Science.gov

Sample records for abnormal mechanical stresses

  1. Estimation of stress relaxation time for normal and abnormal breast phantoms using optical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.

    2015-03-01

    Many of the early occurring micro-anomalies in breast may transform into a deadliest cancer tumor in future. Probability of curing early occurring abnormalities in breast is more if rightly identified. Even in mammogram, considered as a golden standard technique for breast imaging, it is hard to pick up early occurring changes in the breast tissue due to the difference in mechanical behavior of the normal and abnormal tissue when subjected to compression prior to x-ray or laser exposure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the stress relaxation time of normal and abnormal breast mimicking phantom using laser speckle image correlation. Phantoms mimicking normal breast is prepared and subjected to precise mechanical compression. The phantom is illuminated by a Helium Neon laser and by using a CCD camera, a sequence of strained phantom speckle images are captured and correlated by the image mean intensity value at specific time intervals. From the relation between mean intensity versus time, tissue stress relaxation time is quantified. Experiments were repeated for phantoms with increased stiffness mimicking abnormal tissue for similar ranges of applied loading. Results shows that phantom with more stiffness representing abnormal tissue shows uniform relaxation for varying load of the selected range, whereas phantom with less stiffness representing normal tissue shows irregular behavior for varying loadings in the given range.

  2. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations.

  3. Abnormal Fear Memory as a Model for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    For over a century, clinicians have consistently described the paradoxical co-existence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of sensory intrusive hypermnesia and declarative amnesia for the same traumatic event. Although this amnesia is considered as a critical etiological factor of the development and/or persistence of PTSD, most current animal models in basic neuroscience have focused exclusively on the hypermnesia, i.e., the persistence of a strong fear memory, neglecting the qualitative alteration of fear memory. The latest is characterized by an underrepresentation of the trauma in the context-based declarative memory system in favor of its overrepresentation in a cue-based sensory/emotional memory system. Combining psychological and neurobiological data as well as theoretical hypotheses, this review supports the idea that contextual amnesia is at the core of PTSD and its persistence and that altered hippocampal-amygdalar interaction may contribute to such pathologic memory. In a first attempt to unveil the neurobiological alterations underlying PTSD-related hypermnesia/amnesia, we describe a recent animal model mimicking in mice some critical aspects of such abnormal fear memory. Finally, this line of argument emphasizes the pressing need for a systematic comparison between normal/adaptive versus abnormal/maladaptive fear memory to identify biomarkers of PTSD while distinguishing them from general stress-related, potentially adaptive, neurobiological alterations. PMID:26238378

  4. Pathways of abnormal stress-induced Ca2+ influx into dystrophic mdx cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fanchaouy, M.; Polakova, E.; Jung, C.; Ogrodnik, J.; Shirokova, N.; Niggli, E.

    2009-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, deficiency of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin leads to well-described defects in skeletal muscle, but also to dilated cardiomyopathy, accounting for about 20% of the mortality. Mechanisms leading to cardiomyocyte cell death and cardiomyopathy are not well understood. One hypothesis suggests that the lack of dystrophin leads to membrane instability during mechanical stress and to activation of Ca2+ entry pathways. Using cardiomyocytes isolated from dystrophic mdx mice we dissected the contribution of various putative Ca2+ influx pathways with pharmacological tools. Cytosolic Ca2+ and Na+ signals as well as uptake of membrane impermeant compounds were monitored with fluorescent indicators using confocal microscopy and photometry. Membrane stress was applied as moderate osmotic challenges while membrane current was quantified using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Our findings suggest a major contribution of two primary Ca2+ influx pathways, stretch-activated membrane channels and short-lived microruptures. Furthermore, we found evidence for a secondary Ca2+ influx pathway, the Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX), which in cardiac muscle has a large transport capacity. After stress it contributes to Ca2+ entry in exchange for Na+ which had previously entered via primary stress-induced pathways, representing a previously not recognized mechanism contributing to subsequent cellular damage. This complexity needs to be considered when targeting abnormal Ca2+ influx as a treatment option for dystrophy. PMID:19604578

  5. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  6. [Mechanical stress and Wnt signal].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Akinori

    2013-06-01

    Osteocytes sense mechanical stress and specifically express sclerostin. Sclerostin suppresses osteoblastic function by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The disruption of Sost gene encoding sclerostin causes resistance to the reduction of bone volume and bone formation after skeletal unloading. Transgenic mice with high expression of Sost gene show no increase in bone formation after skeletal loading. Sost gene is essential for alteration of bone formation after mechanical stress. In humans, high degree of physical activity is associated with low concentration of serum sclerostin, while immobilization is associated with high concentration of serum sclerostin. Concentration of serum sclerostin well correlates with bone turnover markers.

  7. Proline Mechanisms of Stress Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinwen; Zhang, Lu; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The imino acid proline is utilized by different organisms to offset cellular imbalances caused by environmental stress. The wide use in nature of proline as a stress adaptor molecule indicates that proline has a fundamental biological role in stress response. Understanding the mechanisms by which proline enhances abiotic/biotic stress response will facilitate agricultural crop research and improve human health. Recent Advances: It is now recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival. Studies have shown that proline metabolism influences signaling pathways by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the mitochondria via the electron transport chain. Enhanced ROS production due to proline metabolism has been implicated in the hypersensitive response in plants, lifespan extension in worms, and apoptosis, tumor suppression, and cell survival in animals. Critical Issues: The ability of proline to influence disparate cellular outcomes may be governed by ROS levels generated in the mitochondria. Defining the threshold at which proline metabolic enzyme expression switches from inducing survival pathways to cellular apoptosis would provide molecular insights into cellular redox regulation by proline. Are ROS the only mediators of proline metabolic signaling or are other factors involved? Future Directions: New evidence suggests that proline biosynthesis enzymes interact with redox proteins such as thioredoxin. An important future pursuit will be to identify other interacting partners of proline metabolic enzymes to uncover novel regulatory and signaling networks of cellular stress response. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 998–1011. PMID:23581681

  8. Wall shear stress indicators in abnormal aortic geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, occurs at specific locations in the arterial tree. Characterizing flow and forces at these locations is crucial to understanding the genesis of disease. Measures such as time average wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index, relative residence time and temporal wall shear stress gradients have been shown to identify plaque prone regions. The present paper examines these indices in three aortic geometries obtained from patients whose aortas are deformed due to a genetic pathology and compared to one normal geometry. This patient group is known to be prone to aortic dissection and our study aims to identify early indicators that will enable timely intervention. Data obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is used to reconstruct the aortic arch. The local unsteady flow characteristics are calculated, fully resolving the flow field throughout the entire cardiac cycle. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different red blood cell loading. The impact of the deformed aortic geometries is analyzed to identify flow patterns that could lead to arterial disease at certain locations.

  9. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  10. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478. PMID:22432138

  11. Brief Report: Brain Mechanisms in Autism: Functional and Structural Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of research on functional and structural abnormalities of the brain in autism. The current concept of causation is seen to involve multiple biologic levels. A consistent profile of brain function and dysfunction across methods has been found and specific neuropathologic findings have been found; but some research…

  12. A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Milad, Mohammed R; Hendler, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Discriminating neural abnormalities into the causes versus consequences of psychopathology would enhance the translation of neuroimaging findings into clinical practice. By regarding the traumatic encounter as a reference point for disease onset, neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can potentially allocate PTSD neural abnormalities to either predisposing (pre-exposure) or acquired (post-exposure) factors. Based on novel research strategies in PTSD neuroimaging, including genetic, environmental, twin, and prospective studies, we provide a causal model that accounts for neural abnormalities in PTSD, and outline its clinical implications. Current data suggest that abnormalities within the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex represent predisposing risk factors for developing PTSD, whereas dysfunctional hippocampal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) interactions may become evident only after having developed the disorder.

  13. Mutations in the SPTLC1 protein cause mitochondrial structural abnormalities and endoplasmic reticulum stress in lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Myers, Simon J; Malladi, Chandra S; Hyland, Ryan A; Bautista, Tara; Boadle, Ross; Robinson, Phillip J; Nicholson, Garth A

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) cause the typical length-dependent axonal degeneration hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN1). Transmission electron microscopy studies on SPTLC1 mutant lymphoblasts derived from patients revealed specific structural abnormalities of mitochondria. Swollen mitochondria with abnormal cristae were clustered around the nucleus, with some mitochondria being wrapped in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Total mitochondrial counts revealed a significant change in mitochondrial numbers between healthy and diseased lymphocytes but did not reveal any change in length to width ratios nor were there any changes to cellular function. However, there was a notable change in ER homeostasis, as assessed using key ER stress markers, BiP and ERO1-Lα, displaying reduced protein expression. The observations suggest that SPTLC1 mutations cause mitochondrial abnormalities and ER stress in HSN1 cells. PMID:24673574

  14. Iatrogenic QT Abnormalities and Fatal Arrhythmias: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2009-01-01

    Severe and occasionally fatal arrhythmias, commonly presenting as Torsade de Pointes [TdP] have been reported with Class III-antiarrhythmics, but also with non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Most cases result from an action on K+ channels encoded by the HERG gene responsible for the IKr repolarizing current, leading to a long QT and repolarization abnormalities. The hydrophobic central cavity of the HERG-K+ channels, allows a large number of structurally unrelated drugs to bind and cause direct channel inhibition. Some examples are dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol, erythromycin, grepafloxacin, cisapride, dolasetron, thioridazine, haloperidol, droperidol and pimozide. Other drugs achieve channel inhibition indirectly by impairing channel traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing channel membrane density (pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol). Whereas, ketoconazole, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Congenital long QT syndrome, subclinical ion-channel mutations, subjects and relatives of subjects with previous history of drug-induced long QT or TdP, dual drug effects on cardiac repolarization [long QT plus increased QT dispersion], increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and T wave abnormalities, use of high doses, metabolism inhibitors and/or combinations of QT prolonging drugs, hypokalemia, structural cardiac disease, sympathomimetics, bradycardia, women and older age, have been shown to increase the risk for developing drug-induced TdP. Because most of these reactions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drugs use associated with repolarization abnormalities is strongly recommended. Future genetic testing and development of practical and simple provocation tests are in route to prevent iatrogenic TdP. PMID:20676275

  15. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  16. Chronic stress does not further exacerbate the abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype of Cbg-deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Gabriela F; Minni, Amandine M; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress leads to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which can constitute a base for pathophysiological consequences. Using mice totally deficient in Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), we have previously demonstrated the important role of CBG in eliciting an adequate response to an acute stressor. Here, we have studied its role in chronic stress situations. We have submitted Cbg ko and wild-type (WT) male mice to two different chronic stress paradigms - the unpredictable chronic mild stress and the social defeat. Then, their impact on neuroendocrine function - through corticosterone and CBG measurement - and behavioral responses - via anxiety and despair-like behavioral tests - was evaluated. Both chronic stress paradigms increased the display of despair-like behavior in WT mice, while that from Cbg ko mice - which was already high - was not aggravated. We have also found that control and defeated (stressed) Cbg ko mice show no difference in the social interaction test, while defeated WT mice reduce their interaction time when compared to unstressed WT mice. Interestingly, the same pattern was observed for corticosterone levels, where both chronic stress paradigms lowered the corticosterone levels of WT mice, while those from Cbg ko mice remained low and unaltered. Plasma CBG binding capacity remained unaltered in WT mice regardless of the stress paradigm. Through the use of the Cbg ko mice, which only differs genetically from WT mice by the absence of CBG, we demonstrated that CBG is crucial in modulating the effects of stress on plasma corticosterone levels and consequently on behavior. In conclusion, individuals with CBG deficiency, whether genetically or environmentally-induced, are vulnerable to acute stress but do not have their abnormal psychoneuroendocrine phenotype further affected by chronic stress.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities & oxidative stress in women with premature ovarian failure (POF)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Dhananjay; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Kriplani, Alka; Ammini, A.C.; Dada, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as the cessation of ovarian function under the age of 40 yr and is characterized by amenorrhoea, hypoestrogenism and elevated serum gonadotrophin levels. The cause of POF remains undetermined in majority of the cases. This study was aimed to investigate the type and frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic POF and also to study the role of oxidative stress in such cases. Methods: Seventy five women with idiopathic POF were included in this study. Chromosome analysis was done in peripheral blood lymphocytes by conventional GTG banding to identify numerical or structural abnormalities. Cytogenetically normal cases were investigated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in their blood by luminol-chemiluminescence assay. Results: Eighteen chromosomal anomalies were identified in POF patients (24%). Majority of the cases were found to have X-chromosome abnormalities (28%). Overall median ROS range was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) in POF patients [50480 (120,132966) RLU/min] compared to controls [340 (120,5094) RLU/min]. Among these, 50 per cent of the POF patients had higher ROS levels, 20 per cent had medium elevation and 30 per cent were found to have normal values comparable to controls. Interpretation & conclusions: X-chromosome anomalies were found to be the major contributor of POF. Oxidative stress may be the underlying aetiology in idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Thus the results of this study highlight the role of cytogenetic abnormalities and supraphysiological levels of ROS in causation of idiopathic POF. But the role of oxidative stress needs to be confirmed by other studies on patients from different geographical areas and from different ethnicities. PMID:22382189

  18. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  19. Normal and abnormal mechanics of the glenohumeral joint in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Howell, S M; Galinat, B J; Renzi, A J; Marone, P J

    1988-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of the humeral head to the scapula in the horizontal plane of motion and to describe in detail a method of obtaining and interpreting modified axillary roentgenograms. Twenty normal subjects and twelve patients who had anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated with this technique. In the control group, the humeral head was centered in the glenoid cavity throughout the horizontal plane of motion except when the arm was in maximum extension and external rotation. In this position, the cocked stage of the throwing motion, the center of the humeral head rested approximately four millimeters posterior to the center of the glenoid cavity. When the arm was flexed or rotated from this cocked position, the humeral head glided anteriorly, producing a shearing stress on the articular surface of the glenoid and labrum. In seven of the twelve patients who had anterior instability, abnormal mechanics were observed: anterior translation of the humeral head occurred. This indicates a significant disruption of the structures responsible for containing the humeral head within the glenoid fossa. PMID:3343267

  20. Causes and mechanisms of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Miltiadous, George; Christidis, Dimitrios; Kalogirou, Michalis; Elisaf, Moses

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer frequently exhibit acid-base and electrolyte disturbances that complicate their management and prolong their hospitalization. The mechanisms encountered for these abnormalities are multifactorial in origin. Both the underlying disease and the therapeutic interventions can contribute to the development of these disturbances. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis is of paramount importance for their prevention and treatment in cancer patients. This article briefly reviews the causes and the pathophysiology of acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities observed in cancer patients. PMID:18206594

  1. Oxidative stress contributes to abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in two hyperlipidemia models

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiefei; Zheng, Shuang; Jiang, Dongdong; Han, Tingting; Li, Yangxue; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yunshan; Hu, Yaomin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Lipid metabolism disturbance can result in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance; however, the features of glucose metabolism are still elusive in different dyslipidemia. Our study intended to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of glucose metabolism abnormal in hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia models. Methods: Two mouse models were used in this study, one was lipoprotein lipase gene-deleted (LPL+/-) mice, and the other was high fat dietary (HFD) mice. Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterin (LDL-c) in serum were measured by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) levels in serum were measured by colorimetric determination. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2a) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) in liver, skeletal muscle, visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by Real-Time PCR. Results: Compared with HFD mice, the levels of serum TG were significantly higher in LPL+/- mice, whereas the levels of TC, HDL-c, LDL-c were significantly lower. The plasma glucose levels were increased at each time point of intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in both groups. Furthermore, the level of serum fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased with a decreased ISI in both groups. In addition, the plasma MDA of HFD group was higher than that of lipoprotein lipase-deficiency (LPL+/-) group, while the activity of T-SOD in HFD group was lower than that in LPL+/- group. Real-Time PCR revealed that the expressions of SOD1, CAT and Gpx1 in liver and

  2. Blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 attenuates early-life stress-induced synaptic abnormalities in the neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Dun; Jia, Jiao; Li, Ji-Tao; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yun-Ai; Schmidt, Mathias V; Si, Tian-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Adult individuals with early stressful experience exhibit impaired hippocampal neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. While our knowledge on the persistent effects of early-life stress on hippocampal structure and function and the underlying mechanisms has advanced over the recent years, the molecular basis of the immediate postnatal stress effects on hippocampal development remains to be investigated. Here, we reported that repeated blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) ameliorated postnatal stress-induced hippocampal synaptic abnormalities in neonatal mice. Following the stress exposure, pups with fragmented maternal care showed retarded dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in CA3 pyramidal neurons and reduced hippocampal levels of synapse-related proteins. During the stress exposure, repeated blockade of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by daily administration of RU486 (100 µg g(-1) ) failed to attenuate postnatal stress-evoked synaptic impairments. Conversely, daily administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin hydrochloride (20 µg g(-1) ) in stressed pups normalized hippocampal protein levels of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95, nectin-1, and nectin-3, but not the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A. Additionally, GR or CRHR1 antagonism attenuated postnatal stress-induced endocrine alterations but not body growth retardation. Our data indicate that the CRH-CRHR1 system modulates the deleterious effects of early-life stress on dendritic development, spinogenesis, and synapse formation, and that early interventions of this system may prevent stress-induced hippocampal maldevelopment.

  3. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  4. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders.

  5. Behavioral, Neurochemical and Neuroendocrine Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq in the Chronic Stress Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Hoxur, Parida; Ming, Dang; Matsidik, Aynur; Kijjoa, Anake; Upur, Halmurat

    2012-01-01

    Oral administration of Abnormal Savda Munsiq (ASMq), a herbal preparation used in Traditional Uighur Medicine, was found to exert a memory-enhancing effect in the chronic stressed mice, induced by electric foot-shock. The memory improvement of the stressed mice was shown by an increase of the latency time in the step-through test and the decrease of the latency time in the Y-maze test. Treatment with ASMq was found to significantly decrease the serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and β-endorphin (β-EP) as well as the brain and serum level of norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, ASMq was able to significantly reverse the chronic stress by decreasing the brain and serum levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC). The results obtained from this study suggested that the memory-enhancing effect of ASMq was mediated through regulations of neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:22919413

  6. Characterization of abnormal wall shear stress using 4D flow MRI in human bicuspid aortopathy

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, Maria; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Fedak, Paul W.M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    There exists considerable controversy surrounding the timing and extent of aortic resection for patients with BAV disease. Since abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is potentially associated with tissue remodeling in BAV-related aortopathy, we propose a methodology that creates patient-specific ‘heat maps’ of abnormal WSS, based on 4D flow MRI. The heat maps were created by detecting outlier measurements from a volumetric 3D map of ensemble-averaged WSS in healthy controls. 4D flow MRI was performed in 13 BAV patients, referred for aortic resection and 10 age-matched controls. Systolic WSS was calculated from this data, and an ensemble-average and standard deviation (SD) WSS map of the controls was created. Regions of the individual WSS maps of the BAV patients that showed a higher WSS than the mean+1.96SD of the ensemble-average control WSS map were highlighted. Elevated WSS was found on the greater ascending aorta (35% ± 15 of the surface area), which correlated significantly with peak systolic velocity (R2=0.5, P=0.01) and showed good agreement with the resected aortic regions. This novel approach to characterize regional aortic WSS may allow clinicians to gain unique insights regarding the heterogeneous expression of aortopathy and may be leveraged to guide patient-specific resection strategies for aorta repair. PMID:25118671

  7. Abnormal functional architecture of amygdala-centered networks in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M; van Hoof, Marie-José; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic J; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating, and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder. Very little is known of how PTSD affects neuroplasticity in the developing adolescent brain. Whereas multiple lines of research implicate amygdala-centered network dysfunction in the pathophysiology of adult PTSD, no study has yet examined the functional architecture of amygdala subregional networks in adolescent PTSD. Using intrinsic functional connectivity analysis, we investigated functional connectivity of the basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala in 19 sexually abused adolescents with PTSD relative to 23 matched controls. Additionally, we examined whether altered amygdala subregional connectivity coincides with abnormal grey matter volume of the amygdaloid complex. Our analysis revealed abnormal amygdalar connectivity and morphology in adolescent PTSD patients. More specifically, PTSD patients showed diminished right BLA connectivity with a cluster including dorsal and ventral portions of the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). In contrast, PTSD patients showed increased left CMA connectivity with a cluster including the orbitofrontal and subcallosal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). Critically, these connectivity changes coincided with diminished grey matter volume within BLA and CMA subnuclei (p < 0.05, corrected), with CMA connectivity shifts additionally relating to more severe symptoms of PTSD. These findings provide unique insights into how perturbations in major amygdalar circuits could hamper fear regulation and drive excessive acquisition and expression of fear in PTSD. As such, they represent an important step toward characterizing the neurocircuitry of adolescent PTSD, thereby informing the development of reliable biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Characterization of abnormal wall shear stress using 4D flow MRI in human bicuspid aortopathy.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, Maria; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S Chris; Fedak, Paul W M; McCarthy, Patrick M; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J

    2015-06-01

    There exists considerable controversy surrounding the timing and extent of aortic resection for patients with BAV disease. Since abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is potentially associated with tissue remodeling in BAV-related aortopathy, we propose a methodology that creates patient-specific 'heat maps' of abnormal WSS, based on 4D flow MRI. The heat maps were created by detecting outlier measurements from a volumetric 3D map of ensemble-averaged WSS in healthy controls. 4D flow MRI was performed in 13 BAV patients, referred for aortic resection and 10 age-matched controls. Systolic WSS was calculated from this data, and an ensemble-average and standard deviation (SD) WSS map of the controls was created. Regions of the individual WSS maps of the BAV patients that showed a higher WSS than the mean + 1.96SD of the ensemble-average control WSS map were highlighted. Elevated WSS was found on the greater ascending aorta (35% ± 15 of the surface area), which correlated significantly with peak systolic velocity (R (2) = 0.5, p = 0.01) and showed good agreement with the resected aortic regions. This novel approach to characterize regional aortic WSS may allow clinicians to gain unique insights regarding the heterogeneous expression of aortopathy and may be leveraged to guide patient-specific resection strategies for aorta repair. PMID:25118671

  9. Abnormality of the corpus callosum in coalmine gas explosion-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Huabing; Lang, Xu; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of white matter (WM) integrity alterations in the CC of young adult-onset PTSD patients is unknown. In this study, 14 victims of a coal mine gas explosion with PTSD and 23 matched coal miners without experiencing the coal mine explosion were enrolled. The differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) within 7 sub-regions of the CC were compared between the two groups. Compared to the controls, PTSD coal miners exhibited significantly reduced FA values in the anterior sub-regions of the CC (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected), which mainly interconnect the bilateral frontal cortices. Our findings indicated that the anterior part of the CC was more severely impaired than the posterior part in young adult-onset PTSD, which suggested the patterns of CC impairment may depend on the developmental stage of the structure when the PTSD occurs.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Psychological Stress and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yu Jin; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Park, Seorim; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Follo, Matilde Yung; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an emotion experienced when people are under mental pressure or encounter unexpected problems. Extreme or repetitive stress increases the risk of developing human disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), immune diseases, mental disorders, and cancer. Several studies have shown an association between psychological stress and cancer growth and metastasis in animal models and case studies of cancer patients. Stress induces the secretion of stress-related mediators, such as catecholamine, cortisol, and oxytocin, via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis or the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). These stress-related hormones and neurotransmitters adversely affect stress-induced tumor progression and cancer therapy. Catecholamine is the primary factor that influences tumor progression. It can regulate diverse cellular signaling pathways through adrenergic receptors (ADRs), which are expressed by several types of cancer cells. Activated ADRs enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of cancer cells, alter cell activity in the tumor microenvironment, and regulate the interaction between cancer and its microenvironment to promote tumor progression. Additionally, other stress mediators, such as glucocorticoids and oxytocin, and their cognate receptors are involved in stress-induced cancer growth and metastasis. Here, we will review how each receptor-mediated signal cascade contributes to tumor initiation and progression and discuss how we can use these molecular mechanisms for cancer therapy.

  11. Mechanisms of abnormal lamellar body secretion and the dysfunctional skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Wakefield, Joan S

    2014-10-01

    I review how diverse inherited and acquired abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins converge to produce defective permeability barrier function and antimicrobial defense in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Although best known are mutations in filaggrin (FLG), mutations in other member of the fused S-100 family of proteins (ie, hornerin [hrn] and filaggrin 2 [flg-2]); the cornified envelope precursor (ie, SPRR3); mattrin, which is encoded by TMEM79 and regulates the assembly of lamellar bodies; SPINK5, which encodes the serine protease inhibitor lymphoepithelial Kazal-type trypsin inhibitor type 1; and the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein 4 have all been linked to AD. Yet these abnormalities often only predispose to AD; additional acquired stressors that further compromise barrier function, such as psychological stress, low ambient humidity, or high-pH surfactants, often are required to trigger disease. T(H)2 cytokines can also compromise barrier function by downregulating expression of multiple epidermal structural proteins, lipid synthetic enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides. All of these inherited and acquired abnormalities converge on the lamellar body secretory system, producing abnormalities in lipid composition, secretion, and/or extracellular lamellar membrane organization, as well as antimicrobial defense. Finally, I briefly review therapeutic options that address this new pathogenic paradigm.

  12. Mechanisms of abnormal lamellar body secretion and the dysfunctional skin barrier in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Wakefield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    We review here how diverse inherited and acquired abnormalities in epidermal structural and enzymatic proteins converge to produce defective permeability barrier function and antimicrobial defense in AD. Although best known are mutations in filaggrin (FLG), mutations in other member of the fused S-100 family of proteins (i.e., hornerin [hrn] and filaggrin 2 [flg-2]); the cornified envelope precursor (e.g., SPRR3); mattrin, encoded by Tmem79, which regulates the assembly of lamellar bodies; SPINK5, which encodes the serine protease inhibitor, LEKTI1; and the fatty acid transporter, FATP4, have all been linked to AD. Yet, these abnormalities often only predispose to AD; additional acquired stressors that further compromise barrier function; e.g., psychological stress, a low ambient humidity, or high pH surfactants, often are required to trigger disease. Th2 cytokines can also compromise barrier function by downregulating expression of multiple epidermal structural proteins, lipid synthetic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides. All of these inherited and acquired abnormalities converge on the lamellar body secretory system, producing abnormalities in lipid composition, secretion and/or extracellular lamellar membrane organization, as well as in antimicrobial defense. Finally, we briefly review therapeutic options that address this new pathogenic paradigm. PMID:25131691

  13. Stress controls the mechanics of collagen networks

    PubMed Central

    Licup, Albert James; Münster, Stefan; Sharma, Abhinav; Sheinman, Michael; Jawerth, Louise M.; Fabry, Ben; Weitz, David A.; MacKintosh, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen is the main structural and load-bearing element of various connective tissues, where it forms the extracellular matrix that supports cells. It has long been known that collagenous tissues exhibit a highly nonlinear stress–strain relationship, although the origins of this nonlinearity remain unknown. Here, we show that the nonlinear stiffening of reconstituted type I collagen networks is controlled by the applied stress and that the network stiffness becomes surprisingly insensitive to network concentration. We demonstrate how a simple model for networks of elastic fibers can quantitatively account for the mechanics of reconstituted collagen networks. Our model points to the important role of normal stresses in determining the nonlinear shear elastic response, which can explain the approximate exponential relationship between stress and strain reported for collagenous tissues. This further suggests principles for the design of synthetic fiber networks with collagen-like properties, as well as a mechanism for the control of the mechanics of such networks. PMID:26195769

  14. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  15. Modification of the association of bisphenol A with abnormal liver function by polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Mee-Ri; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Some studies suggested oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for the relation between exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and liver damage. Therefore, we evaluated modification of genetic polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 or MnSOD), which are oxidative stress-related genes, on the relation between exposure to BPA and liver function in the elderly. We assessed the association of visit-to-visit variations in BPA exposure with abnormal liver function by each genotype or haplotype after controlling for age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, exercise, urinary cotinine levels, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a GLIMMIX model. A significant association of BPA with abnormal liver function was observed only in participants with COX2 GG genotype at rs5277 (odds ratio (OR)=3.04 and p=0.0231), CAT genotype at rs769218 (OR=4.16 and p=0.0356), CAT CT genotype at rs769217 (OR=4.19 and p=0.0348), SOD2 TT genotype at rs4880 (OR=2.59 and p=0.0438), or SOD2 GG genotype at rs2758331 (OR=2.57 and p=0.0457). Moreover, we also found higher OR values in participants with a pair of G-G haplotypes for COX2 (OR=2.81 and p=0.0384), G-C-A haplotype for EPHX1 (OR=4.63 and p=0.0654), A-T haplotype for CAT (OR=4.48 and p=0.0245), or T-G-A haplotype for SOD2 (OR=2.91 and p=0.0491) compared with those with the other pair of haplotypes for each gene. Furthermore, the risk score composed of 4 risky pair of haplotypes showed interactive effect with BPA on abnormal liver function (p=0.0057). Our study results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of COX2, EPHX1, CAT, and SOD2 modify the association of BPA with liver function. PMID:26922413

  16. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Wilson, Thad E; Crandall, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Heat stress profoundly and unanimously reduces orthostatic tolerance. This review aims to provide an overview of the numerous and multifactorial mechanisms by which this occurs in humans. Potential causal factors include changes in arterial and venous vascular resistance and blood distribution, and the modulation of cardiac output, all of which contribute to the inability to maintain cerebral perfusion during heat and orthostatic stress. A number of countermeasures have been established to improve orthostatic tolerance during heat stress, which alleviate heat stress induced central hypovolemia (e.g., volume expansion) and/or increase peripheral vascular resistance (e.g., skin cooling). Unfortunately, these countermeasures can often be cumbersome to use with populations prone to syncopal episodes. Identifying the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in orthostatic intolerance during heat stress has proven elusive, but could provide greater insights into the development of novel and personalized countermeasures for maintaining or improving orthostatic tolerance during heat stress. This development will be especially impactful in occuational settings and clinical situations that present with orthostatic intolerance and/or central hypovolemia. Such investigations should be considered of vital importance given the impending increased incidence of heat events, and associated cardiovascular challenges that are predicted to occur with the ensuing changes in climate. PMID:26723547

  17. A case of recurrent earthquake stress cardiomyopathy with a differing wall motion abnormality.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, Paul G; Chan, Christina W; Elliott, John M

    2012-02-01

    We present the case of a Caucasian woman who survived two major earthquakes, presenting on each occasion with stress cardiomyopathy, but with a different pattern of regional wall motion abnormality on the second occasion. The first Christchurch earthquake struck on September 4, 2010. At 7.1 on the Richter scale, it was larger than the major Haiti quake, but miraculously there were no direct fatalities. In the week following, eight women meeting modified Mayo criteria for stress cardiomyopathy presented to Christchurch Hospital. The second Christchurch earthquake was on February 22, 2011. It measured 6.4 on the Richter scale and caused 180 direct fatalities. In the week following this earthquake, 24 women were admitted with stress cardiomyopathy. One patient presented after both earthquakes. This 76-year-old woman first presented on September 4 with 10 hours of chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed inferolateral deep T-wave inversion and QT prolongation. TnI peaked at 0.81 μg/L. Coronary angiography demonstrated diffuse atheroma with a moderate mid LAD lesion that was stented at the time. Echocardiography showed a classic takotsubo pattern. Her follow-up echocardiogram on September 28 was normal and she was completely well at that point. However, during the second earthquake of February 22, she again developed chest pain and shortness of breath. TnI peaked at 1.3 μg/L. Echocardiogram showed a midwall variant takotsubo with apical sparing. She was discharged from hospital on the 25th, planning to leave Christchurch for a new home in another city, but returned for follow-up echocardiogram on July 27. This was normal.

  18. [Recent advances of studies on abnormal HOX gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and its molecular mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin-Yan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2015-02-01

    HOX gene encodes a group of homeodomain transcription factors which are highly conserved. The caudal-type homeobox (CDX) , ten-eleven translocation (TET) genes and polycomb group (PcG) , trithorax group (TrxG) proteins act as upstream regulators of HOX genes that manipulate the targeted gene expression through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The abnormal expression of HOX genes and their fusions contribute to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) pathogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation and NUP98-HOX translocation serve as molecular mediators of dysfunction in MDS which can be used for the evaluation of biology and therapy. This article provides an overview of recent advances of studies on HOX gene and its abnormal molecular mechanisms, as well as potential correlation with MDS. PMID:25687084

  19. [Recent advances of studies on abnormal HOX gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and its molecular mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xin-Yan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2015-02-01

    HOX gene encodes a group of homeodomain transcription factors which are highly conserved. The caudal-type homeobox (CDX) , ten-eleven translocation (TET) genes and polycomb group (PcG) , trithorax group (TrxG) proteins act as upstream regulators of HOX genes that manipulate the targeted gene expression through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The abnormal expression of HOX genes and their fusions contribute to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) pathogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation and NUP98-HOX translocation serve as molecular mediators of dysfunction in MDS which can be used for the evaluation of biology and therapy. This article provides an overview of recent advances of studies on HOX gene and its abnormal molecular mechanisms, as well as potential correlation with MDS.

  20. Mechanisms of stress in the brain

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.; Bowles, Nicole P.; Gray, Jason D.; Hill, Matthew N.; Hunter, Richard G.; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; Nasca, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The brain is the central organ of perceiving and adapting to social and physical stressors via multiple interacting mediators from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton to epigenetic regulation and non-genomic mechanisms. A key result of stress is structural remodeling of neural architecture that may be a sign of successful adaptation, while persistence of these changes when stress ends indicates failed resilience. Excitatory amino acids and glucocorticoids play a key role, along with a growing list of extra- and intracellular mediators, including endocannabinoids and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The result is a continually changing pattern of gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms involving histone modifications and CpG methylation/hydroxy-methylation as well as activity of retrotransponsons that may alter genomic stability. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of plasticity and vulnerability of the brain provides a basis for understanding the efficacy of interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders as well as age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26404710

  1. Dermatoglyphics and abnormal palmar flexion creases as markers of early prenatal stress in children with idiopathic intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Gutiérrez, B; Guerra, A; Arias, B; Fañanás, L

    2001-10-01

    A number of studies have shown the importance of dermatoglyphics as markers of prenatal disturbance in developmental disorders of unknown origin. Genetic and non-genetic factors are involved in the aetiology of intellectual disability (ID), although the cause remains unknown in up to 50% of cases. The aim of the present study was to analyse dermatoglyphic traits and abnormal palmar flexion creases as markers of environmental prenatal stress in children with idiopathic ID (IID) using a case-control study design. Three dermatoglyphic variables, which have been reported as altered in other congenital disorders, were considered were studied in a sample of 62 children with IID (IQ < 70) and 75 healthy controls (IQ > 70): (1) fingerprint patterns; (2) total a-b ridge count (TABRC); and (3) abnormal palmar flexion creases (APFCs). More arches, the simplest fingerprint pattern, and more radial loops, an unusual pattern, were found in IID cases in comparison to controls (chi23 = 9.26; P = 0.02), with especially marked differences in boys (chi23 = 6.5; P = 0.0008). A significant increase of APFCs was also found in the affected children (chi24 = 28.52; P < 0.00; odds ration = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-8.47). For TABRC, the differences between IID cases and controls failed to reach the conventional level of significance. These findings suggest that environmental factors acting early in development, or mechanisms involving an interaction of genotype and environment could be involved in the aetiology of some cases of ID.

  2. Abnormality of the Corpus Callosum in Coalmine Gas Explosion-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Xu; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of white matter (WM) integrity alterations in the CC of young adult-onset PTSD patients is unknown. In this study, 14 victims of a coal mine gas explosion with PTSD and 23 matched coal miners without experiencing the coal mine explosion were enrolled. The differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) within 7 sub-regions of the CC were compared between the two groups. Compared to the controls, PTSD coal miners exhibited significantly reduced FA values in the anterior sub-regions of the CC (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected), which mainly interconnect the bilateral frontal cortices. Our findings indicated that the anterior part of the CC was more severely impaired than the posterior part in young adult-onset PTSD, which suggested the patterns of CC impairment may depend on the developmental stage of the structure when the PTSD occurs. PMID:25799310

  3. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  4. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

  5. Mechanisms of gas exchange abnormality in patients with chronic obliterative pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dantzker, D R; Bower, J S

    1979-01-01

    We have examined the mechanisms of abnormal gas exchange in seven patients with chronic obliteration of the pulmonary vascular bed secondary to recurrent pulmonary emboli or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. All of the patients had a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and four were significantly hypoxemic with arterial partial presssures of oxygen less than 80 torr. Using the technique of multiple inert gas elimination, we found that ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships were only minimally abnormal with a mean of 10% (range, 2--19%) of cardiac output perfusing abnormal units. These units consisted of shunt and units with VA/Q ratios less than 0.1. In addition, the dead space was found to be normal in each patient. There was no evidence for diffusion impairment, and the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was completely explained by VA/ inequality. Significant hypoxemia occurred only when VA/Q inequality was combined with a low mixed venous oxygen content. PMID:479367

  6. Involvement of Mechanical Stress in Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Segura, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Context: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a frequent disorder characterized by progressive hair miniaturization in a very similar pattern among all affected men. The pathogenesis is related to androgen-inducible overexpression of transforming growth factor β-1 from balding dermal papilla cells, which is involved in epithelial inhibition and perifollicular fibrosis. Recent research shows that hair follicle androgen sensitivity is regulated by Hic-5, an androgen receptor co-activator which may be activated by the mechanical stimulation. Moreover, the dermis of scalp susceptible to be affected by AGA is firmly bounded to the galea aponeurotica, so the physical force exerted by the occipitofrontalis muscle is transmitted to the scalp skin. Aims: To know whether mechanical stress supported by hair follicles is involved in AGA phenomenon. Materials and Methods: It is performed with a finite element analysis of a galea model and a schematic representation of AGA progression according to Hamilton–Norwood scale in order to establish the correlation between elastic deformation in scalp and clinical progression of male pattern baldness. Results: The result was a highly significant correlation (r: −0.885, P < 0.001) that clearly identifies a mechanical factor in AGA development. Conclusions: All these data suggest that mechanical stress determines AGA patterning and a stretch-induced and androgen-mediated mechanotransduction in dermal papilla cells could be the primary mechanism in AGA pathogenesis. PMID:26622151

  7. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  8. Exercise protects against obesity induced semen abnormalities via downregulating stem cell factor, upregulating Ghrelin and normalizing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Alhashem, Fahaid; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Sakr, Hussein; Alshahrani, Mesfer; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Elrefaey, Hesham; Alessa, Riyad; Sarhan, Mohammad; Eleawa, Samy M; Khalil, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance have been hypothesized to underlie infertility in obese animals. However, recent evidence suggests that Ghrelin and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) play an important role in fertility, in lean individuals. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating whether changes in the levels of Ghrelin and SCF in rat testes underlie semen abnormal parameters observed in obese rats, and secondly, whether endurance exercise or Orlistat can protect against changes in Ghrelin, SCF, and/or semen parameters in diet induced obese rats. Obesity was modelled in male Wistar rats using High Fat Diet (HFD) 12-week protocol. Eight week-old rats (n=40) were divided into four groups, namely, Group I: fed with a standard diet (12 % of calories as fat); Group II: fed HFD (40 % of calories as fat); Group III: fed the HFD with a concomitant dose of Orlistat (200 mg/kg); and Group IV: fed the HFD and underwent 30 min daily swimming exercise. The model was validated by measuring the levels of testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, leptin, triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and final change in body weight. Levels were consistent with published obesity models (see Results). As predicted, the HFD group had a 76.8 % decrease in sperm count, 44.72 % decrease in sperm motility, as well as 47.09 % increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Unlike the control group, in the HFD group (i.e. obese rats) Ghrelin mRNA and protein were elevated, while SCF mRNA and protein were diminished in the testes. Furthermore, in the HFD group, SOD and GPx activities were significantly reduced, 48.5±5.8 % (P=0.0012) and 45.6±4.6 % (P=0.0019), respectively, while TBARS levels were significantly increased (112.7±8.9 %, P=0.0001). Finally, endurance exercise training and Orlistat administration individually and differentially protected semen parameters in obese rats. The mechanism includes, but is not limited to, normalizing the levels of Ghrelin, SCF, SOD, GPx and TBARS. In rat

  9. Exercise protects against obesity induced semen abnormalities via downregulating stem cell factor, upregulating Ghrelin and normalizing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Alhashem, Fahaid; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Sakr, Hussein; Alshahrani, Mesfer; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Elrefaey, Hesham; Alessa, Riyad; Sarhan, Mohammad; Eleawa, Samy M; Khalil, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance have been hypothesized to underlie infertility in obese animals. However, recent evidence suggests that Ghrelin and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) play an important role in fertility, in lean individuals. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating whether changes in the levels of Ghrelin and SCF in rat testes underlie semen abnormal parameters observed in obese rats, and secondly, whether endurance exercise or Orlistat can protect against changes in Ghrelin, SCF, and/or semen parameters in diet induced obese rats. Obesity was modelled in male Wistar rats using High Fat Diet (HFD) 12-week protocol. Eight week-old rats (n=40) were divided into four groups, namely, Group I: fed with a standard diet (12 % of calories as fat); Group II: fed HFD (40 % of calories as fat); Group III: fed the HFD with a concomitant dose of Orlistat (200 mg/kg); and Group IV: fed the HFD and underwent 30 min daily swimming exercise. The model was validated by measuring the levels of testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, leptin, triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and final change in body weight. Levels were consistent with published obesity models (see Results). As predicted, the HFD group had a 76.8 % decrease in sperm count, 44.72 % decrease in sperm motility, as well as 47.09 % increase in abnormal sperm morphology. Unlike the control group, in the HFD group (i.e. obese rats) Ghrelin mRNA and protein were elevated, while SCF mRNA and protein were diminished in the testes. Furthermore, in the HFD group, SOD and GPx activities were significantly reduced, 48.5±5.8 % (P=0.0012) and 45.6±4.6 % (P=0.0019), respectively, while TBARS levels were significantly increased (112.7±8.9 %, P=0.0001). Finally, endurance exercise training and Orlistat administration individually and differentially protected semen parameters in obese rats. The mechanism includes, but is not limited to, normalizing the levels of Ghrelin, SCF, SOD, GPx and TBARS. In rat

  10. Evaluation of tributyltin toxicity in Chinese rare minnow larvae by abnormal behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous contaminant in aquatic environment, but the detailed mechanisms underlying the toxicity of TBT have not been fully understood. In this study, the effects of TBT on behavior, energy metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated by using Chinese rare minnow larvae. Fish larvae were exposed at sublethal concentrations of TBT (100, 400 and 800 ng/L) for 7 days. Compared with the control, energy metabolic parameters (RNA/DNA ratio, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) were significantly inhibited in fish exposed at highest concentration (800 ng/L), as well as abnormal behaviors observed. Moreover, we found that the PERK (PKR-like ER kinase)-eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) pathway, as the main branch was activated by TBT exposure in fish larvae. In short, TBT-induced physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in fish larvae were reflected in parameters measured in this study, which suggest that these biomarkers could be used as potential indicators for monitoring organotin compounds present in aquatic environment.

  11. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients.

  12. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients. PMID:27598028

  13. Stress-induced mechanisms in mental illness: A role for glucocorticoid signalling.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A; Riva, M A

    2016-06-01

    Stress represents the main environmental risk factor for mental illness. Exposure to stressful events, particularly early in life, has been associated with increased incidence and susceptibility of major depressive disorders as well as of other psychiatric illnesses. Among the key players in these events are glucocorticoid receptors. Dysfunctional glucocorticoid signalling may indeed contribute to psychopathology through a number of mechanisms that regulate the response to acute or chronic stress and that affect the function of genes and systems known to be relevant for mood disorders. Indeed, exposure to chronic stress early in life as well as in adulthood has been shown to reduce the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), also through epigenetic mechanisms, and to up-regulate the expression of the co-chaperone gene FKBP5, which restrains GR activity by limiting the translocation of the receptor complex to the nucleus. Another mechanism that contributes to changes in GR responsiveness is the state of receptor phosphorylation that controls activation, subcellular localization as well as its transcriptional activity. Moreover, GR phosphorylation may represent an important mechanism for the cross talk between neurotrophic signalling and GR-dependent transcription, bridging two important players for mood disorders. One gene that lies downstream from GR and may contribute to stress-related changes is serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1). We have demonstrated that the expression of SGK1 is significantly increased after exposure to chronic stress in rodents as well as in the blood of drug-free depressed patients. We have also shown that SGK1 up-regulation may ultimately reduce hippocampal neurogenesis and contribute to the structural abnormalities that have been reported to occur in depressed patients. In summary, GR signalling may represent a point of convergence as well as of divergence for defects associated with pathologic conditions characterized by heightened

  14. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level. PMID:20502233

  15. Upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis in an adolescent baseball pitcher with an associated endocrine abnormality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Heffernan, Michael J; Mortimer, Errol S

    2010-06-01

    Lower extremity stress fractures are relatively common among competitive athletes. Stress fractures of the upper extremity, however, are rare and most have been reported in the literature as case reports. We present a case of an adolescent baseball pitcher who had both proximal humeral and ulnar shaft stress fractures, as well as spondylolysis of the lumbar spine. This particular patient also had an underlying endocrine abnormality of secondary hyperparathyroidism with a deficiency in vitamin D. A bone mineral density panel demonstrated a high T score (+2.79 SD above the mean) and the patient's biologic bone age was noted to be 2 years ahead of his chronologic age. The patient was treated with a course of vitamin D and calcium supplementation. After treatment, both the vitamin D and parathyroid hormone returned to normal levels. The upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis were managed conservatively and he was able to return to full activity and baseball. For patients who present with multiple stress fractures not associated with consistent high levels of repeated stress, a bone mineral density panel should be considered. If vitamin D deficiency is present, a course of oral supplementation may be considered in the management. An endocrinology consult should also be considered in patients who present with multiple stress fractures. Conservative management of upper extremity stress fractures and spondylolysis was successful in returning this patient back to his previous activity level.

  16. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    PubMed

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats.

