostic confirmation. The MRI pattern is characterized by cerebral hemispheric white matter abnormalities with sparing of the U fibers, corpus callosum involvement with sparing of the outer blades, and involvement of corticospinal tracts, thalami, and spinal cord. In individuals with infantile regression and this pattern of MRI abnormalities, the differential diagnosis should include succinate dehydrogenase deficiency, in particular if MRS shows elevated succinate. © 2016 American

  2. [Development of RF coil of permanent magnet mini-magnetic resonance imager and mouse imaging experiments].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shulian; Xie, Huantong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Guangxin; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Shiyu

    2014-10-01

    In the development of radio frequency (RF) coils for better quality of the mini-type permanent magnetic resonance imager for using in the small animal imaging, the solenoid RF coil has a special advantage for permanent magnetic system based on analyses of various types.of RF coils. However, it is not satisfied for imaging if the RF coils are directly used. By theoretical analyses of the magnetic field properties produced from the solenoid coil, the research direction was determined by careful studies to raise further the uniformity of the magnetic field coil, receiving coil sensitivity for signals and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The method had certain advantages and avoided some shortcomings of the other different coil types, such as, birdcage coil, saddle shaped coil and phased array coil by using the alloy materials (from our own patent). The RF coils were designed, developed and made for keeled applicable to permanent magnet-type magnetic resonance imager, multi-coil combination-type, single-channel overall RF receiving coil, and applied for a patent. Mounted on three instruments (25 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.5 T or 1.5 T, and 50 mm aperture, with main magnetic field strength of 0.48 T), we performed experiments with mice, rats, and nude mice bearing tumors. The experimental results indicated that the RF receiving coil was fully applicable to the permanent magnet-type imaging system.

  3. Magnetic field shift due to mechanical vibration in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Bernd U; Tomasi, Dardo; Caparelli, Elisabeth C

    2005-11-01

    Mechanical vibrations of the gradient coil system during readout in echo-planar imaging (EPI) can increase the temperature of the gradient system and alter the magnetic field distribution during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This effect is enhanced by resonant modes of vibrations and results in apparent motion along the phase encoding direction in fMRI studies. The magnetic field drift was quantified during EPI by monitoring the resonance frequency interleaved with the EPI acquisition, and a novel method is proposed to correct the apparent motion. The knowledge on the frequency drift over time was used to correct the phase of the k-space EPI dataset. Since the resonance frequency changes very slowly over time, two measurements of the resonance frequency, immediately before and after the EPI acquisition, are sufficient to remove the field drift effects from fMRI time series. The frequency drift correction method was tested "in vivo" and compared to the standard image realignment method. The proposed method efficiently corrects spurious motion due to magnetic field drifts during fMRI. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Other Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Chronic Liver Disease: Current Status and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher Heng; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2016-09-15

    Recent advances in the noninvasive imaging of chronic liver disease have led to improvements in diagnosis, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A comprehensive evaluation of the liver may be performed with the quantification of the degree of hepatic steatosis, liver iron concentration, and liver fibrosis. In addition, MRI of the liver may be used to identify complications of cirrhosis, including portal hypertension, ascites, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review article, we discuss the state of the art techniques in liver MRI, namely, magnetic resonance elastography, hepatobiliary phase MRI, and liver fat and iron quantification MRI. The use of these advanced techniques in the management of chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, will be elaborated.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Other Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Chronic Liver Disease: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Heng; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive imaging of chronic liver disease have led to improvements in diagnosis, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A comprehensive evaluation of the liver may be performed with the quantification of the degree of hepatic steatosis, liver iron concentration, and liver fibrosis. In addition, MRI of the liver may be used to identify complications of cirrhosis, including portal hypertension, ascites, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review article, we discuss the state of the art techniques in liver MRI, namely, magnetic resonance elastography, hepatobiliary phase MRI, and liver fat and iron quantification MRI. The use of these advanced techniques in the management of chronic liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, will be elaborated. PMID:27563019

  6. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  7. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings of prostatic pure leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Mussi, Thais Caldara; Costa, Yves Bohrer; Obara, Marcos Takeo; Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes de; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Longo, José Antonio Domingos Cianciarulo; Lemos, Gustavo Caserta; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2016-01-01