  17. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  18. Abnormal structure of fear circuitry in pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Keding, Taylor J; Herringa, Ryan J

    2015-02-01

    Structural brain studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in fear regulatory areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus. Surprisingly, neither finding has been reported in pediatric PTSD. One possibility is that they represent age-dependent effects that are not fully apparent until adulthood. In addition, lower-resolution MRI and image processing in prior studies may have limited detection of such differences. Here we examine fear circuitry GMV, including age-related differences, using higher-resolution MRI in pediatric PTSD vs healthy youth. In a cross-sectional design, 3 T anatomical brain MRI was acquired in 27 medication-free youth with PTSD and 27 healthy non-traumatized youth of comparable age, sex, and IQ. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV in a priori regions including the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala/hippocampus. Compared with healthy youth, PTSD youth had reduced GMV but no age-related differences in anterior vmPFC (BA 10/11, Z=4.5), which inversely correlated with PTSD duration. In contrast, although there was no overall group difference in hippocampal volume, a group × age interaction (Z=3.6) was present in the right anterior hippocampus. Here, age positively predicted hippocampal volume in healthy youth but negatively predicted volume in PTSD youth. Within the PTSD group, re-experiencing symptoms inversely correlated with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, Z=3.7) and right anterior hippocampus (Z=3.5) GMV. Pediatric PTSD is associated with abnormal structure of the vmPFC and age-related differences in the hippocampus, regions important in the extinction and contextual gating of fear. Reduced anterior vmPFC volume may confer impaired recovery from illness, consistent with its role in the allocation of attentional resources. In contrast, individual differences in sgACC volume were associated with re-experiencing symptoms, consistent with

  19. Identification of Abnormal Phase and its Formation Mechanism in Synthesizing Chalcogenide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kegao; Ji, Nianjing; Xu, Yong; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Chalcogenide films can be used in thin-film solar cells due to their high photoelectric conversion efficiencies. It was difficult to identify one abnormal phase with high X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity and preferred orientation in the samples for preparing chalcogenide films by spin-coating and co-reduction on soda-lime glass (Na2OṡCaOṡ6SiO2) substrates. The raw materials and reductant are metal chlorides and hydrazine hydrate respectively. In order to identify this phase, a series of experiments were done under different conditions. The phases of obtained products were analyzed by XRD and the size and morphology were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the experimental results, first it was proved that the abnormal phase was water-soluble by water immersion experiment, then it was identified as NaCl crystal through XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and SEM. The cubic NaCl crystals have high crystallinity with size lengths of about 0.5-2μm and show a <100> preferred orientation. The reaction mechanism of NaCl crystal was proposed as follows: The NaCl crystal was formed by reaction of Na2O and HCl in a certain experimental conditions.

  20. Resveratrol Treatment after Status Epilepticus Restrains Neurodegeneration and Abnormal Neurogenesis with Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Geetha A; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Xiaolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-12-07

    Antiepileptic drug therapy, though beneficial for restraining seizures, cannot thwart status epilepticus (SE) induced neurodegeneration or down-stream detrimental changes. We investigated the efficacy of resveratrol (RESV) for preventing SE-induced neurodegeneration, abnormal neurogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation in the hippocampus. We induced SE in young rats and treated with either vehicle or RESV, commencing an hour after SE induction and continuing every hour for three-hours on SE day and twice daily thereafter for 3 days. Seizures were terminated in both groups two-hours after SE with a diazepam injection. In contrast to the vehicle-treated group, the hippocampus of animals receiving RESV during and after SE presented no loss of glutamatergic neurons in hippocampal cell layers, diminished loss of inhibitory interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the dentate gyrus, reduced aberrant neurogenesis with preservation of reelin + interneurons, lowered concentration of oxidative stress byproduct malondialdehyde and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, normalized expression of oxidative stress responsive genes and diminished numbers of activated microglia. Thus, 4 days of RESV treatment after SE is efficacious for thwarting glutamatergic neuron degeneration, alleviating interneuron loss and abnormal neurogenesis, and suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. These results have implications for restraining SE-induced chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.

  1. Psychological and endocrine abnormalities in refugees from East Germany: Part I. Prolonged stress, psychopathology, and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Priebe, S; Kürten, I; Gräf, K J; Baumgartner, A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of prolonged psychological stress on hormonal secretion was investigated in 84 East Germany refugees suffering from psychiatric disorders within 6 weeks of their arrival in West Berlin shortly before or after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Before leaving the German Democratic Republic, these patients had already experienced prolonged stress, which continued after migration. In most cases, the diagnosis was anxious-depressive syndrome with vegetative complaints and symptoms of increased arousal. Their formal DSM-III-R diagnoses (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) included adjustment disorders, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders (the latter including posttraumatic stress disorder). Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine) were measured and compared with those of 20 healthy control subjects. TSH and all thyroid hormone concentrations were significantly reduced in the patient group. Fifty-two of the patients (62%) were in the hypothyroid range but did not show any clinical signs of hypothyroidism. These disturbances in hormonal secretion were not correlated to any psychiatric diagnosis or to the severity of acute or chronic stress. The marked abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis seen in these refugees differ from those reported in depression and would seem to reflect severe chronic stress rather than specific psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurochemical mechanisms remain to be investigated.

  2. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  3. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.

  4. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms. PMID:27002071

  5. α-Synuclein dimerization in erythrocytes of Gaucher disease patients: correlation with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Moraitou, Marina; Dermentzaki, Georgia; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Monopolis, Ioannis; Dekker, Nick; Aerts, Hans; Stefanis, Leonidas; Michelakakis, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Several observations suggest that disturbed homeostasis of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) may provide a link between Gaucher disease (GD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported increased dimerization of α-Syn in the red blood cell (RBC) membrane of patients with GD. Several studies indicate a crucial relationship between lipids, oxidative stress and α-Syn status. Here we investigated the relationship between the observed increased dimerization of α-Syn in the cell membranes of RBCs, cells devoid of lysosomes and lacking lysosomal enzyme synthesis, and the lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress already described in GD. Correlation studies showed that in GD the α-Syn dimer/monomer ratio is positively correlated with the levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and the glucosylceramide/ceramide (GlcCer/Cer) ratio and negatively with the levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and plasmalogens. In conclusion, we have shown that the increased tendency of α-Syn to form dimers in the RBC membrane of patients with GD, is correlated with both the level of lipids, including GlcCer, the primary lipid abnormality in GD, and the increased oxidative stress observed in this disorder. The study of other tissues, and in particular brain, will be important in order to elucidate the significance of these findings regarding the link between GD and PD. PMID:26708635

  6. Mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.; Myers, P. N.

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce the chapter with a discussion of lessons from nature, agriculture, and landscapes; terms and definitions; and an historical perspective of mechanical stress regulation of plant growth and development. Topics include developmental responses to mechanical stress; mechanical stress-environment interactions; metabolic, productivity, and compositional changes; hormonal involvement; mechanoperception and early transduction mechanisms; applications in agriculture; and research implications. The discussion of hormonal involvement in mechanical stress physiology includes ethylene, auxin, gibberellins, and other phytohormones. The discussion of applications in agriculture examines windbreaks, nursery practices, height control and conditioning, and enhancement of growth and productivity. Implications for research are related to handling plant materials, space biology, and future research needs.

  7. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index <30 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1), smoking (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), family history of premature CAD (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.7), lateral abnormality on stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity <5 metabolic equivalents (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 5.6). Assigning each variable 1 point summed to constitute a risk score, a graded association between the score and prevalent CAD (ptrend <0.001). The risk score demonstrated good discrimination with a cross-validated c-statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris.

  8. Ultrastructural and cellular basis for the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics during the transition from hypertension to heart failure.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanjiv J; Aistrup, Gary L; Gupta, Deepak K; O'Toole, Matthew J; Nahhas, Amanda F; Schuster, Daniel; Chirayil, Nimi; Bassi, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Satvik; Beussink, Lauren; Misener, Sol; Kane, Bonnie; Wang, David; Randolph, Blake; Ito, Aiko; Wu, Megan; Akintilo, Lisa; Mongkolrattanothai, Thitipong; Reddy, Mahendra; Kumar, Manvinder; Arora, Rishi; Ng, Jason; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Although the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics represents a key step during the transition from hypertension to overt heart failure (HF), the underlying ultrastructural and cellular basis of abnormal myocardial mechanics remains unclear. We therefore investigated how changes in transverse (T)-tubule organization and the resulting altered intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in large cell populations underlie the development of abnormal myocardial mechanics in a model of chronic hypertension. Hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; n = 72) were studied at different ages and stages of hypertensive heart disease and early HF and were compared with age-matched control (Wistar-Kyoto) rats (n = 34). Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking analysis, was performed just before euthanization, after which T-tubule organization and Ca(2+) transients were studied using confocal microscopy. In SHRs, abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occurred early in response to hypertension, before the development of overt systolic dysfunction and HF. Reduced longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain as well as reduced tissue Doppler early diastolic tissue velocities occurred in concert with T-tubule disorganization and impaired Ca(2+) cycling, all of which preceded the development of cardiac fibrosis. The time to peak of intracellular Ca(2+) transients was slowed due to T-tubule disruption, providing a link between declining cell ultrastructure and abnormal myocardial mechanics. In conclusion, subclinical abnormalities in myocardial mechanics occur early in response to hypertension and coincide with the development of T-tubule disorganization and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) cycling. These changes occur before the development of significant cardiac fibrosis and precede the development of overt cardiac dysfunction and HF.

  9. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    PubMed

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline. PMID:25666650

  10. Post-weaning social isolation induces abnormal forms of aggression in conjunction with increased glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Mikics, Eva; Tulogdi, Aron; Aliczki, Mano; Haller, Jozsef

    2011-06-01

    We showed earlier that social isolation from weaning (a paradigm frequently used to model social neglect in children) induces abnormal forms of attack in rats, and assumed that these are associated with hyperarousal. To investigate this hypothesis, we deprived rats of social contacts from weaning and studied their behavior, glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses in the resident-intruder paradigm at the age of 82 days. Social isolation resulted in abnormal attack patterns characterized by attacks on vulnerable targets, deficient social communication and increased defensive behaviors (defensive upright, flight, freezing). During aggressive encounters, socially deprived rats rapidly switched from one behavior to another, i.e. showed an increased number of behavioral transitions as compared to controls. We tentatively term this behavioral feature "behavioral fragmentation" and considered it a form of behavioral arousal. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone regularly assessed by radioimmunoassay between 27 and 78 days of age were not affected. In contrast, aggression-induced glucocorticoid responses were approximately doubled by socially isolation. Diurnal oscillations in heart rate assessed by in vivo biotelemetry were not affected by social isolation. In contrast, the aggression-induced increase in heart rate was higher in socially isolated than in socially housed rats. Thus, post-weaning social isolation induced abnormal forms of aggression that developed on the background of increased behavioral, endocrine and autonomic arousal. We suggest that this paradigm may be used to model aggression-related psychopathologies associated with hyperarousal, particularly those that are triggered by adverse rearing conditions.

  11. Effect of Mechanical Stresses on Characteristics of Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of compressive mechanical stresses on chip solid tantalum capacitors is investigated by monitoring characteristics of different part types under axial and hydrostatic stresses. Depending on part types, an exponential increase of leakage currents was observed when stresses exceeded 10 MPa to 40 MPa. For the first time, reversible variations of leakage currents (up to two orders of magnitude) with stress have been demonstrated. Mechanical stresses did not cause significant changes of AC characteristics of the capacitors, whereas breakdown voltages measured during the surge current testing decreased substantially indicating an increased probability of failures of stressed capacitors in low impedance applications. Variations of leakage currents are explained by a combination of two mechanisms: stress-induced scintillations and stress-induced generation of electron traps in the tantalum pentoxide dielectric.

  12. Learning to cope with stress: psychobiological mechanisms of stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Cabib, Simona; Campus, Paolo; Colelli, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Stress is the main non-genetic source of psychopathology. Therefore, the identification of neurobiological bases of resilience, the resistance to pathological outcomes of stress, is a most relevant topic of research. It is an accepted view that resilient individuals are those who do not develop helplessness, or other depression-like phenotypes, following a history of stress. In the present review, we discuss the phenotypic differences between mice of the inbred C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains that could be associated with the strain-specific resistance to helplessness observable in DBA/2J mice. The reviewed results support the hypothesis that resilience to stress-promoted helplessness develops through interactions between a specific genetic makeup and a history of stress, and is associated with an active coping style, a bias toward the use of stimulus-response learning, and specific adaptive changes of mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission under stress. Finally, evidence that compulsivity represents a side effect of the neuroadaptive processes fostering resistance to develop depressive-like phenotypes under stress is discussed.

  13. EFL Foreign Teacher Stress in Korea: Causes and Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Gregory C.

    2007-01-01

    Survey study of 53 foreign EFL teachers in Jeonju City, South Korea looks at causes of teacher stress and coping mechanisms between the years of 2004 and 2006. Results show foreign EFL teachers report moderate levels of stress and attribute stresses in roughly equal measures to student misbehavior and school director/administrative sources. Survey…

  14. Do abnormal hemipelvic bone stresses contribute to loosening and migration of screw-threaded cups?

    PubMed

    Learmonth, I D; Spirakis, A

    1994-03-01

    Excellent long-term results have been reported with the Charnley low-friction arthroplasty. Failure of the cemented acetabular component has been identified as a problem in the longer term, while cemented hip replacements in active young patients have exhibited a disconcerting incidence of early clinical or radiological failure. This resulted in the development of the cementless arthroplasty. Bone responds favourably to an optimal stress window and reacts dynamically to metal implants that have a greatly differing modulus of elasticity. This study represents a comparative qualitative analysis of the peri-acetabular hemipelvic stresses after loading two cementless (press-fit and screw-threaded) acetabular components inserted into identical bone models. A simplified model of the artificial hip joint was constructed and the very sensitive stress analysis technique of holographic interferometry was used for the investigation. Peri-acetabular stress concentrations were noted with the screw-threaded cup. This may predispose to bone resorption and it is suggested that these could be implicated in the migration of these cups described in published reports.

  15. Examining the Mechanical Equilibrium of Microscopic Stresses in Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan M; Arroyo, Marino

    2015-06-26

    The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous and physically sound definition.

  16. Examining the Mechanical Equilibrium of Microscopic Stresses in Molecular Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan M.; Arroyo, Marino

    2015-06-01

    The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous and physically sound definition.

  17. The impact of static stress change, dynamic stress change, and the background stress on aftershock focal mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    The focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Southern California before and after four M ≥ 6.7 main shocks provide insight into how fault systems respond to stress and changes in stress. The main shock static stress changes have two observed impacts on the seismicity: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the static stress change and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the static stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly aligned with the static stress changes for absolute stress changes of ≥ 0.02 MPa, for up to ~20 years following the main shock. The dynamic stress changes have similar, although smaller, effects on the local focal mechanisms and the spatial seismicity distribution. Dynamic stress effects are best observed at long periods (30–60 s) and for metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction. This implies that dynamic triggering operates, at least in part, through cyclic shear stress loading in the direction of fault slip. The background stress also strongly controls both the preshock and aftershock mechanisms. While most aftershock mechanisms are well oriented in the background stress field, 10% of aftershocks are identified as poorly oriented outliers, which may indicate limited heterogeneity in the postmain shock stress field. The fault plane orientations of the outliers are well oriented in the background stress, while their slip directions are not, implying that the background stress restricts the distribution of available fault planes.

  18. Abnormally high thromboxane biosynthesis in homozygous homocystinuria. Evidence for platelet involvement and probucol-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Di Minno, G; Davì, G; Margaglione, M; Cirillo, F; Grandone, E; Ciabattoni, G; Catalano, I; Strisciuglio, P; Andria, G; Patrono, C

    1993-01-01

    Homocystinuria due to homozygous cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a high incidence of thrombosis and premature atherosclerosis. We evaluated TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo and several in vitro tests of platelet function in 11 homocystinuric patients and 12 healthy controls. In vitro, patients' platelet aggregation was within control values as were TXB2 formation, fibrinogen binding, and ATP secretion in response to thrombin. In contrast, the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a major enzymatic derivative of TXA2, was > 2 SD of controls in all patients (1,724 +/- 828 pg/mg creatinine, mean +/- SD, in patients vs. 345 +/- 136 in controls, P < 0.001). The administration to four patients of low-dose aspirin (50 mg/d for 1 wk) reduced metabolite excretion by > 80%. The recovery of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion over the 10 d that followed aspirin cessation occurred with a pattern consistent with the entry into the circulation of platelets with intact cyclooxygenase activity. Prolonged partial reduction in the abnormally high excretion of both 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 2,3-dinor-TXB2, was also observed in seven patients who ingested 500 mg daily for 3 wk of the antioxidant drug probucol. These results provide evidence for enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis in homocystinuria and for its partial dependence on probucol-sensitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the elevated TXA2 formation in homocystinuria is likely to reflect, at least in part, in vivo platelet activation. PMID:8376592

  19. Mechanisms defining the electrotonic potential abnormalities in simulated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stephanova, D I; Krustev, S M; Negrev, N

    2012-06-01

    Electrotonic potentials allow the accommodative processes to polarizing stimuli to be assessed. Electrotonic potential transients in response to applied polarizing stimuli are caused by the kinetics of underlying axonal conductances. Here, we study these transients using our multi-layered model of the human motor nerve, in three simulated cases of the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): ALS1, ALS2 and ALS3 are three consecutively greater degrees of uniform axonal dysfunctions along the human motor nerve fibre. The results show that the responses in the ALS1 case are quite similar to the normal case. In contrast, in the ALS2 and ALS3 cases, long-lasting (100 ms) subthreshold depolarizing stimuli activate the classical "transient" Na(+) channels in the nodal and in the internodal axolemma beneath the myelin sheath; this leads to action potential generation during the early parts of the electrotonic responses in all compartments along the fibre length. The results also show that the electrotonic potentials in response to long-lasting (100 ms) subthreshold hyperpolarizing stimuli in the ALS1 and ALS2 cases are quiet similar to those of the normal case. However, the current kinetics in the ALS3 case differs from the normal case after the termination of the long-lasting hyperpolarizing stimuli. In the most abnormal ALS3 case, the activation of the Na(+) channels in the nodal and in the internodal axolemma leads to repetitive action potential generation in the late parts (100-200 ms) of the hyperpolarizing electrotonic responses. The results show that the repetitive firing, due to the progressively increased nodal and internodal ion channel dysfunction, are consistent with the loss of functional potassium channels involving both the fast and the slow potassium channel types. The results confirm that the electrotonic potentials in the three simulated ALS cases are specific indicators for the motor neuron disease ALS. The mechanisms underlying the

  20. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  1. Abnormal EKG stress test in rats with type 1 diabetes is deterred with low-intensity exercise programme.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, I V; Kibiryeva, N; Vidoni, E; Bunag, R; Stehno-Bittel, L

    2006-11-01

    The focus of this study was to determine whether minimal levels of exercise could halt the formation of diabetes-induced heart pathology. Seven-week-old male rats were divided into four groups: sedentary nondiabetic, exercise-trained non-diabetic, sedentary diabetic and exercise-trained diabetic. Individualised exercise programmes were based on the animal's tolerance, and continued for 7 weeks after the induction of diabetes. At the completion of the study, no differences were found in skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity between diabetic sedentary and exercise-trained rats, indicating that the exercise was low intensity. Diabetes-induced heart hypertrophy was not reversed with exercise as measured by heart-to-body weight ratios and EKG (R wave height). There was no statistical difference between groups in the response to an exercise stress test prior to the induction of diabetes. However, 4 weeks of diabetes resulted in a significant decrease in resting and post-stress test heart rates (9% and 20%, respectively), which remained depressed at week 7. The sedentary diabetic animals demonstrated an abnormal response during the recovery period of the EKG exercise test, which was not present in non-diabetic or exercise-trained diabetic animals. In conclusion, lowintensity exercise training improved the cardiac response to an exercise stress test in diabetic animals.

  2. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J.; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  3. White Matter Abnormalities in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following a Specific Traumatic Event.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Lei, Du; Li, Lingjiang; Huang, Xiaoqi; Suo, Xueling; Xiao, Fenglai; Kuang, Weihong; Li, Jin; Bi, Feng; Lui, Su; Kemp, Graham J; Sweeney, John A; Gong, Qiyong

    2016-02-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complicated by wide variability in the intensity and duration of prior stressors in patient participants, secondary effects of chronic psychiatric illness, and a variable history of treatment with psychiatric medications. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, patient samples have often been small, and they were not often compared to similarly stressed patients without PTSD in order to control for general stress effects. Findings from these studies have been inconsistent. The present study investigated whole-brain microstructural alterations of white matter in a large drug-naive population who survived a specific, severe traumatic event (a major 8.0-magnitude earthquake). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we explored group differences between 88 PTSD patients and 91 matched traumatized non-PTSD controls in fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as its component elements axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD), and examined these findings in relation to findings from deterministic DTI tractography. Relations between white matter alterations and psychiatric symptom severity were examined. PTSD patients, relative to similarly stressed controls, showed an FA increase as well as AD and RD changes in the white matter beneath left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and forceps major. The observation of increased FA in the PTSD group suggests that the pathophysiology of PTSD after a specific acute traumatic event is distinct from what has been reported in patients with several years duration of illness. Alterations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an important aspect of illness pathophysiology, possibly via the region's established role in fear extinction circuitry. Use-dependent myelination or other secondary compensatory changes in response to heightened demands for threat appraisal and emotion regulation may be involved. PMID:26981581

  4. The Role of Mechanical Stress in Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Boer, Jurr; Nazary, Maiwand; Riis, Peter Theut

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stress can act as a possible trigger in the development of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The mechanical stress has been supported by (1) the special biomechanical conditions in the typically topographic areas of HS; (2) the indirect proof of similar findings in associated follicular occlusion diseases such as acne mechanica and pilonidal sinus disease, and in limb amputees after expression of mechanical forces; (3) pathohistologic, ultrasonography, and immunologic findings; and (4) overweight patients seem to be most susceptible to the effects of mechanical stress.

  5. [MECHANISMS OF GASTRODUODENAL DYSMOTILITY UNDER STRESS].

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, V I; Berezina, T P; Shemerovskii, K A

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic stress in rabbits caused dysmotility of the gastroduodenal zone: inhibition of contractile activity (CA) in antral and pyloric parts of the stomach simultaneously with the increase of CA in proximal and distal parts of duodenum. Stress induced inhibition of the gastric contractile activity is substantially "non-adrenergic non-cholinergic" and only in the initial phase of the reaction it appears to be "α-adrenergic". The strengthening of CA in the proximal duodenum resulted from the direct exciting action of endocrine stress factor on the smooth muscle of the gut. The strengthening of the CA in the distal duodenum is a result of the endocrine action of catecholamines on stimulating β-adrenergic receptors of enteric cho linergic neurons. Stress induced dyscoordination of the gastroduodenal motility can cause duodenogastric reflux and as a consequence, erosive damage of the gastric mucosa. PMID:27301116

  6. Measurements of residual stress in fracture mechanics coupons

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael B; Hill, Michael R; Nav Dalen, John E

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of residual stress in coupons used for fracture mechanics testing. The primary objective of the measurements is to quantify the distribution of residual stress acting to open (and/or close) the crack across the crack plane. The slitting method and the contour method are two destructive residual stress measurement methods particularly capable of addressing that objective, and these were applied to measure residual stress in a set of identically prepared compact tension (C(T)) coupons. Comparison of the results of the two measurement methods provides some useful observations. Results from fracture mechanics tests of residual stress bearing coupons and fracture analysis, based on linear superposition of applied and residual stresses, show consistent behavior of coupons having various levels of residual stress.

  7. [Central Circuit Mechanism for Psychological Stress-Induced Hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Many types of psychological stress induce hyperthermia. The stress-induced elevation of body temperature is caused by sympathetic responses including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, tachycardia, and cutaneous vasoconstriction as well as by neuroendocrine responses including stress hormone release via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent studies have revealed that the hypothalamic and medullary neural circuitry for driving these stress responses. In this circuitry, the dorsomedial hypothalamus serves as a hub for the central stress signaling: first, it connects the sympathetic efferents with medullary sympathetic premotor neurons to drive the sympathetic responses; second, it connects the neuroendocrine efferents with the HPA axis to drive the stress hormone release. The findings from the animal experiments would be relevant to understand the etiology of the chronic stress-induced hyperthermia "psychogenic fever", a psychosomatic symptom in humans. In this review, I describe the current understanding of the central circuit mechanism for the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia, incorporating recent important discoveries.

  8. Student Teacher Stress and Coping Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hockley, Tania

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 43 student teachers taking a 9 week practicum in rural Australian primary schools and case studies of four of them found that student teacher stress diminished over time. Five coping strategies were identified: communicating with others, self help, relaxation/recreation, teaching and managing, and organization. (Contains 32 references.)…

  9. Dynamics of Mechanical Signal Transmission through Prestressed Stress Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical stimuli through the actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid long-distance mechanotransduction in cells; however, a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of this transmission and the physical factors governing it remains lacking. Two key features of the actin cytoskeleton are its viscoelastic nature and the presence of prestress due to actomyosin motor activity. We develop a model of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed viscoelastic actin stress fibers that directly connect the cell surface to the nucleus. The analysis considers both temporally stationary and oscillatory mechanical signals and accounts for cytosolic drag on the stress fibers. To elucidate the physical parameters that govern mechanical signal transmission, we initially focus on the highly simplified case of a single stress fiber. The results demonstrate that the dynamics of mechanical signal transmission depend on whether the applied force leads to transverse or axial motion of the stress fiber. For transverse motion, mechanical signal transmission is dominated by prestress while fiber elasticity has a negligible effect. Conversely, signal transmission for axial motion is mediated uniquely by elasticity due to the absence of a prestress restoring force. Mechanical signal transmission is significantly delayed by stress fiber material viscosity, while cytosolic damping becomes important only for longer stress fibers. Only transverse motion yields the rapid and long-distance mechanical signal transmission dynamics observed experimentally. For simple networks of stress fibers, mechanical signals are transmitted rapidly to the nucleus when the fibers are oriented largely orthogonal to the applied force, whereas the presence of fibers parallel to the applied force slows down mechanical signal transmission significantly. The present results suggest that cytoskeletal prestress mediates rapid mechanical signal transmission and allows

  10. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  11. Relation between increased oxidative stress and histological abnormalities in the ovaries of Alburnus tarichi in Lake Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaptaner, Burak

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown reproductively arrested gonad development in female Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) (Cyprinidae) from the eastern coastline of Lake Van, Turkey, due to increasing pollution. In the reproductively arrested females (RAF), oocytes were developmentally blocked and arrested at the previtellogenic stage and gonadosomatic indices (GSI) were very low, while reproductively non-arrested females (RNF) found at the same site displayed relatively normal ovarian development and higher GSI. The present study investigated various oxidative stress biomarkers in the ovaries of RAF and RNF collected from a polluted site at Lake Van at the mid-vitellogenic phase, compared with reference fish from a non-polluted site (Lake Erçek). Ovarian total protein content, biometric indices, and histology were also evaluated. The oxidative stress biomarkers used were levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). High levels of LPO and GSH and activities of SOD, GPx and GST were found in the ovaries of RAF compared with the reference fish. GSH content and activities of GPx and GST were also higher in the RNF. The total protein content and biometric indices decreased significantly in the RAF compared with the RNF and reference fish. The histology of the ovaries revealed atresia, melano-macrophage centers, encapsulated follicle cysts, and severe fibrosis in the RAF. The results of this study suggest that abnormalities in the ovaries of A. tarichi are causally related to increased oxidative stress as a result of pollution. PMID:26497562

  12. Relation between increased oxidative stress and histological abnormalities in the ovaries of Alburnus tarichi in Lake Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaptaner, Burak

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown reproductively arrested gonad development in female Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) (Cyprinidae) from the eastern coastline of Lake Van, Turkey, due to increasing pollution. In the reproductively arrested females (RAF), oocytes were developmentally blocked and arrested at the previtellogenic stage and gonadosomatic indices (GSI) were very low, while reproductively non-arrested females (RNF) found at the same site displayed relatively normal ovarian development and higher GSI. The present study investigated various oxidative stress biomarkers in the ovaries of RAF and RNF collected from a polluted site at Lake Van at the mid-vitellogenic phase, compared with reference fish from a non-polluted site (Lake Erçek). Ovarian total protein content, biometric indices, and histology were also evaluated. The oxidative stress biomarkers used were levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). High levels of LPO and GSH and activities of SOD, GPx and GST were found in the ovaries of RAF compared with the reference fish. GSH content and activities of GPx and GST were also higher in the RNF. The total protein content and biometric indices decreased significantly in the RAF compared with the RNF and reference fish. The histology of the ovaries revealed atresia, melano-macrophage centers, encapsulated follicle cysts, and severe fibrosis in the RAF. The results of this study suggest that abnormalities in the ovaries of A. tarichi are causally related to increased oxidative stress as a result of pollution.

  13. Diverse system stresses: common mechanisms of chromosome fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J B; Abdallah, B Y; Liu, G; Ye, C J; Horne, S D; Wang, G; Savasan, S; Shekhar, M; Krawetz, S A; Hüttemann, M; Tainsky, M A; Wu, G S; Xie, Y; Zhang, K; Heng, H H Q

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome fragmentation (C-Frag) is a newly identified MCD (mitotic cell death), distinct from apoptosis and MC (mitotic catastrophe). As different molecular mechanisms can induce C-Frag, we hypothesize that the general mechanism of its induction is a system response to cellular stress. A clear link between C-Frag and diverse system stresses generated from an array of molecular mechanisms is shown. Centrosome amplification, which is also linked to diverse mechanisms of stress, is shown to occur in association with C-Frag. This led to a new model showing that diverse stresses induce common, MCD. Specifically, different cellular stresses target the integral chromosomal machinery, leading to system instability and triggering of MCD by C-Frag. This model of stress-induced cell death is also applicable to other types of cell death. The current study solves the previously confusing relationship between the diverse molecular mechanisms of chromosome pulverization, suggesting that incomplete C-Frag could serve as the initial event responsible for forms of genome chaos including chromothripsis. In addition, multiple cell death types are shown to coexist with C-Frag and it is more dominant than apoptosis at lower drug concentrations. Together, this study suggests that cell death is a diverse group of highly heterogeneous events that are linked to stress-induced system instability and evolutionary potential. PMID:21716293

  14. Inhibition of NAPDH Oxidase 2 (NOX2) Prevents Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Abnormalities Caused by Saturated Fat in Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leroy C; Barca, Emanuele; Subramanyam, Prakash; Komrowski, Michael; Pajvani, Utpal; Colecraft, Henry M; Hirano, Michio; Morrow, John P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity. PMID:26756466

  15. Inhibition of NAPDH Oxidase 2 (NOX2) Prevents Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Abnormalities Caused by Saturated Fat in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Leroy C.; Barca, Emanuele; Subramanyam, Prakash; Komrowski, Michael; Pajvani, Utpal; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hirano, Michio; Morrow, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity. PMID:26756466

  16. Mechanical Stress Induces Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses via a Novel cis-Element

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Justin W; Coughlan, Sean; Hudson, Matthew E; Covington, Michael F; Kaspi, Roy; Banu, Gopalan; Harmer, Stacey L; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2007-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a myriad of abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. To begin to identify primary stress signal transduction components, we have focused on genes that respond rapidly (within 5 min) to stress signals. Because it has been hypothesized that detection of physical stress is a mechanism common to mounting a response against a broad range of environmental stresses, we have utilized mechanical wounding as the stress stimulus and performed whole genome microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This led to the identification of a number of rapid wound responsive (RWR) genes. Comparison of RWR genes with published abiotic and biotic stress microarray datasets demonstrates a large overlap across a wide range of environmental stresses. Interestingly, RWR genes also exhibit a striking level and pattern of circadian regulation, with induced and repressed genes displaying antiphasic rhythms. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified a novel motif overrepresented in the promoters of RWR genes, herein designated as the Rapid Stress Response Element (RSRE). We demonstrate in transgenic plants that multimerized RSREs are sufficient to confer a rapid response to both biotic and abiotic stresses in vivo, thereby establishing the functional involvement of this motif in primary transcriptional stress responses. Collectively, our data provide evidence for a novel cis-element that is distributed across the promoters of an array of diverse stress-responsive genes, poised to respond immediately and coordinately to stress signals. This structure suggests that plants may have a transcriptional network resembling the general stress signaling pathway in yeast and that the RSRE element may provide the key to this coordinate regulation. PMID:17953483

  17. Cells Respond to Mechanical Stress by Rapid Disassembly of Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Bidisha; Köster, Darius; Ruez, Richard; Gonnord, Pauline; Bastiani, Michele; Abankwa, Daniel; Stan, Radu. V.; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Vedie, Benoit; Johannes, Ludger; Morone, Nobuhiro; Parton, Robert G.; Raposo, Graça; Sens, Pierre; Lamaze, Christophe; Nassoy, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The precise role of caveolae, the characteristic plasma membrane invaginations present in many cells, still remains debated. The high density of caveolae in cells experiencing mechanical stress led us to investigate their role in membrane-mediated mechanical response. Acute mechanical stress induced by cell osmotic swelling or by uniaxial stretching results in the immediate disappearance of caveolae, which is associated with a reduced caveolin/Cavin1 interaction, and an increase of free caveolins at the plasma membrane. Tether pulling force measurements in live cells and in plasma membrane spheres demonstrate that caveola flattening and disassembly is the primary actin and ATP-independent cell response which buffers membrane tension surges during mechanical stress. Conversely, stress release leads to complete caveola reassembly in an actin and ATP-dependent process. The absence of a functional caveola reservoir in myotubes from muscular dystrophic patients enhanced membrane fragility under mechanical stress. Our findings support a new role for caveolae as a physiological membrane reservoir that allows cells to quickly accommodate sudden and acute mechanical stresses. PMID:21295700

  18. Surge Nozzle NDE Specimen Mechanical Stress Improvement Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fredette, Lee F.

    2011-07-14

    The purpose of this project was to perform a finite element analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge nozzle mock-up to predict both the weld residual stresses created in its construction and the final stress state after the application of the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP). Strain gages were applied to the inner diameter of the mock-up to record strain changes during the MSIP. These strain readings were used in an attempt to calculate the final stress state of the mock-up as well.

  19. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes.

  20. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes. PMID:26799574

  1. Altered mechanisms underlying the abnormal glutamate release in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at a pre-symptomatic stage of the disease.

    PubMed

    Bonifacino, Tiziana; Musazzi, Laura; Milanese, Marco; Seguini, Mara; Marte, Antonella; Gallia, Elena; Cattaneo, Luca; Onofri, Franco; Popoli, Maurizio; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2016-11-01

    Abnormal Glu release occurs in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) mice, a transgenic animal model for human ALS. Here we studied the mechanisms underlying Glu release in spinal cord nerve terminals of SOD1(G93A) mice at a pre-symptomatic disease stage (30days) and found that the basal release of Glu was more elevated in SOD1(G93A) with respect to SOD1 mice, and that the surplus of release relies on synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Exposure to high KCl or ionomycin provoked Ca(2+)-dependent Glu release that was likewise augmented in SOD1(G93A) mice. Equally, the Ca(2+)-independent hypertonic sucrose-induced Glu release was abnormally elevated in SOD1(G93A) mice. Also in this case, the surplus of Glu release was exocytotic in nature. We could determine elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, increased phosphorylation of Synapsin-I, which was causally related to the abnormal Glu release measured in spinal cord synaptosomes of pre-symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice, and increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 at the inhibitory sites, an event that favours SNARE protein assembly. Western blot experiments revealed an increased number of SNARE protein complexes at the nerve terminal membrane, with no changes of the three SNARE proteins and increased expression of synaptotagmin-1 and β-Actin, but not of an array of other release-related presynaptic proteins. These results indicate that the abnormal exocytotic Glu release in spinal cord of pre-symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice is mainly based on the increased size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles and release facilitation, supported by plastic changes of specific presynaptic mechanisms. PMID:27425885

  2. Basis for the barrier abnormality in atopic dermatitis: Outside-inside-outside pathogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Hatano, Yutaka; Williams, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    Until quite recently, the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been attributed to primary abnormalities of the immune system. Intensive study revealed the key roles played by TH1/TH2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the evolution of the chronic, pruritic, inflammatory dermatosis that characterizes AD. Accordingly, current therapy has been largely directed toward ameliorating TH2-mediated inflammation and pruritus. In this review we will assess emerging evidence that inflammation in AD results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this paradigm. PMID:18329087

  3. Disorders of sexual development and abnormal early development in domestic food-producing mammals: the role of chromosome abnormalities, environment and stress factors.

    PubMed

    Favetta, L A; Villagómez, D A F; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G; Webb, A; Crain, S; King, W A

    2012-01-01

    The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of sex determination and sex differentiation. In recent years, a growing interest has developed around the environmental insults, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) and heat stressors, which affect fertility, early embryonic development and, in some instances, directly the sex ratio and/or the development of 1 specific sex versus the other. A variety of chemical compounds present in the environment at low doses has been shown to have major effects on the reproductive functions in human and domestic animals following prolonged exposure. In this review, we present an overview of congenital/chromosomal factors that are responsible for the DSDs and link them and the lack of proper embryonic development to environmental factors that are becoming a major global concern.

  4. Lessons learned: providing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for low-income multiethnic women with abnormal pap smears.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D; Zamora, Anita; Korn, Abner P

    2007-01-01

    Although the incidence rate of cervical cancer has decreased over the last several years, low-income ethnic minority women remain at increased risk for morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. We conducted a pilot study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program among multiethnic low-income women with abnormal Pap smears. Spanish- and English-speaking women recruited through convenience sampling participated in MBSR classes 2 hours each week over 6 consecutive weeks. State anxiety and self-compassion were measured before and after the MBSR program. Focus groups and surveys were used to evaluate the program. Although 51 women were initially recruited, pre- and post-MBSR data were available only for 8 women. There was a significant reduction in anxiety and a trend toward increased self-compassion in this group of women. The participants evaluated the MBSR program very positively. The high attrition rate highlights the challenges of conducting MBSR research with this demographic of women. Potential strategies for improving recruitment and retention of low-income multiethnic women are discussed.

  5. Mechanism of hydrogen generation in the stress corrosion crack

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    1995-10-01

    Based on the mass transport in the stress corrosion crack, a mathematical expression of potential distribution along the stress corrosion crack is deduced. From this mathematical expression and the E-pH diagram for H{sub 2}O, a new mechanism for hydrogen generation in the stress corrosion crack i.e. H{sup +} partial potential drop mechanism, is proposed. Following this mechanism, the relationship between hydrogen generation and affecting factors, such as current density of anodic dissolution inside the crack, pH value, partial resistivity of H{sup +} ion, dimension of the crack and potential of the metal, is discussed. The mechanism is verified by experimental measurement results of the H{sup +} partial potential drop with microelectrodes placed in an artificial crack on AISI 410 stainless steel in 3%NaCl solution.

  6. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. PMID:23785312

  7. Unequal mitotic sister chromatid exchange: A rare mechanism for chromosomal abnormality resulting in duplication/deletion of chromosome 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Eydoux, P.; Ortenberg, J.; Chalifoux, N.

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of unequal mitotic chromatid exchange, which has rarely been reported as a mechanism for microscopic chromosomal anomalies. The proposita was born at 40 weeks, after an uneventful pregnancy, of parents with a negative family history. The baby was small for gestational age and had dysmorphic features, including scaphocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds and palpebral ptosis, mild hypertelorism, hypoplasia of orbital contours, right coloboma, bulbous prominent nose, retrognathism, downturned mouth, low set posteriorly rotated ears, tapering of the limbs. bilateral Sydney creases. At 5 months, she was under the 5th percentile for height, weight and head circumference, and had a mild developmental delay. The karyotype showed an abnormality of chromosome 7 in all cells, half with a duplication and half with a deletion of the same region; 46,XX,del(7)(q33{yields}q34)/46,XX,dup(7)(q33{yields}q34). This chromosomal abnormality could be explained by an unequal chromatid exchange occuring in the first mitosis of the embryo. To our knowledge, only one such human microscopic abnormality, involving chromosome Y, has been reported to date. This type of genetic unbalance could be missed by molecular techniques.

  8. Differential integrative omic analysis for mechanism insights and biomarker discovery of abnormal Savda syndrome and its unique Munziq prescription.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xia; Bakri, Iskandar; Abudula, Abulizi; Arken, Kalbinur; Mijit, Mahmut; Mamtimin, Batur; Upur, Halmurat

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that many cancers have acommon pathophysiological origin and often present with similar symptoms. In terms of Traditional Uighur Medicine (TUM) Hilit (body fluid) theory, abnormal Savda syndrome (ASS) formed by abnormal Hilit is the common phenotype of complex diseases and in particular tumours. Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), one representative of TUM, has been effective in the treatment of cancer since ancient times. Despite the physiopathology of ASS, the relationship between causative factors and the molecular mechanism of ASMq are not fully understood. The current study expanded upon earlier work by integrating traditional diagnostic approaches with others utilizing systems biology technology for the analysis of proteomic (iTRAQ) and metabolomic ((1)H-NMR) profiles of Uighur Medicine target organ lesion (liver) tumours. The candidate proteins were analyzed by enrichment analysis of the biological process and biomarker filters. Subsequently, 3Omics web-based tools were used to determine the relationships between proteins and appropriate metabolites. ELISA assay and IHC methods were used to verify the proteomic result; the protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) may be the "therapeutic window" of ASMq and biomarkers of ASS. This study is likely to be of great significance for the standardization and modernization of TUM. PMID:27296761

  9. Differential integrative omic analysis for mechanism insights and biomarker discovery of abnormal Savda syndrome and its unique Munziq prescription

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Bakri, Iskandar; Abudula, Abulizi; Arken, Kalbinur; Mijit, Mahmut; Mamtimin, Batur; Upur, Halmurat

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that many cancers have acommon pathophysiological origin and often present with similar symptoms. In terms of Traditional Uighur Medicine (TUM) Hilit (body fluid) theory, abnormal Savda syndrome (ASS) formed by abnormal Hilit is the common phenotype of complex diseases and in particular tumours. Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), one representative of TUM, has been effective in the treatment of cancer since ancient times. Despite the physiopathology of ASS, the relationship between causative factors and the molecular mechanism of ASMq are not fully understood. The current study expanded upon earlier work by integrating traditional diagnostic approaches with others utilizing systems biology technology for the analysis of proteomic (iTRAQ) and metabolomic (1H-NMR) profiles of Uighur Medicine target organ lesion (liver) tumours. The candidate proteins were analyzed by enrichment analysis of the biological process and biomarker filters. Subsequently, 3Omics web-based tools were used to determine the relationships between proteins and appropriate metabolites. ELISA assay and IHC methods were used to verify the proteomic result; the protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) may be the “therapeutic window” of ASMq and biomarkers of ASS. This study is likely to be of great significance for the standardization and modernization of TUM. PMID:27296761

  10. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  11. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  12. Abnormal Bone Mechanical and Structural Properties in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Study with Finite Element Analysis and Structural Model Index.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, K Y; Zhu, T Y; Yu, F W P; Hung, V W Y; Lee, K M; Qin, L; Cheng, J C Y; Lam, T P

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies found adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and abnormal bone quality, whilst the association between AIS and their bone strength is unknown. From high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-generated images, bone mechanical properties can be evaluated with finite element analysis (FEA), and trabecular rod-plate configuration related to trabecular bone strength can be quantified by structure model index (SMI). This study aimed to compare trabecular configuration and bone mechanical properties between AIS and the controls. 95 AIS girls aged 12-14 years and 97 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited. Bilateral femoral necks and non-dominant distal radius were scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for areal BMD and HR-pQCT for SMI and FEA, respectively. Subjects were further classified into osteopenic and non-osteopenic group based on their areal BMD. Bone mechanical properties (stiffness, failure load and apparent modulus) were calculated using FEA. Linear regression model was used for controlling age, physical activity and calcium intake. AIS was associated with lower failure load and apparent modulus after adjusting for age, whereas AIS was associated with lower apparent modulus after adjusting for all confounders. Osteopenic AIS was associated with more rod-like trabeculae when compared with non-osteopenic AIS, whereas no difference was detected between osteopenic and non-osteopenic controls. This might be the result of abnormal regulation and modulation of bone metabolism and bone modelling and remodelling in AIS which will warrant future studies with a longitudinal design to determine the significance of micro-architectural abnormalities in AIS.

  13. Under Pressure: Mechanical Stress Management in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Belaadi, Néjma; Aureille, Julien; Guilluy, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cells are constantly adjusting to the mechanical properties of their surroundings, operating a complex mechanochemical feedback, which hinges on mechanotransduction mechanisms. Whereas adhesion structures have been shown to play a central role in mechanotransduction, it now emerges that the nucleus may act as a mechanosensitive structure. Here, we review recent advances demonstrating that mechanical stress emanating from the cytoskeleton can activate pathways in the nucleus which eventually impact both its structure and the transcriptional machinery. PMID:27314389

  14. Functional brain abnormalities in psychiatric disorders: neural mechanisms to detect and resolve cognitive conflict and interference.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Tobias; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2008-11-01

    In the present article, we review functional neuroimaging studies on interference processing and performance monitoring in three groups of psychiatric disorders, (1) mood disorders, (2) schizophrenia, and (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Ad (1) Behavioral performance measures suggest an impaired interference resolution capability in symptomatic bipolar disorder patients. A series of neuroimaging analyses found alterations in the ACC-DLPFC system in mood disorder (unipolar depressed and bipolar) patients, putatively reflective of an abnormal interplay of monitoring and executive neurocognitive functions. Other studies of euthymic bipolar patients showed relatively decreased interference-related activation in rostroventral PFC which conceivably underlies defective inhibitory control. Ad (2) Behavioral Stroop studies revealed a specific performance pattern of schizophrenia patients (normal RT interference but increased error interference and RT facilitation) suggestive of a deficit in ignoring irrelevant (word) information. Moreover, reduced/absent behavioral post-error and post-conflict adaptation effects suggest alterations in performance monitoring and/or adjustment capability in these patients. Neuroimaging findings converge to suggest a disorder-related abnormal neurophysiology in ACC which consistently showed conflict- and error-related hypoactivation that, however, appeared to be modulated by different factors. Moreover, studies suggest a specific deficit in context processing in schizophrenia, evidently related to activation reduction in DLPFC. Ad (3) Behavioral findings provide evidence for impaired interference resolution in OCD. Neuroimaging results consistently showed conflict- and error-related ACC hyperactivation which--conforming OCD pathogenesis models--can be conclusively interpreted as reflecting overactive performance monitoring. Taken together, interference resolution and performance monitoring appeared to be fruitful concepts in the

  15. Mechanisms of hormesis through mild heat stress on human cells.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2004-06-01

    In a series of experimental studies, it was shown that repetitive mild heat stress has antiaging hormetic effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro. We have reported the hormetic effects of repeated challenge at the levels of maintenance of stress protein profile; reduction in the accumulation of oxidatively and glycoxidatively damaged proteins; stimulation of the proteasomal activities for the degradation of abnormal proteins; improved cellular resistance to ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and ultraviolet-B rays; and enhanced levels of various antioxidant enzymes. Detailed analysis of the signal transduction pathways to determine alterations in the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation states of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases as a measure of cellular responsiveness to mild and severe heat stress is in progress. Furthermore, comparative studies using nonaging immortal cell lines, such as SV40-transformed human fibroblasts, spontaneous osteosarcoma cells, and telomerase-immortalized human bone marrow cells are also in progress for establishing differences in normal and cancerous cells for their responsiveness to mild and severe stresses.

  16. Mechanical Twinning and Microstructures in Experimentally Stressed Quartzite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, A.; Sintubin, M.; Wenk, H. R.; Rybacki, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since Dauphiné twins in quartz have been identified as a stress-related intracrystalline microstructure, several electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) studies revealed that Dauphiné twins are present in naturally deformed quartz-bearing rocks in a wide range of tectono-metamorphic conditions. EBSD studies on experimentally stressed quartzite showed that crystals with particular crystallographic orientations contain many Dauphiné twin boundaries, while neighboring crystals with different orientations are largely free of twin boundaries. To understand the relationship between stress direction and orientation of Dauphiné twinned quartz crystals, a detailed EBSD study was performed on experimentally stressed quartzite samples and compared with an undeformed reference sample. We stressed 4 cylindrical samples in triaxial compression in a Paterson type gas deformation apparatus at GFZ Potsdam. Experimental conditions were 300MPa confining pressure, 500°C temperature and axial stresses of 145MPa, 250MPa and 460MPa for about 30 hours, resulting in a minor strain <0.04%. EBSD scans were obtained with a Zeiss Evo scanning electron microscope and TSL software at UC Berkeley. The EBSD maps show that Dauphiné twinning is present in the starting material as well as in experimentally stressed samples. Pole figures of the bulk orientation of the reference sample compared with stressed samples show a significant difference regarding the distribution for the r and z directions. The reference sample shows an indistinct maximum for r and z, whereas the stressed samples show a maximum for r poles and a minimum for z poles in the axial stress direction. EBSD scans of the reference and stressed samples were further analyzed manually to identify the orientations of single grains, which are free of twin boundaries and those, which contain twin boundaries. This analysis aims to quantify the relationship of crystal orientation and stress magnitude to initiate mechanical twinning.

  17. [One of the Mechanisms in Blastic Transformation of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Epigenetics Abnormality--Review].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive cloning of bone marrow multipotent stem cells. According to the disease course, the CML may be divided into chronic phase (CP), accelerated phase (AP) and blastic phase (BP). At present, the molecular mechanisms of acute transformation of CML has not been fully understood. The recent studies have shown that the epigenetics is one of mechanisms in blastic transformation of CML, including three molecular mechanisms such as DNA modification, histone modifications and RNA-related dysregulation. The molecular mechanisms for epigenetics leading to the transformation of CML are discussed in this review. PMID:26913431

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the plant heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ai-Li; Ding, Yan-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► This review elaborates the response networks of heat stress in plants. ► It elaborates proteins responding to heat stress in special physiological period. ► The proteins and pathways have formed a basic network of the heat stress response. ► Achievements of the various technologies are also combined. -- Abstract: High temperature has become a global concern, which seriously affects the growth and production of plants, particularly crops. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response and breeding of heat-tolerant plants is necessary to protect food production and ensure crop safety. This review elaborates on the response networks of heat stress in plants, including the Hsf and Hsp response pathways, the response of ROS and the network of the hormones. In addition, the production of heat stress response elements during particular physiological periods of the plant is described. We also discuss the existing problems and future prospects concerning the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in plants.

  19. Effect of applied mechanical stress on absorption coefficient of compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Gurinderjeet; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Kahlon, K. S.

    2015-08-28

    The absorption coefficient of given materials is the parameter required for the basic information. The measurement of absorption coefficient of compounds Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, ZnO{sub 2}, SmO{sub 2} and PbO has been taken at different incident photon energies 26, 59.54, 112, 1173, 1332keV. The studies involve the measurements of absorption coefficient of the self supporting samples prepared under different mechanical stress. This mechanical stress is render in terms of pressure up to 0-6 ton by using hydraulic press. Measurements shows that absorption coefficient of a material is directly proportional to applied mechanical stress on it up to some extent then become independent. Experimentally measured results are in fairly good agreement with in theoretical values obtained from WinXCOM.

  20. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Larsen, M H; Groner, A; Marquis, J; Magistretti, P J; Trono, D; Sandi, C

    2013-01-01

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio. They also exhibit hyperactivity in the amygdala under both basal conditions (evaluated by 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography) and after a resident–intruder (RI) test (evaluated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry), and hypoactivation of the medial orbitofrontal (MO) cortex after the social challenge. Alterations in the connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were linked to the aggressive phenotype. Increased and sustained expression levels of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene were found in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of peripubertally stressed animals. They were accompanied by increased activatory acetylation of histone H3, but not H4, at the promoter of the MAOA gene. Treatment with an MAOA inhibitor during adulthood reversed the peripuberty stress-induced antisocial behaviors. Beyond the characterization and validation of the model, we present novel data highlighting changes in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex—and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene—in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence of violent behaviors. PMID:23321813

  1. Neuroendocrine mechanisms for immune system regulation during stress in fish.

    PubMed

    Nardocci, Gino; Navarro, Cristina; Cortés, Paula P; Imarai, Mónica; Montoya, Margarita; Valenzuela, Beatriz; Jara, Pablo; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Fernández, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    In the last years, the aquaculture crops have experienced an explosive and intensive growth, because of the high demand for protein. This growth has increased fish susceptibility to diseases and subsequent death. The constant biotic and abiotic changes experienced by fish species in culture are challenges that induce physiological, endocrine and immunological responses. These changes mitigate stress effects at the cellular level to maintain homeostasis. The effects of stress on the immune system have been studied for many years. While acute stress can have beneficial effects, chronic stress inhibits the immune response in mammals and teleost fish. In response to stress, a signaling cascade is triggered by the activation of neural circuits in the central nervous system because the hypothalamus is the central modulator of stress. This leads to the production of catecholamines, corticosteroid-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids, which are the essential neuroendocrine mediators for this activation. Because stress situations are energetically demanding, the neuroendocrine signals are involved in metabolic support and will suppress the "less important" immune function. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of the neuroendocrine regulation of immunity in fish will allow the development of new pharmaceutical strategies and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of diseases triggered by stress at all stages of fish cultures for commercial production. PMID:25123831

  2. Molecular mechanisms of mTOR regulation by stress

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Alexander Martin; Prentzell, Mirja Tamara; van Eunen, Karen; Bakker, Barbara Marleen; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are prime examples of cell growth in unfavorable environments that elicit cellular stress. The high metabolic demand and insufficient vascularization of tumors cause a deficiency of oxygen and nutrients. Oncogenic mutations map to signaling events via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), metabolic pathways, and mitochondrial function. These alterations have been linked with cellular stresses, in particular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Yet tumors survive these challenges and acquire highly energy-demanding traits, such as overgrowth and invasiveness. In this review we focus on stresses that occur in cancer cells and discuss them in the context of mTOR signaling. Of note, many tumor traits require mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, but mTORC1 hyperactivation eventually sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Thus, mTORC1 activity needs to be balanced in cancer cells. We provide an overview of the mechanisms contributing to mTOR regulation by stress and suggest a model wherein stress granules function as guardians of mTORC1 signaling, allowing cancer cells to escape stress-induced cell death. PMID:27308421

  3. Microstructural stress relaxation mechanics in functionally different tendons.

    PubMed

    Screen, H R C; Toorani, S; Shelton, J C

    2013-01-01

    Tendons experience widely varying loading conditions in vivo. They may be categorised by their function as either positional tendons, which are used for intricate movements and experience lower stress, or as energy storage tendons which act as highly stressed springs during locomotion. Structural and compositional differences between tendons are thought to enable an optimisation of their properties to suit their functional environment. However, little is known about structure-function relationships in tendon. This study adopts porcine flexor and extensor tendon fascicles as examples of high stress and low stress tendons, comparing their mechanical behaviour at the micro-level in order to understand their stress relaxation response. Stress-relaxation was shown to occur predominantly through sliding between collagen fibres. However, in the more highly stressed flexor tendon fascicles, more fibre reorganisation was evident when the tissue was exposed to low strains. By contrast, the low load extensor tendon fascicles appears to have less capacity for fibre reorganisation or shearing than the energy storage tendon, relying more heavily on fibril level relaxation. The extensor fascicles were also unable to sustain loads without rapid and complete stress relaxation. These findings highlight the need to optimise tendon repair solutions for specific tendons, and match tendon properties when using grafts in tendon repairs.

  4. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  5. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  6. Drosophila blood as a model system for stress sensing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jiwon

    2015-04-01

    The Drosophila lymph gland is the hematopoietic organ in which stem-like progenitors proliferate and give rise to myeloid-type blood cells. Mechanisms involved in Drosophila hematopoiesis are well established and known to be conserved in the vertebrate system. Recent studies in Drosophila lymph gland have provided novel insights into how external and internal stresses integrate into blood progenitor maintenance mechanisms and the control of blood cell fate decision. In this review, I will introduce a developmental overview of the Drosophila hematopoietic system, and recent understandings of how the system uses developmental signals not only for hematopoiesis but also as sensors for stress and environmental changes to elicit necessary blood responses.

  7. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5. PMID:25670646

  8. Similar cortical but not subcortical gray matter abnormalities in women with posttraumatic stress disorder with versus without dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Barker, Gareth J; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-03-30

    Neuroanatomical evidence on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders is still lacking. We acquired brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 17 patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and co-morbid PTSD (DID-PTSD) and 16 patients with PTSD but without DID (PTSD-only), and 32 healthy controls (HC), and compared their whole-brain cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) morphological measurements. Associations between GM measurements and severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms or lifetime traumatizing events were evaluated in the patient groups. DID-PTSD and PTSD-only patients, compared with HC, had similarly smaller cortical GM volumes of the whole brain and of frontal, temporal and insular cortices. DID-PTSD patients additionally showed smaller hippocampal and larger pallidum volumes relative to HC, and larger putamen and pallidum volumes relative to PTSD-only. Severity of lifetime traumatizing events and volume of the hippocampus were negatively correlated. Severity of dissociative and depersonalization/derealization symptoms correlated positively with volume of the putamen and pallidum, and negatively with volume of the inferior parietal cortex. Shared abnormal brain structures in DID-PTSD and PTSD-only, small hippocampal volume in DID-PTSD, more severe lifetime traumatizing events in DID-PTSD compared with PTSD-only, and negative correlations between lifetime traumatizing events and hippocampal volume suggest a trauma-related etiology for DID. Our results provide neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5.

  9. Pathogenic Cx31 is un/misfolded to cause skin abnormality via a Fos/JunB-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chengyuan; Chen, Xiang; Chi, Jingwei; Yang, Dawei; Liu, Shu; Liu, Mujun; Pan, Qian; Fan, Jianbing; Wang, Danling; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in connexin-31 (Cx31) are associated with multiple human diseases, including familial erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV). The pathogenic mechanism of EKV-associated Cx31 mutants remains largely elusive. Here, we show that EKV-pathogenic Cx31 mutants are un/misfolded and temperature sensitive. In Drosophila, expression of pathogenic Cx31, but not wild-type Cx31, causes depigmentation and degeneration of ommatidia that are rescued by expression of either dBip or dHsp70. Ectopic expression of Cx31 in mouse skin results in skin abnormalities resembling human EKV. The affected tissues show remarkable disrupted gap junction formation and significant upregulation of chaperones Bip and Hsp70 as well as AP-1 proteins c-Fos and JunB, in addition to molecular signatures of skin diseases. Consistently, c-Fos, JunB, Bip and Hsp70 are strikingly higher in keratinocytes of EKV patients than their matched control individuals. Furthermore, a druggable AP-1 inhibitory small molecule suppresses skin phenotype and pathological abnormalities of transgenic Cx31 mice. The study suggests that Cx31 mutant proteins are un/misfolded to cause EKV likely via an AP-1-mediated mechanism and identifies a small molecule with therapeutic potential of the disease.

  10. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  11. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Nakayama, Naomi; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-04-01

    Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types. PMID:27074136

  12. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Nakayama, Naomi; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types. PMID:27074136

  13. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  14. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical stress relief shall be carried out in accordance with the following stipulations using water...

  15. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical stress relief shall be carried out in accordance with the following stipulations using water...

  16. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical stress relief shall be carried out in accordance with the following stipulations using water...

  17. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10... PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical stress relief shall be carried out in accordance with the following stipulations using water...

  18. Intrinsic mechanisms of pain inhibition: activation by stress.

    PubMed

    Terman, G W; Shavit, Y; Lewis, J W; Cannon, J T; Liebeskind, J C

    1984-12-14

    Portions of the brain stem seem normally to inhibit pain. In man and laboratory animals these brain areas and pathways from them to spinal sensory circuits can be activated by focal stimulation. Endogenous opioids appear to be implicated although separate nonopioid mechanisms are also evident. Stress seems to be a natural stimulus triggering pain suppression. Properties of electric footshock have been shown to determine the opioid or nonopioid basis of stress-induced analgesia. Two different opioid systems can be activated by different footshock paradigms. This dissection of stress analgesia has begun to integrate divergent findings concerning pain inhibition and also to account for some of the variance that has obscured the reliable measurement of the effects of stress on tumor growth and immune function.

  19. Variational mechanics analysis of the stresses in microdrop debond specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheer, Robert J.; Nairn, John A.

    1991-01-01

    A recently derived variational mechanics analysis of stresses in single-fiber model composites has been applied to the analysis of the stresses in the microdrop debond specimen. The new analysis is more accurate than the commonly applied shear-lag or elastic-plastic analyses. The results from a sample stress state calculation suggest that interfacial failure between the fiber and the microdrop is by mode I or opening mode failure at the beginning of the microdrop. The opening mode failure is caused by a large tensile radial stress at the fiber/matrix interface. Previous analyses of microdrop debond data have been in terms of a shear strength. It is suggested that these analyses misrepresent microdrop debond results and recommend instead a failure analysis based on energy release rate and interfacial fracture toughness. A procedure for calculating the energy release rate for the growth of an interfacial crack is described.

  20. Mechanical Stress Inference for Two Dimensional Cell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Kevin K.; Hufnagel, Lars; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2012-01-01

    Many morphogenetic processes involve mechanical rearrangements of epithelial tissues that are driven by precisely regulated cytoskeletal forces and cell adhesion. The mechanical state of the cell and intercellular adhesion are not only the targets of regulation, but are themselves the likely signals that coordinate developmental process. Yet, because it is difficult to directly measure mechanical stress in vivo on sub-cellular scale, little is understood about the role of mechanics in development. Here we present an alternative approach which takes advantage of the recent progress in live imaging of morphogenetic processes and uses computational analysis of high resolution images of epithelial tissues to infer relative magnitude of forces acting within and between cells. We model intracellular stress in terms of bulk pressure and interfacial tension, allowing these parameters to vary from cell to cell and from interface to interface. Assuming that epithelial cell layers are close to mechanical equilibrium, we use the observed geometry of the two dimensional cell array to infer interfacial tensions and intracellular pressures. Here we present the mathematical formulation of the proposed Mechanical Inverse method and apply it to the analysis of epithelial cell layers observed at the onset of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila embryo and in the process of hair-cell determination in the avian cochlea. The analysis reveals mechanical anisotropy in the former process and mechanical heterogeneity, correlated with cell differentiation, in the latter process. The proposed method opens a way for quantitative and detailed experimental tests of models of cell and tissue mechanics. PMID:22615550

  1. Mechanical stresses and amorphization of ion-implanted diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelnitsky, R. A.; Dravin, V. A.; Tal, A. A.; Latushko, M. I.; Khomich, A. A.; Khomich, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Terentiev, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Scanning white light interferometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanical stresses and structural changes in ion-implanted natural diamonds with different impurity content. The uniform distribution of radiation defects in implanted area was obtained by the regime of multiple-energy implantation of keV He+ ions. A modification of Bosia's et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 (2010) 2991) method for determining the internal stresses and the density variation in an ion-implanted diamond layer was proposed that suggests measuring, in addition to the surface swelling of a diamond plate, the radius of curvature of the plate. It is shown that, under multiple-energy implantation of He+, mechanical stresses in the implanted layer may be as high as 12 GPa. It is shown that radiation damage reaches saturation for the implantation fluence characteristic of amorphization of diamond but is appreciably lower than the graphitization threshold.

  2. Biochemical mechanisms of signaling: perspectives in plants under arsenic stress.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra

    2015-04-01

    Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security.

  3. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes that occurred in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin was divided into 9 regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the good station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes out of the 494 mechanisms we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in good agreement with the Arava fault on the eastern side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of sigma1 and sigma2 or the switching of sigma2 and sigma3as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  4. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  5. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Transfer As a Possible Aftershock Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2014-12-01

    The earthquake dynamics can be modelled by employing the spring-block system [Burridge and Knopoff, 1967]. In this approach the earthquake fault is modelled by an array of blocks coupling the loading plate and the lower plate. The dynamics of the system is governed by the system of equations of motion for each block. It is possible to map this system into a cellular automata model, where the stress acting on each block is increased in each time step, and the failing process (frictional slip) is described by stress transfer rules [Olami et al, 1992]. The OFC model produces a power-law distribution for avalanche statistics but it is not capable of producing robust aftershock sequences which follow Omori's law.We propose a nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer mechanism in the aftershock triggering. In a basic spring-block model setting, we introduce the nonlinear viscoelastic stress transfer between neighbouring blocks, as well as between blocks and the top loading plate. The shear stress of the viscous component is a power-law function of the velocity gradient with an exponent smaller or greater than 1 for the nonlinear viscoelasticity, or 1 for the linear case. The stress transfer function of this nonlinear viscoelastic model has a power-law time-dependent form. It features an instantaneous stress transmission triggering an instantaneous avalanche, which is the same as the original spring-block model; and a power-law relaxation term, which could trigger further aftershocks. We incorporate this nonlinear viscoelasticity mechanism in a lattice cellular automata model. The model could exhibit both the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for the frequency-magnitude distribution and a power-law time decay of aftershocks, which is in accordance with Omori's law. Our study suggests that the stress transfer function may play an important role in the aftershock triggering. We have found that the time decay curve of aftershocks is affected by the shape of the stress transfer function

  6. Neurobiological Mechanisms Supporting Experience-Dependent Resistance to Social Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Matthew A.; Clinard, Catherine T.; Morrison, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and other animals show a remarkable capacity for resilience following traumatic, stressful events. Resilience is thought to be an active process related to coping with stress, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support active coping and stress resistance remain poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the neurobiological mechanisms by which environmental and social experiences promote stress resistance. In male Syrian hamsters, exposure to a brief social defeat stressor leads to increased avoidance of novel opponents, which we call conditioned defeat. Also, hamsters that have achieved dominant social status show reduced conditioned defeat as well as cellular and molecular changes in the neural circuits controlling the conditioned defeat response. We propose that experience-dependent neural plasticity occurs in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, infralimbic (IL) cortex, and ventral medial amygdala (vMeA) during the maintenance of dominance relationships, and that adaptions in these neural circuits support stress resistance in dominant individuals. Overall, behavioral treatments that promote success in competitive interactions may represent valuable interventions for instilling resilience. PMID:25677096

  7. Mechanical twinning as stress indicator in fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, H.

    2011-12-01

    At low stresses and elevated temperatures rocks deform by dislocation movements and diffusion. At very high stresses they undergo brittle failure. For many minerals there is an intermediate regime where mechanical twinning occurs. This has been studied extensively in calcite (Turner, Griggs and Heard, GSA Mem. 1954) and also documented for quartz (Tullis, Science, 1972). In this study we use twinning microstructures to characterize rocks that were subjected to seismic stresses, specifically pseudotachylites and samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. For calcite in SAFOD samples, dislocation densities derived from TEM images as well as twin densities measured by optical microscopy, indicate stresses between 50 and 200 MPa. Similar residual stress magnitudes were obtained from preserved lattice distortion determined by synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction. Also quartz shows characteristic twin microstructures. Orientation maps with SEM-EBSD reveal that quartz associated with pseudotachylite veins is profusely twinned, similar to structures observed in quartz subjected to meteorite impacts. It suggests that local dynamic seismic stresses during earthquakes are responsible for Dauphiné twinning. Thus microstructures in minerals add information to constrain macroscopic conditions during faulting.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Arrhythmia by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sovari, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies for arrhythmia using ion channel blockade, catheter ablation, or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator have limitations, and it is important to search for new antiarrhythmic therapeutic targets. Both atrial fibrillation and heart failure, a condition with increased arrhythmic risk, are associated with excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are several possible ways for ROS to induce arrhythmia. ROS can cause focal activity and reentry. ROS alter multiple cardiac ionic currents. ROS promote cardiac fibrosis and impair gap junction function, resulting in reduced myocyte coupling and facilitation of reentry. In order to design effective antioxidant drugs for treatment of arrhythmia, it is essential to explore the molecular mechanisms by which ROS exert these arrhythmic effects. Activation of Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II, c-Src tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, and abnormal splicing of cardiac sodium channels are among the recently discovered molecular mechanisms of ROS-induced arrhythmia. PMID:26981310

  9. ZERODUR glass ceramics: design of structures with high mechanical stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattermann, Kurt; Hartmann, Peter; Kling, Guenther; Gath, Peter; Lucarelli, Stefano; Messerschmidt, Boris

    2008-07-01

    Designing highly mechanically loaded structures made of the zero expansion glass ceramic material ZERODUR® means to analyze the stress for the whole loaded surface, considering changes of the stress state occurring over the total lifetime. Strength data are obtained from specimens with small size and relatively short loading duration, making them not directly applicable to the much larger areas that occur in practical cases. This publication gives guidelines for calculating a fracture probability for mirrors and structures on the basis of existing strength data.

  10. Ca2+-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Mechanical Stress-Mediated Cartilage Thinning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Zhou, S; Huang, Z; Wen, J; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study identified that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a critical role in chondrocyte apoptosis and mandibular cartilage thinning in response to compressive mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Because the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a primary site of intracellular Ca(2+) storage, we hypothesized that Ca(2+)-dependent ERS might be involved in mechanical stress-mediated mandibular cartilage thinning. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models to determine Ca(2+) concentrations, histological changes, subcellular changes, apoptosis, and the expression of ERS markers in mandibular cartilage and chondrocytes. The results showed that in chondrocytes, cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) was dramatically increased by compressive mechanical force. Interestingly, the inhibition of Ca(2+) channels by ryanodine and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, inhibitors of ryanodine receptors and inositol trisphosphate receptors, respectively, partially rescued mechanical force-mediated mandibular cartilage thinning. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis was also compromised by inhibiting the increase in [Ca(2+)]i that occurred in response to compressive mechanical force. Mechanistically, the ERS induced by compressive mechanical force was also repressed by [Ca(2+)]i inhibition, as demonstrated by a decrease in the expression of the ER stress markers 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these data identified [Ca(2+)]i as a critical mediator of the pathological changes that occur in mandibular cartilage under compressive mechanical force and shed light on the treatment of mechanical stress-mediated cartilage degradation.

  11. Prenatal ethanol exposure-induced adrenal developmental abnormality of male offspring rats and its possible intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hegui; He, Zheng; Zhu, Chunyan; Liu, Lian; Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Fetal adrenal developmental status is the major determinant of fetal tissue maturation and offspring growth. We have previously proposed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) suppresses fetal adrenal corticosterone (CORT) synthesis. Here, we focused on PEE-induced adrenal developmental abnormalities of male offspring rats before and after birth, and aimed to explore its intrauterine programming mechanisms. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE (4g/kg·d). In PEE fetus, increased serum CORT concentration and decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) concentration, with lower bodyweight and structural abnormalities as well as a decreased Ki67 expression (proliferative marker), were observed in the male fetal adrenal cortex. Adrenal glucocorticoid (GC)-metabolic activation system was enhanced while gene expression of IGF1 signaling pathway with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) was decreased. Furthermore, in the male adult offspring of PEE, serum CORT level was decreased but IGF1 was increased with partial catch-up growth, and Ki67 expression demonstrated no obvious change. Adrenal GC-metabolic activation system was inhibited, while IGF1 signaling pathway and 3β-HSD was enhanced with the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), and StAR was down-regulated in the adult adrenal. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" mechanism for PEE-induced adrenal developmental toxicity: "the first programming" is a lower functional programming of adrenal steroidogenesis, and "the second programming" is GC-metabolic activation system-related GC-IGF1 axis programming.

  12. Neuronal-glial mechanisms of exercise-evoked stress robustness.

    PubMed

    Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Yirmiya, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Stress robustness by definition, incorporates both stress resistance (organisms endure greater stressor intensity or duration before suffering negative consequences) and stress resilience (organisms recover faster after suffering negative consequences). Factors that influence stress robustness include the nature of the stressor, (i.e., controllability, intensity, chronicity) and features of the organism (i.e., age, genetics, sex, and physical activity status). Here we present a novel hypothesis for how physically active versus sedentary living promotes stress robustness in the face of intense uncontrollable stress. Advances in neurobiology have established microglia as an active player in the regulation of synaptic activity, and recent work has revealed mechanisms for modulating glial function, including cross talk between neurons and glia. This chapter presents supporting evidence that the physical activity status of an organism may modulate stress-evoked neuronal-glial responses by changing the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis. Specifically, we propose that sedentary animals respond to an intense acute uncontrollable stressor with excessive serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenergic (NE) activity and/or prolonged down-regulation of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis resulting in activation and proliferation of hippocampal microglia in the absence of pathogenic signals and consequent hippocampal-dependent memory deficits and reduced neurogenesis. In contrast, physically active animals respond to the same stressor with constrained 5-HT and NE activity and rapidly recovering CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis responses resulting in the quieting of microglia, and protection from negative cognitive and neurobiological effects of stress. PMID:24481547

  13. Psychosocial stress and neuroendocrine mechanisms in preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Grizzard, Tarayn A

    2005-05-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of psychosocial stress to the racial/ethnic disparities in preterm delivery in the United States and addresses the subset of psychosocial stressors that are disproportionately prevalent among minority women. We argue that chronic exposure to poverty, racism, and insecure neighborhoods may condition stress responses and physiologic changes in ways that increase the risk of preterm delivery. Cumulative stressors may impact pregnancy outcomes through several intersecting pathways, which include neuroendocrine, behavioral, immune, and vascular mechanisms. Many of these pathways also lead to chronic disease. It may be useful to consider preterm delivery as a chronic disease with roots in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Like other physiologic systems, the female reproductive axis may be vulnerable to the physiologic "wear and tear" of cumulative stress, which results in preterm delivery.

  14. Covariant statistical mechanics and the stress-energy tensor.

    PubMed

    Becattini, F

    2012-06-15

    After recapitulating the covariant formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics in special relativity and extending it to the case of a nonvanishing spin tensor, we show that the relativistic stress-energy tensor at thermodynamical equilibrium can be obtained from a functional derivative of the partition function with respect to the inverse temperature four-vector β. For usual thermodynamical equilibrium, the stress-energy tensor turns out to be the derivative of the relativistic thermodynamic potential current with respect to the four-vector β, i.e., T(μν)=-∂Φ(μ)/∂β(ν). This formula establishes a relation between the stress-energy tensor and the entropy current at equilibrium, possibly extendable to nonequilibrium hydrodynamics. PMID:23004277

  15. Stress Response Mechanisms: From Single Cells to Multinational Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Can a literal comparison be made between biological phenomena in organisms and phenomena in human organizations? The evidence provided by simplified but useful examples appears to suggest that a phenomenon simulating hormesis can and does occur in organizational contexts. Similarities between stress response behaviors of organisms and stress response behaviors in organizations are discussed. Cellular stress response mechanisms stimulate and repair, as well as defend the organism against further attacks. Organizational hormesis describes actions that stimulate the organization by increasing its focus and protecting it against future attacks. The common aim for the organism as well as the organization is to increase the probability of survival. The following describes examples of organizational survival that demonstrate a number of hormetic parallels between organisms and organisations. PMID:18648597

  16. Covariant statistical mechanics and the stress-energy tensor.

    PubMed

    Becattini, F

    2012-06-15

    After recapitulating the covariant formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics in special relativity and extending it to the case of a nonvanishing spin tensor, we show that the relativistic stress-energy tensor at thermodynamical equilibrium can be obtained from a functional derivative of the partition function with respect to the inverse temperature four-vector β. For usual thermodynamical equilibrium, the stress-energy tensor turns out to be the derivative of the relativistic thermodynamic potential current with respect to the four-vector β, i.e., T(μν)=-∂Φ(μ)/∂β(ν). This formula establishes a relation between the stress-energy tensor and the entropy current at equilibrium, possibly extendable to nonequilibrium hydrodynamics.

  17. Abnormal tau induces cognitive impairment through two different mechanisms: synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss

    PubMed Central

    Di, J.; Cohen, L. S.; Corbo, C. P.; Phillips, G. R.; El Idrissi, A.; Alonso, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    The hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau is present in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the causal relationship remains elusive. Few mouse models used to study Alzheimer-like dementia target tau phosphorylation. We created an inducible pseudophosphorylated tau (Pathological Human Tau, PH-Tau) mouse model to study the effect of conformationally modified tau in vivo. Leaky expression resulted in two levels of PH-Tau: low basal level and higher upon induction (4% and 14% of the endogenous tau, respectively). Unexpectedly, low PH-Tau resulted in significant cognitive deficits, decrease in the number of synapses (seen by EM in the CA1 region), reduction of synaptic proteins, and localization to the nucleus. Induction of PH-Tau triggered neuronal death (60% in CA3), astrocytosis, and loss of the processes in CA1. These findings suggest, that phosphorylated tau is sufficient to induce neurodegeneration and that two different mechanisms can induce cognitive impairment depending on the levels of PH-Tau expression. PMID:26888634

  18. [Dynamic obstruction to left ventricular outflow during dobutamine stress echocardiography: the probable mechanisms and clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Scandura, S; Arcidiacono, S; Felis, S; Barbagallo, G; Deste, W; Drago, A; Calvi, V; Giuffrida, G

    1998-11-01

    We observed the development of left ventricular outflow tract dynamic obstruction in some patients during dobutamine stress echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible mechanisms and to consider the clinical implications. From 11/04/94 to 01/09/97 we studied 547 patients; 42 patients developed dynamic obstruction, defined as a late peak Doppler velocity profile that exceeded baseline outflow velocity by at least 1 m/s. The encountered mechanisms were: increased myocardial contractility; systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve; decreased venous return to the left ventricle, and peculiar characteristics of the left ventricular geometry. The results of this study show that the dynamic obstruction is mainly due to the first mechanism and secondarily to some characteristics of the left ventricular geometry. The hypotension observed in a few cases is not related to the dynamic obstruction but to beta 2 receptor hypersensibility to dobutamine. The symptoms, like dyspnea and chest pain, experienced by these patients are related to the dynamic obstruction rather than to the presence of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, we think that patients who develop dynamic obstruction, without wall motion abnormalities, during dobutamine stress echocardiography, may behave pathophysiologically as patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in whom diastolic dysfunction and outflow tract obstruction are responsible for symptoms. Therefore, these patients require a pharmacological treatment with beta blockers and/or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. PMID:9922586

  19. Mechanical and electromagnetic induction of protection against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, A L; White, N C; Litovitz, T A

    2001-01-01

    Cells and tissues can be protected against a potentially lethal stress by first exposing them to a brief dose of the same or different stress. This "pre-conditioning" phenomenon has been documented in many models of protection against oxidative stress, including ischemia/reperfusion and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Stimuli which induce this protective response include heat, chemicals, brief ischemia, and electromagnetic (EM) field exposures. We report here that constant mechanical vibration pre-conditions chick embryos, protecting them during subsequent stress from hypoxia or UV light exposure. Continuously mechanically vibrated embryos (60 Hz, 1 g (32 ft/s2), 20 min) exhibited nearly double the survival (67.5%, P < 0.001) after subsequent hypoxia as compared to non-vibrated controls (37.6%). As a second set of experiments, embryos were vibrated and then exposed to UV light stress. Those embryos that were vibrated prior to UV had nearly double the survival 3 h after UV exposure (66%, P < 0.001) as compared to controls (35%). The degree of protection, however, was dependent on the constancy of the vibration amplitude. When vibration was turned on and off at 1-s intervals throughout exposure, no increase in hypoxia protection was noted. For 50 s on/off vibration intervals, however, hypoxia protection comparable to continuous vibration was obtained. In contrast, random, inconstant mechanical vibration did not induce protection against subsequent UV exposure. These data suggest that to be an effective pre-conditioning agent, mechanical vibration must have a degree of temporally constancy (on/off intervals of greater than 1 s). Further experiments in both models (hypoxia and UV) indicated an interaction between vibration and EM field-induced protection. Vibration-induced hypoxia protection was inhibited by superposition of a random EM noise field (previously shown to inhibit EM field-induced protection). In addition, EM field-induced UV protection was inhibited by

  20. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  1. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules - which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport - can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of larger damages, which further decrease microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  2. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  3. 2D FSI determination of mechanical stresses on aneurismal walls.

    PubMed

    Veshkina, Natalia; Zbicinski, Ireneusz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction analysis based on the application of patient-specific mechanical parameters of the aneurismal walls was carried out to predict the rupture side during an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Realistic geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed from CT data acquired from the patient, and patient-specific flow conditions were applied as boundary conditions. A newly developed non-invasive methodology for determining the mechanical parameters of the patient-specific aortic wall was employed to simulate realistic aortic wall behaviors. Analysis of the results included time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and von Mises stress (VMS). Results of the TAWSS, OSI, and VMS were compared to identify the most probable region of the AAA's rupture. High OSI, which identified the region of wall degradation, coincided with the location of maximum VMS, meaning that the anterior part of the aneurismal wall was a potential region of rupture. PMID:25226953

  4. Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Action in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Beninati, Concetta; De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Most melanomas occur on the skin, but a small percentage of these life-threatening cancers affect other parts of the body, such as the eye and mucous membranes, including the mouth. Given that most melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, close attention has been paid to the impact of oxidative stress on these tumors. The possibility that key epigenetic enzymes cannot act on a DNA altered by oxidative stress has opened new perspectives. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the alteration of DNA methylation by oxidative stress. We review the current evidence about (i) the role of oxidative stress in melanoma initiation and progression; (ii) the mechanisms by which ROS influence the DNA methylation pattern of transformed melanocytes; (iii) the transformative potential of oxidative stress-induced changes in global and/or local gene methylation and expression; (iv) the employment of this epimutation as a biomarker for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance evaluation; (v) the impact of this new knowledge in clinical practice for melanoma treatment. PMID:26064422

  5. Effect of mechanical stress on optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, Ivan; Tarjányi, Norbert; Martinček, Ivan; Káčik, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present results of our investigation of the effect of mechanical stress on the coefficient of absorption and the refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the NIR region. We study optical transmittance and optical paths of PDMS samples compressed up to a length expressed by the value of the relative stress -0.5. The experimentally obtained results imply that the stress-induced changes of the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of PDMS are due to a change of the density of dimethyl-siloxane groups rather than a change of the PDMS's molecular structure. Since we performed measurements for high stresses, we modified the Poisson's relation to obtain its generalized form that holds for any stress and that we named generalized Poisson's relation. To obtain this relation we assumed that an elementary increase of each of the two lateral dimensions of a sample is determined by the Poisson's constant and the actual longitudinal dimension of the sample which is subject to change during the process of deformation. Then to express the change of the density of the electric dipoles in a PDMS sample we used this relation. The realized measurements indicate that the deformation dependent changes of the optical transmittances and the optical paths of the samples are in a good agreement with the values calculated using the assumption of the dominant influence of the density of the elementary dipoles and the validity of the generalized Poisson's relation.

  6. Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Action in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Beninati, Concetta; De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Most melanomas occur on the skin, but a small percentage of these life-threatening cancers affect other parts of the body, such as the eye and mucous membranes, including the mouth. Given that most melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, close attention has been paid to the impact of oxidative stress on these tumors. The possibility that key epigenetic enzymes cannot act on a DNA altered by oxidative stress has opened new perspectives. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the alteration of DNA methylation by oxidative stress. We review the current evidence about (i) the role of oxidative stress in melanoma initiation and progression; (ii) the mechanisms by which ROS influence the DNA methylation pattern of transformed melanocytes; (iii) the transformative potential of oxidative stress-induced changes in global and/or local gene methylation and expression; (iv) the employment of this epimutation as a biomarker for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance evaluation; (v) the impact of this new knowledge in clinical practice for melanoma treatment. PMID:26064422

  7. Cellular Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress and Action in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Venza, Mario; Visalli, Maria; Beninati, Concetta; De Gaetano, Giuseppe Valerio; Teti, Diana; Venza, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Most melanomas occur on the skin, but a small percentage of these life-threatening cancers affect other parts of the body, such as the eye and mucous membranes, including the mouth. Given that most melanomas are caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure, close attention has been paid to the impact of oxidative stress on these tumors. The possibility that key epigenetic enzymes cannot act on a DNA altered by oxidative stress has opened new perspectives. Therefore, much attention has been paid to the alteration of DNA methylation by oxidative stress. We review the current evidence about (i) the role of oxidative stress in melanoma initiation and progression; (ii) the mechanisms by which ROS influence the DNA methylation pattern of transformed melanocytes; (iii) the transformative potential of oxidative stress-induced changes in global and/or local gene methylation and expression; (iv) the employment of this epimutation as a biomarker for melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and drug resistance evaluation; (v) the impact of this new knowledge in clinical practice for melanoma treatment.

  8. Nematodynamics modelling under extreme mechanical and electric stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoddeo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals confined in asymmetric π-cells and subjected to intense electrical and mechanical stresses undergo strong distortions which can be relaxed by means of the order reconstruction, a fast switching mechanism connecting topologically different textures, assuming bulk and/or surface characteristics depending on both amplitude of the applied electric fields and anchoring angles of the nematic molecules on the confining surfaces. In the frame of the Landau-de Gennes order tensor theory, we provide a numerical model implemented with a moving mesh finite element method appropriate to describe the nematic order dynamics, allowing to map the switching properties of the nematic texture.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Sources, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Tao, Chuanyuan; Gan, Qi; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the highest mortality and morbidity despite only constituting approximately 10–15% of all strokes. Complex underlying mechanisms consisting of cytotoxic, excitotoxic, and inflammatory effects of intraparenchymal blood are responsible for its highly damaging effects. Oxidative stress (OS) also plays an important role in brain injury after ICH but attracts less attention than other factors. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the metabolite axis of hemoglobin-heme-iron is the key contributor to oxidative brain damage after ICH, although other factors, such as neuroinflammation and prooxidases, are involved. This review will discuss the sources, possible molecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets of OS in ICH. PMID:26843907

  10. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death.

  11. Multimodal functional cardiac MRI in creatine kinase-deficient mice reveals subtle abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Streif, Jörg U; Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ritter, Oliver; Sosnovik, David; Bauer, Lisa; Neubauer, Stefan; Jakob, Peter M; Ertl, Georg; Spindler, Matthias; Bauer, Wolfgang R

    2006-06-01

    A decrease in the supply of ATP from the creatine kinase (CK) system is thought to contribute to the evolution of heart failure. However, previous studies on mice with a combined knockout of the mitochondrial and cytosolic CK (CK(-/-)) have not revealed overt left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to employ novel MRI techniques to measure maximal myocardial velocity (V(max)) and myocardial perfusion and thus determine whether abnormalities in the myocardial phenotype existed in CK(-/-) mice, both at baseline and 4 wk after myocardial infarction (MI). As a result, myocardial hypertrophy was seen in all CK(-/-) mice, but ejection fraction (EF) remained normal. V(max), however, was significantly reduced in the CK(-/-) mice [wild-type, 2.32 +/- 0.09 vs. CK(-/-), 1.43 +/- 0.16 cm/s, P < 0.05; and wild-type MI, 1.53 +/- 0.11 vs. CK(-/-) MI, 1.26 +/- 0.11 cm/s, P = not significant (NS), P < 0.05 vs. baseline]. Myocardial perfusion was also lower in the CK(-/-) mice (wild-type, 6.68 +/- 0.27 vs. CK(-/-), 4.12 +/- 0.63 ml/g.min, P < 0.05; and wild-type MI, 3.97 +/- 0.65 vs. CK(-/-) MI, 3.71 +/- 0.57 ml/g.min, P = NS, P < 0.05 vs. baseline), paralleled by a significantly reduced capillary density (histology). In conclusion, myocardial function in transgenic mice may appear normal when only gross indexes of performance such as EF are assessed. However, the use of a combination of novel MRI techniques to measure myocardial perfusion and mechanics allowed the abnormalities in the CK(-/-) phenotype to be detected. The myocardium in CK-deficient mice is characterized by reduced perfusion and reduced maximal contraction velocity, suggesting that the myocardial hypertrophy seen in these mice cannot fully compensate for the absence of the CK system.

  12. Chemical reactions modulated by mechanical stress: extended Bell theory.

    PubMed

    Konda, Sai Sriharsha M; Brantley, Johnathan N; Bielawski, Christopher W; Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2011-10-28

    A number of recent studies have shown that mechanical stress can significantly lower or raise the activation barrier of a chemical reaction. Within a common approximation due to Bell [Science 200, 618 (1978)], this barrier is linearly dependent on the applied force. A simple extension of Bell's theory that includes higher order corrections in the force predicts that the force-induced change in the activation energy will be given by -FΔR - ΔχF(2)∕2. Here, ΔR is the change of the distance between the atoms, at which the force F is applied, from the reactant to the transition state, and Δχ is the corresponding change in the mechanical compliance of the molecule. Application of this formula to the electrocyclic ring-opening of cis and trans 1,2-dimethylbenzocyclobutene shows that this extension of Bell's theory essentially recovers the force dependence of the barrier, while the original Bell formula exhibits significant errors. Because the extended Bell theory avoids explicit inclusion of the mechanical stress or strain in electronic structure calculations, it allows a computationally efficient characterization of the effect of mechanical forces on chemical processes. That is, the mechanical susceptibility of any reaction pathway is described in terms of two parameters, ΔR and Δχ, both readily computable at zero force.

  13. Curcumin prevents haloperidol-induced development of abnormal oro-facial movements: possible implications of Bcl-XL in its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Sookram, Christal; Tan, Mattea; Daya, Ritesh; Heffernan, Spencer; Mishra, Ram K

    2011-08-01

    Curcumin (Curcuma Longa Linn), the active component of turmeric, has been shown to be effective in ameliorating several stress and drug-induced disorders in rats and humans. However, it is unclear whether short term curcumin administration can prevent the abnormal oro-facial movements (AOFM) which develop following blockade of dopamine D2 receptors by antagonist such as Haloperidol. The objective of this study is to determine whether short term treatment with curcumin along with Haloperidol can prevent the development of AOFM in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered curcumin at 200 mg/kg, and Haloperidol at 2 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks, and AOFMs and locomotor activity were assessed at baseline, day 7 and day 14. By day 14, rats receiving concurrent curcumin administration had a significant reduction in the incidence of Haloperidol-induced AOFMs, but no change on the Haloperidol-induced hypolocomotion. There was no spiked increase in locomotor activity in absence of challenge with dopamine D2 receptor agonist. The exact mechanism by which curcumin attenuates AOFMs remains unknown, therefore, we performed a proteomic analysis of the striatal samples obtained from control and curcumin treated groups. A number of proteins were altered by curcumin, among them an antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-XL, was significantly upregulated. These results suggest that curcumin may be a promising treatment to prevent the development of AOFMs and further suggest some therapeutic value in the treatment of movement disorders. PMID:21218454

  14. Abnormal reward functioning across substance use disorders and major depressive disorder: Considering reward as a transdiagnostic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Foti, Dan

    2015-11-01

    A common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is that its criteria are based more on behavioral descriptions than on underlying biological mechanisms. Increasingly, calls have intensified for a more biologically-based approach to conceptualizing, studying, and treating psychological disorders, as exemplified by the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC). Among the most well-studied neurobiological mechanisms is reward processing. Moreover, individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to risk for substance abuse and depression. The current review synthesizes the available preclinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging literature on reward processing from a transdiagnostic, multidimensional perspective. Findings are organized with respect to key reward constructs within the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC matrix, including initial responsiveness to reward (physiological 'liking'), approach motivation (physiological 'wanting'), and reward learning/habit formation. In the current review, we (a) describe the neural basis of reward, (b) elucidate differences in reward activity in substance abuse and depression, and (c) suggest a framework for integrating these disparate literatures and discuss the utility of shifting focus from diagnosis to process for understanding liability and co-morbidity. Ultimately, we believe that an integrative focus on abnormal reward functioning across the full continuum of clinically heterogeneous samples, rather than within circumscribed diagnostic categories, might actually help to refine the phenotypes and improve the prediction of onset and recovery of these disorders.

  15. Usefulness of noninvasive detection of left ventricular diastolic abnormalities during isometric stress in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in athletes.

    PubMed

    Manolas, J; Kyriakidis, M; Anastasakis, A; Pegas, P; Rigopoulos, A; Theopistou, A; Toutouzas, P

    1998-02-01

    We showed previously that the handgrip apexcardiographic test (HAT) is a useful method for detecting left ventricular (LV) diastolic abnormalities in patients with coronary artery disease and systemic hypertension. This study evaluates the use of HAT for assessing the prevalence and types of exercise-induced diastolic abnormalities in patients with obstructive (n = 31) and nonobstructive (n = 35) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) as well as its potential value for separating healthy subjects and athletes from patients with HC. We obtained a HAT in 66 consecutive patients with HC and in 72 controls (52 healthy volunteers and 20 athletes). A positive HAT was defined by the presence of one of the following: (1) relative A wave to total height (A/H) during or after handgrip > 21% (compliance type), (2) total apexcardiographic relaxation time (TART) > 143 ms or the heart rate corrected TART (TARTI) during handgrip < 0.14, (relaxation type), (3) both types present (mixed type), and (4) diastolic amplitude time index (DATI = TARTI/[A/D]) during handgrip < 0.27. Of the controls, only 1 of 52 healthy subjects and 1 of 20 athletes showed a positive HAT, whereas of the total HC cohort 63 of 66 patients (95%) had a positive result. There was no significant difference in the distribution of these types between obstructive and nonobstructive HC. Further, no LV diastolic abnormalities were present in 10 of 35 patients (29%) with nonobstructive HC at rest and in 3 of 35 patients (9%) during handgrip, whereas of the patients with obstructive HC only 1 of 31 (3%) had no LV diastolic abnormalities at rest and none during handgrip. Based on HAT data, our study demonstrates that in HC (1) LV diastolic abnormalities are very frequent during handgrip; (2) patients with nonobstructive HC show significantly fewer LV diastolic abnormalities at rest than those with obstructive HC; and (3) no significant difference exists between obstructive and nonobstructive HC in the prevalence of types of

  16. Stress testing predischarge and six weeks after myocardial infarction to compare submaximal and maximal exercise predischarge and to assess the reproducibility of induced abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Handler, C E; Sowton, E

    1985-10-01

    Submaximal and maximal treadmill exercise tests were performed predischarge in 64 patients after acute myocardial infarction to assess the relative yield of residual ischaemic abnormalities. The reproducibility of individual abnormalities resulting from maximal stress tests performed predischarge and 6 weeks after infarction was also assessed in 55 of these patients. Compared with predischarge submaximal exercise testing, a maximal exercise test identified a significantly greater number of patients with residual myocardial ischaemia (26 vs. 15, P less than 0.05) and this was associated with a significantly longer average maximal exercise duration (P less than 0.001), and a higher rate-pressure product (P less than 0.001). Among the 55 patients who had maximal stress tests both predischarge and 6 weeks after infarction, there was a significant lack of reproducibility in the occurrence of exercise induced angina (P less than 0.01) and an abnormal blood pressure response (P less than 0.02). In contrast, exercise induced ST segment depression and elevation and ventricular arrhythmias were relatively reproducible. More patients had an ischaemic test result (ST depression or angina) at the later test compared to the predischarge test (33 vs. 25 patients) but this increase was not statistically significant. There were, however, significant increases at the later test in mean maximal exercise duration (P less than 0.001). mean maximal heart rate (P less than 0.001) and heart rate-systolic blood pressure double product (P less than 0.001). The majority of patients who had a cardiac event in the period between the two tests had a predischarge test abnormality. We conclude that a significantly greater number of patients with residual reversible myocardial ischaemia after infarction will be identified by symptom limited exercise testing compared with a submaximal predischarge test. Because ST depression and elevation appear reproducible, patients who develop these

  17. Interrelations between hydraulic and mechanical stress adaptations in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Ennos, A Roland; Fournier, Meriem

    2008-07-01

    The fields of plant water relations and plant biomechanics have traditionally been studied separately even though often the same tissues are responsible for water transport and mechanical support. There is now increasing evidence that hydraulic and mechanical adaptations may influence one another. We studied the changes in the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the wood along lateral roots of two species of buttressed trees. In these roots, the mechanical contstraints quantified by strain measurements are known to decrease distally. Further, we investigated the effect of mechanical loading on the vessel anatomy in these and four other species of tropical trees. We found that as the strain decreased, the wood became progressively less stiff and strong but the conductivity increased exponentially. This was reflected in that adaptations towards re-enforcing mechanically loaded areas resulted in xylem with fewer and smaller vessels. In addition a controlled growth experiment on three tree species showed that drought adaptation may results in plants with stronger and stiffer tissue. Our results indicate that hydraulic and mechanical stress adaptations may be interrelated, and so support recent studied suggesting that physiological responses are complex balances rather than pure optimisations.