    To describe the imaging findings of prostatic tumors nonadenocarcinoma on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 200 patients underwented multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate for screening for prostate cancer, from August 2013 to September 2014, followed by biopsy with ultrasound/magnetic resonance imaging fusion. We found three pathologic proved cases of prostatic pure leiomyomas (0.02%) in our series and described the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging features of these prostatic leiomyomas. The imaging findings had similar features to lesions with moderate or high suspicion for significant cancer (Likert 4 or 5) when localized both in the transitional zone or in the peripheral zone of the gland. Pure prostatic leiomyomas had imaging findings on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging that mimicked usual adenocarcinomas on this test. Radiologists, urologists and pathologists must be aware of this entity and its imaging features. Descrever os achados de imagem de tumores prostáticos não adenocarcinoma na ressonância magnética multiparamétrica. Realizaram ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata para detecção de câncer de próstata 200 pacientes de agosto de 2013 a setembro de 2014, seguida por biópsia com fusão de imagens de ultrassonografia/ressonância magnética. Encontramos três casos confirmados histologicamente de leiomiomas prostáticos puros (0,02%) em nossa casuística e descrevemos os achados da ressonância magnética multiparamétrica destes casos de leiomiomas. Os achados de imagem foram semelhantes aos de lesões com moderada ou alta suspeição para neoplasia clinicamente significante (Likert 4 ou 5) quando localizados na zona de transição ou zona periférica da próstata. Leiomiomas puros da próstata tiveram achados de imagem na ressonância magnética multiparamétrica que mimetizaram adenocarcinomas. Radiologistas, urologistas e patologistas devem estar cientes destas

  8. Attenuation correction for flexible magnetic resonance coils in combined magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Eldib, Mootaz; Bini, Jason; Calcagno, Claudia; Robson, Philip M; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A

    2014-02-01

    Attenuation correction for magnetic resonance (MR) coils is a new challenge that came about with the development of combined MR and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This task is difficult because such coils are not directly visible on either PET or MR acquisitions with current combined scanners and are therefore not easily localized in the field of view. This issue becomes more evident when trying to localize flexible MR coils (eg, cardiac or body matrix coil) that change position and shape from patient to patient and from one imaging session to another. In this study, we proposed a novel method to localize and correct for the attenuation and scatter of a flexible MR cardiac coil, using MR fiducial markers placed on the surface of the coil to allow for accurate registration of a template computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation map. To quantify the attenuation properties of the cardiac coil, a uniform cylindrical water phantom injected with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) was imaged on a sequential MR/PET system with and without the flexible cardiac coil. After establishing the need to correct for the attenuation of the coil, we tested the feasibility of several methods to register a precomputed attenuation map to correct for the attenuation. To accomplish this, MR and CT visible markers were placed on the surface of the cardiac flexible coil. Using only the markers as a driver for registration, the CT image was registered to the reference image through a combination of rigid and deformable registration. The accuracy of several methods was compared for the deformable registration, including B-spline, thin-plate spline, elastic body spline, and volume spline. Finally, we validated our novel approach both in phantom and patient studies. The findings from the phantom experiments indicated that the presence of the coil resulted in a 10% reduction in measured 18F-FDG activity when compared with the phantom-only scan. Local underestimation reached 22% in

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in laboratory petrophysical core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.; Holland, D. J.; Gladden, L. F.; Fordham, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-known technique in medical diagnosis and materials science. In the more specialized arena of laboratory-scale petrophysical rock core analysis, the role of MRI has undergone a substantial change in focus over the last three decades. Initially, alongside the continual drive to exploit higher magnetic field strengths in MRI applications for medicine and chemistry, the same trend was followed in core analysis. However, the spatial resolution achievable in heterogeneous porous media is inherently limited due to the magnetic susceptibility contrast between solid and fluid. As a result, imaging resolution at the length-scale of typical pore diameters is not practical and so MRI of core-plugs has often been viewed as an inappropriate use of expensive magnetic resonance facilities. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the use of MRI in laboratory-scale core analysis. The focus is now on acquiring data in the laboratory that are directly comparable to data obtained from magnetic resonance well-logging tools (i.e., a common physics of measurement). To maintain consistency with well-logging instrumentation, it is desirable to measure distributions of transverse (T2) relaxation time-the industry-standard metric in well-logging-at the laboratory-scale. These T2 distributions can be spatially resolved over the length of a core-plug. The use of low-field magnets in the laboratory environment is optimal for core analysis not only because the magnetic field strength is closer to that of well-logging tools, but also because the magnetic susceptibility contrast is minimized, allowing the acquisition of quantitative image voxel (or pixel) intensities that are directly scalable to liquid volume. Beyond simple determination of macroscopic rock heterogeneity, it is possible to utilize the spatial resolution for monitoring forced displacement of oil by water or chemical agents, determining capillary pressure curves, and estimating

  10. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  11. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jian Zhi [Richland, WA; Wind, Robert A [Kennewick, WA; Minard, Kevin R [Kennewick, WA; Majors, Paul D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  12. Magnetization pinning in conducting films demonstrated using broadband ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostylev, M.; Stashkevich, A. A.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Shakespeare, C.; Kostylev, N.; Ross, N.; Kennewell, K.; Magaraggia, R.; Roussigné, Y.; Stamps, R. L.

    2010-11-01

    The broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), cavity FMR, and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy techniques have been applied for detection and characterization of a magnetic inhomogeneity in a film sample. In the case of a 100 nm thick permalloy film, an additional magnetically depleted top sublayer has been detected due to pinning effect it produces on the magnetization in the bulk of the film. The pinning results in appearance of an exchange standing spin wave mode in the broadband FMR absorption spectrum, whose amplitudes are different depending on whether the film or the film substrate faces the microstrip transducer. Comparison of the experimental amplitudes for this mode with results of our theory for both film placements revealed that the depleted layer is located at the film surface facing away from the film substrate. Subsequent broadband FMR characterization of a large number of other presumably single-layer films with thicknesses in the range 30-100 nm showed the same result.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOEpatents

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of microstructure transition in stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Johannes M; van Faassen, Ernst E H; Bakker, Chris J G

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic resonance images are prone to artifacts caused by metallic objects. Such artifacts may not only hamper image interpretation, but also have been shown to provide information about the magnetic properties of the substances involved. In this work, we aim to explore the potential of MRI to detect, localize and characterize changes in magnetic properties that may occur when certain alloys have been exposed to a thermomechanical stress. For this purpose, stainless steel 304 L wires were drawn to induce a change from paramagnetic austenitic into ferromagnetic martensitic microstructure. The changes in magnetic behavior were quantified by analyzing the geometric distortion in spin echo and the geometric distortion and intravoxel dephasing in gradient echo images at 0.5, 1.5 and 3 T. The results of both imaging strategies were in agreement and in accordance with independent measurements with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Drawing wire to 2% of its cross-sectional area was found to increase the volume fraction of the ferromagnetic martensite from 0.3% to 80% and to enhance the magnetization up to two or three orders of magnitude. The results demonstrate the potential of MRI to locate and quantify stress-induced changes in the magnetic properties of alloys in a completely noninvasive and nondestructive way.

  15. Arthroscopic and magnetic resonance image appearance and reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament in cases of apparent functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masato; Innami, Ken; Matsushita, Takashi; Uchio, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2008-08-01

    Many patients report feeling functional ankle instability, despite having no clinically demonstrable lateral instability. Some patients who experience functional instability of the ankle have substantial abnormalities of the anterior talofibular ligament despite having apparently normal lateral laxity in clinical examination. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen patients who had functional ankle instability after sprain, despite having no clinically demonstrable lateral instability, were included in this study. All subjects underwent standard stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ankle arthroscopy. These patients were treated with anatomical reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament. Arthroscopic assessment revealed 3 cases with no ligamentous structure with scar tissue, 9 cases with partial ligament tears and scar tissue on the disrupted anterior talofibular ligament fiber, and 2 cases of abnormal course of the ligament at the fibular or talar attachment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the following: 5 cases of discontinuity of the anterior talofibular ligament, 2 cases of narrowing of the anterior talofibular ligament, 4 cases of high-intensity lesion in the anterior talofibular ligament, and 3 normal cases. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle Hindfoot scale score was 66.2 +/- 3.2 points at preoperation and 92.3 +/- 4.4 points 2 years after surgery. All patients in this study with functional ankle instability, despite their having no demonstrable abnormal lateral laxity, had morphologic ligamentous abnormality on arthroscopic assessment.