  18. Does Music Influence Stress in Mechanically Ventilated Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Chlan, Linda L.; Engeland, William C.; Savik, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Mechanically ventilated patients experience profound stress. Interventions are needed to ameliorate stress that does not cause adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of music on stress in a sample of patients over the duration of ventilatory support. Research Methodology/Design Randomized controlled trial randomized patients (56.8 ± 16.9 years, 61% male, APACHE III 57.2 ± 18.3) receiving ventilatory support to: 1) patient-directed music (PDM) where patients self-initiated music listening whenever desired from a preferred collection, 2) Headphones only to block ICU noise, or 3) usual ICU care. Twenty-four hour urinary cortisol samples were collected from a sub-set of subjects with intact renal function and not receiving medications known to influence cortisol levels (n = 65). Setting 12 ICUs in the Midwestern United States. Main Outcome Measures Urinary free cortisol (UFC), an integrative biomarker of stress. Results Controlling for illness severity, gender, and baseline UFC (29-45 mg/day), mixed models analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in UFC over the course of ventilatory support. Conclusion While music did not significantly reduce cortisol, less profound spikes in UFC levels were observed but that, given the limitations of the research, this observation could have occurred merely by chance. PMID:23228527

  19. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase reaction mechanism: a likely case of abnormal CO2 insertion to a Ni-H(-) bond.

    PubMed

    Amara, Patricia; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Volbeda, Anne; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

    2011-03-01

    Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), present in many anaerobic microorganisms, catalyze the reversible oxidation of CO to CO(2) at the so-called C-cluster. This atypical active site is composed of a [NiFe(3)S(4)] cluster and a single unusual iron ion called ferrous component II or Fe(u) that is bridged to the cluster via one sulfide ion. After additional refinement of recently published high-resolution structures of COOH(x)-, OH(x)-, and CN-bound CODH from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (Jeoung and Dobbek Science 2007, 318, 1461-1464; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 9922-9923), we have used computational methods on the predominant resulting structures to investigate the spectroscopically well-characterized catalytic intermediates, C(red1) and the two-electron more-reduced C(red2). Several models were geometry-optimized for both states using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical potentials. The comparison of calculated Mössbauer parameters of these active site models with experimental data allows us to propose that the C(red1) state has a Fe(u)-Ni(2+) bridging hydroxide ligand and the C(red2) state has a hydride terminally bound to Ni(2+). Using our combined structural and theoretical data, we put forward a revised version of an earlier proposal for the catalytic cycle of Ni-containing CODH (Volbeda and Fontecilla-Camps Dalton Trans. 2005, 21, 3443-3450) that agrees with available spectroscopic and structural data. This mechanism involves an abnormal CO(2) insertion into the Ni(2+)-H(-) bond. PMID:21247090

  20. Oxidative stress in hypertension: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Brito, R; Castillo, G; González, J; Valls, N; Rodrigo, R

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent disease worldwide. It is known for being one of the most important risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Therefore, during the last decades there have been multiple efforts to fully understand the mechanisms underlying hypertension, and then develop effective therapeutic interventions to attenuate the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. In this regard, oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mechanistic mediator of hypertension, which is an imbalance between oxidant species and the antioxidant defense systems. A large amount of evidence supports the role of vascular wall as a major source of reactive oxygen species. These include the activation of enzymes, such as NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase, the uncoupling eNOS and mitochondrial dysfunction, having as a major product the superoxide anion. Among the stimuli that increase the production of oxidative species can be found the action of some vasoactive peptides, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and urotensin II. The oxidative stress state generated leads to a decrease in the biodisponibility of nitric oxide and prostacyclin, key factors in maintaining the vascular tone. The knowledge of the mechanisms mentioned above has allowed generating some therapeutic strategies using antioxidants as antihypertensives with different results. Further studies are required to position antioxidants as key agents in the treatment of hypertension. The current review summarize evidence of the role of oxidative stress in hypertension, emphasizing in therapeutic targets that can be consider in antioxidant therapy. PMID:25918881

  1. Stress-dependent morphogenesis: continuum mechanics and truss systems.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, José J; Conte, Vito; Miodownik, Mark

    2010-08-01

    A set of equilibrium equations is derived for the stress-controlled shape change of cells due to the remodelling and growth of their internal architecture. The approach involves the decomposition of the deformation gradient into an active and a passive component; the former is allowed to include a growth process, while the latter is assumed to be hyperelastic and mass-preserving. The two components are coupled with a control function that provides the required feedback mechanism. The balance equations for general continua are derived and, using a variational approach, we deduce the equilibrium equations and study the effects of the control function on these equations. The results are applied to a truss system whose function is to simulate the cytoskeletal network constituted by myosin microfilaments and microtubules, which are found experimentally to control shape change in cells. Special attention is paid to the conditions that a thermodynamically consistent formulation should satisfy. The model is used to simulate the multicellular shape changes observed during ventral furrow invagination of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. The results confirm that ventral furrow invagination can be achieved through stress control alone, without the need for other regulatory or signalling mechanisms. The model also reveals that the yolk plays a distinct role in the process, which is different to its role during invagination with externally imposed strains. In stress control, the incompressibility constraint of the yolk leads, via feedback, to the generation of a pressure in the ventral zone of the epithelium that eventually eases its rise and internalisation.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Vemanna S.; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses. PMID:27314499

  4. Effect of Trehalose on a Phospholipid Membrane under Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cristina S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2008-01-01

    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate at atomic resolution the effect of trehalose on a hydrated phospholipid bilayer under mechanical stress (stretching forces imposed in the form of negative lateral pressure). Simulations were performed in the absence or presence of trehalose at 325 K, and with different values for negative lateral pressure. In the concentration regime (2 molal) and range of lateral pressures (1 to −250 bar) investigated, trehalose was found to interact directly with the membrane, partially replacing water molecules in the formation of hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroups. Similar to previous findings in the context of thermal stress, the number, degree of bridging, and reaching depth of these hydrogen bonds increased with the magnitude of perturbation. However, at the concentration considered, trehalose was not sufficient to preserve the integrity of the membrane structure and to prevent its extreme elongation (and possible disruption) under the effect of stretching forces. PMID:18599628

  5. Interpreting plant responses to clinostating. I - Mechanical stresses and ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility that the clinostat mechanical stresses (leaf flopping) induces ethylene production and, thus, the development of epinasty was tested by stressing vertical plants by constant gentle horizontal or vertical shaking or by a quick back-and-forth rotation (twisting). Clinostat leaf flopping was closely approximated by turning plants so that their stems were horizontal, rotating them quickly about the stem axis, and returning them to the vertical, with the treatment repeated every four minutes. It was found that horizontal and vertical shaking, twisting, intermittent horizontal rotating, and gentle hand shaking failed to induce epinasties that approached those observed on the slow clinostat. Minor epinasties were generated by vigorous hand-shaking (120 sec/day) and by daily application of Ag(+). Reducing leaf displacements by inverting plants did not significantly reduce the minor epinasty generated by vigorous hand-shaking.

  6. Abnormal Left-Sided Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortical–Amygdala Connectivity during Happy and Fear Face Processing: A Potential Neural Mechanism of Female MDD

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Kronhaus, Dina Michaela; Sibille, Etienne L.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Versace, Amelia; LaBarbara, Edmund James; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pathophysiologic processes supporting abnormal emotion regulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) are poorly understood. We previously found abnormal inverse left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical–amygdala effective connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD. We aimed to replicate and expand this previous finding in an independent participant sample, using a more inclusive neural model, and a novel emotion processing paradigm. Methods: Nineteen individuals with MDD in depressed episode (12 females), and 19 healthy individuals, age, and gender matched, performed an implicit emotion processing and automatic attentional control paradigm to examine abnormalities in prefrontal cortical–amygdala neural circuitry during happy, angry, fearful, and sad face processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a 3-T scanner. Effective connectivity was estimated with dynamic causal modeling in a trinodal neural model including two anatomically defined prefrontal cortical regions, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), and the amygdala. Results: We replicated our previous finding of abnormal inverse left-sided top-down ventromedial prefrontal cortical–amygdala connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p = 0.04), and also showed a similar pattern of abnormal inverse left-sided sgACC–amygdala connectivity to these stimuli (p = 0.03). These findings were paralleled by abnormally reduced positive left-sided ventromedial prefrontal cortical–sgACC connectivity to happy faces in females with MDD (p = 0.008), and abnormally increased positive left-sided sgACC–amygdala connectivity to fearful faces in females, and all individuals, with MDD (p = 0.008; p = 0.003). Conclusion: Different patterns of abnormal prefrontal cortical–amygdala connectivity to happy and fearful stimuli might represent neural mechanisms for the excessive self-reproach and comorbid anxiety that

  7. Mechanism of Oxidative Stress and Synapse Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Understanding the Therapeutics Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kalani, Anuradha; Rai, Shivika; Swarnkar, Supriya; Tota, Santoshkumar; Nath, Chandishwar; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-01-01

    Synapses are formed by interneuronal connections that permit a neuronal cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell. This passage usually gets damaged or lost in most of the neurodegenerative diseases. It is widely believed that the synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although pathological hallmarks of AD are senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal degeneration which are associated with increased oxidative stress, synaptic loss is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. The involvement of major kinases such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular receptor kinase (ERK), calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), glycogen synthase-3β (GSK-3β), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and calcineurin is dynamically associated with oxidative stress-mediated abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and suggests that alteration of these kinases could exclusively be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation and beta amyloid (Aβ) toxicity alter the synapse function, which is also associated with protein phosphatase (PP) inhibition and tau hyperphosphorylation (two main events of AD). However, the involvement of oxidative stress in synapse dysfunction is poorly understood. Oxidative stress and free radical generation in the brain along with excitotoxicity leads to neuronal cell death. It is inferred from several studies that excitotoxicity, free radical generation, and altered synaptic function encouraged by oxidative stress are associated with AD pathology. NMDARs maintain neuronal excitability, Ca(2+) influx, and memory formation through mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Recently, we have reported the mechanism of the synapse redox stress associated with NMDARs altered expression. We suggest that oxidative stress mediated through NMDAR and their interaction with other molecules might

  8. The activity-stress paradigm: possible mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms and applications of the activity-stress (A-S) research paradigm are examined in this article. Past research has reflected the value of this paradigm in the investigation of ulcerogenesis. Evidence is offered to support a theory explaining the excessive running observed in the A-S animals, according to which, animals commence running to increase body temperature after failing to adapt to the restricted feeding regime. Further, excessive running levels are hypothesized to be sustained by reinforcement resulting from increased mesolimbic dopaminergic activity. Finally, parallels between the behavior observed in the A-S animals and some forms of maladaptive behavior observed in humans are discussed.

  9. Adhesive fracture mechanics. [stress analysis for bond line interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, S. J.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    In studies of fracture mechanics the adhesive fracture energy is regarded as a fundamental property of the adhesive system. It is pointed out that the value of the adhesive fracture energy depends on surface preparation, curing conditions, and absorbed monolayers. A test method reported makes use of a disk whose peripheral part is bonded to a substrate material. Pressure is injected into the unbonded central part of the disk. At a certain critical pressure value adhesive failure can be observed. A numerical stress analysis involving arbitrary geometries is conducted.

  10. Cholesteric liquid crystal gels with a graded mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agez, Gonzague; Relaix, Sabrina; Mitov, Michel

    2014-02-01

    In cholesteric liquid-crystalline gels, the mechanical role of the polymer network over the structure of the whole gel has been ignored. We show that it is the stress gradient exerted by the network over the helical structure that drives the broadening of the optical band gap, as evidenced by the absence of a gradient in chiral species. Model calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations show that the network acts as a spring with a stiffness gradient. The present results indicate a revision to the common understanding of the physical properties of liquid-crystalline gels is necessary when a concentration gradient in a polymer network is present.

  11. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  12. Graphene mechanics: II. Atomic stress distribution during indentation until rupture.

    PubMed

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Gräter, Frauke

    2014-06-28

    Previous Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments found single layers of defect-free graphene to rupture at unexpectedly high loads in the micronewton range. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we modeled an AFM spherical tip pressing on a circular graphene sheet and studied the stress distribution during the indentation process until rupture. We found the graphene rupture force to have no dependency on the sheet size and a very weak dependency on the indenter velocity, allowing a direct comparison to experiment. The deformation showed a non-linear elastic behavior, with a two-dimensional elastic modulus in good agreement with previous experimental and computational studies. In line with theoretical predictions for linearly elastic sheets, rupture forces of non-linearly elastic graphene are proportional to the tip radius. However, as a deviation from the theory, the atomic stress concentrates under the indenter tip more strongly than predicted and causes a high probability of bond breaking only in this area. In turn, stress levels decrease rapidly towards the edge of the sheet, most of which thus only serves the role of mechanical support for the region under the indenter. As a consequence, the high ratio between graphene sheets and sphere radii, hitherto supposed to be necessary for reliable deformation and rupture studies, could be reduced to a factor of only 5-10 without affecting the outcome. Our study suggests time-resolved analysis of forces at the atomic level as a valuable tool to predict and interpret the nano-scale response of stressed materials beyond graphene.

  13. Built-In Mechanical Stress in Viral Shells

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, C.; Luque, A.; Hernando-Pérez, M.; Miranda, R.; Carrascosa, J.L.; Serena, P.A.; de Ridder, M.; Raman, A.; Gómez-Herrero, J.; Schaap, I.A.T.; Reguera, D.; de Pablo, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties of biological molecular aggregates are essential to their function. A remarkable example are double-stranded DNA viruses such as the ϕ29 bacteriophage, that not only has to withstand pressures of tens of atmospheres exerted by the confined DNA, but also uses this stored elastic energy during DNA translocation into the host. Here we show that empty prolated ϕ29 bacteriophage proheads exhibit an intriguing anisotropic stiffness which behaves counterintuitively different from standard continuum elasticity predictions. By using atomic force microscopy, we find that the ϕ29 shells are approximately two-times stiffer along the short than along the long axis. This result can be attributed to the existence of a residual stress, a hypothesis that we confirm by coarse-grained simulations. This built-in stress of the virus prohead could be a strategy to provide extra mechanical strength to withstand the DNA compaction during and after packing and a variety of extracellular conditions, such as osmotic shocks or dehydration. PMID:21320456

  14. A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures (‘four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third, the time trends in the four major areas were compared with trends in neuroimaging, neuropathology, theory of mind and genetics (‘four comparison areas'). The number of publications per 5-year block in all eight areas was calculated in order to identify significant changes in trends. Prior to 1986, only 12 publications were identified in the four major areas and 51 in the four comparison areas (42 for genetics). For each 5-year period, the total number of publications in the eight combined areas increased progressively. Most publications (552 of 895, 62%) in the four major areas were published in the last 5 years (2006–2010). Evaluation

  15. Cell cycle control, checkpoint mechanisms, and genotoxic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, R E; Kaufmann, W K; Paules, R S

    1999-01-01

    The ability of cells to maintain genomic integrity is vital for cell survival and proliferation. Lack of fidelity in DNA replication and maintenance can result in deleterious mutations leading to cell death or, in multicellular organisms, cancer. The purpose of this review is to discuss the known signal transduction pathways that regulate cell cycle progression and the mechanisms cells employ to insure DNA stability in the face of genotoxic stress. In particular, we focus on mammalian cell cycle checkpoint functions, their role in maintaining DNA stability during the cell cycle following exposure to genotoxic agents, and the gene products that act in checkpoint function signal transduction cascades. Key transitions in the cell cycle are regulated by the activities of various protein kinase complexes composed of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) molecules. Surveillance control mechanisms that check to ensure proper completion of early events and cellular integrity before initiation of subsequent events in cell cycle progression are referred to as cell cycle checkpoints and can generate a transient delay that provides the cell more time to repair damage before progressing to the next phase of the cycle. A variety of cellular responses are elicited that function in checkpoint signaling to inhibit cyclin/Cdk activities. These responses include the p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Cdk inhibitors and the p53-independent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk molecules themselves. Eliciting proper G1, S, and G2 checkpoint responses to double-strand DNA breaks requires the function of the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene product. Several human heritable cancer-prone syndromes known to alter DNA stability have been found to have defects in checkpoint surveillance pathways. Exposures to several common sources of genotoxic stress, including oxidative stress, ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and the genotoxic compound benzo[a]pyrene, elicit cell cycle

  16. Neurobiological mechanisms contributing to alcohol-stress-anxiety interactions.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Yuval; Bajo, Michal; Chappell, Ann M; Christian, Daniel T; Cruz, Maureen; Diaz, Marvin R; Kash, Thomas; Lack, Anna K; Messing, Robert O; Siggins, George R; Winder, Danny; Roberto, Marisa; McCool, Brian A; Weiner, Jeff L

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium that was presented at a conference entitled "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies." The conference was held in Volterra, Italy on May 6-9, 2008 and this symposium was chaired by Jeff L. Weiner. The overall goal of this session was to review recent findings that may shed new light on the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the complex relationships between stress, anxiety, and alcoholism. Dr. Danny Winder described a novel interaction between D1 receptor activation and the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) system that leads to an increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Dr. Marisa Roberto presented recent data describing how protein kinase C epsilon, ethanol, and CRF interact to alter GABAergic inhibition in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Dr. Jeff Weiner presented recent advances in our understanding of inhibitory circuitry within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and how acute ethanol exposure enhances GABAergic inhibition in these pathways. Finally, Dr. Brian McCool discussed recent findings on complementary glutamatergic and GABAergic adaptations to chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal in the BLA. Collectively, these investigators have identified novel mechanisms through which neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems interact to modulate synaptic activity in stress and anxiety circuits. Their studies have also begun to describe how acute and chronic ethanol exposure influence excitatory and inhibitory synaptic communication in these pathways. These findings point toward a number of novel neurobiological targets that may prove useful for the development of more effective treatment strategies for alcohol use disorders.

  17. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  18. Aneuploidy as a mechanism for stress-induced liver adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andrew W.; Hanlon Newell, Amy E.; Bi, Weimin; Finegold, Milton J.; Olson, Susan B.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Grompe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Over half of the mature hepatocytes in mice and humans are aneuploid and yet retain full ability to undergo mitosis. This observation has raised the question of whether this unusual somatic genetic variation evolved as an adaptive mechanism in response to hepatic injury. According to this model, hepatotoxic insults select for hepatocytes with specific numerical chromosome abnormalities, rendering them differentially resistant to injury. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a strain of mice heterozygous for a mutation in the homogentisic acid dioxygenase (Hgd) gene located on chromosome 16. Loss of the remaining Hgd allele protects from fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) deficiency, a genetic liver disease model. When adult mice heterozygous for Hgd and lacking Fah were exposed to chronic liver damage, injury-resistant nodules consisting of Hgd-null hepatocytes rapidly emerged. To determine whether aneuploidy played a role in this phenomenon, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and metaphase karyotyping were performed. Strikingly, loss of chromosome 16 was dramatically enriched in all mice that became completely resistant to tyrosinemia-induced hepatic injury. The frequency of chromosome 16–specific aneuploidy was approximately 50%. This result indicates that selection of a specific aneuploid karyotype can result in the adaptation of hepatocytes to chronic liver injury. The extent to which aneuploidy promotes hepatic adaptation in humans remains under investigation. PMID:22863619

  19. Aneuploidy as a mechanism for stress-induced liver adaptation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew W; Hanlon Newell, Amy E; Bi, Weimin; Finegold, Milton J; Olson, Susan B; Beaudet, Arthur L; Grompe, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Over half of the mature hepatocytes in mice and humans are aneuploid and yet retain full ability to undergo mitosis. This observation has raised the question of whether this unusual somatic genetic variation evolved as an adaptive mechanism in response to hepatic injury. According to this model, hepatotoxic insults select for hepatocytes with specific numerical chromosome abnormalities, rendering them differentially resistant to injury. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a strain of mice heterozygous for a mutation in the homogentisic acid dioxygenase (Hgd) gene located on chromosome 16. Loss of the remaining Hgd allele protects from fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) deficiency, a genetic liver disease model. When adult mice heterozygous for Hgd and lacking Fah were exposed to chronic liver damage, injury-resistant nodules consisting of Hgd-null hepatocytes rapidly emerged. To determine whether aneuploidy played a role in this phenomenon, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and metaphase karyotyping were performed. Strikingly, loss of chromosome 16 was dramatically enriched in all mice that became completely resistant to tyrosinemia-induced hepatic injury. The frequency of chromosome 16-specific aneuploidy was approximately 50%. This result indicates that selection of a specific aneuploid karyotype can result in the adaptation of hepatocytes to chronic liver injury. The extent to which aneuploidy promotes hepatic adaptation in humans remains under investigation.

  20. Involvement of oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in ceramide and cholesterol metabolism in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Roy G.; Kelly, Jeremiah; Storie, Kristin; Pedersen, Ward A.; Tammara, Anita; Hatanpaa, Kimmo; Troncoso, Juan C.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2004-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid -peptide (A) and degeneration of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus, resulting in progressive cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of AD is tightly linked to A deposition and oxidative stress, but it remains unclear as to how these factors result in neuronal dysfunction and death. We report alterations in sphingolipid and cholesterol metabolism during normal brain aging and in the brains of AD patients that result in accumulation of long-chain ceramides and cholesterol. Membrane-associated oxidative stress occurs in association with the lipid alterations, and exposure of hippocampal neurons to A induces membrane oxidative stress and the accumulation of ceramide species and cholesterol. Treatment of neurons with -tocopherol or an inhibitor of sphingomyelin synthesis prevents accumulation of ceramides and cholesterol and protects them against death induced by A. Our findings suggest a sequence of events in the pathogenesis of AD in which A induces membrane-associated oxidative stress, resulting in perturbed ceramide and cholesterol metabolism which, in turn, triggers a neurodegenerative cascade that leads to clinical disease. amyloid | apoptosis | hippocampus | lipid peroxidation | sphingomyelin

  1. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine C.; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L.; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs. PMID:27111894

  2. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elaine C; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs.

  3. Relations among Detection of Syllable Stress, Speech Abnormalities, and Communicative Ability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargas, Niko; López, Beatriz; Morris, Paul; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To date, the literature on perception of affective, pragmatic, and grammatical prosody abilities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been sparse and contradictory. It is interesting to note that the primary perception of syllable stress within the word structure, which is crucial for all prosody functions, remains relatively unexplored…

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Daisuke; Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Kyoko; Tomida, Taichiro; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro; Ichikawa, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite), and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly. PMID:26115353

  6. Mechanism-based bioanalysis and biomarkers for hepatic chemical stress.

    PubMed

    Antoine, D J; Mercer, A E; Williams, D P; Park, B K

    2009-08-01

    Adverse drug reactions, in particular drug-induced hepatotoxicity, represent a major challenge for clinicians and an impediment to safe drug development. Novel blood or urinary biomarkers of chemically-induced hepatic stress also hold great potential to provide information about pathways leading to cell death within tissues. The earlier pre-clinical identification of potential hepatotoxins and non-invasive diagnosis of susceptible patients, prior to overt liver disease is an important goal. Moreover, the identification, validation and qualification of biomarkers that have in vitro, in vivo and clinical transferability can assist bridging studies and accelerate the pace of drug development. Drug-induced chemical stress is a multi-factorial process, the kinetics of the interaction between the hepatotoxin and the cellular macromolecules are crucially important as different biomarkers will appear over time. The sensitivity of the bioanalytical techniques used to detect biological and chemical biomarkers underpins the usefulness of the marker in question. An integrated analysis of the biochemical, molecular and cellular events provides an understanding of biological (host) factors which ultimately determine the balance between xenobiotic detoxification, adaptation and liver injury. The aim of this review is to summarise the potential of novel mechanism-based biomarkers of hepatic stress which provide information to connect the intracellular events (drug metabolism, organelle, cell and whole organ) ultimately leading to tissue damage (apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation). These biomarkers can provide both the means to inform the pharmacologist and chemist with respect to safe drug design, and provide clinicians with valuable tools for patient monitoring. PMID:19621999

  7. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-01-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal. PMID:27477236

  8. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-01-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal. PMID:27477236

  9. Stress Wave Isolation by Purely Mechanical Topological Phononic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunsali, Rajesh; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu

    2016-08-01

    We present an active, purely mechanical stress wave isolator that consists of short cylindrical particles arranged in a helical architecture. This phononic structure allows us to change inter-particle stiffness dynamically by controlling the contact angles of the cylinders. We use torsional travelling waves to control the contact angles, thereby imposing a desired spatio-temporal stiffness variation to the phononic crystal along the longitudinal direction. Such torsional excitation is a form of parametric pumping in the system, which results in the breakage of the time-reversal symmetry. We report that, in quasi-static sense, the system shows topologically non-trivial band-gaps. However, in a dynamic regime where the pumping effect is significant, these band-gaps become asymmetric with respect to the frequency and wavenumber domains in the dispersion relationship. By using numerical simulations, we show that such asymmetry has a direct correspondence to the topological invariant, i.e., Chern number, of the system. We propose that this asymmetry, accompanied by selective inter-band transition, can be utilized for directional isolation of the stress wave propagating along the phononic crystal.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Gels; Stress from Confined Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    George W. Scherer

    2009-12-01

    Abstract for Grant DE-FG02-97ER45642 Period: 1997-2002 Mechanical Properties of Gels 2002-2008 Stress from Confined Fluids Principal investigator: Prof. George W. Scherer Dept. Civil & Env. Eng./PRISM Eng. Quad. E-319 Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Recipient organization: Trustees of Princeton University 4 New South Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Abstract: The initial stage of this project, entitled Mechanical Properties of Gels, was dedicated to characterizing and explaining the properties of inorganic gels. Such materials, made by sol-gel processing, are of interest for fabrication of films, fibers, optical devices, advanced insulation and other uses. However, their poor mechanical properties are an impediment in some applications, so understanding the origin of these properties could lead to enhanced performance. Novel experimental methods were developed and applied to measure the stiffness and permeability of gels and aerogels. Numerical simulations were developed to reproduce the growth process of the gels, resulting in structures whose mechanical properties matched the measurements. The models showed that the gels are formed by the growth of relatively robust clusters of molecules that are joined by tenuous links whose compliance compromises the stiffness of the structure. Therefore, synthetic methods that enhance the links could significantly increase the rigidity of such gels. The next stage of the project focused on Stress from Confined Fluids. The first problem of interest was the enhanced thermal expansion coefficient of water that we measured in the nanometric pores of cement paste. This could have a deleterious effect on the resistance of concrete to rapid heating in fires, because the excessive thermal expansion of water in the pores of the concrete could lead to spalling and collapse. A series of experiments demonstrated that the expansion of water increases as the pore size decreases. To explain this behavior, we undertook a collaboration with Prof. Stephen

  11. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat–drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought–pathogen and heat–pathogen as examples of abiotic–biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance. PMID:26442037

  12. Spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA): clinical applications of mechanical modeling of the spinal cord and brainstem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Choi, Jae; Wilson, William; Berry, Joel; Henderson, Fraser C., Sr.

    2009-02-01

    Abnormal stretch and strain is a major cause of injury to the spinal cord and brainstem. Such forces can develop from age-related degeneration, congenital malformations, occupational exposure, or trauma such as sporting accidents, whiplash and blast injury. While current imaging technologies provide excellent morphology and anatomy of the spinal cord, there is no validated diagnostic tool to assess mechanical stresses exerted upon the spinal cord and brainstem. Furthermore, there is no current means to correlate these stress patterns with known spinal cord injuries and other clinical metrics such as neurological impairment. We have therefore developed the spinal cord stress injury assessment (SCOSIA) system, which uses imaging and finite element analysis to predict stretch injury. This system was tested on a small cohort of neurosurgery patients. Initial results show that the calculated stress values decreased following surgery, and that this decrease was accompanied by a significant decrease in neurological symptoms. Regression analysis identified modest correlations between stress values and clinical metrics. The strongest correlations were seen with the Brainstem Disability Index (BDI) and the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), whereas the weakest correlations were seen with the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale. SCOSIA therefore shows encouraging initial results and may have wide applicability to trauma and degenerative disease involving the spinal cord and brainstem.

  13. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  14. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  15. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  17. Evolution and mechanisms of plant tolerance to flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Ito, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Background In recognition of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, this short article on flooding stress acknowledges not only Darwin's great contribution to the concept of evolution but also to the study of plant physiology. In modern biology, Darwin-inspired reductionist physiology continues to shed light on mechanisms that confer competitive advantage in many varied and challenging environments, including those where flooding is prevalent. Scope Mild flooding is experienced by most land plants but as its severity increases, fewer species are able to grow and survive. At the extreme, a highly exclusive aquatic lifestyle appears to have evolved numerous times over the past 120 million years. Although only 1–2% of angiosperms are aquatics, some of their adaptive characteristics are also seen in those adopting an amphibious lifestyle where flooding is less frequent. Lowland rice, the staple cereal for much of tropical Asia falls into this category. But, even amongst dry-land dwellers, or certain of their sub-populations, modest tolerance to occasional flooding is to be found, for example in wheat. The collection of papers summarized in this article describes advances to the understanding of mechanisms that explain flooding tolerance in aquatic, amphibious and dry-land plants. Work to develop more tolerant crops or manage flood-prone environments more effectively is also included. The experimental approaches range from molecular analyses, through biochemistry and metabolomics to whole-plant physiology, plant breeding and ecology. PMID:19145714

  18. Mechanisms of Neuroprotection by Quercetin: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and More

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Garrick, Jacqueline M.; Roquè, Pamela J.; Pellacani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has recently focused on determining whether several natural compounds, collectively referred to as nutraceuticals, may exert neuroprotective actions in the developing, adult, and aging nervous system. Quercetin, a polyphenol widely present in nature, has received the most attention in this regard. Several studies in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans, have provided supportive evidence for neuroprotective effects of quercetin, either against neurotoxic chemicals or in various models of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The exact mechanisms of such protective effects remain elusive, though many hypotheses have been formulated. In addition to a possible direct antioxidant effect, quercetin may also act by stimulating cellular defenses against oxidative stress. Two such pathways include the induction of Nrf2-ARE and induction of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzyme paraoxonase 2 (PON2). In addition, quercetin has been shown to activate sirtuins (SIRT1), to induce autophagy, and to act as a phytoestrogen, all mechanisms by which quercetin may provide its neuroprotection. PMID:26904161

  19. Attenuation of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress after mechanical unloading in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Castillero, Estibaliz; Akashi, Hirokazu; Pendrak, Klara; Yerebakan, Halit; Najjar, Marc; Wang, Catherine; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Sweeney, H. Lee; D′Armiento, Jeanine; Ali, Ziad A.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal intracellular calcium (Ca2+) handling can trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in an attempt to prevent cell death. Mechanical unloading with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) relieves pressure-volume overload and promotes reverse remodeling of the failing myocardium. We hypothesized that mechanical unloading would alter the UPR in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). UPR was analyzed in paired myocardial tissue from 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy obtained during LVAD implantation and explantation. Samples from healthy hearts served as controls. Markers of UPR [binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), phosphorylated (P-) eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2α), and X-box binding protein (XBP1)] were significantly increased in HF, whereas LVAD support significantly decreased BiP, P-eIF2α, and XBP1s levels. Apoptosis as reflected by C/EBP homologous protein and DNA damage were also significantly reduced after LVAD support. Improvement in left ventricular dimensions positively correlated with P-eIF2α/eIF2α and apoptosis level recovery. Furthermore, significant dysregulation of calcium-handling proteins [P-ryanodine receptor, Ca2+ storing protein calsequestrin, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a), ER chaperone protein calreticulin] was normalized after LVAD support. Reduced ER Ca2+ content as a causative mechanism for UPR was confirmed using AC16 cells treated with a calcium ionophore (A23187) and SERCA2a inhibitor (thapsigargin). UPR activation and apoptosis are reduced after mechanical unloading, which may be mediated by the improvement of Ca2+ handling in patients with advanced HF. These changes may impact the potential for myocardial recovery. PMID:26055788

  20. Controlling stress corrosion cracking in mechanism components of ground support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majid, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of materials for mechanism components used in ground support equipment so that failures resulting from stress corrosion cracking will be prevented is described. A general criteria to be used in designing for resistance to stress corrosion cracking is also provided. Stress corrosion can be defined as combined action of sustained tensile stress and corrosion to cause premature failure of materials. Various aluminum, steels, nickel, titanium and copper alloys, and tempers and corrosive environment are evaluated for stress corrosion cracking.

  1. Interlaminar failure due to mechanical and thermal stresses at the free edges of laminated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, S. K.; Webber, J. P. H.

    Analytical methods for the calculation of free edge stresses due to mechanical and thermal loads, together with a quadratic interlaminar stress criterion, are used to predict interlaminar failure in laminated composite plates. The predicted applied stresses are compared with experimental results from the literature and found to give reasonable agreement. The effect on stress distributions, and on predicted interlaminar failure, of including thermal stresses in the free edge analysis is illustrated for various stacking sequences.

  2. Effect of element density on the NASTRAN calculated mechanical and thermal stresses of a spar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASTRAN model of a spar was examined to determine the sensitivity of calculated axial thermal stresses and bending stresses to changes in element density of the model. The thermal stresses calculated with three different element densities resulted in drastically differing values. The position of the constraint also significantly affected the value of the calculated thermal stresses. Mechanical stresses calculated from an applied loading were insensitive to element density.

  3. Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Salinity represents a critical environmental factor for all aquatic organisms, including fishes. Environments of stable salinity are inhabited by stenohaline fishes having narrow salinity tolerance ranges. Environments of variable salinity are inhabited by euryhaline fishes having wide salinity tolerance ranges. Euryhaline fishes harbor mechanisms that control dynamic changes in osmoregulatory strategy from active salt absorption to salt secretion and from water excretion to water retention. These mechanisms of dynamic control of osmoregulatory strategy include the ability to perceive changes in environmental salinity that perturb body water and salt homeostasis (osmosensing), signaling networks that encode information about the direction and magnitude of salinity change, and epithelial transport and permeability effectors. These mechanisms of euryhalinity likely arose by mosaic evolution involving ancestral and derived protein functions. Most proteins necessary for euryhalinity are also critical for other biological functions and are preserved even in stenohaline fish. Only a few proteins have evolved functions specific to euryhaline fish and they may vary in different fish taxa because of multiple independent phylogenetic origins of euryhalinity in fish. Moreover, proteins involved in combinatorial osmosensing are likely interchangeable. Most euryhaline fishes have an upper salinity tolerance limit of approximately 2× seawater (60 g kg(-1)). However, some species tolerate up to 130 g kg(-1) salinity and they may be able to do so by switching their adaptive strategy when the salinity exceeds 60 g kg(-1). The superior salinity stress tolerance of euryhaline fishes represents an evolutionary advantage favoring their expansion and adaptive radiation in a climate of rapidly changing and pulsatory fluctuating salinity. Because such a climate scenario has been predicted, it is intriguing to mechanistically understand euryhalinity and how this complex

  4. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  5. Cell wall pectic arabinans influence the mechanical properties of Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems and their response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Verhertbruggen, Yves; Marcus, Susan E; Chen, Jianshe; Knox, J Paul

    2013-08-01

    Little is known of the dynamics of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharides in response to the impact of mechanical stress on plant organs. The capacity of the imposition of a mechanical stress (periodic brushing) to reduce the height of the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings has been used to study the role of pectic arabinans in the mechanical properties and stress responsiveness of a plant organ. The arabinan-deficient-1 (arad1) mutation that affects arabinan structures in epidermal cell walls of inflorescence stems is demonstrated to reduce the impact on inflorescence stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The arabinan-deficient-2 (arad2) mutation, that does not have detectable impact on arabinan structures, is also shown to reduce the impact on stem heights caused by mechanical stress. The LM13 linear arabinan epitope is specifically detected in epidermal cell walls of the younger, flexible regions of inflorescence stems and increases in abundance at the base of inflorescence stems in response to an imposed mechanical stress. The strain (percentage deformation) of stem epidermal cells in the double mutant arad1 × arad2 is lower in unbrushed plants than in wild-type plants, but rises to wild-type levels in response to brushing. The study demonstrates the complexity of arabinan structures within plant cell walls and also that their contribution to cell wall mechanical properties is a factor influencing responsiveness to mechanical stress.

  6. Two dimensional mechanical correlation analysis on nonlinear oscillatory shear flow of yield stress fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Yu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Large amplitude oscillation shear (LAOS) is used to investigate the yielding and flow behavior of yield stress materials. Considering the problems in determination of the yield stress from the apparent dynamic moduli and relative harmonic intensity using Fourier Transform Rheology, we proposed a new approach based on 2D mechanical correlation spectra (2D-MCS) to quantify the yield stress. We have proved that the nonlinear synchronous self-correlation intensity as functions of stress/strain amplitude can be used to determine the yield stress unambiguously from the change of scaling exponent. The yield stresses from 2D-MCS analysis are well consistent with those from the stress ramp experiments.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Myocardial Injury in a Rat Model Simulating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Xu, Feifei; Tao, Tianqi; Song, Dandan; Li, Dong; Li, Yuzhen; Guo, Yucheng; Liu, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial injury induced by simulated PTSD. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 18) and PTSD group (n = 30). The PTSD model was replicated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) method. On the 14th day poststress, the apoptotic cells in myocardium were assessed using both TUNEL method and transmission electron microscopy; the protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) molecules were measured by using Western blotting analysis. Results Exposure to SPS resulted in characteristic morphologic changes of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, TUNEL staining was also indicative of the elevated apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes from the SPS rats (30.69% versus 7.26%, p < .001). Simulated PTSD also induced ERS in myocardium, demonstrated by up-regulation of protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (0.64 versus 0.26, p = .017), calreticulin (p = .040), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (0.95 versus 0.43, p = .047), phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA–like ER kinase (p = .003), and caspase 12 activation (0.30 versus 0.06, p < .001) in myocardium from the SPS rats. The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax decreased significantly in myocardium from the SPS rats (p = .005). Conclusions The ERS-related apoptosis mediated by the protein kinase RNA–like ER kinase/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein and caspase 12 pathways may be associated with myocardial injury in a rat model simulating PTSD. This study may advance our understanding of how PTSD contributes to myocardial injury on a molecular level. PMID:27359173

  8. Involvement of lignin and hormones in the response of woody poplar taproots to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Trupiano, Dalila; Di Iorio, Antonino; Montagnoli, Antonio; Lasserre, Bruno; Rocco, Mariapina; Grosso, Alessandro; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro; Chiatante, Donato; Scippa, Gabriella S

    2012-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a widespread condition caused by numerous environmental factors that severely affect plant stability. In response to mechanical stress, plants have evolved complex response pathways able to detect mechanical perturbations and inducing a suite of modifications in order to improve anchorage. The response of woody roots to mechanical stresses has been studied mainly at the morphological and biomechanical level, whereas investigations on the factors triggering these important alterations are still at the initial stage. Populus has been widely used to study the response of stem to different mechanical stresses and, since it has the first forest tree genome to be decoded, represents a model woody plant for addressing questions on the mechanisms controlling adaptation of woody roots to changing environments. In this study, a morphological and physiological analysis was used to investigate factors controlling modifications in Populus nigra woody taproots subjected to mechanical stress. An experimental model analyzing spatial and temporal mechanical force distribution along the woody taproot axis enabled us to compare the events occurring in its above-, central- and below-bending sectors. Different morphogenetic responses and local variations of lignin and plant hormones content have been observed, and a relation with the distribution of the mechanical forces along the stressed woody taproots is hypothesized. We investigated the differences of the response to mechanical stress induction during the time; in this regard, we present data referring to the effect of mechanical stress on plant transition from its condition of winter dormancy to that of full vegetative activity.

  9. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K.; McBride, Melissa L.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior. PMID:20171785

  10. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2010-09-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior.

  11. PEX13 deficiency in mouse brain as a model of Zellweger syndrome: abnormal cerebellum formation, reactive gliosis and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Müller, C. Catharina; Nguyen, Tam H.; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Meshram, Mallika; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Cao, Siyu; Sharp, Peter; Fietz, Pamela B.; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Crane, Denis I.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Delayed cerebellar development is a hallmark of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), a severe neonatal neurodegenerative disorder. ZS is caused by mutations in PEX genes, such as PEX13, which encodes a protein required for import of proteins into the peroxisome. The molecular basis of ZS pathogenesis is not known. We have created a conditional mouse mutant with brain-restricted deficiency of PEX13 that exhibits cerebellar morphological defects. PEX13 brain mutants survive into the postnatal period, with the majority dying by 35 days, and with survival inversely related to litter size and weaning body weight. The impact on peroxisomal metabolism in the mutant brain is mixed: plasmalogen content is reduced, but very-long-chain fatty acids are normal. PEX13 brain mutants exhibit defects in reflex and motor development that correlate with impaired cerebellar fissure and cortical layer formation, granule cell migration and Purkinje cell layer development. Astrogliosis and microgliosis are prominent features of the mutant cerebellum. At the molecular level, cultured cerebellar neurons from E19 PEX13-null mice exhibit elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (MnSOD), and show enhanced apoptosis together with mitochondrial dysfunction. PEX13 brain mutants show increased levels of MnSOD in cerebellum. Our findings suggest that PEX13 deficiency leads to mitochondria-mediated oxidative stress, neuronal cell death and impairment of cerebellar development. Thus, PEX13-deficient mice provide a valuable animal model for investigating the molecular basis and treatment of ZS cerebellar pathology. PMID:20959636

  12. Effect of mechanical stress on cotton growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Sufang; Xin, Wanwan; Tang, Juxiang; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural crops experience diverse mechanical stimuli, which may affect their growth and development. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mechanical stresses caused by hanging labels from the flower petioles (HLFP) on plant shape and cotton yields in four cotton varieties: CCRI 41, DP 99B, CCRC 21, and BAI 1. HLFP significantly reduced plant height by between 7.8% and 36.5% in all four lines and also significantly reduced the number of fruiting positions per plant in the CCRI 41, DP 99B and CCRC 21 lines. However, the number of fruiting positions in BAI 1 was unaffected. HLFP also significantly reduced the boll weight for all four cultivars and the seed cotton yields for CCRI 41, DP 99B and BAI 1. Conversely, it significantly increased the seed cotton yield for CCRC 21 by 11.2%. HLFP treatment did not significantly affect the boll count in the fruiting branches of the 1(st) and 2(nd) layers in any variety, but did significantly reduce those on the 3(rd) and 4(th) fruiting branch layers for CCRI 41 and DP 99B. Similar trends were observed for the number of bolls per FP. In general, HLFP reduced plant height and boll weight. However, the lines responded differently to HLFP treatment in terms of their total numbers of fruiting positions, boll numbers, seed cotton yields, etc. Our results also suggested that HFLP responses might be delayed for some agronomy traits of some cotton genotypes, and that hanging labels from early-opening flowers might influence the properties related with those that opened later on.

  13. Predator Stress-Induced CRF Release Causes Enduring Sensitization of Basolateral Amygdala Norepinephrine Systems that Promote PTSD-Like Startle Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, Abha K.

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unclear. Intense stress promotes PTSD, which has been associated with exaggerated startle and deficient sensorimotor gating. Here, we examined the long-term sequelae of a rodent model of traumatic stress (repeated predator exposure) on amygdala systems that modulate startle and prepulse inhibition (PPI), an operational measure of sensorimotor gating. We show in rodents that repeated psychogenic stress (predator) induces long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) noradrenergic (NE) receptors (α1) via a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF-R1)-dependent mechanism, and that these CRF1 and NE α1 receptors are highly colocalized on presumptive excitatory output projection neurons of the BLA. A profile identical to that seen with predator exposure was produced in nonstressed rats by intra-BLA infusions of CRF (200 ng/0.5 μl), but not by repeated NE infusions (20 μg/0.5 μl). Infusions into the adjacent central nucleus of amygdala had no effect. Importantly, the predator stress- or CRF-induced sensitization of BLA manifested as heightened startle and PPI deficits in response to subsequent subthreshold NE system challenges (with intra-BLA infusions of 0.3 μg/0.5 μl NE), up to 1 month after stress. This profile of effects closely resembles aspects of PTSD. Hence, we reveal a discrete neural pathway mediating the enhancement of NE system function seen in PTSD, and we offer a model for characterizing potential new treatments that may work by modulating this BLA circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present findings reveal a novel and discrete neural substrate that could underlie certain core deficits (startle and prepulse inhibition) that are observed in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is shown here that repeated exposure to a rodent model of traumatic stress (predator exposure) produces a long-lasting sensitization of basolateral amygdala noradrenergic substrates [via a

  14. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Ailton; Monteiro, Larissa; Lima, Rute M. F.; de Oliveira, Diêgo M.; de Cerqueira, Martins D.; El-Bachá, Ramon S.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) increase with life expectancy. This paper reviews the role of oxidative stress (OS) in ND and pharmacological attempts to fight against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced neurodegeneration. Several mechanisms involved in ROS generation in neurodegeneration have been proposed. Recent articles about molecular pathways involved in ROS generation were reviewed. The progress in the development of neuroprotective therapies has been hampered because it is difficult to define targets for treatment and determine what should be considered as neuroprotective. Therefore, the attention was focused on researches about pharmacological targets that could protect neurons against OS. Since it is necessary to look for genes as the ultimate controllers of all biological processes, this paper also tried to identify gerontogenes involved in OS and neurodegeneration. Since neurons depend on glial cells to survive, recent articles about the functioning of these cells in aging and ND were also reviewed. Finally, clinical trials testing potential neuroprotective agents were critically reviewed. Although several potential drugs have been screened in in vitro and in vivo models of ND, these results were not translated in benefit of patients, and disappointing results were obtained in the majority of clinical trials. PMID:22191013

  15. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  16. Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) stress and fracture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The revised stress and fracture analysis of the Spartan REM hardware for current load conditions and mass properties is presented. The stress analysis was performed using a NASTRAN math model of the Spartan REM adapter, base, and payload. Appendix A contains the material properties, loads, and stress analysis of the hardware. The computer output and model description are in Appendix B. Factors of safety used in the stress analysis were 1.4 on tested items and 2.0 on all other items. Fracture analysis of the items considered fracture critical was accomplished using the MSFC Crack Growth Analysis code. Loads and stresses were obtaind from the stress analysis. The fracture analysis notes are located in Appendix A and the computer output in Appendix B. All items analyzed met design and fracture criteria.