  16. Comparison among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, modified dixon method, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring bone marrow fat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P < 0.001) in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  17. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P < 0.001) in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods. PMID:23606951

  18. Prospective heart tracking for whole-heart magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    To develop a prospective respiratory-gating technique (Heart-NAV) for use with contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) inversion recovery (IR) whole-heart magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) acquisitions that directly tracks heart motion without creating image inflow artifact. With Heart-NAV, one of the startup pulses for the whole-heart steady-state free precession MRA sequence is used to collect the centerline of k-space, and its one-dimensional reconstruction is fed into the standard diaphragm-navigator (NAV) signal analysis process to prospectively gate and track respiratory-induced heart displacement. Ten healthy volunteers underwent non-contrast whole-heart MRA acquisitions using the conventional diaphragm-NAV and Heart-NAV with 5 and 10-mm acceptance windows in a 1.5T scanner. Five patients underwent contrast-enhanced IR whole-heart MRA using a diaphragm-NAV and Heart-NAV with a 5-mm acceptance window. For non-contrast whole-heart MRA with both the 5 and 10-mm acceptance windows, Heart-NAV yielded coronary artery vessel sharpness and subjective visual scores that were not significantly different than those using a conventional diaphragm-NAV. Scan time for Heart-NAV was 10% shorter (p < 0.05). In patients undergoing contrast-enhanced IR whole-heart MRA, inflow artifact was seen with the diaphragm-NAV but not with Heart-NAV. Compared with a conventional diaphragm-NAV, Heart-NAV achieves similar image quality in a slightly shorter scan time and eliminates inflow artifact. Magn Reson Med 77:759-765, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-01-01

    sclerosis. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient was not significantly affected by the presence of brain lesions [T2 lesions (P = 0.918), periventricular T2 lesions (P = 0.580) or gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions (P = 0.724)]. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient also correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 years later (Spearman r = 0.313, P = 0.027). An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis, is clinically relevant, and may arise from one or more mechanisms that are at least partly independent of lesion formation. PMID:28043954

  20. Magnetic activity of surface plasmon resonance using dielectric magnetic materials fabricated on quartz glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narushima, Kazuki; Ashizawa, Yoshito; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius; Nakagawa, Katsuji

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic activity of surface plasmons in Au/MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, and Zn) polycrystalline bilayer films fabricated on a quartz glass substrate was studied for future magnetic sensor applications using surface plasmon resonance. The excitation of surface plasmons and their magnetic activity were observed in all investigated Au/MFe2O4 films. The magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline Au/NiFe2O4 film was larger than those of the other polycrystalline Au/MFe2O4 films, the epitaxial NiFe2O4 film, and metallic films. The large magnetic activity of surface plasmons of the polycrystalline film is controlled by manipulating surface plasmon excitation conditions and magnetic properties.

  1. Clinical implications of magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorders patients presenting ear fullness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeon; Park, Ji Woon; Park, Seo Eun; Nam, Dong Woo; Lim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether findings detected by temporomandibular joint magnetic resonance imaging (TMJ-MRI) can provide pathognomonic evidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with nonspecific ear fullness (EF). The association of nonspecific EF with clinical characteristics of TMD based on TMJ-MRI findings was examined. Retrospective analysis. Thirty-four subjects (42 ears) who had no detectable otologic problems as a cause of EF were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent TMJ-MRI to identify pathology of the TMJ as a possible cause of nonspecific EF. All subjects participated in the re-evaluation process following TMD treatment. Anatomical abnormalities in TMJ-MRI, irrespective of TMD signs, were observed in 34 of the 42 ears (80.9%), such as degenerative change of the TMJ (16 ears), articular disc displacement (11 ears), and joint effusion (seven ears). Specific abnormalities of the TMJ were associated with nonspecific EF, and this symptom showed improvement following individualized TMD treatment in those with internal derangement and/or effusion of the TMJ. However, abnormal TMJ-MRI findings were also observed in seven of nine ears with no TMD signs, and there was no significant association between the presence of TMD signs and abnormal TMJ-MRI findings (χ 2 = 0.075, P = .784). Patients presenting with nonspecific EF may have TMD, which can be effectively diagnosed using TMJ-MRI. The present study revealed the causal relationship between nonspecific EF and abnormal TMJ findings based on MRI. Individualized TMD treatments based on TMJ-MRI led to improved treatment outcomes with special regard to nonspecific EF LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Characterization of tumor microvascular structure and permeability: comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and intravital confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitan, Nina Kristine; Thuen, Marte; Goa, Pa˚L. Erik; de Lange Davies, Catharina

    2010-05-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by abnormal blood vessel organization, structure, and function. These abnormalities give rise to enhanced vascular permeability and may predict therapeutic responses. The permeability and architecture of the microvasculature in human osteosarcoma tumors growing in dorsal window chambers in athymic mice were measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Dextran (40 kDa) and Gadomer were used as molecular tracers for CLSM and DCE-MRI, respectively. A significant correlation was found between permeability indicators. The extravasation rate Ki as measured by CLSM correlated positively with DCE-MRI parameters, such as the volume transfer constant Ktrans and the initial slope of the contrast agent concentration-time curve. This demonstrates that these two techniques give complementary information. Extravasation was further related to microvascular structure and was found to correlate with the fractal dimension and vascular density. The structural parameter values that were obtained from CLSM images were higher for abnormal tumor vasculature than for normal vessels.