  17. Dysregulated miRNA biogenesis downstream of cellular stress and ALS-causing mutations: a new mechanism for ALS.

    PubMed

    Emde, Anna; Eitan, Chen; Liou, Lee-Loung; Libby, Ryan T; Rivkin, Natali; Magen, Iddo; Reichenstein, Irit; Oppenheim, Hagar; Eilam, Raya; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Alajajian, Betty; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Aebischer, Julianne; Savidor, Alon; Levin, Yishai; Sons, Robert; Hammond, Scott M; Ravits, John M; Möller, Thomas; Hornstein, Eran

    2015-11-01

    Interest in RNA dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) recently aroused upon discovering causative mutations in RNA-binding protein genes. Here, we show that extensive down-regulation of miRNA levels is a common molecular denominator for multiple forms of human ALS. We further demonstrate that pathogenic ALS-causing mutations are sufficient to inhibit miRNA biogenesis at the Dicing step. Abnormalities of the stress response are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, including ALS. Accordingly, we describe a novel mechanism for modulating microRNA biogenesis under stress, involving stress granule formation and re-organization of DICER and AGO2 protein interactions with their partners. In line with this observation, enhancing DICER activity by a small molecule, enoxacin, is beneficial for neuromuscular function in two independent ALS mouse models. Characterizing miRNA biogenesis downstream of the stress response ties seemingly disparate pathways in neurodegeneration and further suggests that DICER and miRNAs affect neuronal integrity and are possible therapeutic targets.

  18. A Comparison between Deep and Shallow Stress Fields in Korea Using Earthquake Focal Mechanism Inversions and Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rayeon; Chang, Chandong; Hong, Tae-kyung; Lee, Junhyung; Bae, Seong-Ho; Park, Eui-Seob; Park, Chan

    2016-04-01

    We are characterizing stress fields in Korea using two types of stress data: earthquake focal mechanism inversions (FMF) and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (HF). The earthquake focal mechanism inversion data represent stress conditions at 2-20 km depths, whereas the hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, mostly conducted for geotechnical purposes, have been carried out at depths shallower than 1 km. We classified individual stress data based on the World Stress Map quality ranking scheme. A total of 20 FMF data were classified into A-B quality, possibly representing tectonic stress fields. A total of 83 HF data out of compiled 226 data were classified into B-C quality, which we use for shallow stress field characterization. The tectonic stress, revealed from the FMF data, is characterized by a remarkable consistency in its maximum stress (σ1) directions in and around Korea (N79±2° E), indicating a quite uniform deep stress field throughout. On the other hand, the shallow stress field, represented by HF data, exhibits local variations in σ1 directions, possibly due to effects of topography and geologic structures such as faults. Nonetheless, there is a general similarity in σ1 directions between deep and shallow stress fields. To investigate the shallow stress field statistically, we follow 'the mean orientation and wavelength analysis' suggested by Reiter et al. (2014). After the stress pattern analysis, the resulting stress points distribute sporadically over the country, not covering the entire region evenly. In the western part of Korea, the shallow σ1directions are generally uniform with their search radius reaching 100 km, where the average stress direction agrees well with those of the deep tectonic stress. We note two noticeable differences between shallow and deep stresses in the eastern part of Korea. First, the shallow σ1 orientations are markedly non-uniform in the southeastern part of Korea with their search radius less than 25 km

  19. Fetal Stress and Programming of Hypoxic/Ischemic-Sensitive Phenotype in the Neonatal Brain: Mechanisms and Possible Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Gonzalez, Pablo; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies has clearly shown a close link between adverse in utero environment and the increased risk of neurological, psychological and psychiatric disorders in later life. Fetal stresses, such as hypoxia, malnutrition, and fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and glucocorticoids may directly or indirectly act at cellular and molecular levels to alter the brain development and result in programming of heightened brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the development of neurological diseases in the postnatal life. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. However, glucocorticoids may play a crucial role in epigenetic programming of neurological disorders of fetal origins. This review summarizes the recent studies about the effects of fetal stress on the abnormal brain development, focusing on the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms and highlighting the central effects of glucocorticoids on programming of hypoxicischemic-sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain, which may enhance the understanding of brain pathophysiology resulting from fetal stress and help explore potential targets of timely diagnosis, prevention and intervention in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other for brain disorders. PMID:22627492

  20. Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons

    PubMed Central

    Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly. PMID:16558676

  1. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József

    2015-05-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society.

  2. Electrical characteristics of high- Tc superconducting mini-model cable under mechanical stresses in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Kwag, D. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    To develop 22.9 kV class high- Tc superconducting (HTS) cable in Korea, we have been studying electrical insulation properties of dielectric paper, such as breakdown voltage, partial discharge, which is one of the HTS cable structure elements. However, the research on the mechanical stress of dielectric paper compared to breakdown properties of dielectric paper is insufficient. A cracking and variation of the electrical insulation due to mechanical stresses during cooling and bending of HTS cables in cryogenic temperature is a serious problem. Thus, we investigated tensile stress and breakdown stress of dielectric paper under mechanical stress. Moreover, we manufactured mini-model cables investigated breakdown stress under bending stress to design a cable drum for conveyance. In the AC, impulse and partial discharge properties, all test results showed a similar tendency, and the suitable bending radius ratio R/ r was decided to be more than 25.

  3. Calculation and visualization of atomistic mechanical stresses in nanomaterials and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Andrew T; Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS), an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications. PMID:25503996

  4. Calculation and Visualization of Atomistic Mechanical Stresses in Nanomaterials and Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS), an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications. PMID:25503996

  5. Calculation and visualization of atomistic mechanical stresses in nanomaterials and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Andrew T; Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS), an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications.

  6. Mechanical stress activates neurites and somata of myenteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Eva M.; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Schemann, Michael; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The particular location of myenteric neurons, sandwiched between the 2 muscle layers of the gut, implies that their somata and neurites undergo mechanical stress during gastrointestinal motility. Existence of mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) is undoubted but many of their basic features remain to be studied. In this study, we used ultra-fast neuroimaging to record activity of primary cultured myenteric neurons of guinea pig and human intestine after von Frey hair evoked deformation of neurites and somata. Independent component analysis was applied to reconstruct neuronal morphology and follow neuronal signals. Of the cultured neurons 45% (114 out of 256, 30 guinea pigs) responded to neurite probing with a burst spike frequency of 13.4 Hz. Action potentials generated at the stimulation site invaded the soma and other neurites. Mechanosensitive sites were expressed across large areas of neurites. Many mechanosensitive neurites appeared to have afferent and efferent functions as those that responded to deformation also conducted spikes coming from the soma. Mechanosensitive neurites were also activated by nicotine application. This supported the concept of multifunctional MEN. 14% of the neurons (13 out of 96, 18 guinea pigs) responded to soma deformation with burst spike discharge of 17.9 Hz. Firing of MEN adapted rapidly (RAMEN), slowly (SAMEN), or ultra-slowly (USAMEN). The majority of MEN showed SAMEN behavior although significantly more RAMEN occurred after neurite probing. Cultured myenteric neurons from human intestine had similar properties. Compared to MEN, dorsal root ganglion neurons were activated by neurite but not by soma deformation with slow adaptation of firing. We demonstrated that MEN exhibit specific features very likely reflecting adaptation to their specialized functions in the gut. PMID:26441520

  7. Is the microscopic stress computed from molecular simulations in mechanical equilibrium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan M.; Arroyo, Marino

    The microscopic stress field connects atomistic simulations with the mechanics of materials at the nano-scale through statistical mechanics. However, its definition remains ambiguous. In a recent work we showed that this is not only a theoretical problem, but rather that it greatly affects local stress calculations from molecular simulations. We find that popular definitions of the local stress, which are continuously being employed to understand the mechanics of various systems at the nanoscale, violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium. We exemplify these facts in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. Furthermore, we propose a new physical and sound definition of the microscopic stress that satisfies the continuum equations of balance, irrespective of the many-body nature of the inter-atomic potential. Thus, our proposal provides an unambiguous link between discrete-particle models and continuum mechanics at the nanoscale.

  8. Achieving reversibility of ultra-high mechanical stress by hydrogen loading of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, M.; Burlaka, V.; Wagner, S.; Pundt, A.

    2015-06-15

    Nano-materials are commonly stabilized by supports to maintain their desired shape and size. When these nano-materials take up interstitial atoms, this attachment to the support induces mechanical stresses. These stresses can be high when the support is rigid. High stress in the nano-material is typically released by delamination from the support or by the generation of defects, e.g., dislocations. As high mechanical stress can be beneficial for tuning the nano-materials properties, it is of general interest to deduce how real high mechanical stress can be gained. Here, we show that below a threshold nano-material size, dislocation formation can be completely suppressed and, when delamination is inhibited, even the ultrahigh stress values of the linear elastic limit can be reached. Specifically, for hydrogen solved in epitaxial niobium films on sapphire substrate supports a threshold film thickness of 6 nm was found and mechanical stress of up to (−10 ± 1) GPa was reached. This finding is of basic interest for hydrogen energy applications, as the hydride stability in metals itself is affected by mechanical stress. Thus, tuning of the mechanical stress-state in nano-materials may lead to improved storage properties of nano-sized materials.

  9. Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: a review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits.

    PubMed

    Bengough, A Glyn; McKenzie, B M; Hallett, P D; Valentine, T A

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation in drying soil is generally limited by a combination of mechanical impedance and water stress. Relationships between root elongation rate, water stress (matric potential), and mechanical impedance (penetration resistance) are reviewed, detailing the interactions between these closely related stresses. Root elongation is typically halved in repacked soils with penetrometer resistances >0.8-2 MPa, in the absence of water stress. Root elongation is halved by matric potentials drier than about -0.5 MPa in the absence of mechanical impedance. The likelihood of each stress limiting root elongation is discussed in relation to the soil strength characteristics of arable soils. A survey of 19 soils, with textures ranging from loamy sand to silty clay loam, found that ∼10% of penetration resistances were >2 MPa at a matric potential of -10 kPa, rising to nearly 50% >2 MPa at - 200 kPa. This suggests that mechanical impedance is often a major limitation to root elongation in these soils even under moderately wet conditions, and is important to consider in breeding programmes for drought-resistant crops. Root tip traits that may improve root penetration are considered with respect to overcoming the external (soil) and internal (cell wall) pressures resisting elongation. The potential role of root hairs in mechanically anchoring root tips is considered theoretically, and is judged particularly relevant to roots growing in biopores or from a loose seed bed into a compacted layer of soil. PMID:21118824

  10. A Methodology to Detect Abnormal Relative Wall Shear Stress on the Full Surface of the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Potters, Wouter V.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Allen, Bradley D.; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compute cohort-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) maps in the thoracic aorta of patients with aortic dilatation or valvular stenosis and to detect abnormal regional WSS. Methods Systolic WSS vectors, estimated from 4D flow MRI data, were calculated along the thoracic aorta lumen in 10 controls, 10 patients with dilated aortas and 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis. 3D segmentations of each aorta were co-registered by group and used to create a cohort-specific aortic geometry. The WSS vectors of each subject were interpolated onto the corresponding cohort-specific geometry to create cohort-averaged WSS maps. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to generate aortic P-value maps (P<0.05) representing regional relative WSS differences between groups. Results Cohort-averaged systolic WSS maps and P-value maps were successfully created for all cohorts and comparisons. The dilation cohort showed significantly lower WSS on 7% of the ascending aorta surface, whereas the stenosis cohort showed significantly higher WSS aorta on 34% the ascending aorta surface. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrated the feasibility of generating cohort-averaged WSS maps for the visualization and identification of regionally altered WSS in the presence of disease, as compared to healthy controls. PMID:24753241

  11. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G.F.; van der Linden, C. Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na+ and Cl− accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant’s performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  12. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant's performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress.

  13. Responses to combined abiotic and biotic stress in tomato are governed by stress intensity and resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kissoudis, Christos; Sunarti, Sri; van de Wiel, Clemens; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, C Gerard; Bai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    Stress conditions in agricultural ecosystems can occur at variable intensities. Different resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress and pathogens are deployed by plants. Thus, it is important to examine plant responses to stress combinations under different scenarios. Here, we evaluated the effect of different levels of salt stress ranging from mild to severe (50, 100, and 150mM NaCl) on powdery mildew resistance and overall performance of tomato introgression lines with contrasting levels of partial resistance, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying the resistance gene Ol-1 (associated with a slow hypersensitivity response; HR), ol-2 (an mlo mutant associated with papilla formation), and Ol-4 (an R gene associated with a fast HR). Powdery mildew resistance was affected by salt stress in a genotype- and stress intensity-dependent manner. In susceptible and partial resistant lines, increased susceptibility was observed under mild salt stress (50mM) which was accompanied by accelerated cell death-like senescence. In contrast, severe salt stress (150mM) reduced disease symptoms. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation in the leaves was linearly related to the decreased pathogen symptoms under severe stress. In contrast, complete resistance mediated by ol-2 and Ol-4 was unaffected under all treatment combinations, and was associated with a decreased growth penalty. Increased susceptibility and senescence under combined stress in NIL-Ol-1 was associated with the induction of ethylene and jasmonic acid pathway genes and the cell wall invertase gene LIN6. These results highlight the significance of stress severity and resistance type on the plant's performance under the combination of abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27436279

  14. Protective mechanisms of Cucumis sativus in diabetes-related modelsof oxidative stress and carbonyl stress

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Himan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Noubarani, Maryam; Rahmati, Mokhtar; Jafarian, Iman; Adiban, Hasan; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oxidative stress and carbonyl stress have essential mediatory roles in the development of diabetes and its related complications through increasing free radicals production and impairing antioxidant defense systems. Different chemical and natural compounds have been suggested for decreasing such disorders associated with diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) fruit (cucumber) in oxidative and carbonyl stress models. These diabetes-related models with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) simulate conditions observed in chronic hyperglycemia. Methods: Cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonyl stress model) were measured and the protective effects of C. sativus were evaluated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: Aqueous extract of C. sativus fruit (40 μg/mL) prevented all cytotoxicity markers in both the oxidative and carbonyl stress models including cell lysis, ROS formation, membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal labialization, and proteolysis. The extract also protected hepatocytes from protein carbonylation induced by glyoxal. Our results indicated that C. sativus is able to prevent oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in the isolated hepatocytes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that C. sativus has protective effects in diabetes complications and can be considered a safe and suitable candidate for decreasing the oxidative stress and carbonyl stress that is typically observed in diabetes mellitus. PMID:27340622

  15. Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A.; Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.; Sheridan, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative, or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (Estrogen and Glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function; and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies. PMID:26176590

  16. Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease.

    PubMed

    Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A; Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z; Sheridan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies.

  17. The formation mechanism and the influence factor of residual stress in machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    Residual stresses generated in cutting process have important influences on workpiece performance. The paper presents a method of theoretical analysis in order to explicate the formation mechanism of residual stresses in cutting. An important conclusion is drawn that the accumulated plastic strain is the main factor which determines the nature and the magnitude of surface residual stresses in the workpiece. On the basis of the analytical model for residual stress, a series of simulations for residual stress prediction during cutting AISI 1045 steel are implemented in order to obtain the influences of cutting speed, depth of cut and tool edge radius on surface residual stress in the workpiece. And these influences are explained from the perspective of formation mechanism of residual stress in cutting. The conclusions have good applicability and can be used to guide the parameters selection in actual production.

  18. Mechanisms of yeast stress tolerance and its manipulation for efficient fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-10-12

    Yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively studied in recent years for fuel ethanol production, in which yeast cells are exposed to various stresses such as high temperature, ethanol inhibition, and osmotic pressure from product and substrate sugars as well as the inhibitory substances released from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. An in-depth understanding of the mechanism of yeast stress tolerance contributes to breeding more robust strains for ethanol production, especially under very high gravity conditions. Taking advantage of the "omics" technology, the stress response and defense mechanism of yeast cells during ethanol fermentation were further explored, and the newly emerged tools such as genome shuffling and global transcription machinery engineering have been applied to breed stress resistant yeast strains for ethanol production. In this review, the latest development of stress tolerance mechanisms was focused, and improvement of yeast stress tolerance by both random and rational tools was presented.

  19. Chronic stress and brain plasticity: mechanisms underlying adaptive and maladaptive changes and implications for stress-related CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason; Morilak, David; Viau, Victor; Campeau, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Stress responses entail neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral changes to promote effective coping with real or perceived threats to one’s safety. While these responses are critical for the survival of the individual, adverse effects of repeated exposure to stress are widely known to have deleterious effects on health. Thus, a considerable effort in the search for treatments to stress-related CNS disorders necessitates unraveling the brain mechanisms responsible for adaptation under acute conditions and their perturbations following chronic stress exposure. This paper is based upon a symposium from the 2014 International Behavioral Neuroscience Meeting, summarizing some recent advances in understanding the effects of stress on adaptive and maladaptive responses subserved by limbic forebrain networks. An important theme highlighted in this review is that the same networks mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral processes during adaptive coping also comprise targets of the effects of repeated stress exposure in the development of maladaptive states. Where possible, reference is made to the similarity of neurobiological substrates and effects observed following repeated exposure to stress in laboratory animals and the clinical features of stress-related disorders in humans. PMID:26116544

  20. [Oxidative stress and inflammation: hypothesis for the mechanism of aging].

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Kazuo

    2007-03-01

    Oxidative stress due to free radicals is related to the pathogenesis of many chronic disorders including cancer, inflammation, and neurological diseases. Oxidative stress such as aging and light exposure is also considered to be associated with age-related macular degeneration and cataract. The ocular surface is chronically exposed to oxidative stress including ultraviolet light, the oxygen in air, and changes in oxygen pressure due to blinking. We demonstrated that a rat dry eye model with a jogging board showed corneal epithelial disoders and elevated levels of oxidative stress, suggesting that the pathogenesis of epithelial disorders in dry eye with low frequency of blinking is related to oxidative stress. Next, using a model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV), we showed that angiotensin receptormediated inflammation is required for the development of CNV. We also demonstrated that mice deficient in superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed typical clinical features of AMD. Finally, we proposed our thoughts about regenerative medicine, that is, to maintain quiescent stem cells, we have to regulate the aging of stem cells. PMID:17402562

  1. Failure mechanics of fiber composite notched charpy specimens. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis was performed to determine the stress variation in the vicinity of the notch and far field of fiber composites Charpy specimens (ASTM Standard). NASTRAN was used for the finite element analysis assuming linear behavior and equivalent static load. The unidirectional composites investigated ranged from Thornel 75 Epoxy to S-Glass/Epoxy with the fiber direction parallel to the long dimension of the specimen. The results indicate a biaxial stress state exists in (1) the notch vicinity which is dominated by transverse tensile and interlaminar shear and (2) near the load application point which is dominated by transverse compression and interlaminar shear. The results also lead to the postulation of hypotheses for the predominant failure modes, the fracture initiation, and the fracture process. Finally, the results indicate that the notched Charpy test specimen is not suitable for assessing the impact resistance of nonmetallic fiber composites directly.

  2. Spironolactone promotes autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway and reduce adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Zhongwei; Ji, Junya; Zheng, Zhenfeng; Lin, Shan; Yan, Tiekun

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stress which would cause deleterious adhesive effects on podocytes is considered a major contributor to the early progress of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study has shown that spironolactone could ameliorate podocytic adhesive capacity in diabetic rats. Autophagy has been reported to have a protective role against renal injury. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms by which spironolactone reduced adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress, focusing on the involvement of autophagy. Human conditional immortalized podocytes exposed to mechanical stress were treated with spironolactone, LY294002 or rapamycin for 48 h. The accumulation of LC3 puncta was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Podocyte expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), integrin β1, LC3, Atg5, p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting. Podocyte adhesion to collagen type IV was also performed with spectrophotometry. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the normal level of autophagy was reduced in podocytes under mechanical stress. Decreased integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 and abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were also detected in podocytes under mechanical stress. Spironolactone up-regulated integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 expression, down-regulated p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR expression and reduced podocytic adhesive capacity damage. Our data demonstrated that spironolactone inhibited mechanical-stress-induced podocytic adhesive capacity damage through blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and restoring autophagy activity. PMID:27129295

  3. Stress Patterns in Northern Iraq and Surrounding Regions from Formal Stress Inversion of Earthquake Focal Mechanism Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulnaby, Wathiq; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Numan, Nazar M. S.

    2014-09-01

    The collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates is one of the most seismically active regions. Northern Iraq represents the northeastern part of the Arabian plate that has a suture zone with the Turkish and Iranian plates called the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. The orientations of the principal stress axes can be estimated by the formal stress inversion of focal mechanism solutions. The waveform moment tensor inversion method was used to derive a focal mechanism solution of 65 earthquakes with magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.66 in the study area. From focal mechanism solutions, the direction of slip and the orientations of the moment stress axes ( P, N, and T) on the causative fault surface during an earthquake were determined. The dataset of the moment stress axes have been used to infer the regional principal stress axes ( σ 1, σ 2, and σ 3) by the formal stress inversion method. Two inversion methods, which are the new right dihedron and the rotational optimization methods, were used. The results show that six stress regime categories exist in the study area. However, the most common tectonic regimes are the strike-slip faulting (43.94 %), unspecified oblique faulting (27.27 %), and thrust faulting (13.64 %) regimes. In most cases, the strike-slip movement on the fault surfaces consists of left-lateral (sinistral) movement. The normal faulting is located in one small area and is due to a local tensional stress regime that develops in areas of strike-slip displacements as pull-apart basins. The directions of the horizontal stress axes show that the compressional stress regime at the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone has two directions. One is perpendicular to the suture zone near the Iraq-Iran border and the second is parallel in places as well as perpendicular in others to the suture zone near the Iraq-Turkey border. In addition, the principal stress axes in the Sinjar area near the Iraq-Syria border have a E-W direction. These results are compatible with the

  4. Yielding to Stress: Recent Developments in Viscoplastic Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, Neil J.; Frigaard, Ian A.; Ovarlez, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The archetypal feature of a viscoplastic fluid is its yield stress: If the material is not sufficiently stressed, it behaves like a solid, but once the yield stress is exceeded, the material flows like a fluid. Such behavior characterizes materials common in industries such as petroleum and chemical processing, cosmetics, and food processing and in geophysical fluid dynamics. The most common idealization of a viscoplastic fluid is the Bingham model, which has been widely used to rationalize experimental data, even though it is a crude oversimplification of true rheological behavior. The popularity of the model is in its apparent simplicity. Despite this, the sudden transition between solid-like behavior and flow introduces significant complications into the dynamics, which, as a result, has resisted much analysis. Over recent decades, theoretical developments, both analytical and computational, have provided a better understanding of the effect of the yield stress. Simultaneously, greater insight into the material behavior of real fluids has been afforded by advances in rheometry. These developments have primed us for a better understanding of the various applications in the natural and engineering sciences.

  5. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP) make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed. PMID:24027766

  6. Mechanical properties of a rat patellar tendon stress-shielded in situ.

    PubMed

    Müllner, T; Kwasny, O; Reihsner, R; Löhnert, V; Schabus, R

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stress deprivation on the mechanical properties of the patellar tendon (PT) were studied using 14 albino rats. The PT was stress-shielded with cerclages on one side, while the contralateral patellar tendon served as a sham-operated control. After 10 weeks, paired load-strain as well as load-relaxation experiments were performed (11 and 3 specimen pairs, respectively). Mechanical tests showed, irrespective of the cerclage material used, that strain was increased significantly after stress-shielding (P < 0.02). The time constant significantly decreased in the stress-shielded specimens under 5 N loads, which may be considered 'physiological'. Tissue remodeling might explain the observed changes in the viscoelastic behaviour of the stress-shielded tendons. Loading, even in the physiological range of normal daily activity, may lead to an elongation of previously stress-shielded tendons or ligaments and consequently alter the behaviour of a joint. PMID:10653108

  7. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

  8. Disulfide bond-dependent mechanism of protection against oxidative stress in pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase of anaerobic Desulfovibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Hatchikian, E Claude; Nouailler, Matthieu; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2008-01-22

    Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-coenzyme A is a crucial step in many metabolic pathways. In most anaerobes, this reaction is carried out by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), an enzyme normally oxygen sensitive except in Desulfovibrio africanus (Da), where it shows an abnormally high oxygen stability. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have specified a disulfide bond-dependent protective mechanism against oxidative conditions in Da PFOR. Our data demonstrated that the two cysteine residues forming the only disulfide bond in the as-isolated PFOR are crucial for the stability of the enzyme in oxidative conditions. A methionine residue located in the environment of the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster was also found to be essential for this protective mechanism. In vivo analysis demonstrated unambiguously that PFOR in Da cells as well as two other Desulfovibrio species was efficiently protected against oxidative stress. Importantly, a less active but stable Da PFOR in oxidized cells rapidly reactivated when returned to anaerobic medium. Our work demonstrates the existence of an elegant disulfide bond-dependent reversible mechanism, found in the Desulfovibrio species to protect one of the key enzymes implicated in the central metabolism of these strict anaerobes. This new mechanism could be considered as an adaptation strategy used by sulfate-reducing bacteria to cope with temporary oxidative conditions and to maintain an active dormancy. PMID:18161989

  9. Single cell mechanics: stress stiffening and kinematic hardening.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pablo; Ott, Albrecht

    2008-06-13

    Cell mechanical properties are fundamental to the organism but remain poorly understood. We report a comprehensive phenomenological framework for the complex rheology of single fibroblast cells: a superposition of elastic stiffening and viscoplastic kinematic hardening. Despite the complexity of the living cell, its mechanical properties can be cast into simple, well-defined rules. Our results reveal the key role of crosslink slippage in determining mechanical cell strength and robustness. PMID:18643547

  10. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  11. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  12. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Adrees, Muhammad; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-10-01

    Drought and salinity are the main abiotic stresses limiting crop yield and quality worldwide. Improving food production in drought- and salt-prone areas is the key to meet the increasing food demands in near future. It has been widely reported that silicon (Si), a second most abundant element in soil, could reduce drought and salt stress in plants. Here, we reviewed the emerging role of Si in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in plants and highlighted the mechanisms through which Si could alleviate both drought and salt stress in plants. Silicon application increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, straw and grain yield, and quality under either drought or salt stress. Under both salt and drought stress, the key mechanisms evoked are nutrient elements homeostasis, modification of gas exchange attributes, osmotic adjustment, regulating the synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in plants. In addition, Si application decreased Na(+) uptake and translocation while increased K(+) uptake and translocation under salt stress. However, these mechanisms vary with plant species, genotype, growth conditions, duration of stress imposed, and so on. This review article highlights the potential for improving plant resistance to drought and salt stress by Si application and provides a theoretical basis for application of Si in saline soils and arid and semiarid regions worldwide. This review article also highlights the future research needs about the role of Si under drought stress and in saline soils.

  13. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Adrees, Muhammad; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-10-01

    Drought and salinity are the main abiotic stresses limiting crop yield and quality worldwide. Improving food production in drought- and salt-prone areas is the key to meet the increasing food demands in near future. It has been widely reported that silicon (Si), a second most abundant element in soil, could reduce drought and salt stress in plants. Here, we reviewed the emerging role of Si in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in plants and highlighted the mechanisms through which Si could alleviate both drought and salt stress in plants. Silicon application increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, straw and grain yield, and quality under either drought or salt stress. Under both salt and drought stress, the key mechanisms evoked are nutrient elements homeostasis, modification of gas exchange attributes, osmotic adjustment, regulating the synthesis of compatible solutes, stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in plants. In addition, Si application decreased Na(+) uptake and translocation while increased K(+) uptake and translocation under salt stress. However, these mechanisms vary with plant species, genotype, growth conditions, duration of stress imposed, and so on. This review article highlights the potential for improving plant resistance to drought and salt stress by Si application and provides a theoretical basis for application of Si in saline soils and arid and semiarid regions worldwide. This review article also highlights the future research needs about the role of Si under drought stress and in saline soils. PMID:26335528

  14. Thermal mechanical stress modeling of GCtM seals

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Chambers, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Finite-element thermal stress modeling at the glass-ceramic to metal (GCtM) interface was conducted assuming heterogeneous glass-ceramic microstructure. The glass-ceramics were treated as composites consisting of high expansion silica crystalline phases dispersed in a uniform residual glass. Interfacial stresses were examined for two types of glass-ceramics. One was designated as SL16 glass -ceramic, owing to its step-like thermal strain curve with an overall coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at 16 ppm/ºC. Clustered Cristobalite is the dominant silica phase in SL16 glass-ceramic. The other, designated as NL16 glass-ceramic, exhibited clusters of mixed Cristobalite and Quartz and showed a near-linear thermal strain curve with a same CTE value.

  15. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…

  16. Mechanisms of Stress Resistance and Gene Regulation in the Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Agapov, A A; Kulbachinskiy, A V

    2015-10-01

    The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans reveals extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, desiccation, and other damaging conditions. In this review, we consider the main molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance, including the action of specific DNA repair and antioxidation systems, and transcription regulation during the anti-stress response.

  17. Stress and Anxious-Depressed Symptoms among Adolescents: Searching for Mechanisms of Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn E., Compas, Bruce E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the possible mechanisms of risk among adolescents (n=55) exposed to the stress associated with the diagnosis of cancer in a parent. Girls whose mothers had cancer reported significantly more anxious-depressed symptoms than girls whose fathers were ill or boys whose mothers or fathers had cancer. Examines possible causes of stress in the…

  18. Mechanical relaxation of localized residual stresses associatedwith foreign object damage

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, B.L.; Chen, X.; Peters, J.O.; Hutchinson, J.H.; Ritchie,R.O.

    2002-05-01

    Foreign-object damage associated with the ingestion ofdebris into aircraft turbine engines can lead to a marked degradation inthe high-cycle fatigue life of turbine components. This degradation isgenerally considered to be associated with the premature initiation offatigue cracks at or near the damage sites; this is suspected to be dueto, at least in part, the impact-induced residual stress state, which canbe strongly tensile in these locations.

  19. Mechanical Stress Regulation of Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Growth dynamics analysis was used to determine to what extent the seismic stress induced reduction in photosynthetic productivity in shaken soybeans was due to less photosynthetic surface, and to what extent to lower efficiency of assimulation. Seismic stress reduces shoot transpiration rate 17% and 15% during the first and second 45 minute periods following a given treatment. Shaken plants also had a 36% greater leaf water potential 30 minutes after treatment. Continuous measurement of whole plant photosynthetic rate shows that a decline in CO2 fixation began within seconds after the onset of shaking treatment and continued to decline to 16% less than that of controls 20 minutes after shaking, after which gradual recovery of photosynthesis begins. Photosynthetic assimilation recovered completely before the next treatment 5 hours later. The transitory decrease in photosynthetic rate was due entirely to a two fold increase in stomatal resistance to CO2 by the abaxial leaf surface. Mesophyll resistance was not significantly affected by periodic seismic treatment. Temporary stomatal aperture reduction and decreased CO2 fixation are responsible for the lower dry weight of seismic stressed plants growing in a controlled environment.

  20. Metabolic behavior of immobilized aggregates of Escherichia coli under conditions of varying mechanical stress.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J D; Robertson, C R

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on immobilized aggregates of Escherichia coli cells. Mechanical stress was applied by forcing a convective stream of nutrient medium through the aggregate. It was shown to be possible to maintain uniform exponential growth with this convective supply of nutrients. Analysis of effluent from the system allowed investigation of metabolic responses unambiguously attributable to mechanical stress. A reversible increase in catabolic activity was observed after an increase in mechanical stress. Changes in the level of catabolism were accompanied by an alteration in the total acid yield on glucose and in the spectrum of organic acids produced during glucose fermentation. The behavior observed here was likely due to an osmoregulatory response induced by the mechanically stressed bacteria to counteract changes in shape. Images PMID:2036025

  1. Critical review on the mechanisms of maturation stress generation in trees.

    PubMed

    Alméras, Tancrède; Clair, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Trees control their posture by generating asymmetric mechanical stress around the periphery of the trunk or branches. This stress is produced in wood during the maturation of the cell wall. When the need for reaction is high, it is accompanied by strong changes in cell organization and composition called reaction wood, namely compression wood in gymnosperms and tension wood in angiosperms. The process by which stress is generated in the cell wall during its formation is not yet known, and various hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. Here we aim at discriminating between these models. First, we summarize current knowledge about reaction wood structure, state and behaviour relevant to the understanding of maturation stress generation. Then, the mechanisms proposed in the literature are listed and discussed in order to identify which can be rejected based on their inconsistency with current knowledge at the frontier between plant science and mechanical engineering. PMID:27605169

  2. Critical review on the mechanisms of maturation stress generation in trees

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Trees control their posture by generating asymmetric mechanical stress around the periphery of the trunk or branches. This stress is produced in wood during the maturation of the cell wall. When the need for reaction is high, it is accompanied by strong changes in cell organization and composition called reaction wood, namely compression wood in gymnosperms and tension wood in angiosperms. The process by which stress is generated in the cell wall during its formation is not yet known, and various hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. Here we aim at discriminating between these models. First, we summarize current knowledge about reaction wood structure, state and behaviour relevant to the understanding of maturation stress generation. Then, the mechanisms proposed in the literature are listed and discussed in order to identify which can be rejected based on their inconsistency with current knowledge at the frontier between plant science and mechanical engineering. PMID:27605169

  3. Critical review on the mechanisms of maturation stress generation in trees.

    PubMed

    Alméras, Tancrède; Clair, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Trees control their posture by generating asymmetric mechanical stress around the periphery of the trunk or branches. This stress is produced in wood during the maturation of the cell wall. When the need for reaction is high, it is accompanied by strong changes in cell organization and composition called reaction wood, namely compression wood in gymnosperms and tension wood in angiosperms. The process by which stress is generated in the cell wall during its formation is not yet known, and various hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. Here we aim at discriminating between these models. First, we summarize current knowledge about reaction wood structure, state and behaviour relevant to the understanding of maturation stress generation. Then, the mechanisms proposed in the literature are listed and discussed in order to identify which can be rejected based on their inconsistency with current knowledge at the frontier between plant science and mechanical engineering.

  4. Respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in rheumatoid arthritis-related pulmonary abnormalities: frequency-dependence, heterogeneity and effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Sokai, Risa; Ito, Satoru; Iwano, Shingo; Uchida, Akemi; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related pulmonary disorders specifically airway abnormalities and interstitial pneumonia (IP) are important extra-articular manifestations. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a useful method to assess respiratory impedance, respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory mechanics of patients with RA and to relate them to parameters of the pulmonary function test and findings of chest CT images. Respiratory impedance of RA patients (n = 69) was measured as a function of frequency from 4 to 36 Hz using the FOT device and compared with that of healthy subjects (n = 10). Data were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were female-dominant (60.9 %) and 95.7 % had abnormal CT findings including airway and parenchymal abnormalities. Thirty-seven of 69 patients (53.6 %) were smokers. Rrs was significantly frequency-dependent in RA patients but not in the healthy subjects. Xrs were significantly frequency-dependent in both RA and healthy groups. Rrs was significantly higher during an expiratory phase in both RA and healthy groups. Xrs was significantly lower (more negative) during an expiratory phase than that during an inspiratory phase in RA patients but not in healthy subjects. Xrs of the RA group was significantly more negative than that of the normal control. There was no difference in impedance parameters between the airway lesion dominant (n = 27) and IP dominant groups (n = 23) in the RA group. The impedance parameters of the RA group significantly correlated with most parameters of the pulmonary function test. In pulmonary function test results, % of the predicted value for forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75 % of forced vital capacity was significantly lower and % of the predicted value for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was higher in the airway lesion dominant group than those in

  5. Evaluation of left atrial mechanical function and atrial conduction abnormalities in Maras powder (smokeless tobacco) users and smokers

    PubMed Central

    Akcay, Ahmet; Naci Aydin, M; Acar, Gurkan; Akgungor, Mehmet; Cabioglu, Eren; Ardic, İdris; Mese, Bulent; Bozoglan, Orhan; Çetin, Mustafa; Çakıcı, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective In Turkey, a type of smokeless tobacco called Maras powder (MP) is widely used in the south-eastern region. Smokeless tobacco is found in preparations for chewing and for absorption by the nasal and oral mucosae. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MP damages intra- and inter-atrial conduction delay and left atrial (LA) mechanical function as much as cigarette smoking. Method A total of 150 chronic MP users (50 males, 32.5 ± 5.4 years), smokers (50 males, 32.1 ± 6.0 years) and controls (50 males, 30.1 ± 5.8 years) were included in the study. LA volumes were measured echocardiographically according to the biplane area–length method. Atrial electromechanical coupling was measured with tissue Doppler imaging and LA mechanical function parameters were calculated. Results The LA passive emptying fraction was significantly decreased and LA active emptying volume (LAAEV) was significantly increased in the MP group (p = 0.012 and p = 0.024, respectively), and the LA active emptying fraction (LAAEF) was significantly increased in the smokers (p = 0.003). There was a positive correlation between the amount of MP used and smoking (pack years) with LAAEV and LAAEF (r = 0.26, p = 0.009 and r = 0.25, p = 0.013, respectively). Lateral atrial electromechanical intervals (PA) were significantly higher in MP users, and the septal mitral PA was statistically higher in the smokers (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion We suggest that atrial electromechanical coupling intervals were prolonged and LA mechanical function was impaired in MP users and smokers, but there was no significant difference between the MP users and smokers. These findings may be markers of subclinical cardiac involvement and tendency for atrial fibrillation. PMID:26592906

  6. Effect of mechanical stress on biofilms challenged by different chemicals.

    PubMed

    Simões, Manuel; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Vieira, Maria João

    2005-12-01

    In this study a methodology was applied in order to ascertain the mechanical stability of biofilms, by using a stainless-steel (SS) rotating device immersed in a biological reactor where biofilms formed by Pseudomonas fluorescens were allowed to grow for 7 days at a Reynolds number of agitation of 2400. The biofilms developed with this system were characterised in terms of amount of total, extracellular and intracellular proteins and polysaccharides, amount of mass, metabolic activity and mechanical stability, showing that the biofilms were active, had a high content of extracellular constituents and an inherent mechanical stability. In order to assess the role of chemical agents on the mechanical stability, the biofilms were exposed to chemical agents followed by mechanical treatments by submission to increase Reynolds number of agitation. Seven different chemical agents were tested (two non-oxidising biocides, three surfactants and two oxidising biocides) and their effects on the biofilm mechanical stability were evaluated. The increase in the Reynolds number increased the biofilm removal, but total biofilm removal was not found for all the conditions tested. For the experiment without chemical addition (only mechanical treatment), the biofilm remaining on the surface was about 76%. The chemical treatment followed by the subsequent mechanical treatment did not remove all the biofilms from the surface. The biofilm remaining on the SS cylinder ranged from 3% to 62%, depending on the chemical treatment, showing that the chemical treatment is far from being a cause that induces massive biofilm detachment and even the synergistic chemical and mechanical treatments did not promote biofilm removal. Some chemical agents promoted an increase in the biofilm mechanical stability such as glutaraldehyde (GTA), benzalkonium chloride (BC), except for the lower concentration tested, and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), except for the higher concentration tested. Treatments that

  7. Opioid and non-opioid mechanisms of stress analgesia: lack of cross-tolerance between stressors.

    PubMed

    Terman, G W; Lewis, J W; Liebeskind, J C

    1983-01-31

    Qualitatively different analgesic responses can be evoked in rats by exposure to prolonged, intermittent or brief, continuous footshock stress. These two forms of stress analgesia appear to be mediated by opioid and nonopioid pain-inhibitory substrates, respectively. The present study confirms our previous observation that tolerance develops to only the opioid form of stress analgesia and shows that cross-tolerance does not occur between the opioid and nonopioid forms. These data provide further evidence that independent mechanisms underlie opioid and nonopioid stress analgesia.

  8. [Advances in studies on growth metabolism and response mechanisms of medicinal plants under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Si, Can; Zhang, Jun-Yi; Xu, Hu-Chao

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress exerts a considerable effect on growth, physiology and secondary metabolisms of the medicinal plants. It could inhabit the growth of the medicinal plants but promote secretion of secondary metabolites. Other researches indicated that the medicinal plants could depend on the ABA signaling pathway and secreting osmotic substances to resist the drought stress and reduce the damage by it. The article concludes the changes in growth, physiology, secondary metabolisms and response mechanisms of medicinal plants to drought stress that provides a theoretical basis for exploring the relationship between medicinal plants and drought stress.

  9. Stress and asthma: novel insights on genetic, epigenetic, and immunologic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stacy L; Miller, Gregory E; Brehm, John M; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-11-01

    In the United States the economically disadvantaged and some ethnic minorities are often exposed to chronic psychosocial stressors and disproportionately affected by asthma. Current evidence suggests a causal association between chronic psychosocial stress and asthma or asthma morbidity. Recent findings suggest potential mechanisms underlying this association, including changes in the methylation and expression of genes that regulate behavioral, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immunologic responses to stress. There is also evidence suggesting the existence of susceptibility genes that predispose chronically stressed youth to both post-traumatic stress disorder and asthma. In this review we critically examine published evidence and suggest future directions for research in this field.

  10. The rheology of a growing leaf: stress-induced changes in the mechanical properties of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sahaf, Michal; Sharon, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We study in situ the mechanics and growth of a leaf. Young Nicotiana tabacum leaves respond to applied mechanical stress by altering both their mechanical properties and the characteristics of their growth. We observed two opposite behaviours, each with its own typical magnitude and timescale. On timescales of the order of minutes, the leaf deforms in response to applied tensile stress. During this phase we found a high correlation between the applied stress field and the local strain field throughout the leaf surface. For times over 12 hours the mechanical properties of the leaf become anisotropic, making it more resilient to deformation and restoring a nearly isotropic growth field despite the highly anisotropic load. These observations suggest that remodelling of the tissue allows the leaf to respond to mechanical perturbations by changing its properties. We discuss the relevance of the observed behaviour to the growth regulation that leads to proper leaf shape during growth. PMID:27651350

  11. Aortic pulse pressure homeostasis emerges from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuc H; Tuzun, Egemen; Quick, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Aortic pulse pressure arises from the interaction of the heart, the systemic arterial system, and peripheral microcirculations. The complex interaction between hemodynamics and arterial remodeling precludes the ability to experimentally ascribe changes in aortic pulse pressure to particular adaptive responses. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use a human systemic arterial system model to test the hypothesis that pulse pressure homeostasis can emerge from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses. First, we assumed a systemic arterial system that had a realistic topology consisting of 121 arterial segments. Then the relationships of pulsatile blood pressures and flows in arterial segments were characterized by standard pulse transmission equations. Finally, each arterial segment was assumed to remodel to local stresses following three simple rules: 1) increases in endothelial shear stress increases radius, 2) increases in wall circumferential stress increases wall thickness, and 3) increases in wall circumferential stress decreases wall stiffness. Simulation of adaptation by iteratively calculating pulsatile hemodynamics, mechanical stresses, and vascular remodeling led to a general behavior in response to mechanical perturbations: initial increases in pulse pressure led to increased arterial compliances, and decreases in pulse pressure led to decreased compliances. Consequently, vascular adaptation returned pulse pressures back toward baseline conditions. This behavior manifested when modeling physiological adaptive responses to changes in cardiac output, changes in peripheral resistances, and changes in local arterial radii. The present work, thus, revealed that pulse pressure homeostasis emerges from physiological adaptation of systemic arteries to local mechanical stresses.

  12. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong-Dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-Li; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Lü, Long-Bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys' depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  13. Prolonged secretion of cortisol as a possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Dong-dong; Rizak, Joshua; Feng, Xiao-li; Yang, Shang-chuan; Lü, Long-bao; Pan, Lei; Yin, Yong; Hu, Xin-tian

    2016-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset of depressive episodes, and cortisol hypersecretion is considered a biological risk factor of depression. However, the possible mechanisms underlying stress, cortisol and depressive behaviours are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the interrelationships among stress, cortisol and observed depressive behaviours in female rhesus macaques for the first time and explored the possible mechanism underlying stress and depressive behaviour. Female monkeys were video-recorded, and the frequencies of life events and the duration of huddling were analysed to measure stress and depressive behaviour. Hair samples were used to measure chronic cortisol levels, and the interactions between stress and cortisol in the development of depressive behaviour were further evaluated. Significant correlations were found between stress and depressive behaviour measures and between cortisol levels and depressive behaviour. Stress was positively correlated with cortisol levels, and these two factors interacted with each other to predict the monkeys’ depressive behaviours. This finding extends the current understanding of stress/cortisol interactions in depression, especially pertaining to females. PMID:27443987

  14. Acute stress regulates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Sheng; Li, Feng-Peng; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Bao-Jun; Qu, Fang; Wen, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yang; Lin, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1 h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2 h before BV and 2-8 h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model.

  15. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  16. The sex differences in nature of vascular endothelial stress: nitrergic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindeev, Sergey; Gekaluyk, Artem; Ulanova, Maria; Agranovich, Ilana; Sharref, Ali Esmat; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana

    2016-04-01

    Here we studied the role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular regulation in male and female hypertensive rats under normal and stress conditions. We found that the severity of hypertension in females was lower than in males. Hypertensive females demonstrated more favorable pattern of cardiovascular responses to stress. Nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the heart rate more effectively in females than in males. During stress, L-NAME modified the stress-induced cardiovascular responses more significantly in female compared with male groups. Our data show that hypertensive females demonstrated the more effective nitric oxide control of cardiovascular activity under normal and especially stress conditions than male groups. This sex differences may be important mechanism underlying greater in females vs. males stress-resistance of cardiovascular system and hypertension formation.