  3. Emotional conflict processing in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wortinger, Laura Anne; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-01

    Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group. Fifteen adolescent patients with CFS and 24 healthy adolescent participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring overlaid affect labeled words. Adolescent CFS patients were less able to engage the left amygdala and left midposterior insula (mpINS) in response to conflict than the healthy comparison group. An association between accuracy interference and conflict-related reactivity in the amygdala was observed in CFS patients. A relationship between response time interference and conflict-related reactivity in the mpINS was also reported. Neural responses in the amygdala and mpINS were specific to fatigue severity. These data demonstrate that adolescent CFS patients displayed deficits in emotional conflict processing. Our results suggest abnormalities in affective and cognitive functioning of the salience network, which might underlie the pathophysiology of adolescent CFS.

  4. Dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the detection of myocardial ischemia with the use of myocardial tagging.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Ho, Kai Yiu J A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of high-dose dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with myocardial tagging for the detection of wall motion abnormalities as a measure of myocardial ischemia in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Two hundred eleven consecutive patients with chest pain underwent dobutamine-CMR 4 days after antianginal medication was stopped. Dobutamine-CMR was performed at rest and during increasing doses of dobutamine. Cine-images were acquired during breath-hold with and without myocardial tagging at 3 short-axis levels. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment short-axis model. Patients with new wall motion abnormalities (NWMA) were examined by coronary angiography. Dobutamine-CMR was successfully performed in 194 patients. Dobutamine-CMR without tagging detected NWMA in 58 patients, whereas NWMA were detected in 68 patients with tagging (P=0.002, McNemar). Coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease in 65 (96%) of these 68 patients. All but 3 of the 65 patients needed revascularization. In the 112 patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study, without baseline wall motion abnormalities, the cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 98.2% during the mean follow-up period of 17.3 months (range, 7 to 31). Dobutamine-CMR with myocardial tagging detected more NWMA compared with dobutamine-CMR without tagging and reliably separated patients with a normal life expectancy from those at increased risk of major adverse cardiac events.

  5. [Magnetic resonance imaging features in two Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhou, Lian-Hong; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Cha, Yun-Fei; Wang, Jiong; Xing, Yi-Qiao

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the structural basis of ocular motility and visual abnormalities in humans with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). 17 volunteers from 2 CFEOM pedigrees Clinical ophthalmic and motility examed and 18 normal control subjects were correlated with thin-sectioned magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across the orbit and the brain-stem level. Subjects with CFEOM had severe bilateral blepharoptosis, limited supraduction, and variable ophthalmoplegia. In affected subjects, MRI demonstrated atrophy of the levator palpebrae superioris, all EOMs, and the optic nerves, and small or absent orbital motor nerves. The oculomotor nerve was most severely hypoplastic, but the abducens was also affected. Subjects with CFEOM exhibited subclinical but highly significant reduction from normal in mean optic nerve size (P < 0.05). There are also some difference between the two CFEOM pedigrees. These findings suggest that neuronal disease is primary in CFEOM, with myopathy arising secondary to abnormal innervation and the oculomotor nucleus and trochlear nucleus of the abnormalities defects.

  6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of late-life major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chiang, I-Chan; Li, Chun-Wei; Lin, Wei-Chen; Lu, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Liu, Gin-Chung; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Kuo, Yu-Ting

    2009-06-30

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the biochemical abnormalities of late-life major depression by using 3-tesla (3-T) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The antidepressant effects on the biochemical abnormalities were investigated as well. Study participants were 27 elderly patients with major depressive disorders (among which 9 were on antidepressant medication) and 19 comparison elderly subjects. (1)H-MRS spectra were acquired from voxels that were placed in the left frontal white matter, left periventricular white matter, and left basal ganglia. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol to creatine were calculated. Patients with late-life major depressive disorder had a significantly lower NAA/creatine ratio in the left frontal white matter, and higher Cho/creatine and myo-inositol/creatine ratios in the left basal ganglia when compared with the control subjects. The myo-inositol correlated with global cognitive function among the patients. The biochemical abnormalities in late-life major depressive disorder were found on the left side of the frontal white matter and the basal ganglia. Neuron degeneration in the frontal white matter and second messenger system dysfunction or glial dysfunction in the basal ganglia are suggested to be associated with late-life depression.