  17. Stress: perceptions, manifestations, and coping mechanisms of student registered nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Chipas, Anthony; Cordrey, Dan; Floyd, David; Grubbs, Lindsey; Miller, Sarah; Tyre, Brooks

    2012-08-01

    Stress is a response to change from the norm. Stress affects all individuals to varying degrees and can be positive, such as eustress, or negative, such as distress. The purpose of this qualitative, cross-sectional study was to investigate the stressors of the typical student registered nurse anesthetist (SRNA), with the objective of identifying trends in the perceptions, manifestations, and coping mechanisms of stress. An online (SurveyMonkey) questionnaire composed of 54 study-specific questions was developed to assess stress in the SRNA population. The questionnaire was sent to members of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists via email invitation. The study yielded a sample of 1,282 SRNA participants. Analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between self-reported stress and negative outcomes, such as increased sick days, decreased health and wellness, and depression. The study demonstrated that SRNAs perceive their stress as above average, and it remains a central concern for them.

  18. Sensitivity of stress inversion of focal mechanisms to pore pressure changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Vavryčuk, Václav; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Bohnhoff, Marco

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of stress inversion from focal mechanisms to pore pressure changes. Synthetic tests reveal that pore pressure variations can cause apparent changes in the retrieved stress ratio R relating the magnitude of the intermediate principal stress with respect to the maximum and minimum principal stresses. Pore pressure and retrieved R are negatively correlated when R is low (R < 0.6). The spurious variations in retrieved R are suppressed when R > 0.6. This observation is independent of faulting style, and it may be related to different performance of the fault plane selection criterion and variability in orientation of activated faults under different pore pressures. Our findings from synthetic data are supported by results obtained from induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field. Therefore, the retrieved stress ratio variations can be utilized for monitoring pore pressure changes at seismogenic depth in stress domains with overall low R.

  19. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  20. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  1. Cellular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in human exercise.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Malcolm J; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; McArdle, Anne

    2016-09-01

    A relative increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA has been recognised to occur in the circulation and tissues of exercising humans and animals since the late 1970s and throughout the ensuing 40 years a great deal of work has been undertaken to elucidate the potential source(s) of this exercise-induced "oxidative stress". Specific aspects of physical exercise (e.g. contractile activity, relative hypoxia, hyperaemia) may theoretically induce increased generation of reactive oxygen species in a number of potential tissues, but data strongly indicate that contractile activity of skeletal muscle predominates as the source of oxidants and contributes to local oxidation and that of extracellular biomaterials. Taken together with the relatively large mass of muscle compared with other tissues and cells it appears that muscle fibres are the major contributor to the relative increase in whole body "oxidative stress" during some forms of exercise. The sub-cellular sources of this increased oxidation have also been the subject of considerable research with early studies predominantly indicating that muscle mitochondria were the likely increased source of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, but assessments of the relative concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in skeletal muscle fibres at rest and during contractile activity do not support this possibility. In contrast, several recent studies have identified NADPH oxidase enzymes in skeletal muscle that appear to play a signalling role in physiological responses exercise and together with xanthine oxidase enzymes may contribute to the relative increase in whole body oxidation. A fuller understanding of the relative roles of these sources and the function(s) of the species generated appears increasingly important in attempts to harness the beneficial effects of exercise for maintenance of health in aging and a variety of chronic conditions.

  2. Autophagy: A protective mechanism in response to stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the intracellular systems responsible of protein trafficking (degradation/recycling) in eukaryotic cells. Whereas this ubiquitous process contributes to the cytosolic homeostasis, its deregulation is often associated to various pathologies (neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, pathologies with altered inflammatory response, etc.). The present paper gives an overview of autophagy, especially in inflammation, including mechanisms, regulation, functions and future therapies. PMID:16729721

  3. A thermo-mechanical stress prediction model for contemporary planar sodium sulfur (NaS) cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Colker, Jeffrey P.; Cao, Yuzhe; Kim, Goun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a comprehensive finite-element analysis (FEA) computational model to accurately predict the thermo-mechanical stresses at heterogeneous joints and components of large-size sodium sulfur (NaS) cells during thermal cycling. Quantification of the thermo-mechanical stress is important because the accumulation of stress during cell assembly and/or operation is one of the critical issues in developing practical planar NaS cells. The computational model is developed based on relevant experimental assembly and operation conditions to predict the detailed stress field of a state-of-the-art planar NaS cell. Prior to the freeze-and-thaw thermal cycle simulation, residual stresses generated from the actual high temperature cell assembly procedures are calculated and implemented into the subsequent model. The calculation results show that large stresses are developed on the outer surface of the insulating header and the solid electrolyte, where component fracture is frequently observed in the experimental cell fabrication process. The impacts of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of glass materials and the thicknesses of cell container on the stress accumulation are also evaluated to improve the cell manufacturing procedure and to guide the material choices for enhanced thermo-mechanical stability of large-size NaS cells.

  4. Cellular mechanism of the conduction abnormalities induced by serum from anti-Ro/SSA-positive patients in rabbit hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, S; Nascimento, J H; Bonfa, E; Levy, R; Oliveira, S F; Tavares, A V; de Carvalho, A C

    1994-01-01

    In this study, IgG fractions from sera of SLE patients with anti-Ro/SSA or anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB activity were tested in Langendorff preparations of adult rabbit hearts, aiming to reproduce the cardiac manifestations observed in neonatal lupus in an experimental model. The hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution for 30 min, followed by perfusion with Tyrode's containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (nine sera), anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-positive IgG (five sera), or IgG fractions from normal donors (five sera). In one third of the experiments done with anti-Ro/La-positive IgG, heart block was observed. With the remaining fractions, a decrease in heart rate of 17.1% was observed, but normal sinus rhythm was maintained. The IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity (five experiments) and from normal sera (six experiments) reduced heart rates by 12.9 and 3.3%, respectively, but heart block was not observed. To further characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in the conduction disturbances observed in the whole rabbit hearts, we conducted experiments with ventricular myocytes isolated from young rabbit hearts, studied by whole cell patch-clamp technique. In these experiments, the slow inward currents were analyzed during the superfusion of the cell with normal Tyrode's solution and 5 min after superfusion with Tyrode's solution containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (five sera), anti-RNP-positive IgG (three sera), or IgG from normal donors (four sera). Resting and action potential amplitudes were not affected by any of the sera used. The anti-Ro/SSA IgG fraction induced a mean reduction in the peak slow inward current of 31.6%. IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity reduced slow inward current by 4.4%, whereas IgG fractions from normal donors increased this current by 3.3%. IgG-free fractions from sera of patients with anti-Ro/SSA activity did not alter the peak slow inward current. These results

  5. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Fatma, Mehar; Per, Tasir S.; Anjum, Naser A.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses (such as metals/metalloids, salinity, ozone, UV-B radiation, extreme temperatures, and drought) are among the most challenging threats to agricultural system and economic yield of crop plants. These stresses (in isolation and/or combination) induce numerous adverse effects in plants, impair biochemical/physiological and molecular processes, and eventually cause severe reductions in plant growth, development and overall productivity. Phytohormones have been recognized as a strong tool for sustainably alleviating adverse effects of abiotic stresses in crop plants. In particular, the significance of salicylic acid (SA) has been increasingly recognized in improved plant abiotic stress-tolerance via SA-mediated control of major plant-metabolic processes. However, the basic biochemical/physiological and molecular mechanisms that potentially underpin SA-induced plant-tolerance to major abiotic stresses remain least discussed. Based on recent reports, this paper: (a) overviews historical background and biosynthesis of SA under both optimal and stressful environments in plants; (b) critically appraises the role of SA in plants exposed to major abiotic stresses; (c) cross-talks potential mechanisms potentially governing SA-induced plant abiotic stress-tolerance; and finally (d) briefly highlights major aspects so far unexplored in the current context. PMID:26175738

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Antonio V.; Serrano, Peter A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  7. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  8. Vegetation stress as a feedback mechanism in midlatitude drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model with land surface properties represented by the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model is used to investigate the effect of soil moisture and vegetation stress on drought in the mid-latitudes. An idealized land-sea distribution with simple topography is used to remove as many external sources of climate variation as possible. The land consists of a single, flat, rectangular continent covered with prairie vegetation and centered on 44 deg N of an aqua planet. A control integration of 4 years is performed, and several sets of seasonal anomaly integrations are made to test the sensitivity of seasonal climate to low initial (1 April) soil moisture and dormant vegetation like what would occur during a severe drought. It is found that the inclusion of dormant vegetation during the spring and early summer greatly reduces evapotranspiration by eliminating transpiration. This affects local climate more strongly as summer progresses. Low initial soil moisture, combined with dormant vegetation, leads to a severe drought. The reduction in precipitation is much greater in magnitude than that due to low soil moisture alone, and greater than the sum of the effects computed separately. Although the short-term drought is more severe, the dormancy of the vegetation prevents further depletion of moisture in the root zone of the soil, so soil moisture begins to rebound toward the middle of summer.

  9. Neural mechanisms of impaired fear inhibition in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth Davin

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop in some individuals who are exposed to an event that causes extreme fear, horror, or helplessness (APA, 1994). PTSD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders such as panic or social phobia. Given this complexity, progress in the field can be greatly enhanced by focusing on phenotypes that are more proximal to the neurobiology of the disorder. Such neurobiological intermediate phenotypes can provide investigative tools to increase our understanding of the roots of the disorder and develop better prevention or intervention programs. In the present paper, we argue that the inhibition of fear responses is an intermediate phenotype that is related to both the neurocircuitry associated with the disorder, and is linked to its clinical symptoms. An advantage of focusing on fear inhibition is that the neurobiology of fear has been well investigated in animal models providing the necessary groundwork in understanding alterations. Furthermore, because many paradigms can be tested across species, fear inhibition is an ideal translational tool. Here we review both the behavioral tests and measures of fear inhibition and the related neurocircuitry in neuroimaging studies with both healthy and clinical samples. PMID:21845177

  10. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  11. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models, and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain following local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal DRG, quantitative PCR showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6′ immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C-cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8, because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7, because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain, and that some pain conditions may be primarily mediated by myelinated A-fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  12. Mapping of Mechanical Strains and Stresses around Quiescent Engineered Three-Dimensional Epithelial Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how physical signals guide biological processes requires qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the mechanical forces generated and sensed by cells in a physiologically realistic three-dimensional (3D) context. Here, we used computational modeling and engineered epithelial tissues of precise geometry to define the experimental parameters that are required to measure directly the mechanical stress profile of 3D tissues embedded within native type I collagen. We found that to calculate the stresses accurately in these settings, we had to account for mechanical heterogeneities within the matrix, which we visualized and quantified using confocal reflectance and atomic force microscopy. Using this technique, we were able to obtain traction forces at the epithelium-matrix interface, and to resolve and quantify patterns of mechanical stress throughout the surrounding matrix. We discovered that whereas single cells generate tension by contracting and pulling on the matrix, the contraction of multicellular tissues can also push against the matrix, causing emergent compression. Furthermore, tissue geometry defines the spatial distribution of mechanical stress across the epithelium, which communicates mechanically over distances spanning hundreds of micrometers. Spatially resolved mechanical maps can provide insight into the types and magnitudes of physical parameters that are sensed and interpreted by multicellular tissues during normal and pathological processes. PMID:22828342

  13. Oxide growth stress measurements and relaxation mechanisms for alumina scales grown on FeCrAlY: Oxide growth stress measurements and relaxation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P. F.; Specht, E. D.; More, K. L.; Hou, P. Y.

    2012-08-08

    Early-stage tensile stress evolution in α-Al2O3 scales during oxidation of FeCrAlY at 1000, 1050, 1100, and 1200 °C was monitored in situ by use of synchrotron radiation. Tensile stress development as a function of oxidation temperature indicated a dynamic interplay between stress generation and relaxation. An analysis of the time dependence of the data indicated that the observed relaxation of the initial tensile stress in the oxide scales at 1100 and 1200°C is dominated by creep in the α-Al2O3. A thin layer of a (Fe,Cr,Al) oxide was observed at the oxide-gas interface, consistent with a mechanism whereby the conversion of (Fe,Cr,Al)2O3 to α-Al2O3 produces an initial tensile stress in the alumina scale.

  14. A mechanical model of the San Andreas fault and SAFOD Pilot Hole stress measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chery, J.; Zoback, M.D.; Hickman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Stress measurements made in the SAFOD pilot hole provide an opportunity to study the relation between crustal stress outside the fault zone and the stress state within it using an integrated mechanical model of a transform fault loaded in transpression. The results of this modeling indicate that only a fault model in which the effective friction is very low (<0.1) through the seismogenic thickness of the crust is capable of matching stress measurements made in both the far field and in the SAFOD pilot hole. The stress rotation measured with depth in the SAFOD pilot hole (???28??) appears to be a typical feature of a weak fault embedded in a strong crust and a weak upper mantle with laterally variable heat flow, although our best model predicts less rotation (15??) than observed. Stress magnitudes predicted by our model within the fault zone indicate low shear stress on planes parallel to the fault but a very anomalous mean stress, approximately twice the lithostatic stress. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. The stress raisers effects on the materials mechanical characteristics, analyzed by local microhardness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanţă, V.; Mareş, M.; Axinte, T.

    2016-08-01

    There have been few studies on the effects of stress raisers on the parts that are plastically deformed, at least into a certain extent of their volume. Such a situation may arrive near a stress raiser, when the peak stress value rises over the material yield stress limit. Some tensile tests are described in the paper, on flat aluminum specimens, with and without the presence of a stress raiser on their surface, namely a through frontal hole, at the center of their calibrated region. Some of the mechanical characteristics (yield limit, elongation at break, Young's modulus) were affected by the stress raiser presence, but its ductile behavior and tensile strength were not. The effective values of stress and strain concentration coefficients were calculated using the Neuber's rule, but the results may be considered as overestimated. The plastic strain enlargement in the specimen volume was also evaluated by measuring the Vickers microhardness values in the stress raiser vicinity. The tests results were shown that the plastic deformation is more pronounced for the measuring points that are closer to the hole's edge; that fact was confirmed by the specimens appearance, after the material failure. A hardness values ratio is finally proposed as an evaluation of the effective stress concentration coefficient.

  16. Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from a uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.

    1986-01-15

    Mechanical stress in a dielectric solid from application of a uniform electric field is usually assumed to be described by ''Maxwell stress,'' proportional to the first power of the relative dielectric constant, kappa. Significant corrections are found from energy minimization when the dependence of permittivity on strain is included. Electrostriction coefficients are evaluated by the use of a model dielectric consisting of a simple-cubic lattice of linearly polarizable point dipoles. Compressive stress in the applied-field direction is larger than expected by more than a factor of kappa. The force density exerted on internal space charge needs to be corrected by the same factor. Stress components also have been calculated, with identical results, through direct summation of microscopic forces. This method permits identification of the origins of electrically induced stress. The dominant contribution is a compressive stress in the field direction, proportional to kappaS, from attraction between free charge at the electrodes. This component can attain tens of MPa at fields approaching the intrinsic dielectric strength. A lateral tensile stress independent of kappa also is present, which may assist electrical breakdown in some crystalline dielectrics. These stress components are augmented by short-range, dipolar forces throughout the bulk of the dielectric. Deformations accompanying poling of poly(vinylidene fluoride) are considered and found to be influenced by electrically induced stress.

  17. Mechanical Risk Factors for Stress Fracture in Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kenneth; Wilcox-Fogel, Nathan; Trikha, Rishi; Tenforde, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are responsible for significant missed competition and training in distance runners. A recent review of our institution’s injury database revealed that one-fifth of NCAA-level runners sustained one or more BSI over a three-year period. While much is known about certain risk factors for stress injury such as the Female Athlete Triad, little is known about biomechanical risk factors including dynamic loading of the foot during running differs between athletes with history of BSI and those without. The aims of this study were: 1) characterize the dynamic loading patterns of elite distance runners during athletic movement, 2) determine the difference in dynamic loading magnitude and location in runners who have history of a BSI compared to non-injured runners and 3) establish a database to be used for follow-up evaluation. We hypothesized that athletes with a history of BSI in the lower extremity apply greater dynamic loads during athletic movements compared to uninjured athletes. Methods: We recruited 40 healthy varsity distance runners (16 females, 24 males) from our institution to participate in the study. Dynamic foot loading data was collected on all athletes using a validated wireless insole pressure measurement system during a series of athletic movements (e.g., walking, running and lateral cutting). Data was collected for contact area, maximum force, peak pressure, maximum mean pressure and force-time integral at each of eleven foot regions during each athletic movement. All force and pressure data were normalized to body weight. Injury history and other potential risk factors of interest were collected by self-report questionnaire and chart review. All BSI occurred as a result of participation of running, diagnosed by a physician and confirmed with advanced imaging. Mean values were calculated for each variable and foot region in each athlete and paired t-tests were performed for injury history comparisons. Results: A

  18. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnitude and distribution of stresses in composite resin and sound dentine interface with mechanical retentions

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara-Augusta; Del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Background Adhesive systems are constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stresses that negatively impact the integrity and durability of the dentine-adhesive interface. Despite the lack of evidence to support or reject the clinical indication for mechanical retention, the potential further contribution of these preparations to the behavior of the composite resin-sound dentine bond has been rarely addressed. The authors evaluated by finite element analysis the effect of mechanical retention on the magnitude and distribution of stresses in a composite resin-sound dentin bonding interface when subjected to tensile and shear forces. Material and Methods A three-dimensional model was created based on three cylindrical volumes representing the sound dentin, adhesive system, and composite resin. From this main model, two models were designed to simulate dentine bonding: 1) a model with no mechanical retention, which considered flat adhesion; and 2) a model with retention, which considered four hemispherical holes on the dentine surface. Both groups were subjected to linear static analysis under tensile and shear loading of 200N. Results At the model with retentions’ bonding interface under tensile and shear loading, a concentration of Von Mises equivalent stress was observed within the retentions, with a reduction of those stresses on the bonding boundary surface. Conclusions Additional mechanical retention increases the tensile strength of the sound dentin-composite resin bonding interface, promoting a decrease in the magnitude of the stresses and their redistribution under tensile and shear loading. Key words:Adhesion, composite resins, dentine, finite element analysis. PMID:26155338

  20. Focus ion beam-induced mechanical stress switching in an ultra-fast resistive switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The Mo/Si3N4:Pt/Pt nanometallic resistive switching devices with ultra-fast write/erase speed (<50 ns) were fabricated. Other than conventional electrical switching, a mechanical stress-induced switching was demonstrated. Such mechanical stress was provided by momentum transfer of 30 keV Ga+ ions in a focus ion beam system, enabling a one-way high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (LRS) transition. The capability of mechanical stress switching provides evidence that electron trapping/detrapping mechanism is responsible for nanometallic resistive switching. It was further demonstrated that HRS (trapping state) is a meta-stable state, while LRS (detrapping state) is a stable state. Strong mechanical stress facilitates local bond distortion in dielectric films and thus lowers the energy barrier between HRS and LRS, eventually leading to a barrier-less state transition. A quantitative model based on stress-mediated parallel conduction paths were established to provide a more accurate description of the resistive switching devices.

  1. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors.

  2. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Tong, Hua; Xu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution.

  3. MECHANISMS FOR COUNTERING OXIDATIVE STRESS AND DAMAGE IN RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Plafker, Scott M.; O’Mealey, Gary B.; Szweda, Luke I.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence supports that chronic oxidative stress is a primary contributing factor to numerous retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes obtained postmortem from AMD patients have extensive free radical damage to the proteins, lipids, DNA, and mitochondria of their retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In addition, several mouse models of chronic oxidative stress develop many of the pathological hallmarks of AMD. However, the extent to which oxidative stress is an etiologic component versus its involvement in disease progression remains a major unanswered question. Further, whether the primary target of oxidative stress and damage is photoreceptors or RPE cells, or both, is still unclear. In this review, we discuss the major functions of RPE cells with an emphasis on the oxidative challenges these cells encounter and the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms employed to neutralize the deleterious effects that such stresses can elicit if left unchecked. PMID:22878106

  4. Effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and human development: mechanisms and pathways

    PubMed Central

    Coussons-Read, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that prenatal stress can have significant effects on pregnancy, maternal health and human development across the lifespan. These effects may occur directly through the influence of prenatal stress-related physiological changes on the developing fetus, or indirectly through the effects of prenatal stress on maternal health and pregnancy outcome which, in turn, affect infant health and development. Animal and human studies suggest that activation of the maternal stress response and resulting changes in endocrine and inflammatory activity play a role in the aetiology of these effects. Ongoing research is focusing on clarifying these mechanisms, understanding the role of racial and cultural factors in these effects, and examining the epigenetic and transgenerational influences of prenatal stress. PMID:27757157

  5. Stress defense mechanisms of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Plants establish highly and systemically organized stress defense mechanisms against unfavorable living conditions. To interpret these environmental stimuli, plants possess communication tools, referred as secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) signature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) wave. Maintenance of ROS is an important event for whole lifespan of plants, however, in special cases, toxic ROS molecules are largely accumulated under excess stresses and diverse enzymes played as ROS scavengers. Arabidopsis and rice contain 3 NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) which transfer reducing power to Thioredoxin/Peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system for scavenging ROS. However, due to functional redundancy between cytosolic and mitochondrial NTRs (NTRA and NTRB, respectively), their functional involvements under stress conditions have not been well characterized. Recently, we reported that cytosolic NTRA confers the stress tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses via regulation of ROS amounts using NTRA-overexpressing plants. With these findings, mitochondrial NTRB needs to be further elucidated.

  6. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders.

  7. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders. PMID:26774789

  8. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms affecting response to aspirin in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; La Barba, Sara; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Persistent platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in T2DM. However, current antiplatelet treatments appear less effective in T2DM patients vs nondiabetics at similar risk. A large body of evidence supports the contention that oxidative stress, which characterizes DM, may be responsible, at least in part, for less-than-expected response to aspirin, with multiple mechanisms acting at several levels. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms related to oxidative stress and contributing to suboptimal aspirin action or responsiveness. These include: (1) mechanisms counteracting the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, such as reduced platelet sensitivity to the antiaggregating effects of NO, due to high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress; (2) mechanisms interfering with COX acetylation especially at the platelet level, e.g., lipid hydroperoxide-dependent impaired acetylating effects of aspirin; (3) mechanisms favoring platelet priming (lipid hydroperoxides) or activation (F2-isoprostanes, acting as partial agonists of thromboxane receptor), or aldose-reductase pathway-mediated oxidative stress, leading to enhanced platelet thromboxane A2 generation or thromboxane receptor activation; (4) mechanisms favoring platelet recruitment, such as aspirin-induced platelet isoprostane formation; (5) modulation of megakaryocyte generation and thrombopoiesis by oxidative HO-1 inhibition; and (6) aspirin-iron interactions, eventually resulting in impaired pharmacological activity of aspirin, lipoperoxide burden, and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals capable of promoting protein kinase C activation and platelet aggregation. Acknowledgment of oxidative stress as a major contributor, not only of vascular complications, but also of suboptimal response to antiplatelet agents in T2DM, may open the way to designing and testing novel antithrombotic strategies, specifically targeting

  9. [Mechanical stress of newborn infants caused by incubator transport].

    PubMed

    Boenisch, H; Gaden, W; Mau, G; Gohrbandt, U; Teuteberg, H O; Braun, H; Beermann, H J

    1985-07-01

    Newborn babies transported in an incubator are obviously exposed to considerable mechanical vibrations. We measured these vibrations with the aim to improve these conditions. The vibrations measured on transportation by R.T.W. ambulance (Daimler-Benz 508 with an "anti-vibration platform") are almost tolerable; however on the K.T.W. ambulance (Volkswagen Type 2) the registered vertical accelerations were much greater and gave an unacceptable level of gravitational forces. Small constructive corrections to the stretcher and the connection between stretcher and incubator lead to a marked decrease in peak acceleration and the value of effective acceleration. We also found that it is of great importance to drive smoothly and that the vibrations are more pronounced with hasty driving. The influence of these vibrations as a possible co-factor in the pathogenesis of intracranial haemorrhage is discussed. PMID:4047059

  10. Lithospheric buckling and intra-arc stresses: A mechanism for arc segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Kerri L.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of segment development of a number of arcs has shown that consistent relationships between segmentation, volcanism and variable stresses exists. Researchers successfully modeled these relationships using the conceptual model of lithospheric buckling of Yamaoka et al. (1986; 1987). Lithosphere buckling (deformation) provides the needed mechanism to explain segmentation phenomenon; offsets in volcanic fronts, distribution of calderas within segments, variable segment stresses and the chemical diversity seen between segment boundary and segment interior magmas.

  11. Laboratory evidence for particle mobilization as a mechanism for permeability enhancement via dynamic stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Thibault; Brodsky, Emily E.; Marone, Chris; Elsworth, Derek

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that seismic waves can increase the permeability in natural systems, yet the mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigate the underlying mechanics by generating well-controlled, repeatable permeability enhancement in laboratory experiments. Pore pressure oscillations, simulating dynamic stresses, were applied to intact and fractured Berea sandstone samples under confining stresses of tens of MPa. Dynamic stressing produces an immediate permeability enhancement ranging from 1 to 60%, which scales with the amplitude of the dynamic strain (7×10-7 to 7×10-6) followed by a gradual permeability recovery. We investigated the mechanism by: (1) recording deformation of samples both before and after fracturing during the experiment, (2) varying the chemistry of the water and therefore particle mobility, (3) evaluating the dependence of permeability enhancement and recovery on dynamic stress amplitude, and (4) examining micro-scale pore textures of the rock samples before and after experiments. We find that dynamic stressing does not produce permanent deformation in our samples. Water chemistry has a pronounced effect on the sensitivity to dynamic stressing, with the magnitude of permeability enhancement and the rate of permeability recovery varying with ionic strength of the pore fluid. Permeability recovery rates generally correlate with the permeability enhancement sensitivity. Microstructural observations of our samples show clearing of clay particulates from fracture surfaces during the experiment. From these four lines of evidence, we conclude that a flow-dependent mechanism associated with mobilization of fines controls both the magnitude of the permeability enhancement and the recovery rate in our experiments. We also find that permeability sensitivity to dynamic stressing increases after fracturing, which is a process that generates abundant particulate matter in situ. Our results suggest that fluid permeability in many areas of the

  12. Interaction between regional stress state and faults: Complementary analysis of borehole in situ stress and earthquake focal mechanism in southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Lee, Jun Bok; Kang, Tae-Seob

    2010-04-01

    We characterize the present-day stress tensor in southeastern Korean Peninsula using two different sets of data (geotechnical in situ stress data and earthquake focal mechanism solutions), to understand the regional contemporary stress state and its relationship to the population of faults. Both sets of data show a comparable result of ENE-WSW maximum compression direction, which is in accord with the first order pattern of tectonic stress direction in the eastern Eurasian plate. More rigorous analyses of in situ stress as well as the inversion of focal mechanism show that the current stress field exhibits a systematic heterogeneity in its orientations and magnitudes, possibly caused by the influence of faults. The minimum and maximum horizontal principal stresses normalized by vertical stress at the shallow depths where stress measurements were conducted vary spatially. It turns out that the magnitude of stress field appears to be inversely correlated with the density of regional scale faults. This suggests that a stress release due to faulting may be one of the major factors that contribute to the low stress regime in the region. As a way to confirm the inference, we examine the attitudes of recently activated Quaternary faults with respect to the current stress field. A majority of the faults are oriented in the optimal directions for slip, as indicated by the overall high ratios of shear to normal stress acting on fault planes for the given stress condition, which implies that they might sustain the current stress field. The contemporary earthquake distribution indicates that the lower stressed region has a denser population of seismic activities, suggesting that fault strength in the corresponding region may be at frictional limit with the contemporary stress state. This may imply that the heterogeneity of the regional stress state is a result of the heterogeneity of the strength of faults.

  13. Mechanisms of Local Stress Sensing in Multifunctional Polymer Films Using Fluorescent Tetrapod Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Raja, Shilpa N; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Wu, Siva; Ercius, Peter; Powers, Alexander; Olson, Andrew C K; Du, Daniel X; Lin, Liwei; Govindjee, Sanjay; Wang, Lin-Wang; Xu, Ting; Alivisatos, A Paul; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-08-10

    Nanoscale stress-sensing can be used across fields ranging from detection of incipient cracks in structural mechanics to monitoring forces in biological tissues. We demonstrate how tetrapod quantum dots (tQDs) embedded in block copolymers act as sensors of tensile/compressive stress. Remarkably, tQDs can detect their own composite dispersion and mechanical properties with a switch in optomechanical response when tQDs are in direct contact. Using experimental characterizations, atomistic simulations and finite-element analyses, we show that under tensile stress, densely packed tQDs exhibit a photoluminescence peak shifted to higher energies ("blue-shift") due to volumetric compressive stress in their core; loosely packed tQDs exhibit a peak shifted to lower energies ("red-shift") from tensile stress in the core. The stress shifts result from the tQD's unique branched morphology in which the CdS arms act as antennas that amplify the stress in the CdSe core. Our nanocomposites exhibit excellent cyclability and scalability with no degraded properties of the host polymer. Colloidal tQDs allow sensing in many materials to potentially enable autoresponsive, smart structural nanocomposites that self-predict impending fracture. PMID:27411026

  14. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001 PMID:24740969

  15. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001. PMID:24740969

  16. Transcriptomic responses to darkness stress point to common coral bleaching mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, M. K.; Estrada, A.; Sunagawa, S.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching occurs in response to numerous abiotic stressors, the ecologically most relevant of which is hyperthermic stress due to increasing seawater temperatures. Bleaching events can span large geographic areas and are currently a salient threat to coral reefs worldwide. Much effort has been focused on understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying bleaching, and these studies have mainly utilized heat and light stress regimes. In an effort to determine whether different stressors share common bleaching mechanisms, we used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays for the corals Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata (containing >10,000 features) to measure differential gene expression during darkness stress. Our results reveal a striking transcriptomic response to darkness in A. palmata involving chaperone and antioxidant up-regulation, growth arrest, and metabolic modifications. As these responses were previously measured during thermal stress, our results suggest that different stressors may share common bleaching mechanisms. Furthermore, our results point to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress as critical cellular events involved in molecular bleaching mechanisms. On the other hand, we identified a meager transcriptomic response to darkness in M. faveolata where gene expression differences between host colonies and sampling locations were greater than differences between control and stressed fragments. This and previous coral microarray studies reveal the immense range of transcriptomic responses that are possible when studying two coral species that differ greatly in their ecophysiology, thus pointing to the importance of comparative approaches in forecasting how corals will respond to future environmental change.

  17. Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Krupinski, Pawel; Wightman, Raymond; Milani, Pascale; Berquand, Alexandre; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Jönsson, Henrik; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2014-04-16

    Although it is a central question in biology, how cell shape controls intracellular dynamics largely remains an open question. Here, we show that the shape of Arabidopsis pavement cells creates a stress pattern that controls microtubule orientation, which then guides cell wall reinforcement. Live-imaging, combined with modeling of cell mechanics, shows that microtubules align along the maximal tensile stress direction within the cells, and atomic force microscopy demonstrates that this leads to reinforcement of the cell wall parallel to the microtubules. This feedback loop is regulated: cell-shape derived stresses could be overridden by imposed tissue level stresses, showing how competition between subcellular and supracellular cues control microtubule behavior. Furthermore, at the microtubule level, we identified an amplification mechanism in which mechanical stress promotes the microtubule response to stress by increasing severing activity. These multiscale feedbacks likely contribute to the robustness of microtubule behavior in plant epidermis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01967.001.

  18. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions.

  19. Effects of PECVD hardware configuration on mechanical stress and stoichiometry of silicon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, S. C.; Schönherr, H.; Fathulla, A.; Speidel, E.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon nitrides are important materials in passivation technology currently employed for manufacturing microelectronic power devices. For deposition of these silane-based films various hardware types are used which can lead to different film properties, although the deposition conditions may be the same. The main difference between process kits of the commercially available chamber types for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is the heating source, which can either be a resistive heater or a lamp module. This paper presents the influence of the different heating sources on the film properties at a constant process temperature. We evaluated the ratio of the concentration of the Si-H and N-H bonds, the hydrogen content and the mechanical stress. Additionally we investigated the influence of annealing at 420°C in dilute hydrogen ambient on the mechanical stress. It was found out that reduction of mechanical stress during thermal anneal depends also on PECVD hardware configuration.

  20. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  1. Detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants by fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belasque, J., Jr.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Marcassa, L. G.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the detection of mechanical and disease stresses in citrus plants (Citrus limonia [L.] Osbeck) using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to its economic importance we have chosen to investigate the citrus canker disease, which is caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. Mechanical stress was also studied because it plays an important role in the plant's infection by such bacteria. A laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy system, composed of a spectrometer and a 532 nm10 mW excitation laser was used to perform fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio of two chlorophyll fluorescence bands allows us to detect and discriminate between mechanical and disease stresses. This ability to discriminate may have an important application in the field to detect citrus canker infected trees.

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Turbine Disc Assembly in the Presence of Residual Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricic, Luke Anthony

    A comprehensive three dimensional coupled thermo-mechanical finite element study is performed on turbine blade attachments in gas turbine engines. The effects of the self-generated centrifugal forces of the disc and the associated blades, thermal loads, and shot peening residual are all considered in this thesis. Three aspects of the work were accordingly examined. The first was concerned with the coupled thermo-mechanical stress analysis and load sharing between the teeth of the fir-tree root. The second was devoted to the development of a complete model incorporating the effect of shot peening residual stresses upon the developed stress state. The effectiveness of shot peening treatment in response to cyclic thermo-mechanical loadings at the contact interface has also been studied. The third was concerned with the validation of some aspects of the developed models analytically using closed form solutions and experimentally using photoelasticity.

  3. Conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without chromosome 8q12 abnormalities: identification of SII as a new fusion partner gene.

    PubMed

    Aström, A K; Voz, M L; Kas, K; Röijer, E; Wedell, B; Mandahl, N; Van de Ven, W; Mark, J; Stenman, G

    1999-02-15

    We have previously shown (K. Kas et al, Nat. Genet., 15: 170-174, 1997) that the developmentally regulated zinc finger gene pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is the target gene in 8q12 in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations. The t(3;8) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1 and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), leading to activation of PLAG1 expression and reduced expression of CTNNB1. Here we have studied the expression of PLAG1 by Northern blot analysis in 47 primary benign and malignant human tumors with or without cytogenetic abnormalities of 8q12. Overexpression of PLAG1 was found in 23 tumors (49%). Thirteen of 17 pleomorphic adenomas with a normal karyotype and 5 of 10 with 12q13-15 abnormalities overexpressed PLAG1, which demonstrates that PLAG1 activation is a frequent event in adenomas irrespective of karyotype. In contrast, PLAG1 was overexpressed in only 2 of 11 malignant salivary gland tumors analyzed, which suggests that, at least in salivary gland tumors, PLAG1 activation preferentially occurs in benign tumors. PLAG1 over-expression was also found in three of nine mesenchymal tumors, i.e., in two uterine leiomyomas and one leiomyosarcoma. RNase protection, rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of five adenomas with a normal karyotype revealed fusion transcripts in three tumors. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these showed that they contained fusions between PLAG1 and CTNNB1 (one case) or PLAG1 and a novel fusion partner gene, i.e., the gene encoding the transcription elongation factor SII (two cases). The fusions occurred in the 5' noncoding region of PLAG1, leading to exchange of regulatory control elements and, as a consequence, activation of PLAG1 gene expression. Because all of the cases had grossly normal karyotypes, the rearrangements must result from cryptic rearrangements. The results suggest that in addition to

  4. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  5. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  6. Creep and stress rupture of oxide dispersion strengthened mechanically alloyed Inconel alloy MA 754

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Stulga, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture behavior of the mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy MA 754 was studied at 760, 982 and 1093 C. Tensile specimens with a fine, highly elongated grain structure, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal grain direction were tested at various stresses in air under constant load. It was found that the apparent stress dependence was large, with power law exponents ranging from 19 to 33 over the temperature range studied. The creep activation energy, after correction for the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus, was close to but slightly larger than the activation energy for self diffusion. Rupture was intergranular and the rupture ductility as measured by percentage elongation was generally low, with values ranging from 0.5 to 16 pct. The creep properties are rationalized by describing the creep rates in terms of an effective stress which is the applied stress minus a resisting stress consistent with the alloy microstructure. Values of the resisting stress obtained through a curve fitting procedure are found to be close to the values of the particle by-pass stress for this oxide dispersion strengthened alloy, as calculated from the measured oxide particle distribution.

  7. Stress, deformation, conservation, and rheology: a survey of key concepts in continuum mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief survey of key concepts in continuum mechanics. It focuses on the fundamental physical concepts that underlie derivations of the mathematical formulations of stress, strain, hydraulic head, pore-fluid pressure, and conservation equations. It then shows how stresses are linked to strain and rates of distortion through some special cases of idealized material behaviors. The goal is to equip the reader with a physical understanding of key mathematical formulations that anchor continuum mechanics in order to better understand theoretical studies published in geomorphology.

  8. The pathology of cellular anti-stress mechanisms: a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Macario, Alberto J L; Conway de Macario, Everly

    2004-12-01

    Exposure to stressors is an omnipresent variable for all living organisms, which have evolved anti-stress mechanisms to deal with the consequences of stress. The chaperoning systems are among these mechanisms, and their central components are the molecular chaperones that play important roles in protein biogenesis. Recent data suggest that failure of the chaperoning systems due to defective chaperones, for example, leads to pathology. Consequently, medical researchers and practitioners must now also consider the chaperoning systems, both as potentially major players in pathogenesis and as diagnostic-prognostic indicators.

  9. Beller Lectureship Talk: Active response of biological cells to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, Samuel

    2009-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. We present a simple and generic theoretical model for the active response of biological cells to mechanical stress. The theory includes cell activity and mechanical forces as well as random forces as factors that determine the polarizability that relates cell orientation to stress. This allows us to explain the puzzling observation of parallel (or sometimes random) alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency and compare the theory with recent experiments. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material distinguishes cells whose activity is controlled by stress from those controlled by strain. We have extended the theory to generalize the treatment of elastic inclusions in solids to ''living'' inclusions (cells) whose active polarizability, analogous to the polarizability of non-living matter, results in the feedback of cellular forces that develop in response to matrix stresses. We use this to explain recent observations of the non-monotonic dependence of stress-fiber polarization in stem cells on matrix rigidity. These findings provide a mechanical correlate for the existence of an optimal substrate elasticity for cell differentiation and function. [3pt] *In collaboration with R. De (Brown University), Y. Biton (Weizmann Institute), and A. Zemel (Hebrew University) and the experimental groups: Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart: S. Jungbauer, R. Kemkemer, J. Spatz; University of Pennsylvania: A. Brown, D. Discher, F. Rehfeldt.

  10. Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse osteocytes with aging alters Cox-2 response to mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Sreeda; Jaspers, Richard T; Manders, Ralph J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bakker, Astrid D; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Aging reduces bone mass as well as the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimuli, resulting in osteopenia. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress impairs the response of myogenic cells to anabolic stimuli, and is involved in sarcopenia, but whether ER stress also contributes to osteopenia is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether ER stress exists in bones of aged mice, and whether this impairs the osteocyte response to mechanical stimulation. Primary osteocytes were obtained from long bones of adult (8 months) and old (24-26 months) mice, treated with or without the pharmacological ER stress inducer tunicamycin, and either or not subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF). The osteocyte response to PFF was assessed by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA levels and nitric oxide (NO) production. mRNA levels of ER stress markers were higher in old versus adult osteocytes (+40% for activating transcription factor-4, +120% for C/EBP homologous protein, and +120% for spliced X-box binding protein-1, p < 0.05). The Cox-2 response to PFF was fourfold decreased in cells from old bones (p < 0.001), while tunicamycin decreased PFF-induced Cox-2 expression by threefold in cells from adult bones (p < 0.01). PFF increased NO production by 50% at 60 min in osteocytes from old versus adult bones (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data indicate that the expression of several ER stress markers was higher in osteocytes from bones of old compared to adult mice. Since ER stress altered the response of osteocytes to mechanical loading, it could be a novel factor contributing to osteopenia. PMID:25539857

  11. Stress transfer mechanisms at the submicron level for graphene/polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, George; Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Polyzos, Ioannis; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Galiotis, Costas

    2015-02-25

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼ 2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping. PMID:25644121

  12. Stress Transfer Mechanisms at the Submicron Level for Graphene/Polymer Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping. PMID:25644121

  13. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E.; Parotto, Matteo; Post, Martin; Han, Bing; Spieth, Peter M.; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Valladares, Francisco; Villar, Jesús; Liu, Mingayo; Sato, Masaaki; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Many mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) develop pulmonary fibrosis. Stresses induced by mechanical ventilation may explain the development of fibrosis by a number of mechanisms (e.g. damage the alveolar epithelium, biotrauma). Objectives To test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups: healthy controls; hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration alone; vehicle control solution followed 24 h later by mechanical ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure 22 cmH2O and PEEP 2 cmH2O for 2h); and acid aspiration followed 24h later by mechanical ventilation. The animals were monitored for up to 15 days after acid aspiration. To explore the direct effects of mechanical stress on lung fibrotic formation, human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to mechanical stretch for up to 48 h. Measurement and Main Results Impaired lung mechanics after mechanical ventilation was associated with increased lung hydroxyproline content, and increased expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), β-catenin and mesenchymal markers (α-SMA and Vimentin) at both the gene and protein levels. Expression of epithelial markers including cytokeratin-8, E-cadherin and pro-surfactant protein B decreased. Lung histology demonstrated fibrosis formation and potential epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro direct mechanical stretch of BEAS-2B cells resulted in similar fibrotic and EMT formation. Conclusions Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis, and EMT may play an important role in mediating the ventilator-induced lung fibrosis. PMID:21926573

  14. The mechanics of delamination in fiber-reinforced composite materials. I - Stress singularities and solution structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.; Choi, I.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental mechanics of delamination in fiber composite laminates is studied. Mathematical formulation of the problem is based on laminate anisotropic elasticity theory and interlaminar fracture mechanics concepts. Stress singularities and complete solution structures associated with general composite delaminations are determined. For a fully open delamination with traction-free surfaces, oscillatory stress singularities always appear, leading to physically inadmissible field solutions. A refined model is introduced by considering a partially closed delamination with crack surfaces in finite-length contact. Stress singularities associated with a partially closed delamination having frictional crack-surface contact are determined, and are found to be different from the inverse square-root one of the frictionless-contact case. In the case of a delamination with very small area of crack closure, a simplified model having a square-root stress singularity is employed by taking the limit of the partially closed delamination. The possible presence of logarithmic-type stress singularity is examined; no logarithmic singularity of any kind is found in the composite delamination problem. Numerical examples of dominant stress singularities are shown for delaminations having crack-tip closure with different frictional coefficients between general (1) and (2) graphite-epoxy composites. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13221

  15. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mechanism Linking Stress Exposure to Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z=2.35, p=0.019) and stressful life events (z=2.32, p=0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516

  16. Leaf Proteome Analysis Reveals Prospective Drought and Heat Stress Response Mechanisms in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Das, Aayudh; Eldakak, Moustafa; Paudel, Bimal; Kim, Dea-Wook; Hemmati, Homa; Basu, Chhandak; Rohila, Jai S

    2016-01-01

    Drought and heat are among the major abiotic stresses that affect soybean crops worldwide. During the current investigation, the effect of drought, heat, and drought plus heat stresses was compared in the leaves of two soybean varieties, Surge and Davison, combining 2D-DIGE proteomic data with physiology and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated how 25 differentially expressed photosynthesis-related proteins affect RuBisCO regulation, electron transport, Calvin cycle, and carbon fixation during drought and heat stress. We also observed higher abundance of heat stress-induced EF-Tu protein in Surge. It is possible that EF-Tu might have activated heat tolerance mechanisms in the soybean. Higher level expressions of heat shock-related protein seem to be regulating the heat tolerance mechanisms. This study identifies the differential expression of various abiotic stress-responsive proteins that regulate various molecular processes and signaling cascades. One inevitable outcome from the biochemical and proteomics assays of this study is that increase of ROS levels during drought stress does not show significant changes at the phenotypic level in Davison and this seems to be due to a higher amount of carbonic anhydrase accumulation in the cell which aids the cell to become more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2. PMID:27034942

  17. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md Mahabub; Roychowdhury, Rajib; Fujita, Masayuki

    2013-05-03

    High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants.

  18. Leaf Proteome Analysis Reveals Prospective Drought and Heat Stress Response Mechanisms in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aayudh; Eldakak, Moustafa; Paudel, Bimal; Kim, Dea-Wook; Hemmati, Homa; Basu, Chhandak

    2016-01-01

    Drought and heat are among the major abiotic stresses that affect soybean crops worldwide. During the current investigation, the effect of drought, heat, and drought plus heat stresses was compared in the leaves of two soybean varieties, Surge and Davison, combining 2D-DIGE proteomic data with physiology and biochemical analyses. We demonstrated how 25 differentially expressed photosynthesis-related proteins affect RuBisCO regulation, electron transport, Calvin cycle, and carbon fixation during drought and heat stress. We also observed higher abundance of heat stress-induced EF-Tu protein in Surge. It is possible that EF-Tu might have activated heat tolerance mechanisms in the soybean. Higher level expressions of heat shock-related protein seem to be regulating the heat tolerance mechanisms. This study identifies the differential expression of various abiotic stress-responsive proteins that regulate various molecular processes and signaling cascades. One inevitable outcome from the biochemical and proteomics assays of this study is that increase of ROS levels during drought stress does not show significant changes at the phenotypic level in Davison and this seems to be due to a higher amount of carbonic anhydrase accumulation in the cell which aids the cell to become more resistant to cytotoxic concentrations of H2O2. PMID:27034942

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Methane Infiltrated Coal: the Roles of Gas Desorption, Stress Level and Loading Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shugang; Elsworth, Derek; Liu, Jishan

    2013-09-01

    We report laboratory experiments to investigate the role of gas desorption, stress level and loading rate on the mechanical behavior of methane infiltrated coal. Two suites of experiments are carried out. The first suite of experiments is conducted on coal (Lower Kittanning seam, West Virginia) at a confining stress of 2 MPa and methane pore pressures in the fracture of 1 MPa to examine the role of gas desorption. These include three undrained (hydraulically closed) experiments with different pore pressure distributions in the coal, namely, overpressured, normally pressured and underpressured, and one specimen under drained condition. Based on the experimental results, we find quantitative evidence that gas desorption weakens coal through two mechanisms: (1) reducing effective stress controlled by the ratio of gas desorption rate over the drainage rate, and (2) crushing coal due to the internal gas energy release controlled by gas composition, pressure and content. The second suite of experiments is conducted on coal (Upper B seam, Colorado) at confining stresses of 2 and 4 MPa, with pore pressures of 1 and 3 MPa, under underpressured and drained condition with three different loading rates to study the role of stress level and loading rate. We find that the Biot coefficient of coal specimens is <1. Reducing effective confining stress decreases the elastic modulus and strength of coal. This study has important implications for the stability of underground coal seams.