  7. A Rare Complication of Cochlear Implantation After Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Reversion of the Magnet.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Erkan; Doruk, Can; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Çelik, Mehmet; Polat, Beldan; Güldiken, Yahya

    2017-06-01

    Cochlear implants are mechanical devices used for patients with severe sensory-neural hearing loss, which has an inner magnet. It is proven that 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are safe to use in patients with cochlear implant. In our patient, the authors aim to introduce a rare complication caused after a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning and the management of this situation; the reversion of the magnet of the implant without displacement and significance of surgery in management.

  8. Radiologic Diagnosis of Spondylodiscitis, Role of Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin

    2017-03-01

    Study aim is to report the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) features of acute and chronic spontaneous spondylodiscitis. 57 year old female, complaining of a fever and longstanding cervical pain worsened during physical therapy. MR images were acquired using superconductive magnet 1.5 T, with the following sequences: sagittal PD and T2 TSE, sagittal T1 SE, axial PD and T2 TSE (lumbar spine), axial T2 GRE (cervical spine). Axial and sagittal T1 SE after administration of (gadolinium DTPA). Examination was reviewed by three radiologists and compared to CT findings. Patient reported cervical pain associated with fever and minimal weight loss. Blood tests were normal except hyperglycemia (DM tip II). X Ray: vertebral destruction localized at C-4 and C-5: NECT: destruction of the C-4/C-5 vertebral bodies (ventral part). MRI: Low signal of the bone marrow on T1l images, which enhanced after Gd-DTPA administration and became intermediate or high on T2 images. The steady high signal intensity of the disk on T2 images and enhancement on T1 images is typical for an acute inflammatory process. Bone Scintigrafi results: Bone changes suspicious for metastasis. Whole body CT results: apart from spine, no other significant changes. MRI is the most sensitive technique for the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis in the acute phase and comparable to CT regarding chronial stage of the disease. The present imagining essay os aimed at showing the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of tuberculous discitis.

  9. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a nanostructured diamond chip.

    PubMed

    Kehayias, P; Jarmola, A; Mosavian, N; Fescenko, I; Benito, F M; Laraoui, A; Smits, J; Bougas, L; Budker, D; Neumann, A; Brueck, S R J; Acosta, V M

    2017-08-04

    Sensors using nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond are a promising tool for small-volume nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, but the limited sensitivity remains a challenge. Here we show nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in concentration sensitivity over previous nitrogen-vacancy and picoliter NMR studies. We demonstrate NMR spectroscopy of picoliter-volume solutions using a nanostructured diamond chip with dense, high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, enhancing the surface area by 15 times. The nanograting sidewalls are doped with nitrogen-vacancies located a few nanometers from the diamond surface to detect the NMR spectrum of roughly 1 pl of fluid lying within adjacent nanograting grooves. We perform 1 H and 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at room temperature in magnetic fields below 50 mT. Using a solution of CsF in glycerol, we determine that 4 ± 2 × 10 12 19 F spins in a 1 pl volume can be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 in 1 s of integration.Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in diamond can be used for NMR spectroscopy, but increased sensitivity is needed to avoid long measurement times. Kehayias et al. present a nanostructured diamond grating with a high density of NV centres, enabling NMR spectroscopy of picoliter-volume solutions.

  10. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology. PMID:24006360

  11. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Richard B.

    2013-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm3 spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology.

  12. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Buxton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a methodology for detecting dynamic patterns of activity in the working human brain. Although the initial discoveries that led to fMRI are only about 20 years old, this new field has revolutionized the study of brain function. The ability to detect changes in brain activity has a biophysical basis in the magnetic properties of deoxyhemoglobin, and a physiological basis in the way blood flow increases more than oxygen metabolism when local neural activity increases. These effects translate to a subtle increase in the local magnetic resonance signal, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, when neural activity increases. With current techniques, this pattern of activation can be measured with resolution approaching 1 mm(3) spatially and 1 s temporally. This review focuses on the physical basis of the BOLD effect, the imaging methods used to measure it, the possible origins of the physiological effects that produce a mismatch of blood flow and oxygen metabolism during neural activation, and the mathematical models that have been developed to understand the measured signals. An overarching theme is the growing field of quantitative fMRI, in which other MRI methods are combined with BOLD methods and analyzed within a theoretical modeling framework to derive quantitative estimates of oxygen metabolism and other physiological variables. That goal is the current challenge for fMRI: to move fMRI from a mapping tool to a quantitative probe of brain physiology.

  13. Advances in multiphase flow measurements using magnetic resonance relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantzas, Apostolos; Kryuchkov, Sergey; Chandrasekaran, Blake

    2009-02-01

    When it comes to the measurement of bitumen and water content as they are produced from thermally exploited reservoirs (cyclic steam stimulation or steam assisted gravity drainage) most of the current tools that are available in the market fail. This was demonstrated previously when our group introduced the first concept of a magnetic resonance based water-cut meter. The use of magnetic resonance as a potential tool for fluid cut metering from thermally produced heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is revisited. At first a review of the work to date is presented. Our recent approach in the tackling of this problem follows. A patented process is coupled with a patented pipe design that can be used inside a magnetic field and can capture fluids up to 260°C and 4.2MPa. The paper describes the technical advances to this goal and offers a first glimpse of field data from an actual thermal facility for bitumen production. The paper also addresses an approach for converting the current discrete measurement device into a continuous measurement system. Preliminary results for this new concept are also presented.

  14. Regression Models for Identifying Noise Sources in Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Yimei; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Shi, Xiaoyan; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yashen; Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili; Rowe, Daniel B.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic noise, susceptibility artifacts, magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities, and other noise components in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) can introduce serious bias into any measurements made with those images. We formally introduce three regression models including a Rician regression model and two associated normal models to characterize stochastic noise in various magnetic resonance imaging modalities, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Estimation algorithms are introduced to maximize the likelihood function of the three regression models. We also develop a diagnostic procedure for systematically exploring MR images to identify noise components other than simple stochastic noise, and to detect discrepancies between the fitted regression models and MRI data. The diagnostic procedure includes goodness-of-fit statistics, measures of influence, and tools for graphical display. The goodness-of-fit statistics can assess the key assumptions of the three regression models, whereas measures of influence can isolate outliers caused by certain noise components, including motion artifacts. The tools for graphical display permit graphical visualization of the values for the goodness-of-fit statistic and influence measures. Finally, we conduct simulation studies to evaluate performance of these methods, and we analyze a real dataset to illustrate how our diagnostic procedure localizes subtle image artifacts by detecting intravoxel variability that is not captured by the regression models. PMID:19890478

  15. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-07-01

    A review is given of the crucial work performed by Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield that lead to their being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2003. Lauterbur first expounded the idea of mapping spatial information from spectral data in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) through the application of magnetic field gradients (P. C. Lauterbur, Nature 1973 , 242, 190-191). One year later Mansfield and co-workers introduced the idea of selective excitation to NMR imaging (A. N. Garroway, P. K. Grannell, and P. Mansfield. J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1974 , 7, L457-L462). A major step in making the technique useful for clinical imaging came with Mansfield's publication of the method known as echo planar imaging (P. Mansfield, J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1977, 10 (3) , L55-L58). Lauterbur's and Mansfield's work captured the essence of scientific discovery, collaboration, and concerted effort to overcome significant technical issues, and were key to the development of the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Examples of how MRI technology can be extended to chemical research are given, and limitations of the technique in this regard are discussed. Discussion of how to use commonly available NMR spectrometers for chemical imaging is also provided.

  16. Quantum speed limit time in a magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    A visualization for dynamics of a qudit spin vector in a time-dependent magnetic field is realized by means of mapping a solution for a spin vector on the three-dimensional spherical curve (vector hodograph). The obtained results obviously display the quantum interference of precessional and nutational effects on the spin vector in the magnetic resonance. For any spin the bottom bounds of the quantum speed limit time (QSL) are found. It is shown that the bottom bound goes down when using multilevel spin systems. Under certain conditions the non-nil minimal time, which is necessary to achieve the orthogonal state from the initial one, is attained at spin S = 2. An estimation of the product of two and three standard deviations of the spin components are presented. We discuss the dynamics of the mutual uncertainty, conditional uncertainty and conditional variance in terms of spin standard deviations. The study can find practical applications in the magnetic resonance, 3D visualization of computational data and in designing of optimized information processing devices for quantum computation and communication.