  20. Exercise offers anxiolytic potential: a role for stress and brain noradrenergic-galaninergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sciolino, Natale R; Holmes, Philip V

    2012-10-01

    Although physical activity reduces anxiety in humans, the neural basis for this response is unclear. Rodent models are essential to understand the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of exercise. However, it is controversial whether exercise exerts anxiolytic-like potential in rodents. Evidence is reviewed to evaluate the effects of wheel running, an experimental mode of exercise in rodents, on behavior in tests of anxiety and on norepinephrine and galanin systems in neural circuits that regulate stress. Stress is proposed to account for mixed behavioral findings in this literature. Indeed, running promotes an adaptive response to stress and alters anxiety-like behaviors in a manner dependent on stress. Running amplifies galanin expression in noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) and suppresses stress-induced activity of the LC and norepinephrine output in LC-target regions. Thus, enhanced galanin-mediated suppression of brain norepinephrine in runners is supported by current literature as a mechanism that may contribute to the stress-protective effects of exercise. These data support the use of rodents to study the emotional and neurobiological consequences of exercise.

  1. Exercise offers anxiolytic potential: A role for stress and brain noradrenergic-galaninergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sciolino, Natale R.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2016-01-01

    Although physical activity reduces anxiety in humans, the neural basis for this response is unclear. Rodent models are essential to understand the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of exercise. However, it is controversial whether exercise exerts anxiolytic-like potential in rodents. Evidence is reviewed to evaluate the effects of wheel running, an experimental mode of exercise in rodents, on behavior in tests of anxiety and on norepinephrine and galanin systems in neural circuits that regulate stress. Stress is proposed to account for mixed behavioral findings in this literature. Indeed, running promotes an adaptive response to stress and alters anxiety-like behaviors in a manner dependent on stress. Running amplifies galanin expression in noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) and suppresses stress-induced activity of the LC and norepinephrine output in LC-target regions. Thus, enhanced galanin-mediated suppression of brain norepinephrine in runners is supported by current literature as a mechanism that may contribute to the stress-protective effects of exercise. These data support the use of rodents to study the emotional and neurobiological consequences of exercise. PMID:22771334

  2. Effects of sleep deprivation on behaviors and abnormal hippocampal BDNF/miR-10B expression in rats with chronic stress depression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuxue; Zhu, Jinfu

    2015-01-01

    Being sleep-deprived can relieve the depressed emotions in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), chronicunpredictable stress (CUPS) and sleep-deprived (SD). All of the groups were examined using the sucrose consumption test and the open field test. The sucrose consumption test and the open field test were performed for all three groups. The BDNF and miR-10B expressions were examined using real-time PCR and the level of BNDF was discovered by western blotting. In the sucrose consumption test and the open field test, the CUPS rats consumed less sucrose and got fewer score than the NC rats, however the SD rats consumed significantly more sucrose and received higher scores than the CUPS rats. Both the expression of BNDF and the protein levels in the CUPS group was significantly lower than in the NC group. Also, the CUPS group also showed a higher miR-10B expression than the NC group. However, the SD group demonstrated higher BDNF expression and lower miR-10B expression when compared with the CUPS group. Further investigation demonstrated that the BDNF is the direct target gene of miR-10B and BDNF expression, which is negatively correlated with the expression of miR-10B. In the sucrose consumption test, BNDF expression is positively correlated with the sucrose preference rate whereas miR-10B has an opposing correlation. Moreover, the open field test demonstrated that BNDF expression is positively correlated with the scores and the miR-10B expression is negatively correlated. These results indicate that sleep deprivation is closely linked with the downregulation of miR-10B and possibly the upregulation of BDNF in the hippocampus in the CUPS rats. PMID:25755749

  3. Comment on “Models of stochastic, spatially varying stress in the crust compatible with focal‐mechanism data, and how stress inversions can be biased toward the stress rate” by Deborah Elaine Smith and Thomas H. Heaton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2015-01-01

    This model makes specific predictions about the orientations and heterogeneity of earthquake focal mechanisms. Smith and Heaton (2011) attempt to validate this heterogeneous stress model using observations of earthquake focal‐mechanism variability from Hardebeck (2006). They then demonstrate that the model predicts a bias in the orientations of earthquake focal mechanisms, which are biased away from the background stress and toward the stressing rate. They suggest the focal‐mechanism bias in this model invalidates the large body of work over the last several decades, that has inferred stress orientations from the inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms. The question of whether or not the Smith and Heaton (2011) model is applicable to the real Earth is therefore important not only for understanding spatial stress variability but also for evaluating the numerous studies that have inferred crustal stress orientations from earthquake focal mechanisms (e.g., as compiled by Heidbach et al., 2008).

  4. The mechanisms of up-regulation of dendritic cell activity by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Batal, Ibrahim; Azzi, Jamil; Mounayar, Marwan; Abdoli, Rozita; Moore, Robert; Lee, Jack Y; Rosetti, Florencia; Wang, Chang; Fiorina, Paolo; Sackstein, Robert; Ichimura, Takaharu; Abdi, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Whereas DC have increasingly been recognized for their role in activating the inflammatory cascades during IRIs, the mechanisms by which oxidative stress enhances DC activation remain to be explored. We examined the role of oxidative stress on two important features of DC: T cell activation and trafficking. Bone marrow-derived OS-DC were compared with untreated DC. DC exposed to oxidative stress augmented allogeneic T cell proliferation and showed increased migration in a chemotaxis chamber. These results were confirmed by using hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase as another inducer of oxidative stress. We used OT-II and OT-I mice to assess the effect of oxidative stress on DC activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively. Oxidative stress increased DC capacity to promote OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell activity, demonstrated by an increase in their proliferation and production of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-2 proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas oxidative stress increased the DC ability to stimulate IFN-γ production by OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity were not affected. Compared with untreated DC, oxidative stress significantly reduced the capacity of DC to generate T(regs), which were restored by using anti-IL-6. With regard to DC trafficking, whereas oxidative stress increased DC expression of p-Akt and p-NF-κB, targeting PI3Kγ and NF-κB pathways abrogated the observed increase in DC migration. Our data propose novel insights on the activation of DC by oxidative stress and provide rationales for targeted therapies, which can potentially attenuate IRI.

  5. The mechanisms of up-regulation of dendritic cell activity by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Batal, Ibrahim; Azzi, Jamil; Mounayar, Marwan; Abdoli, Rozita; Moore, Robert; Lee, Jack Y.; Rosetti, Florencia; Wang, Chang; Fiorina, Paolo; Sackstein, Robert; Ichimura, Takaharu; Abdi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Whereas DC have increasingly been recognized for their role in activating the inflammatory cascades during IRIs, the mechanisms by which oxidative stress enhances DC activation remain to be explored. We examined the role of oxidative stress on two important features of DC: T cell activation and trafficking. Bone marrow-derived OS-DC were compared with untreated DC. DC exposed to oxidative stress augmented allogeneic T cell proliferation and showed increased migration in a chemotaxis chamber. These results were confirmed by using hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase as another inducer of oxidative stress. We used OT-II and OT-I mice to assess the effect of oxidative stress on DC activation of OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. Oxidative stress increased DC capacity to promote OVA-specific CD4+ T cell activity, demonstrated by an increase in their proliferation and production of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-2 proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas oxidative stress increased the DC ability to stimulate IFN-γ production by OVA-specific CD8+ T cells, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity were not affected. Compared with untreated DC, oxidative stress significantly reduced the capacity of DC to generate Tregs, which were restored by using anti-IL-6. With regard to DC trafficking, whereas oxidative stress increased DC expression of p-Akt and p-NF-κB, targeting PI3Kγ and NF-κB pathways abrogated the observed increase in DC migration. Our data propose novel insights on the activation of DC by oxidative stress and provide rationales for targeted therapies, which can potentially attenuate IRI. PMID:24676276

  6. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  7. Force control of endothelium permeability in mechanically stressed pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Caluch, Adam; Fodil, Redouane; Féréol, Sophie; Zadigue, Patricia; Pelle, Gabriel; Louis, Bruno; Isabey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical factors play a key role in the pathogenesis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) as contributing to alveolo-capillary barrier dysfunction. This study aims at elucidating the role of the cytoskeleton (CSK) and cell-matrix adhesion system in the stressed endothelium and more precisely in the loss of integrity of the endothelial barrier. We purposely develop a cellular model made of a monolayer of confluent Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMVECs) whose cytoskeleton (CSK) is directly exposed to sustained cyclic mechanical stress for 1 and 2 h. We used RGD-coated ferromagnetic beads and measured permeability before and after stress application. We find that endothelial permeability increases in the stressed endothelium, hence reflecting a loss of integrity. Structural and mechanical results suggest that this endothelial barrier alteration would be due to physically-founded discrepancies in latero-basal reinforcement of adhesion sites in response to the global increase in CSK stiffness or centripetal intracellular forces. Basal reinforcement of adhesion is presently evidenced by the marked redistribution of αvβ3 integrin with cluster formation in the stressed endothelium. PMID:22766716

  8. Stress accumulation process in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, estimated from focal mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Youichiro; Katsumata, Kei; Katao, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Masahiro; Iio, Yoshihisa; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We estimated 275 focal mechanisms from P-wave first-motion polarities of small earthquakes obtained in an extensive seismic survey during 2004-2008 in and around the Atotsugawa fault, central Japan, where ongoing dextral shear strain concentration has been observed. Along the fault trace, the azimuth direction of P-axes is oriented WNW-ESE, which agrees well with previous studies. The regional stress disturbance is detected by stress inversion analysis. The azimuth of the maximum principal stress axis systematically rotates counterclockwise as the distance from the fault trace decreases. The regional stress disturbance is explained by a cumulative slip deficit in the shallower portion of the Atotsugawa fault relative to the surrounding fault surface (i.e., the eastern, western, and deeper extensions of the fault plane).

  9. Stress-induced phase transformation and optical coupling of silver nanoparticle superlattices into mechanically stable nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binsong; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Ruipeng; Wang, Zhongwu; Clem, Paul G.; Fan, Hongyou

    2014-06-01

    One-dimensional silver materials display unique optical and electrical properties with promise as functional blocks for a new generation of nanoelectronics. To date, synthetic approaches and property engineering of silver nanowires have primarily focused on chemical methods. Here we report a simple physical method of metal nanowire synthesis, based on stress-induced phase transformation and sintering of spherical Ag nanoparticle superlattices. Two phase transformations of nanoparticles under stress have been observed at distinct length scales. First, the lattice dimensions of silver nanoparticle superlattices may be reversibly manipulated between 0-8 GPa compressive stresses to enable systematic and reversible changes in mesoscale optical coupling between silver nanoparticles. Second, stresses greater than 8 GPa induced an atomic lattice phase transformation, which induced sintering of silver nanoparticles into micron-length scale nanowires. The nanowire synthesis mechanism displays a dependence on both nanoparticle crystal surface orientation and presence of particular grain boundaries to enable nanoparticle consolidation into nanowires.

  10. Mechanism of stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Fe-N thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjeeta; Gupta, Ajay; Leitenberger, W.; Rüffer, R.

    2012-02-01

    The mechanism of stress relaxation in nanocrystalline Fe-N thin film has been studied. The as-deposited film possesses a strong in-plane compressive stress which relaxes with thermal annealing. Precise diffusion measurements using nuclear resonance reflectivity show that stress relaxation does not involve any long-range diffusion of Fe atoms. Rather, a redistribution of nitrogen atoms at various interstitial sites, as evidenced by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, is responsible for the relaxation of internal stresses. On the other hand, formation of the γ'-Fe4N phase at temperatures above 523 K involves long-range rearrangement of Fe atoms. The activation energy for Fe self-diffusion is found to be 0.38±0.04 eV.

  11. Mechanisms relating to reducing stress in curing thick sections of UV adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norland, Eric A.; Martin, Frank S.

    1993-09-01

    Ultraviolet curing adhesives are widely used in optical lamination of precision optical lenses, safety windows, holographic displays, and flat panel displays. In most of these applications they are being used in relatively thin films from 3 microns to 40 mils, because most formulations will only allow uv light to penetrate to a certain depth. If the formulation does cure in thicker sections, the stress due to shrinkage typically becomes a problem. U.V. adhesives have been developed which can be cured in relatively thick sections with minimum stress. In this paper, a number of formulations are compared for variations in stress when cured in thick sections and the conditions and mechanism to minimize stress are characterized.

  12. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227

  13. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2013-11-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions.

  14. Comparison of mechanical stress and change in bone mineral density between two types of femoral implant using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuhide; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Ike, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    Stress shielding after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains an unsolved issue. Various patterns of mechanical stress appear according to the type of femoral stem used. To compare differences in mechanical stress conditions between Zweymuller type and fit-and-fill type stems, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the femur were also compared. Maximum stress was confirmed in Gruen zone 4, whereas zone 1 had the minimum amount of stress with both types of implant. The Zweymuller stem group had less mechanical stress and lower BMD in zone 7 than the fit-and-fill stem group. In conclusion, differences in mechanical stress may be related to changes in BMD after THA. PMID:23683518

  15. Comparison of mechanical stress and change in bone mineral density between two types of femoral implant using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yasuhide; Inaba, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Naomi; Ike, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-01

    Stress shielding after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains an unsolved issue. Various patterns of mechanical stress appear according to the type of femoral stem used. To compare differences in mechanical stress conditions between Zweymuller type and fit-and-fill type stems, finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the femur were also compared. Maximum stress was confirmed in Gruen zone 4, whereas zone 1 had the minimum amount of stress with both types of implant. The Zweymuller stem group had less mechanical stress and lower BMD in zone 7 than the fit-and-fill stem group. In conclusion, differences in mechanical stress may be related to changes in BMD after THA.

  16. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Skeletal Muscle Degeneration: Molecules, Mechanisms, and Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Hee; Ow, Jin Rong; Yang, Nai-Di

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a loss of balance between the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism and the mechanisms that clear these species to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Increased oxidative stress has been associated with muscular dystrophy, and many studies have proposed mechanisms that bridge these two pathological conditions at the molecular level. In this review, the evidence indicating a causal role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various muscular dystrophies is revisited. In particular, the mediation of cellular redox status in dystrophic muscle by NF-κB pathway, autophagy, telomere shortening, and epigenetic regulation are discussed. Lastly, the current stance of targeting these pathways using antioxidant therapies in preclinical and clinical trials is examined. PMID:26798425

  17. Computational modeling of the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendales, E. D.; Orjuela, F. A.; Chamarraví, O.

    2016-02-01

    In this article theoretical models and some existing data sets were examined in order to model the two main causes (hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion-cracking under stress) of the called environmentally assisted cracking phenomenon (EAC). Additionally, a computer simulation of flat metal plate subject to mechanical stress and cracking due both to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion was developed. The computational simulation was oriented to evaluate the effect on the stress-strain behavior, elongation percent and the crack growth rate of AISI SAE 1040 steel due to three corrosive enviroments (H2 @ 0.06MPa; HCl, pH=1.0; HCl, pH=2.5). From the computer simulation we conclude that cracking due to internal corrosion of the material near to the crack tip limits affects more the residual strength of the flat plate than hydrogen embrittlement and generates a failure condition almost imminent of the mechanical structural element.

  18. Mechanical Characterization of Thermomechanical Matrix Residual Stresses Incurred During MMC Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent examining the residual stress-strain states of advanced composites. Such examinations are motivated by a number of significant concerns that affect composite development, processing, and analysis. The room-temperature residual stress states incurred in many advanced composite systems are often quite large and can introduce damage even prior to the first external mechanical loading of the material. These stresses, which are induced during the cooldown following high-temperature consolidation, result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the fiber and matrix. Experimental techniques commonly used to evaluate composite internal residual stress states are non-mechanical in nature and generally include forms of x-ray and neutron diffraction. Such approaches are usually complex, involving a number of assumptions and limitations associated with a wide range of issues, including the depth of penetration, the volume of material being assessed, and erroneous effects associated with oriented grains. Furthermore, and more important to the present research, these techniques can assess only "single time" stress in the composite. That is, little, if any, information is obtained that addresses the time-dependent point at which internal stresses begin to accumulate, the manner in which the accumulation occurs, and the presiding relationships between thermoelastic, thermoplastic, and thermoviscous behaviors. To address these critical issues, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center developed and implemented an innovative mechanical test technique to examine in real time, the time-dependent thermomechanical stress behavior of a matrix alloy as it went through a consolidation cycle.

  19. Body versus surface forces in continuum mechanics: Is the Maxwell stress tensor a physically objective Cauchy stress?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Carlos; Brenner, Howard

    2002-03-01

    The Maxwell stress tensor (MST) TM plays an important role in the dynamics of continua interacting with external fields, as in the commercially and scientifically important case of ``ferrofluids.'' As a conceptual entity in quasistatic systems, the MST derives from the definition fM =def. ∇.TM, where fM(x) is a physically objective volumetric external body-force density field at a point x of a continuum, derived from the solution of the pertinent governing equations. Beginning with the fact that TM is not uniquely defined via the preceding relationship from knowledge of fM, we point out in this paper that the interpretation of TM as being a physical stress is not only conceptually incorrect, but that in commonly occuring situations this interpretation will result in incorrect predictions of the physical response of the system. In short, by elementary examples, this paper emphasizes the need to maintain the classical physical distinction between the notions of body forces f and stresses T. These examples include calculations of the torque on bodies, the work required to deform a fluid continuum, and the rate of interchange of energy between mechanical and other modes.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to aortic stiffening via proapoptotic and fibrotic signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Kathryn M; Webb, R Clinton

    2014-03-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis and collagen synthesis contribute to aortic stiffening. A cellular signaling mechanism contributing to apoptotic and fibrotic events is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that induction of ER stress in a normotensive rat would cause profibrotic and apoptotic signaling, thereby contributing to aortic stiffening. Furthermore, we hypothesized that inhibition of ER stress in an angiotensin II (Ang II) model of hypertension would improve aortic stiffening. Induction of ER stress with tunicamycin in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (10 μg/kg per day, osmotic pump, 28 days) caused an increase in systolic blood pressure (mm Hg; 160±5) compared with vehicle-treated (127±3) or tunicamycin-treated rats that were cotreated with ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (100 mg/kg per day, 28 days, [124±6]). There was an increase in aortic apoptosis (fold; 3.0±0.3), collagen content (1.4±0.1), and fibrosis (2.0±0.1) in the tunicamycin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. Inhibition of ER stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats given Ang II (60 ng/min, osmotic pump, 28 days) and treated with either tauroursodeoxycholic acid or phenylbutyric acid (100 mg/kg per day, i.p., 28 days) led to a 20 mm Hg decrease in blood pressure with either inhibitor compared with Ang II treatment alone. Aortic apoptosis, increased collagen content, and fibrosis in Ang II-treated rats were attenuated with ER stress inhibition. We conclude that ER stress is a new signaling mechanism that contributes to aortic stiffening via promoting apoptosis and fibrosis.

  1. Interpersonal Stress Generation as a Mechanism Linking Rumination to Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Rumination is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Previous investigations of the mechanisms linking rumination to internalizing problems have focused primarily on cognitive factors. We investigated whether interpersonal stress generation plays a role in the longitudinal relationship between rumination and…

  2. Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of mechanical stress in tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ishita; Miga, Michael I.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years different models have been formulated to explain the growth of gliomas in the brain. The most accepted model is based on a reaction-diffusion equation that describes the growth of the tumor as two separate components- a proliferative component and an invasive component. While many improvements have been made to this basic model, the work exploring the factors that naturally inhibit growth is insufficient. It is known that stress fields affect the growth of normal tissue. Due to the rigid skull surrounding the brain, mechanical stress might be an important factor in inhibiting the growth of gliomas. A realistic model of glioma growth would have to take that inhibitory effect into account. In this work a mathematical model based on the reaction-diffusion equation was used to describe tumor growth, and the affect of mechanical stresses caused by the mass effect of tumor cells was studied. An initial tumor cell concentration with a Gaussian distribution was assumed and tumor growth was simulated for two cases- one where growth was solely governed by the reaction-diffusion equation and second where mechanical stress inhibits growth by affecting the diffusivity. All the simulations were performed using the finite difference method. The results of simulations show that the proposed mechanism of inhibition could have a significant affect on tumor growth predictions. This could have implications for varied applications in the imaging field that use growth models, such as registration and model updated surgery.

  3. Characteristics of Focal Mechanisms and the Stress Field in the Southeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Zhao, Cui-ping; Lü, Jian; Zhou, Lian-qing; Zheng, Si-hua

    2016-08-01

    Crustal earthquake focal mechanisms are investigated in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, where the Tibetan Plateau and stable South China Block merge. An updated database of focal mechanisms has been compiled by selecting 132 Global Centroid Moment Tensor solutions and by adding the 173 new solutions (3.5 ≤ Ms ≤ 7.4) estimated by waveform inversion in this study. A total of 305 mechanisms are included in this database. These solutions show regionally specific distributions with dominant strike-slip faulting and some normal and reverse faulting. Focal mechanism solutions have also been inverted for the stress tensor orientation to obtain the principal stress axes over the study region. Results show that the horizontal maximum principal σ 1 axes rotate clockwise with a wider range than the geodetically measured surface motion in the east, which is not limited to the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault, but has some overlap with the Zhaotong-Lianfeng fault. Localized normal faulting stress regimes are observed in the Jinshajiang-Litang fault areas and the Baoshan sub-block. The minimum principal axes are oriented with a gradually changing trend from north-south to northwest-southeast, from north to south, indicating diverse compression stress patterns. Significant changes in the crustal stress field after the Wenchuan earthquake are preliminarily observed in the Baoshan sub-block where orientations of two principal axes have changed, and in the Jinggu-Ximeng sub-block areas where the strike-slip faulting stress pattern has transformed to normal faulting.

  4. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  5. The Effects of Antidepressants “Fluoxetine and Imipramine” on Vascular Abnormalities and Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats Exposed to Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohamed; Shaker, Safaa; El-Gayar, Nesreen; Aboul-Fotouh, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reveal that diabetes doubles the odds of comorbid depression with evidence of a pro-inflammatory state underlying its vascular complications. Indeed, little information is available about vascular effects of antidepressant drugs in diabetes. Method: We investigated the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine “FLU” and imipramine “IMIP” on behavioral, metabolic and vascular abnormalities in diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS). Results: Both diabetes and CRS induced depressive-like behavior which was more prominent in diabetic/depressed rats; this was reversed by chronic treatment with FLU and IMIP in a comparable manner. Diabetic and non-diabetic rats exposed to CRS exhibited abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and vascular function, manifested by decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation, increased systolic blood pressure and histopathological atherosclerotic changes. Vascular and metabolic dysfunctions were associated with significant increase in aortic expression of TLR-4, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß). FLU ameliorated these metabolic, vascular and inflammatory abnormalities, while IMIP induced either no change or even worsening of some parameters. Conclusion: FLU has favorable effect over IMIP on metabolic, vascular and inflammatory aberrations associated with DM and CRS in Wistar rats, clarifying the preference of FLU over IMIP in management of comorbid depression in diabetic subjects. PMID:25826421

  6. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism.

    PubMed

    Walton, K G; Pugh, N D; Gelderloos, P; Macrae, P

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to identify endocrine-related mechanisms capable of mediating preventive effects of stress reduction in hypertensive heart disease. Since beneficial effects of stress reduction accrue over time, this cross-sectional, descriptive study sought differences between healthy students not practicing a systematic technique for reducing stress (the average stress, or AS, group, n = 33) and a similar group who for 8.5 years had practiced the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique, used widely to reduce stress (the low stress, or LS, group, n = 22). The two groups of students, matched for age and area of study, performed timed collections of urine that included (separately) the entire waking and sleeping portions of 1 day. They also completed the Profile of Mood States and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-report instruments sensitive to subjective level of stress. Urine samples were analyzed for adrenocortical steroids by radioimmunoassay, for Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Zn2+ by atomic absorption spectrometry, and for neurotransmitter metabolites by reverse-phase, high-performance, liquid chromatography, and spectrophotometry. The two groups differed significantly on most measures. Specifically, the LS group was lower in cortisol and aldosterone and higher in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DS) and the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Excretion of sodium, calcium, zinc, and the norepinephrine metabolite, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), was also lower in this group, as were Na+/K+ ratio, mood disturbance, and anxiety. In women practicing TM, cortisol correlated inversely and DS directly with number of months of TM practice. The results identify improvements in mood state, adrenocortical activity, and kidney function as probable factors in the preventive and treatment effects of stress reduction. Because suboptimal levels of these parameters result from chronic, subjective stress, the findings add mechanistic support to the

  7. Expression of HSPs: an adaptive mechanism during long-term heat stress in goats ( Capra hircus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Maurya, V. P.; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2015-08-01

    Menacing global rise in surface temperature compelled more focus of research over understanding heat stress response mechanism of animals and mitigation of heat stress. Twenty-four goats divided into four groups ( n = 6) such as NHS (non-heat-stressed), HS (heat-stressed), HS + VC (heat-stressed administered with vitamin C), and HS + VE + Se (heat-stressed administered with vitamin E and selenium). Except NHS group, other groups were exposed to repeated heat stress (42 °C) for 6 h on 16 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at the end of heat exposure on days 1, 6, 11, and 16. When groups compared between days, expression of all heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed a similar pattern as first peak on day 1, reached to basal level on the sixth day, and followed by second peak on day 16. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90 was observed highest ( P < 0.05) in HS group, followed by antioxidant-administered group on days 1 and 16, which signifies that antioxidants have dampening effect on HSP expression. HSP105/110 expression was highest ( P < 0.05) on day 16. We conclude that HSP expression pattern is at least two-peak phenomenon, i.e., primary window of HSP protection on the first day followed by second window of protection on day 16. HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 play an important role during the initial phase of heat stress acclimation whereas HSP105/110 joins this cascade at later phase. Antioxidants may possibly attenuate the HSP expression by reducing the oxidative stress.

  8. Static and dynamic mechanics of the temporomandibular joint: plowing forces, joint load and tissue stress.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J; Spilker, R; Iwasaki, L; Gonzalez, Y; McCall, W D; Ohrbach, R; Beatty, M W; Marx, D

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVES - To determine the combined effects 1) of stress-field aspect ratio and velocity and compressive strain and 2) joint load, on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc mechanics. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION - Fifty-two subjects (30 female; 22 male) participated in the TMJ load experiments. MATERIAL AND METHODS - In the absence of human tissue, pig TMJ discs were used to determine the effects of variables 1) on surface plowing forces, and to build a biphasic finite element model (bFEM) to test the effect of human joint loads and 2) on tissue stresses. In the laboratory, discs received a 7.6 N static load via an acrylic indenter before cyclic movement. Data were recorded and analysed using anova. To determine human joint loads, Research Diagnostic Criteria calibrated investigators classified subjects based on signs of disc displacement (DD) and pain (+DD/+pain, n = 18; +DD/-pain, n = 17; -DD/-pain, n = 17). Three-dimensional geometries were produced for each subject and used in a computer model to calculate joint loads. RESULTS - The combined effects of compressive strain, and aspect ratio and velocity of stress-field translation correlated with plowing forces (R(2) = 0.85). +DD/-pain subjects produced 60% higher joint loads (ANOVA, p < 0.05), which increased bFEM-calculated compressive strain and peak total normal stress. CONCLUSIONS - Static and dynamic variables of the stress-field and subject-dependent joint load significantly affect disc mechanics.

  9. Ageing under mechanical stress: first experiments for a silver based multilayer mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalo, Arnaud; Ravel, Guillaume; Ignat, Michel; Cousin, Bernard; Swain, Michael V.

    2004-06-01

    Improving materials and devices reliability is a major concern to the spatial industry. Results are reported for satellite mirrors-like specimens consisting in oxide-protected metal systems. Optical coatings were deposited by electron beam evaporation. Mechanical stress fields in multi-layered materials play an important role. The stress state can have far-reaching implications both in kinetics and thermodynamics. Therefore an integrated apparatus with four-point bending equipment was designed. The technique allowed us to exert stress into a film or a system of films on a substrate concurrently with thermal treatment. In order to achieve the first tests performed with the help of the apparatus, various preliminary characterizations were required. The article reports the preliminary micro-mechanical testing of the materials (ultra micro-indentation to evaluate the elastic modulus of the samples materials and wafer curvature technique to determine the specimen residual stress) and the first ageing experiment. Experimental evidence of accelerated ageing under stress is successfully reported.

  10. Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Pineau, A.

    2003-11-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to analyse the latter embrittlement mechanism in one specific heat of 321 stainless steel. To this end, different HAZs are simulated using an annealing heat-treatment, followed by various cold rolling and aging conditions. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and aging on Ti(C,N) precipitation, on the mechanical (hardness, tensile and creep) behaviour of the simulated HAZs and on their sensitivity to intergranular crack propagation through stress relaxation tests performed on pre-cracked CT type specimens tested at 600 °C. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the involved mechanism but that aging does not promote crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. Therefore, the role of Ti(C,N) precipitation on stress relief cracking mechanisms is discussed. An attempt is made to show that solute drag effects are mainly responsible for this form of intergranular damage, rather than Ti(C,N) precipitation.

  11. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Roseriet; Buitelaar, Jan K; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and cortisol, as well as other less well-studied but possibly relevant and complementary mechanisms. We present evidence for a role of the following mechanisms: compromised placental functioning, including the 11β-HSD2 enzyme, increased catecholamines, compromised maternal immune system and intestinal microbiota, and altered health behaviors including eating, sleep, and exercise. The roles of (epi)genetics, the postnatal environment and the fetus are also discussed. We conclude that maternal prenatal psychosocial stress is a complex phenomenon that affects maternal emotions, behavior and physiology in many ways, and may influence the physiology and functioning of the fetus through a network of different pathways. The review concludes with recommendations for future research that helps our understanding of the mechanisms by which maternal prenatal stress exerts its effect on the fetus.

  12. Extension of lifespan in C. elegans by naphthoquinones that act through stress hormesis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Piper R; Son, Tae Gen; Wilson, Mark A; Yu, Quian-Sheng; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Greig, Nigel H; Mattson, Mark P; Camandola, Simonetta; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    Hormesis occurs when a low level stress elicits adaptive beneficial responses that protect against subsequent exposure to severe stress. Recent findings suggest that mild oxidative and thermal stress can extend lifespan by hormetic mechanisms. Here we show that the botanical pesticide plumbagin, while toxic to C. elegans nematodes at high doses, extends lifespan at low doses. Because plumbagin is a naphthoquinone that can generate free radicals in vivo, we investigated whether it extends lifespan by activating an adaptive cellular stress response pathway. The C. elegans cap'n'collar (CNC) transcription factor, SKN-1, mediates protective responses to oxidative stress. Genetic analysis showed that skn-1 activity is required for lifespan extension by low-dose plumbagin in C. elegans. Further screening of a series of plumbagin analogs identified three additional naphthoquinones that could induce SKN-1 targets in C. elegans. Naphthazarin showed skn-1dependent lifespan extension, over an extended dose range compared to plumbagin, while the other naphthoquinones, oxoline and menadione, had differing effects on C. elegans survival and failed to activate ARE reporter expression in cultured mammalian cells. Our findings reveal the potential for low doses of naturally occurring naphthoquinones to extend lifespan by engaging a specific adaptive cellular stress response pathway.

  13. Stress-Induced Changes in Sleep in Rodents: Models and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pawlyk, Aaron C.; Morrison, Adrian R.; Ross, Richard J.; Brennan, Francis X.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological stressors have a prominent effect on sleep in general, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular. Disruptions in sleep are a prominent feature, and potentially even the hallmark, of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Ross et al., 1989). Animal models are critical in understanding both the causes and potential treatments of psychiatric disorders. The current review describes a number of studies that have focused on the impact of stress on sleep in rodent models. The studies are also summarized in Table 1, summarizing the effects of stress in 4-hr blocks in both the light and dark phases. Although mild stress procedures have sometimes produced increases in REM sleep, more intense stressors appear to model the human condition by leading to disruptions in sleep, particularly REM sleep. We also discuss work conducted by our group and others looking at conditioning as a factor in the temporal extension of stress-related sleep disruptions. Finally, we attempt to describe the probable neural mechanisms of the sleep disruptions. A complete understanding of the neural correlates of stress-induced sleep alterations may lead to novel treatments for a variety of debilitating sleep disorders. PMID:17764741

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690

  15. Physiological reactions of the denture-bearing mucosa following mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Gutmann, F.; Kessler, Manfred D.; Frank, K. H.

    1994-02-01

    The mucosa of the edentulous ridges and the hard palate is used to bear denture bases. While the etiology of mucosal disorders caused by material and microbiological factors is well known, the effects of mechanical stress on denture bearing mucosa are comparatively unexplored. To learn more about reactions of compensation against mechanical stress of the denture bearing mucosa we studied physiology of the tissues covering the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. We took non-invasive measurements of the concentration and oxygenation of hemoglobin in several places of the mucosa by using a micro-lightguide spectrophotometer (EMPHO). On this occasion the magnitude and duration of the force, the frequency of the loading and the interval of rest have been varied. The result was that the concentration of hemoglobin decreased significantly inside the mucosa when the denture bearing mucosa was stressed already by a slight but constant compression load. However, a total ischemia was not seen even in great mechanical loads. After the stress ended a reactive hyperemia took place spontaneously.

  16. Genetic mechanism for building evolution reflecting stress histories of residents and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Saya; Mita, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Conventional architectural design has a lot to do with the intuition and experience of designers. And residences are not always suit to its residents and surrounding environment. If we can extract residents' preferences and demands about comfort of each resident from histories of past life and reflect these information in next design, it's possible to make living space more comfortable. This thesis proposes genetic and evolutional system for architectural design information, which is applied evolutionary adaption. Specifically, I applied genetic mechanism which base sequence of DNA plays a role, epigenetic mechanism which chemical modification plays a role and evolutionary mechanism with natural selection. Proposed system firstly accumulates discomfort of residents, shortcoming of living space and usage of equipment as "comfort stress", "safety stress" and "energy saving stress", and modifies performance value of related performance items of building depending on the stress accumulation. Then this system processes selection according to the characteristics of the site for candidates of next generation of architectural design information which are generated via crossing and mutation. The data-set selected in this way is regarded as the performance value of next architectural design, and system suggests architectural specification to the residents.

  17. Preferential Osmolyte Accumulation: a Mechanism of Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Diazotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Magdy A.; Smith, Linda Tombras; Smith, Gary M.

    1990-01-01

    A common cellular mechanism of osmotic-stress adaptation is the intracellular accumulation of organic solutes (osmolytes). We investigated the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in the diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are adversely affected by high osmotic strength (i.e., soil salinity and/or drought). We used natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify all the osmolytes accumulating in these strains during osmotic stress generated by 0.5 M NaCl. Evidence is presented for the accumulation of trehalose and glutamate in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4, proline and glutamate in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6, and trehalose and proline in K. pneumoniae. Glycine betaine was accumulated in all strains grown in culture media containing yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source. Alternative nitrogen sources (e.g., NH4Cl or casamino acids) in the culture medium did not result in measurable glycine betaine accumulation. We suggest that the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in these organisms entails the accumulation of osmolytes in hyperosmotically stressed cells resulting from either enhanced uptake from the medium (of glycine betaine, proline, and glutamate) or increased net biosynthesis (of trehalose, proline, and glutamate) or both. The preferred osmolyte in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4 shifted from glutamate to trehalose as a consequence of a prolonged osmotic stress. Also, the dominant osmolyte in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6 shifted from glutamate to proline accumulation as the osmotic strength of the medium increased. PMID:16348295

  18. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time.

  19. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R.; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time.

  20. Stress Induced Mechano-electrical Writing-Reading of Polymer Film Powered by Contact Electrification Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumita; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás R.; Igreja, Rui; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mechano-electrical writing and reading in polyaniline (PANI) thin film are demonstrated via metal-polymer contact electrification mechanism (CEM). An innovative conception for a non-destructive self-powered writable-readable data sheet is presented which can pave the way towards new type of stress induced current harvesting devices. A localized forced deformation of the interface has been enacted by pressing the atomic force microscopic probe against the polymer surface, allowing charge transfer between materials interfaces. The process yields a well-defined charge pattern by transmuting mechanical stress in to readable information. The average of output current increment has been influenced from 0.5 nA to 15 nA for the applied force of 2 nN to 14 nN instead of electrical bias. These results underscore the importance of stress-induced current harvesting mechanism and could be scaled up for charge patterning of polymer surface to writable-readable data sheet. Time evolutional current distribution (TECD) study of the stress-induced patterned PANI surface shows the response of readability of the recorded data with time. PMID:26786701

  1. Local stresses in metal matrix composites subjected to thermal and mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.; Shin, Donghee; Naik, Rajiv A.

    1990-01-01

    An elasticity solution has been used to analyze matrix stresses near the fiber/matrix interface in continuous fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composites, modeling the micromechanics in question in terms of a cylindrical fiber and cylindrical matrix sheath which is embedded in an orthotropic medium representing the composite. The model's predictions for lamina thermal and mechanical properties are applied to a laminate analysis determining ply-level stresses due to thermomechanical loading. A comparison is made between these results, which assume cylindrical symmetry, and the predictions yielded by a FEM model in which the fibers are arranged in a square array.

  2. Acute myeloid leukemia presenting in a mother and daughter pair with the identical acquired karyotypic abnormality consisting of inversion 3q21q26 and monosomy 7: a review of possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Alastair; Stevenson, David A J; Doig, Tamasin N; Vickers, Mark A; Culligan, Dominic J

    2012-11-01

    The 3q21q26 inversion is associated with both myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), often in association with monosomy 7. In this report, we present a young woman and her mother, both diagnosed with AML, exhibiting similar morphological and identical cytogenetic features. AML with abnormalities of chromosome 3q is often characterized by abnormal megakaryopoeisis and diabetes insipidus, and both were seen in these cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of familial aggregation of AML displaying an inversion of chromosome 3q and monosomy 7. We discuss possible mechanisms for the development of familial AML with identical karyotypic abnormalities and the link between 3q aberrations and monosomy 7.

  3. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  4. Understanding lithospheric stresses: systematic analysis of controlling mechanisms with applications to the African Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Many mechanisms control the state of stress within Earth plates. First-order well-known mechanisms include stresses induced by lateral variations of lithospheric density structure, sublithospheric tractions, ridge push, and subduction pull. In this study, we attempt to quantify the influence of these mechanisms to understand the origin of stresses in the lithosphere, choosing the African plate (TAP) as an example. A finite-element based suite, Proshell, was developed to combine several data sets, to estimate the gravitational potential energy (GPE) of the lithosphere, and to calculate stresses acting on the real (non-planar) geometry of TAP. We introduce several quantitative parameters to measure the degree of fit between the model and observations. Our modelling strategy involves nine series of numerical experiments. We start with the simplest possible model and then, step by step, build it up to be a more physically realistic model, all the while discussing the influence of each additional component. The starting (oversimplified) model series (1) is based on the CRUST2 data set for the crust, and a half-space-cooling approximation of the lithospheric mantle. We then describe models (series 2-5) that account for lithospheric mantle density heterogeneities to build a more reliable GPE model. The consecutive series involve basal traction from the convective mantle (series A, C), and the rheological heterogeneity of the TAP via variations in its effective elastic thickness (series B, C). The model quality reflects the increase in complexity between series with an improving match toobserved stress regimes and directions. The most complex model (series D) also accounts for the bending stresses in the elastic lithosphere and achieves a remarkably good fit to observations. All of our experiments were based on the iteration of controlling parameters in order to achieve the best fit between modelled and observed stresses, always considering physically feasible values. This

  5. Understanding lithospheric stresses: systematic analysis of controlling mechanisms with applications to the African Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2016-10-01

    Many mechanisms control the state of stress within Earth plates. First-order well-known mechanisms include stresses induced by lateral variations of lithospheric density structure, sublithospheric tractions, ridge push and subduction pull. In this study, we attempt to quantify the influence of these mechanisms to understand the origin of stresses in the lithosphere, choosing the African plate (TAP) as an example. A finite-element based suite, Proshell, was developed to combine several data sets, to estimate the gravitational potential energy (GPE) of the lithosphere and to calculate stresses acting on the real (non-planar) geometry of TAP. We introduce several quantitative parameters to measure the degree of fit between the model and observations. Our modelling strategy involves nine series of numerical experiments. We start with the simplest possible model and then, step by step, build it up to be a more physically realistic model, all the while discussing the influence of each additional component. The starting (oversimplified) model series (1) is based on the CRUST2 data set for the crust and a half-space-cooling approximation of the lithospheric mantle. We then describe models (series 2-5) that account for lithospheric mantle density heterogeneities to build a more reliable GPE model. The consecutive series involve basal traction from the convective mantle (series A, C) and the rheological heterogeneity of the TAP via variations in its effective elastic thickness (series B, C). The model quality reflects the increase in complexity between series with an improving match to observed stress regimes and directions. The most complex model (series D) also accounts for the bending stresses in the elastic lithosphere and achieves a remarkably good fit to observations. All of our experiments were based on the iteration of controlling parameters in order to achieve the best fit between modelled and observed stresses, always considering physically feasible values. This

  6. The Stress and Vascular Catastrophes in Newborn Rats: Mechanisms Preceding and Accompanying the Brain Hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Borisova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Maxim; Gorin, Dmitry; Avramov, Latchezar; Fedosov, Ivan; Namykin, Anton; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Serov, Alexander; Pavlov, Alexey; Zinchenko, Ekaterina; Lychagov, Vlad; Navolokin, Nikita; Shirokov, Alexander; Maslyakova, Galina; Zhu, Dan; Luo, Qingming; Chekhonin, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the time-depended scenario of stress response cascade preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in newborn rats using an interdisciplinary approach based on: a morphological analysis of brain tissues, coherent-domain optical technologies for visualization of the cerebral blood flow, monitoring of the cerebral oxygenation and the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs). Using a model of stress-induced brain hemorrhages (sound stress, 120 dB, 370 Hz), we studied changes in neonatal brain 2, 4, 6, 8 h after stress (the pre-hemorrhage, latent period) and 24 h after stress (the post-hemorrhage period). We found that latent period of brain hemorrhages is accompanied by gradual pathological changes in systemic, metabolic, and cellular levels of stress. The incidence of brain hemorrhages is characterized by a progression of these changes and the irreversible cell death in the brain areas involved in higher mental functions. These processes are realized via a time-depended reduction of cerebral venous blood flow and oxygenation that was accompanied by an increase in RBCs deformability. The significant depletion of the molecular layer of the prefrontal cortex and the pyramidal neurons, which are crucial for associative learning and attention, is developed as a consequence of homeostasis imbalance. Thus, stress-induced processes preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in neonatal period contribute to serious injuries of the brain blood circulation, cerebral metabolic activity and structural elements of cognitive function. These results are an informative platform for further studies of mechanisms underlying stress-induced brain hemorrhages during the first days of life that will improve the future generation's health. PMID:27378933

  7. The Stress and Vascular Catastrophes in Newborn Rats: Mechanisms Preceding and Accompanying the Brain Hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Borisova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Maxim; Gorin, Dmitry; Avramov, Latchezar; Fedosov, Ivan; Namykin, Anton; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Serov, Alexander; Pavlov, Alexey; Zinchenko, Ekaterina; Lychagov, Vlad; Navolokin, Nikita; Shirokov, Alexander; Maslyakova, Galina; Zhu, Dan; Luo, Qingming; Chekhonin, Vladimir; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the time-depended scenario of stress response cascade preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in newborn rats using an interdisciplinary approach based on: a morphological analysis of brain tissues, coherent-domain optical technologies for visualization of the cerebral blood flow, monitoring of the cerebral oxygenation and the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs). Using a model of stress-induced brain hemorrhages (sound stress, 120 dB, 370 Hz), we studied changes in neonatal brain 2, 4, 6, 8 h after stress (the pre-hemorrhage, latent period) and 24 h after stress (the post-hemorrhage period). We found that latent period of brain hemorrhages is accompanied by gradual pathological changes in systemic, metabolic, and cellular levels of stress. The incidence of brain hemorrhages is characterized by a progression of these changes and the irreversible cell death in the brain areas involved in higher mental functions. These processes are realized via a time-depended reduction of cerebral venous blood flow and oxygenation that was accompanied by an increase in RBCs deformability. The significant depletion of the molecular layer of the prefrontal cortex and the pyramidal neurons, which are crucial for associative learning and attention, is developed as a consequence of homeostasis imbalance. Thus, stress-induced processes preceding and accompanying brain hemorrhages in neonatal period contribute to serious injuries of the brain blood circulation, cerebral metabolic activity and structural elements of cognitive function. These results are an informative platform for further studies of mechanisms underlying stress-induced brain hemorrhages during the first days of life that will improve the future generation's health. PMID:27378933

  8. Use of a quantitative strong ion approach to determine the mechanism for acid-base abnormalities in sick calves with or without diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Constable, Peter D; Stämpfli, Henry R; Navetat, Hérve; Berchtold, Joachim; Schelcher, François

    2005-01-01

    Acid-base abnormalities are frequently present in sick calves. The mechanism for an acid-base disturbance can be characterized using the strong ion approach, which requires accurate values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (A(tot)) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (K(a)). The aims of this study were to experimentally determine A(tot), K(a), and net protein charge values for calf plasma and to apply these values quantitatively to data from sick calves to determine underlying mechanisms for the observed acid-base disturbance. Plasma was harvested from 9 healthy Holstein-Friesian calves and concentrations of quantitatively important strong ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, L-lactate) and nonvolatile buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were determined. Plasma was tonometered with CO2 at 37 degrees C, and plasma P(CO2) and pH measured over a range of 15-159 mm Hg and 6.93-7.79, respectively. Strong ion difference (SID) was calculated from the measured strong ion concentrations, and nonlinear regression was used to estimate values for A(tot) and K(a) from the measured pH and P(CO2) and calculated SID. The estimated A(tot) and K(a) values were then validated using data from 2 in vivo studies. Mean (+/- SD) values for calf plasma were A(tot) = 0.343 mmol/g of total protein or 0.622 mmol/g of albumin; K(a) = (0.84 +/- 0.41) x 10(-7); pK(a) = 7.08. The net protein charge of calf plasma was 10.5 mEq/L, equivalent to 0.19 mEq/g of total protein or 0.34 mEq/g of albumin. Application of the strong ion approach to acid-base disturbances in 231 sick calves with or without diarrhea indicated that acidemia was due predominantly to a strong ion acidosis in response to hyponatremia accompanied by normochloremia or hyperchloremia and the presence of unidentified strong anions. These results confirm current recommendations that treatment of acidemia in sick calves with or without diarrhea should focus on intravenous or PO

  9. Mechanical stress downregulates MHC class I expression on human cancer cell membrane.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Rosanna; Tallerico, Rossana; Talib Hassan, Almosawy; Das, Gobind; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Tadepally, Lakshmikanth; Matteucci, Marco; Liberale, Carlo; Mesuraca, Maria; Scumaci, Domenica; Gentile, Francesco; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Perozziello, Gerardo; Ammendolia, Antonio; Gallo, Adriana; Kärre, Klas; Cuda, Giovanni; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Carbone, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In our body, cells are continuously exposed to physical forces that can regulate different cell functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. In this work, we employed two different strategies to mechanically stress cancer cells. The cancer and healthy cell populations were treated either with mechanical stress delivered by a micropump (fabricated by deep X-ray nanolithography) or by ultrasound wave stimuli. A specific down-regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules expression on cancer cell membrane compared to different kinds of healthy cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, dendritic and lymphocyte cells) was observed, stimulating the cells with forces in the range of nano-newton, and pressures between 1 and 10 bar (1 bar = 100.000 Pascal), depending on the devices used. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy analysis, after mechanical treatment, in the range between 700-1800 cm(-1), indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also performed to distinguish control and stressed cells within different cell lines. These mechanical induced phenotypic changes increase the tumor immunogenicity, as revealed by the related increased susceptibility to Natural Killer (NK) cells cytotoxic recognition.

  10. Investigation of the dynamic mechanical behavior of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in the high stress tensile regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berer, M.; Major, Z.; Pinter, G.; Constantinescu, D. M.; Marsavina, L.

    2014-11-01

    Due to its outstanding mechanical performance both in static and dynamic loading and its resistance up to very high temperatures, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted many practical applications. The loaded contact state for the application of PEEK rolls as bearing elements was recently analyzed by the corresponding author. High irreversible deformations on the mantle side were caused by the rolling contact and thus the rolling performance is supposed to be strongly affected by the dynamic mechanical properties of this irreversibly deformed material. Tensile fatigue tests at various stress levels up to the thermally dominated fatigue regime were conducted in order to get information regarding the dynamic mechanical material behavior at high stress regimes. Two types of PEEK (annealed and untreated) were investigated and two load ratios, R, were used (0.1 and 0.5). During the fatigue tests extensometer strain, load and surface temperature were recorded and a quantitative hysteresis loop analysis with calculated secant modulus and dynamic modulus was performed. Furthermore, the concept of isocyclic stress-strain diagrams was applied to enlarge and confirm the results obtained from the hysteresis loop analysis. A sharp transition between thermally dominated and mechanically dominated fatigue regimes was found for both PEEK types (annealed and untreated) and for both load ratios. Moreover, the annealed PEEK was stiffer in the tensile fatigue tests than the untreated material. Both examined PEEK types showed distinct hardening throughout the fatigue tests which made them "more elastic" (higher stiffness and less damping).

  11. Mechanical Stress Downregulates MHC Class I Expression on Human Cancer Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Talib Hassan, Almosawy; Das, Gobind; Tadepally, Lakshmikanth; Matteucci, Marco; Liberale, Carlo; Mesuraca, Maria; Scumaci, Domenica; Gentile, Francesco; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Perozziello, Gerardo; Ammendolia, Antonio; Gallo, Adriana; Kärre, Klas; Cuda, Giovanni; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Carbone, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In our body, cells are continuously exposed to physical forces that can regulate different cell functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. In this work, we employed two different strategies to mechanically stress cancer cells. The cancer and healthy cell populations were treated either with mechanical stress delivered by a micropump (fabricated by deep X-ray nanolithography) or by ultrasound wave stimuli. A specific down-regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules expression on cancer cell membrane compared to different kinds of healthy cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, dendritic and lymphocyte cells) was observed, stimulating the cells with forces in the range of nano-newton, and pressures between 1 and 10 bar (1 bar = 100.000 Pascal), depending on the devices used. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy analysis, after mechanical treatment, in the range between 700–1800 cm−1, indicated a relative concentration variation of MHC class I. PCA analysis was also performed to distinguish control and stressed cells within different cell lines. These mechanical induced phenotypic changes increase the tumor immunogenicity, as revealed by the related increased susceptibility to Natural Killer (NK) cells cytotoxic recognition. PMID:25541692

  12. Characterization of Mechanical Stress Effects on Lithium-ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Christina A.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the preferred energy storage devices for a variety of applications from electric vehicles to small scale portable electronics such as laptop computers and cellular telephones. In many of these applications the cycle lifetimes of current lithium-ion technologies are insufficient for the projected lifetime of the device. This is because the energy storage capabilities of batteries degrade over time regardless of usage conditions. The origin of this capacity fade and its corresponding impedance rise is poorly understood, though previous research has attributed it to chemical degradation mechanisms. In this thesis a mechanical mechanism that contributes to the lifetime limiting capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries is characterized. First, the mechanical response of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries is characterized under static and cyclic compressive loading. Using simplified battery systems composed of the polymer separator and foil current collectors in conjunction with viscoelastic creep models, the mechanical response of a battery to a static compressive stress is shown to be dominated by the nonelectroactive battery components. Then the analysis is taken one step further to show that the viscoelastic response of the battery can be attributed to the creep response of the polymer separator. The remainder of this dissertation focuses on characterizing the effects of viscoelastic creep of the polymer separator on the performance of a lithium-ion battery. Mechanical stresses on the polymer separator arise during normal battery operation due to external stresses applied to the cell and also constrained expansion of the electrodes during electrochemical intercalation. The viscoelastic creep of the separator is shown to result in pore closure which limits ion transport in the electrolyte phase of the battery, ultimately causing a rate limited capacity loss. Finally, the effect of separator porosity and composition on this viscoelastic creep

  13. Neuroplasticity-dependent and -independent mechanisms of chronic deep brain stimulation in stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Bambico, F R; Bregman, T; Diwan, M; Li, J; Darvish-Ghane, S; Li, Z; Laver, B; Amorim, B O; Covolan, L; Nobrega, J N; Hamani, C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves depressive-like behaviour in rats via serotonergic and neurotrophic-related mechanisms. We hypothesise that, in addition to these substrates, DBS-induced increases in hippocampal neurogenesis may also be involved. Our results show that stress-induced behavioural deficits in the sucrose preference test, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT) and elevated plus maze were countered by chronic vmPFC DBS. In addition, stressed rats receiving stimulation had significant increases in hippocampal neurogenesis, PFC and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. To block neurogenesis, stressed animals given DBS were injected with temozolomide. Such treatment reversed the anxiolytic-like effect of stimulation in the NSFT without significantly affecting performance in other behavioural tests. Taken together, our findings suggest that neuroplastic changes, including neurogenesis, may be involved in specific anxiolytic effects of DBS without affecting its general antidepressant-like response. PMID:26529427

  14. ER-stress and apoptosis: molecular mechanisms and potential relevance in infection.

    PubMed

    Häcker, Georg

    2014-10-01

    During ER-stress, one of the responses a cell can choose is apoptosis. Apoptosis generally is a cell's preferred response when other control mechanisms are overwhelmed. We now have a reasonably clear molecular picture what is happening once the apoptotic apparatus has been started. Unclear however are the majority of the upstream pathways that connect other signalling to apoptosis. During ER-stress, confirmed apoptosis-regulating targets are pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2-family, whose concerted action induces apoptosis. I will here discuss how mitochondrial apoptosis is triggered, how this is linked to the ER-stress response and in what way this may be relevant during microbial infections.

  15. The Ever-Changing Brain: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Effects of Stressful Experiences

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    The adult brain is capable of considerable structural and functional plasticity and the study of hormone actions in brain has contributed to our understanding of this important phenomenon. In particular, stress and stress-related hormones such as glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids play a key role in the ability of acute and chronic stress to cause reversible remodeling of neuronal connections in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. To produce this plasticity, these hormones act by both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms together with ongoing, experience-driven neural activity mediated by excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), extracellular molecules such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), neuropeptides such as corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and endocannabinoids. The result is a dynamic brain architecture that can be modified by experience. Under this view, the role of pharmaceutical agents, such as antidepressants, is to facilitate such plasticity that must also be guided by experiences. PMID:21898852

  16. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of 431 stainless steel alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical properties of type 431 stainless steel in two conditions: annealed bar and hardened and tempered bar are presented. Test specimens, manufactured from approximately 1.0 inch (2.54 cm) diameter bar stock, were tested at temperatures of 80 F (+26.7 C), 0 F (-17.8 C), -100 F (-73 C), and -200 F (-129 C). The test data indicated excellent tensile strength, notched/unnotched tensile ratio, ductility, shear, and impact properties at all testing temperatures. Results of the alternate immersion stress corrosion tests on stressed and unstressed longitudinal tensile specimens 0.1250 inch (0.3175 cm) diameter and transverse C-ring specimens, machined from 1.0 inch (2.54 cm) diameter bar stock, indicated that the material is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when tested in a 3.5 percent NaCl solution for 180 days.

  17. Residual stress, mechanical behavior and electrical properties of Cu/Nb thin-film multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, A.J. Jr.; Hundley, M.F.; Jervis, T.R.; Kung, H.H.; Scarborough, W.K.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Embury, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Effect of compositional wavelength (modulation) on residual stress, electrical resistivities and mechanical properties of Cu/Nb thin-film multilayers sputtered onto single-crystal Si substrates, was evaluated. Electrical resistivities were measured down to 4 K using a standard 4-point probe. Differential specimen curvature was used to determine residual stress, and a microprobe was used to obtain hardness and elastic modulus. Profilometry, ion-beam analysis and TEM were used. Hardness of the Cu-Nb multilayers increased with decreasing compositional wavelength so that the layered structures had hardness values in excess of either constituent and the hardness predicted by the rule of mixtures. A peak in net residual compressive stress of the multilayers was observed at a compositional wavelength of 100 nm. No resistivity plateau was observed within the composition wavelength range studied.

  18. Gaze angle: a possible mechanism of visual stress in virtual reality headsets.

    PubMed

    Mon-Williams, M; Plooy, A; Burgess-Limerick, R; Wann, J

    1998-03-01

    It is known that some Virtual Reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) can cause temporary deficits in binocular vision. On the other hand, the precise mechanism by which visual stress occurs is unclear. This paper is concerned with a potential source of visual stress that has not been previously considered with regard to VR systems: inappropriate vertical gaze angle. As vertical gaze angle is raised or lowered the 'effort' required of the binocular system also changes. The extent to which changes in vertical gaze angle alter the demands placed upon the vergence eye movement system was explored. The results suggested that visual stress may depend, in part, on vertical gaze angle. The proximity of the display screens within an HMD means that a VR headset should be in the correct vertical location for any individual user. This factor may explain some previous empirical results and has important implications for headset design. Fortuitously, a reasonably simple solution exists.

  19. Effect of grease type on abnormal vibration of ball bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Takayoshi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Igarashib, Teruo

    2003-12-01

    The abnormal vibration of ball bearings lubricated with grease was studied. The test bearings were lubricated with three types of grease: Li soap/silicone oil grease, Na soap/mineral oil grease and Li soap/mineral oil grease. In the experiments, the axial-loaded ball bearings were operated at a constant rotational speed, and the vibration and the outer ring temperatures of the test bearings were measured. In addition, the shear stress and shear rate of the greases were measured by a rheometer. The experimental results showed that the abnormal vibration occurs on the test bearings lubricated with all three types of grease. Based on the experimental results, the generating mechanisms of the abnormal vibrations were discussed. From the discussions, it seems reasonable to conclude: (1) Li soap/silicone oil grease and Na soap/mineral oil grease both have a negative damping moment characteristic. The abnormal vibrations of the ball bearings lubricated with these greases are generated by the negative damping moment. (2) The abnormal vibration of the ball bearings lubricated with Li soap/mineral oil grease is generated by the decreasing positive damping moment of the grease due to the rising temperature.

  20. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar; Aursjø, Olav; Madland, Merete; Kjørslevik, Trygve Alexander; Østensen, Geir

    2016-02-01

    We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa) and two temperatures (92° and and 130°). The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium). The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV) per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil), pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days), and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  1. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard; Stevens, Gary; Kirk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  2. Regional wall motion abnormality in apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo/stress cardiomyopathy): importance of biplane left ventriculography for differentiating from spontaneously aborted anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sandeep M; Lennon, Ryan J; Prasad, Abhiram

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the precise distribution of the regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) in apical ballooning syndrome (ABS) is important because the cardiomyopathy can mimic an acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of the study was to quantify the severity and distribution of RWMA in ABS, compare it to anterior STEMI, and correlate with clinical features. RWMA (normal = 1, hypokinetic = 2, akinetic = 3) was quantified from the biplane left ventriculogram using a nine-segment model in 95 ABS and 17 anterior STEMI patients at the time of their presentation. Regional wall motion score index (RWMSI) was higher in ABS [2.1 (1.9, 2.1)] compared to anterior STEMI [2.0 (1.8, 2.0)], P = 0.024]. The region that most clearly differentiated ABS from anterior STEMI was the posterolateral segment (sensitivity 81% and specificity 100%) which was hypocontractile in 81% of ABS, but none of the STEMI patients (P < 0.001). RWMSI in ABS had a modest positive correlation with the troponin T levels (r = 0.23, P = 0.029). Patients with ABS with ST-segment elevation had the highest RWMSI [2.1(2.0, 2.2)], while those with non specific changes had the lowest [1.9 (1.8, 2.1)] (P = 0.007). In conclusion, patients with ABS have greater and more diffuse RWMA compared to anterior STEMI. The presence of systolic dysfunction in the posterolateral segment in the left anterior oblique projection of the left ventriculogram most accurately distinguishes ABS from an anterior STEMI highlighting the utility of biplane angiography for this purpose. The severity of RWMA correlates with the extent of troponin release and ECG abnormality.

  3. Increased global transcription activity as a mechanism of replication stress in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotsantis, Panagiotis; Silva, Lara Marques; Irmscher, Sarah; Jones, Rebecca M.; Folkes, Lisa; Gromak, Natalia; Petermann, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease associated with genomic instability that often results from oncogene activation. This in turn leads to hyperproliferation and replication stress. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie oncogene-induced replication stress are still poorly understood. Oncogenes such as HRASV12 promote proliferation by upregulating general transcription factors to stimulate RNA synthesis. Here we investigate whether this increase in transcription underlies oncogene-induced replication stress. We show that in cells overexpressing HRASV12, elevated expression of the general transcription factor TATA-box binding protein (TBP) leads to increased RNA synthesis, which together with R-loop accumulation results in replication fork slowing and DNA damage. Furthermore, overexpression of TBP alone causes the hallmarks of oncogene-induced replication stress, including replication fork slowing, DNA damage and senescence. Consequently, we reveal that increased transcription can be a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA damage, providing a molecular link between upregulation of the transcription machinery and genomic instability in cancer. PMID:27725641

  4. The stress corrosion resistance and the cryogenic temperature mechanical properties of annealed Nitronic 60 bar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion properties of annealed, straightened, and centerless ground Nitronic 60 stainless steel alloy bar material are presented. The mechanical properties of longitudinal specimens were evaluated at test temperatures from ambient to liquid hydrogen. The tensile test data indicated increasing strength with decreasing temperature to -196 C. Below liquid nitrogen temperature the smooth tensile and notched tensile strengths decreased slightly while the elongation and reduction of area decreased drastically. The Charpy V-notched impact energy decreased steadily with decreasing test temperature. Stress corrosion tests were performed on longitudinal tensile specimens and transverse C-ring specimens exposed to: alternate immersion in a 3.5% NaCl bath; humidity cabinet; and a 5% salt spray atmosphere. The longitudinal tensile specimens experienced no corrosive attack. Approximately 3/4 of the transverse C-rings exposed to alternate immersion and to salt spray experienced a pitting attack on the top and bottom ends. Additional stress corrosion tests were performed on transverse tensile specimens. No failures occurred in the 90% stressed specimens exposed for 90 days in the alternate immersion and salt spray environments

  5. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-03-15

    Mechanical force-induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force-induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement.

  6. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force–induced stress fiber reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force–induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch–induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force–induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force–induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  7. A cascade of recently discovered molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance of plants.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Dahab, Abdel hafiz Adam; Wangzhen, Guo; Tianzhen, Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Today, agriculture is facing a tremendous threat from the climate change menace. As human survival is dependent on a constant supply of food from plants as the primary producers, we must aware of the underlying molecular mechanisms that plants have acquired as a result of molecular evolution to cope this rapidly changing environment. This understanding will help us in designing programs aimed at developing crop plant cultivars best suited to our needs of a sustainable agriculture. The field of systems biology is rapidly progressing, and new insight is coming out about the molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance. There is a cascade of changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of plants during these stress responses. We have tried to cover most pronounced recent developments in the field of "omics" related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. These changes are very coordinated, and often there is crosstalk between different components of stress tolerance. The functions of various molecular entities are becoming more clear and being associated with more precise biological phenomenon.

  8. Influence of engineered interfaces on residual stresses and mechanical response in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wilt, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the inherent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between fiber and matrix within metal and intermetallic matrix composite systems, high residual stresses can develop under various thermal loading conditions. These conditions include cooling from processing temperature to room temperature as well as subsequent thermal cycling. As a result of these stresses, within certain composite systems, radial, circumferential, and/or longitudinal cracks have been observed to form at the fiber matrix interface region. A number of potential solutions for reducing this thermally induced residual stress field have been proposed recently. Examples of some potential solutions are high CTE fibers, fiber preheating, thermal anneal treatments, and an engineered interface. Here the focus is on designing an interface (by using a compensating/compliant layer concept) to reduce or eliminate the thermal residual stress field and, therefore, the initiation and propagation of cracks developed during thermal loading. Furthermore, the impact of the engineered interface on the composite's mechanical response when subjected to isothermal mechanical load histories is examined.

  9. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G.; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit. PMID:18703496

  10. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Izanloo, Ali; Condon, Anthony G; Langridge, Peter; Tester, Mark; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In the South Australian wheat belt, cyclic drought is a frequent event represented by intermittent periods of rainfall which can occur around anthesis and post-anthesis in wheat. Three South Australian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Excalibur, Kukri, and RAC875, were evaluated in one greenhouse and two growth-room experiments. In the first growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to severe cyclic water-limiting conditions, RAC875 and Excalibur (drought-tolerant) showed significantly higher grain yield under cyclic water availability compared to Kukri (drought-susceptible), producing 44% and 18% more grain compared to Kukri, respectively. In the second growth-room experiment, where plants were subjected to a milder drought stress, the differences between cultivars were less pronounced, with only RAC875 showing significantly higher grain yield under the cyclic water treatment. Grain number per spike and the percentage of aborted tillers were the major components that affected yield under cyclic water stress. Excalibur and RAC875 adopted different morpho-physiological traits and mechanisms to reduce water stress. Excalibur was most responsive to cyclic water availability and showed the highest level of osmotic adjustment (OA), high stomatal conductance, lowest ABA content, and rapid recovery from stress under cyclic water stress. RAC875 was more conservative and restrained, with moderate OA, high leaf waxiness, high chlorophyll content, and slower recovery from stress. Within this germplasm, the capacity for osmotic adjustment was the main physiological attribute associated with tolerance under cyclic water stress which enabled plants to recover from water deficit.

  11. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Sänger, Jessica; Bechtold, Laura; Schoofs, Daniela; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wascher, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information toward the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol. In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter. By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection. PMID:25346669

  12. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.; Bodine, L. I.; Myers, A. W.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Howe, M. A.; Leber, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium β-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-μm-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Ždralević, Maša; Marra, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications. PMID:23430312

  14. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zdralević, Maša; Marra, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the molecular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid. We shall elaborate on the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cross-talk of pro-survival and pro-death pathways underlying the importance of understanding fundamental aspects of yeast cell homeostasis to improve the performance of a given yeast strain in biotechnological applications. PMID:23430312

  15. Mechanical stress altered electron gate tunneling current and extraction of conduction band deformation potentials for germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youn Sung; Lim, Ji-Song; Numata, Toshinori; Nishida, Toshikazu; Thompson, Scott E.

    2007-11-01

    Strain altered electron gate tunneling current is measured for germanium (Ge) metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with HfO2 gate dielectric. Uniaxial mechanical stress is applied using four-point wafer bending along [100] and [110] directions to extract both dilation and shear deformation potential constants of Ge. Least-squares fit to the experimental data results in Ξd and Ξu of -4.3±0.3 and 16.5±0.5 eV, respectively, which agree with theoretical calculations. The dominant mechanism for the strain altered electron gate tunneling current is a strain-induced change in the conduction band offset between Ge and HfO2. Tensile stress reduces the offset and increases the gate tunneling current for Ge while the opposite occurs for Si.

  16. Changes in permeability caused by transient stresses: field observations, experiments, and mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manga, Michael; Beresnev, Igor; Brodsky, Emily E.; Elkhoury, Jean E.; Elsworth, Derek; Ingebritsen, Steve E.; Mays, David C.; Wang, Chi-yuen

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in stress, such as those created by earthquakes, can increase permeability and fluid mobility in geologic media. In natural systems, strain amplitudes as small as 10–6 can increase discharge in streams and springs, change the water level in wells, and enhance production from petroleum reservoirs. Enhanced permeability typically recovers to prestimulated values over a period of months to years. Mechanisms that can change permeability at such small stresses include unblocking pores, either by breaking up permeability-limiting colloidal deposits or by mobilizing droplets and bubbles trapped in pores by capillary forces. The recovery time over which permeability returns to the prestimulated value is governed by the time to reblock pores, or for geochemical processes to seal pores. Monitoring permeability in geothermal systems where there is abundant seismicity, and the response of flow to local and regional earthquakes, would help test some of the proposed mechanisms and identify controls on permeability and its evolution.

  17. Stress, sex and neural adaptation to a changing environment: mechanisms of neuronal remodeling

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The adult brain is much more resilient and adaptable than previously believed, and adaptive structural plasticity involves growth and shrinkage of dendritic trees, turnover of synapses and limited amounts of neurogenesis in the forebrain, especially the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Stress and sex hormones help to mediate adaptive structural plasticity, which has been extensively investigated in hippocampus and to a lesser extent in prefrontal cortex and amygdala, all brain regions that are involved in cognitive and emotional functions. Stress and sex hormones exert their effects on brain structural remodeling through both classical genomic as well as non-genomic mechanisms, and they do so in collaboration with neurotransmitters and other intra- and extracellular mediators. This review will illustrate the actions of estrogen on synapse formation in the hippocampus and the process of stress-induced remodelling of dendrites and synapses in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. The influence of early developmental epigenetic events, such as early life stress and brain sexual differentiation, is noted along with the interactions between sex hormones and the effects of stress on the brain. Because hormones influence brain structure and function and because hormone secretion is governed by the brain, applied molecular neuroscience techniques can begin to reveal the role of hormones in brain-related disorders and the treatment of these diseases. A better understanding of hormone-brain interactions should promote more flexible approaches to the treatment of psychiatric disorders, as well as their prevention through both behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:20840167

  18. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  19. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Osteocyte as a sensor of mechanical stress and Wnt signal].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Akinori

    2012-12-01

    Osteocytes sense mechanical stress. Many long cell processes of osteocytes connect with osteoblasts and osteoclasts as well as other osteocytes. Tethering elements on the cell processes amplify mechanical strain. Primary cilia of osteocytes and integrin of extracellular matrix act as mechnosensors. Osteocytes express RANKL. The disruption of osteocyte-specific RANKL leads to osteopetrosis. Mechanical stress reduced sclerostin expression. Sclerostin suppresses osteoblastic function by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The disruption of SOST gene encoding sclerostin causes resistance to the reduction of bone formation after skeletal unloading. Osteocytes play an important role in regulating bone remodeling as well as sensing mechanical stress.

  20. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  1. Stress changes, focal mechanisms, and earthquake scaling laws for the 2000 dike at Miyakejima (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Luigi; Rivalta, Eleonora; Cesca, Simone; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-06-01

    Faulting processes in volcanic areas result from a complex interaction of pressurized fluid-filled cracks and conduits with the host rock and local and regional tectonic setting. Often, volcanic seismicity is difficult to decipher in terms of the physical processes involved, and there is a need for models relating the mechanics of volcanic sources to observations. Here we use focal mechanism data of the energetic swarm induced by the 2000 dike intrusion at Miyakejima (Izu Archipelago, Japan), to study the relation between the 3-D dike-induced stresses and the characteristics of the seismicity. We perform a clustering analysis on the focal mechanism (FM) solutions and relate them to the dike stress field and to the scaling relationships of the earthquakes. We find that the strike and rake angles of the FMs are strongly correlated and cluster on bands in a strike-rake plot. We suggest that this is consistent with optimally oriented faults according to the expected pattern of Coulomb stress changes. We calculate the frequency-size distribution of the clustered sets finding that focal mechanisms with a large strike-slip component are consistent with the Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b value of about 1. Conversely, events with large normal faulting components deviate from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a marked roll-off on its right-hand tail, suggesting a lack of large-magnitude events (Mw > 5.5). This may result from the interplay of the limited thickness and lower rock strength of the layer of rock above the dike, where normal faulting is expected, and lower stress levels linked to the faulting style and low confining pressure.

  2. Effects of mechanical stresses on sperm function and fertilization rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao; Wang, Ting; Qiu, Zhuo Lin; Li, Ke; Li, Liu; Chan, Carol Pui Shan; Chan, Si Mei; Li, Tian-Chiu; Quan, Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether any of the observed changes in mouse sperm function tests secondary to mechanical stresses (centrifugation and pipetting) correlate with sperm fertilization ability. Chinese Kunming mice were used as sperm and oocyte donors. Sperm samples were allocated evenly into centrifugation, pipette, and control groups. Sperm plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), baseline and stimulated intracellular ROS, and sperm fertilization ability were measured by hypo-osmotic swelling, flow cytometry, and fertilization tests. Parallel studies were conducted and all tests were repeated six times. Our results showed that after centrifugation, the progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility and PMI decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the MMP level decreased significantly in viable sperm when the centrifugation condition reached 1,400 g × 15 minutes (p < 0.05). When pipetting was performed two or more times, progressive motility, average path velocity, and overall sperm motility decreased significantly (p < 0.05); when it was performed four or more times, sperm membrane integrity and intracellular basal ROS level of viable sperm was also significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, various mechanical stresses seem to affect sperm function, however this does not appear to alter fertilization rate. Laboratory handling steps should be minimized to avoid unnecessary mechanical stresses being applied to sperm samples. PMID:26889695

  3. Effect of mechanical stress on optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane II - Birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjányi, Norbert; Turek, Ivan; Martinček, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    In the paper we present the results of an experimental study of photoelasticity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in its deformation in compression with relative shortening in the range in which the dependence of the mechanical stress is not a linear function of strain (up to ε = -0.45). We observed nonlinearity of the dependence of the refractive index difference between beams polarized parallel and perpendicular to the direction in which the sample is compressed on the deformation which is significantly lower than the nonlinearity of the stress-strain dependence measured at the same sample. This fact can be explained by the assumption that the birefringence involves two mechanisms: (i) a change in polarizability of atoms, which is proportional to stress and, (ii) a change in structure of the environment, which we assume to be a linear function of strain. Appropriate choice of the impact ratio of these mechanisms gives a good match between experimentally observed dependence of birefringence on deformation and dependence arising from the above mentioned assumption. The contribution of the individual effects to the observed photoelasticity we investigated within the wavelength range (400-1800) nm. We have found that: (i) the effect of the polarizability of the environment is dominant for strain larger than ε = -0.3; (ii) the difference in the refractive indices of the beams with different orientation of polarization slightly decreases with increasing wavelength and, (iii) there are visible less-pronounced local extremes in the vicinity of the absorption lines of PDMS in the near-infrared.

  4. 1. Morphological Implication on Cellular Response to Mechanical Stress in Bone.

    PubMed

    Amizuka, Norio

    2016-08-01

    In bone, there are 3 distinct cell types: an osteoblast, a bone forming cell; an osteocyte embedded in bone matrix as a consequence of being differentiated from an osteoblast; and an osteoclast, a multinucleated giant cell responsible for bone resorption. Bone is always remodeled by replacing old bone with new bone (bone remodeling), by which bone can maintain its stiffness and flexibility. However, in an osteoporotic state, the disrupted balance between bone resorption and formation results in not only markedly reduced bone mass, but also in disorganized geometry of trabecules, which can often give rise to a bone fracture. Osteocytes located in their lacunae insert their fine cytoplasmic processes into narrow passageways referred to as osteocytic canaliculi. Neighboring osteocytes connect to each other by means of a gap junction in their cytoplasmic processes. Therefore, osteocytes and their lacunae/canaliculi appear to form functional syncytium called osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS). The geometrical distribution of OLCS is poorly arranged in immature bone, while it appears well-arranged distribution in mature bone (cortical bone), in which molecular transports and sensing mechanical stress seems to be efficient, and therefore, may be able to respond to mechanical stress. In this seminar, I will introduce our recent findings on the morphology and function of OLCS which may respond to mechanical stress. PMID:27441762

  5. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of Custom 455 stainless steel alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical and stress corrosion properties are presented of vacuum melted Custom 455 stainless steel alloy bar (1.0-inch diameter) and sheet (0.083-inch thick) material aged at 950 F, 1000 F, and 1050 F. Low temperature mechanical properties were determined at temperatures of 80 F, 0 F, -100 F, and -200 F. For all three aging treatments, the ultimate tensile and 0.2 percent offset yield strengths increased with decreasing test temperatures while the elongation held fairly constant down to -100 F and decreased at -200 F. Reduction in Area decreased moderately with decreasing temperature for the longitudinal round (0.250-inch diameter) specimens. Notched tensile strength and charpy V-notched impact strength decreased with decreasing test temperature. For all three aging treatments, no failures were observed in the unstressed specimens or the specimens stressed to 50, 75, and 100 percent of their yield strengths for 180 days of alternate immersion testing in a 3.5 percent NaCl solution. As indicated by the results of tensile tests performed after alternate immersion testing, the mechanical properties of Custom 455 alloy were not affected by stress or exposure under the conditions of the evaluation.

  6. Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of activating transcription factor 3, a stress-inducible gene, have conduction abnormalities and contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Chaves, A; Chen, J; Kelley, R; Jones, K; Weed, H G; Gardner, K L; Gangi, L; Yamaguchi, M; Klomkleaw, W; Nakayama, T; Hamlin, R L; Carnes, C; Altschuld, R; Bauer, J; Hai, T

    2001-08-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of the ATF3 gene is induced by many stress signals. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of ATF3 is induced by cardiac ischemia coupled with reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion) in both cultured cells and an animal model. Transgenic mice expressing ATF3 under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter have atrial enlargement, and atrial and ventricular hypertrophy. Microscopic examination showed myocyte degeneration and fibrosis. Functionally, the transgenic heart has reduced contractility and aberrant conduction. Interestingly, expression of sorcin, a gene whose product inhibits the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, is increased in these transgenic hearts. Taken together, our results indicate that expression of ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, in the heart leads to altered gene expression and impaired cardiac function. PMID:11485922

  7. Mechanisms of High Temperature/Low Stress Creep of Ni-Based Superalloy Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mills

    2009-03-05

    Cast nickel-based superalloys are used for blades in land-based, energy conversion and powerplant applications, as well as in aircraft gas turbines operating at temperatures up to 1100 C, where creep is one of the life-limiting factors. Creep of superalloy single crystals has been extensively studied over the last several decades. Surprisingly, only recently has work focused specifically on the dislocation mechanisms that govern high temperature and low stress creep. Nevertheless, the perpetual goal of better engine efficiency demands that the creep mechanisms operative in this regime be fully understood in order to develop alloys and microstructures with improved high temperature capability. At present, the micro-mechanisms controlling creep before and after rafting (the microstructure evolution typical of high temperature creep) has occurred have yet to be identified and modeled, particularly for [001] oriented single crystals. This crystal orientation is most interesting technologically since it exhibits the highest creep strength. The major goal of the program entitled ''Mechanisms of High Temperature/Low Stress Creep of Ni-Based Superalloy Single Crystals'' (DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER46137) has been to elucidate these creep mechanisms in cast nickel-based superalloys. We have utilized a combination of detailed microstructure and dislocation substructure analysis combined with the development of a novel phase-field model for microstructure evolution.

  8. Role of Mechanical Stress in Regulating Airway Surface Hydration and Mucus Clearance Rates

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Boucher, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Effective clearance of mucus is a critical innate airway defense mechanism, and under appropriate conditions, can be stimulated to enhance clearance of inhaled pathogens. It has become increasingly clear that extracellular nucleotides (ATP and UTP) and nucleosides (adenosine) are important regulators of mucus clearance in the airways as a result of their ability to stimulate fluid secretion, mucus hydration, and cilia beat frequency (CBF). One ubiquitous mechanism to stimulate ATP release is through external mechanical stress. This article addresses the role of physiologically-relevant mechanical forces in the lung and their effects on regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC). The effects of mechanical forces on the stimulating ATP release, fluid secretion, CBF, and MCC are discussed. Also discussed is evidence suggesting that airway hydration and stimulation of MCC by stress-mediated ATP release may play a role in several therapeutic strategies directed at improving mucus clearance in patients with obstructive lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PMID:18585484

  9. Early-life stress interactions with the epigenome: potential mechanisms driving vulnerability toward psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

    2014-09-01

    Throughout the 20th century a body of literature concerning the long-lasting effects of the early environment was produced. Adverse experiences in early life, or early-life stress (ELS), is associated with a higher risk of developing various psychiatric illnesses. The mechanisms driving the complex interplay between ELS and adult phenotype has baffled many investigators for decades. Over the last decade, the new field of neuroepigenetics has emerged as one possible mechanism by which ELS can have far-reaching effects on adult phenotype, behavior, and risk for psychiatric illness. Here we review two commonly investigated epigenetic mechanisms, histone modifications and DNA methylation, and the emerging field of neuroepigenetics as they relate to ELS. We discuss the current animal literature demonstrating ELS-induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression that results in altered adult phenotypes. We also briefly discuss other areas in which neuroepigenetics has emerged as a potential mechanism underlying environmental and genetic interactions.

  10. Repeated stress-induced expression pattern alterations of the hippocampal chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 associated with behavioral abnormalities in female mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takao; Masuhara, Masaaki; Iwai, Haruki; Sonomura, Takahiro; Sato, Tomoaki

    2015-09-11

    The balance of cation-chloride co-transporters, particularly KCC2 and NKCC1, is critical for GABAergic inhibitory signaling. However, KCC2/NKCC1 balance is disrupted in many neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, correlations between chronic stress, KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Despite the fact that emotional disorders in humans are far more prevalent in women, there have been relatively few studies about female subjects. Here we investigated behaviors and expression patterns of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the hippocampi of female mice under chronic stress. Repeated stress (RS) was induced in experimental mice by repeated forced water administration. Then, expression patterns of GABAergic signaling molecules were identified by immunohistochemical analysis and performance was assessed using several behavioral tests. The results of semi-quantitative analysis showed that RS decreased KCC2 expression and increased NKCC1 expression in membranes of granular and pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. The novel object recognition (NOR) test and sociability test revealed that RS induced cognitive and sociability deficits, whereas RS increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test and induced attention deficits in other tests. In summary, RS induced alterations in membrane KCC2/NKCC1 balance in the hippocampus of female mice, which may contribute to GABAergic disinhibition associated with cognitional, sociability and attention deficits. PMID:26239662

  11. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Roger, Emmanuel; Foure, Laurent; Duval, David; Mone, Yves; Ferrier-Pages, Christine; Tambutte, Eric; Tambutte, Sylvie; Zoccola, Didier; Allemand, Denis; Mitta, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C). The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching) and the non stressed states (control) were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function) were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin) contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich). Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress. Conclusion Under thermal

  12. The phenomenon of stress: concepts and mechanisms associated with stress-induced responses of the neuroendocrine system.

    PubMed

    Becker, B A

    1987-01-01

    'Stress', 'stressors' and the 'stress response' are terms which represent concepts rather than being precisely definable. No single theory of stress has been universally accepted. Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome of stress remains the primary theory for the basis of stress research in food-producing animals; however, other concepts and theories have been developed. This paper reviews current theories and suggests that the complexity of research on stress in food-producing animals can be attributed to the lack of concrete theories and concepts regarding identifiable stressors, the endocrine responses stimulated by potential stressors and the complex and integrated biological changes in the neuro-endocrine system resulting from exposure to hypothesized stressors.

  13. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain: Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics that have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions that may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized-controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions. PMID:27199787

  14. Orientation effect on the giant stress field induced in a single Ni nanowire by mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Clochard, M.-C.; Wegrowe, J.-E.

    2015-09-01

    The change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect) allows to investigate at the nanoscale the effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresitance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Due to the inverse magnetostriction, a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≍ 10 K has been evidenced. The coplanarity of the vectors between the magnetization and the magnetic field is broken. A way of studying the effect of the geometry on such a system, is to fabricate oriented polymer templates. Track-etched polymer membranes were thus irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading, after electrodeposition, to embedded Ni NWs of different orientations. With cylindrical Ni NW oriented normally to the template surface, the induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification results in three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. When the Ni NWs are tilted from the polymer template surface normality, the induced stress field is reduced and the amplification phenomenon is less important.

  15. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have Evolved Different Adaptive Mechanisms to Cope with Light and UV Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Partensky, Frédéric; Boutte, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Marie, Dominique; Blot, Nicolas; Gourvil, Priscillia; Kolowrat, Christian; Garczarek, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which numerically dominate vast oceanic areas, are the two most abundant oxygenic phototrophs on Earth. Although they require solar energy for photosynthesis, excess light and associated high UV radiations can induce high levels of oxidative stress that may have deleterious effects on their growth and productivity. Here, we compared the photophysiologies of the model strains Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511 and Synechococcus sp. WH7803 grown under a bell-shaped light/dark cycle of high visible light supplemented or not with UV. Prochlorococcus exhibited a higher sensitivity to photoinactivation than Synechococcus under both conditions, as shown by a larger drop of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield at noon and different diel patterns of the D1 protein pool. In the presence of UV, the PSII repair rate was significantly depressed at noon in Prochlorococcus compared to Synechococcus. Additionally, Prochlorococcus was more sensitive than Synechococcus to oxidative stress, as shown by the different degrees of PSII photoinactivation after addition of hydrogen peroxide. A transcriptional analysis also revealed dramatic discrepancies between the two organisms in the diel expression patterns of several genes involved notably in the biosynthesis and/or repair of photosystems, light-harvesting complexes, CO2 fixation as well as protection mechanisms against light, UV, and oxidative stress, which likely translate profound differences in their light-controlled regulation. Altogether our results suggest that while Synechococcus has developed efficient ways to cope with light and UV stress, Prochlorococcus cells seemingly survive stressful hours of the day by launching a minimal set of protection mechanisms and by temporarily bringing down several key metabolic processes. This study provides unprecedented insights into understanding the distinct depth distributions and dynamics of these two picocyanobacteria in the field. PMID:23024637

  16. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions.

  17. Overlapping Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Relapse to Opioid Use Disorder and Chronic Pain: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ghitza, Udi E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics that have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions that may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized-controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions. PMID:27199787

  18. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Sensing Mechanism Is Activated in Entamoeba histolytica upon Treatment with Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Santi-Rocca, Julien; Smith, Sherri; Weber, Christian; Pineda, Erika; Hon, Chung-Chau; Saavedra, Emma; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Rousseau, Sandrine; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Guillén, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium and is a site of protein synthesis and modification. Changes in ER homeostasis lead to stress responses with an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The Entamoeba histolytica endomembrane system is simple compared to those of higher eukaryotes, as a canonical ER is not observed. During amoebiasis, an infection of the human intestine and liver by E. histolytica, nitric oxide (NO) triggers an apoptotic-like event preceded by an impairment of energy production and a loss of important parasite pathogenic features. We address the question of how this ancient eukaryote responds to stress induced by immune components (i.e. NO) and whether stress leads to ER changes and subsequently to an UPR. Gene expression analysis suggested that NO triggers stress responses marked by (i) dramatic up-regulation of hsp genes although a bona fide UPR is absent; (ii) induction of DNA repair and redox gene expression and iii) up-regulation of glycolysis-related gene expression. Enzymology approaches demonstrate that NO directly inhibits glycolysis and enhance cysteine synthase activity. Using live imaging and confocal microscopy we found that NO dramatically provokes extensive ER fragmentation. ER fission in E. histolytica appears as a protective response against stress, as it has been recently proposed for neuron self-defense during neurologic disorders. Chronic ER stress is also involved in metabolic diseases including diabetes, where NO production reduces ER calcium levels and activates cell death. Our data highlighted unique cellular responses of interest to understand the mechanisms of parasite death during amoebiasis. PMID:22384074

  20. Function of Rhizodermal Transfer Cells in the Fe Stress Response Mechanism of Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, Ernst-Christian

    1986-01-01

    A variety of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv Yaglik) responds to Fe deficiency stress with simultaneously enhanced H+ extrusion, reduction of ferric ions and synthesis of malic and citric acid in a swollen subapical root zone densely covered with root hairs. It is demonstrated that these stress responses temporally coincide with the development of rhizodermal and hypodermal transfer cells in this root zone. During stress response the transfer cells show a marked autofluorescence which could arise from endogenous iron chelators of the phenolic acid type. The presence of organelle-rich cytoplasm which often exhibits rotational cytoplasmic streaming points to high physiological activity and makes these cells, with their increased plasmalemma surface, particularly well suited for the entire stress response mechanism. Since Fe stress-induced acidification is diminished by vanadate and erythrosin B, both specific inhibitors of plasmalemma ATPases, it seems reasonable to suppose that H+ pumping from transfer cells is activated by an ATPase located in their plasmamembrane. H+ extrusion is also shown to be inhibited by abscisic acid. Raised phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and simultaneous accumulation of malate in the swollen root zone point to the action of a pH stat preventing a detrimental rise in cytoplasmic pH of transfer cells during enhanced H+ extrusion. The simultaneous increase in citric acid concentration favors chelation of iron at the site of its uptake and thus ensures long distance transport to the areas of metabolic demand. A direct link between citrate accumulation and ferric ion reduction as proposed in recent literature further supports the crucial role of transfer cells in the response to Fe deficiency stress. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:16665060

  1. Friction in unconforming grain contacts as a mechanism for tensorial stress strain hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, V.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    2007-04-01

    Materials composed of consolidated grains and/or containing internal contacts are widespread in everyday life (e.g. rocks, geomaterials, concretes, slates, ceramics, composites, etc.). For any simulation of the elastic behavior of this class of solids, be it in seismology, in NDT, or in the modeling of building constructions, the stress-strain constitutive equations are indispensable. Since the most common loading patterns in nature considerably deviate from simple uniaxial compression, the problem of tensorial stress-strain representation arises. In simple loading cases it may be sufficient to use a phenomenological constitutive model. However, in a more general case, phenomenological approaches encounter serious difficulties due to the high number of unknown parameters and the complexity of the model itself. Simplification of the phenomenology can help only partly, since it may require artificial assumptions. For instance, is it enough just to link the volumetric stress to the volumetric strain, or do we have to include shear components as well, and if yes, in what form? We therefore propose a physical tensorial stress-strain model, based on the consideration of plane cracks with friction. To do this, we combine known relations for normal displacements of crack faces given by contact mechanics, the classical Amonton's law of dry friction for lateral displacements, and the equations of elasticity theory for a collection of non-interacting cracks with given orientation. The major advantages of this model consist in the full tensorial representation, the realistic stress-strain curves for uniaxial stress compression and quantitative comparison with experimental data, and a profound account for hysteretic memory effects.

  2. Prenatal stress and its effects on the fetus and the child: possible underlying biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Glover, Vivette

    2015-01-01

    Many prospective studies have shown that if a mother is depressed, anxious or stressed while pregnant, this increases the risk for her child having a wide range of adverse outcomes including emotional problems, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or impaired cognitive development. Although genetics and postnatal care clearly affect these outcomes, evidence for a prenatal causal component also is substantial. Prenatal anxiety/depression may contribute 10-15 % of the attributable load for emotional/behavioural outcomes.The mechanisms underlying these changes are just starting to be explored. One possible mediating factor is increased exposure of the fetus to cortisol, as has been shown in animal studies. However, the human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which makes cortisol functions differently in human pregnancy from in most animals. The maternal HPA axis becomes gradually less responsive to stress as pregnancy progresses. And there is only a weak, if any, association between a mother's prenatal mood and her cortisol level, especially later in pregnancy. Cytokines are alternative possible mediators. An additional explanation is that stress or anxiety causes increased transfer of maternal cortisol across the placenta to the fetus. The placenta plays a crucial role in moderating fetal exposure to maternal factors and presumably in preparing the fetus for the environment in which it is going to find itself. There is some evidence in both rat models and in humans that prenatal stress can reduce placental 11β-HSD2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol to inactive cortisone. The level of cortisol in the amniotic fluid, surrounding the baby in the womb, has been shown to be inversely correlated with infant cognitive development. However, several other biological systems are likely to be involved. Serotonin is another possible mediator of prenatal stress induced programming effects on offspring neurocognitive and behavioural

  3. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  4. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.

    1992-01-01

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  5. Clonal Plasticity of Aquatic Plant Species Submitted to Mechanical Stress: Escape versus Resistance Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Van Groenendael, Jan; Bornette, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The plastic alterations of clonal architecture are likely to have functional consequences, as they affect the spatial distribution of ramets over patchy environments. However, little is known about the effect of mechanical stresses on the clonal growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clonal plasticity induced by mechanical stress consisting of continuous water current encountered by aquatic plants. More particularly, the aim was to test the capacity of the plants to escape this stress through clonal plastic responses. Methods The transplantation of ramets of the same clone in two contrasting flow velocity conditions was carried out for two species (Potamogeton coloratus and Mentha aquatica) which have contrasting clonal growth forms. Relative allocation to clonal growth, to creeping stems in the clonal biomass, number and total length of creeping stems, spacer length and main creeping stem direction were measured. Key Results For P. coloratus, plants exposed to water current displayed increased total length of creeping stems, increased relative allocation to creeping stems within the clonal dry mass and increased spacer length. For M. aquatica, plants exposed to current displayed increased number and total length of creeping stems. Exposure to current induced for both species a significant increase of the proportion of creeping stems in the downstream direction to the detriment of creeping stems perpendicular to flow. Conclusions This study demonstrates that mechanical stress from current flow induced plastic variation in clonal traits for both species. The responses of P. coloratus could lead to an escape strategy, with low benefits with respect to sheltering and anchorage. The responses of M. aquatica that may result in a denser canopy and enhancement of anchorage efficiency could lead to a resistance strategy. PMID:18854376

  6. [Regulatory role of mechanical