  17. Ultra-small v-shaped gold split ring resonators for biosensing using fundamental magnetic resonance in the visible spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauluidy Soehartono, Alana; Mueller, Aaron David; Tobing, Landobasa Yosef Mario; Chan, Kok Ken; Zhang, Dao Hua; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2017-10-01

    Strong light localization within metal nanostructures occurs by collective oscillations of plasmons in the form of electric and magnetic resonances. This so-called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has gained much interest in the development of low-cost sensing platforms in the visible spectrum. However, demonstrations of LSPR-based sensing are mostly limited to electric resonances due to the technological limitations for achieving magnetic resonances in the visible spectrum. In this work, we report the first demonstration of LSPR sensing based on fundamental magnetic resonance in the visible spectrum using ultrasmall gold v-shaped split ring resonators. Specifically, we show the ability for detecting adsorption of bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c biomolecules at monolayer levels, and the selective binding of protein A/G to immunoglobulin G.

  18. Linear ultrafast dynamics of plasmon and magnetic resonances in nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Carlo Maria; Tadzio, Levato; Fitzgerald, Jamie M.; Sánchez-Gil, José A.; Giannini, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    In this study we present an analytical description of the ultrafast localized surface plasmon and magnetic resonance dynamics in a single nanoparticle (Ag or Si), driven by an ultrashort (fs time scale) Gaussian pulse. Three possible scenarios have been found depending on the incident field, i.e., pulse duration much shorter than, similar to, and much longer than the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) lifetime. A rich physics arises for τpulse<τLSPR , even in the linear regime. The surface plasmon dynamics is manifested as (i) a temporal delay of the surface plasmon excitation with regard to the freely propagating pulse and as (ii) a negative exponential tail after the exciting pulse is over. In addition, for sub-fs pulses clear oscillations in the near-field decay have been observed. A similar scenario has been observed considering a nonabsorbing Si sphere. Nanoparticle resonance dynamics may lead to a wealth of new phenomena and applications in nanophotonics such as multipole order resonance interference, pulse-induced delay or temporal shaping on the fs scale, high harmonic generation, attosecond near-field pulse sources, and electron acceleration from metasurface or 3D engineered nanostructures.

  19. Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Yuancheng; Shen, Nian -Hai; Zhang, Fuli; ...

    2018-02-27

    Artificially constructed metamaterials or metasurfaces with tailored resonant elements provide a revolutionary platform for controlling light at the subwavelength scale. Switchable or frequency-agile meta-devices are highly desirable in achieving more flexible functionalities and have been explored extensively by incorporating various materials, which respond to external stimuli. Graphene, a two-dimensional material showing extraordinary physical properties, has been found very promising for tunable meta-devices. However, the high intrinsic loss of graphene severely obstructs us from achieving high-quality resonance in various graphene metamaterials and metasurfaces, and the loss compensation can be considered as a straightforward strategy to take further advantages of enhanced light–graphenemore » interactions. Here, we demonstrate that the photoexcited graphene, in which the quasi-Fermi energy of graphene changes corresponding to optical pumping, can boost the originally extremely weak magnetic resonance in a graphene split-ring metasurface, showing remarkable modulations in the transmission. In conclusion, our work pioneers the possibilities of optically pumped graphene metasurfaces for significant enhancement of resonances and feasible modulations.« less

  20. Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces: Significantly Enhanced and Tunable Magnetic Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yuancheng; Shen, Nian -Hai; Zhang, Fuli

    Artificially constructed metamaterials or metasurfaces with tailored resonant elements provide a revolutionary platform for controlling light at the subwavelength scale. Switchable or frequency-agile meta-devices are highly desirable in achieving more flexible functionalities and have been explored extensively by incorporating various materials, which respond to external stimuli. Graphene, a two-dimensional material showing extraordinary physical properties, has been found very promising for tunable meta-devices. However, the high intrinsic loss of graphene severely obstructs us from achieving high-quality resonance in various graphene metamaterials and metasurfaces, and the loss compensation can be considered as a straightforward strategy to take further advantages of enhanced light–graphenemore » interactions. Here, we demonstrate that the photoexcited graphene, in which the quasi-Fermi energy of graphene changes corresponding to optical pumping, can boost the originally extremely weak magnetic resonance in a graphene split-ring metasurface, showing remarkable modulations in the transmission. In conclusion, our work pioneers the possibilities of optically pumped graphene metasurfaces for significant enhancement of