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Sample records for abnormal mitochondrial dynamics

  1. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  2. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Wang, Xinglong

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the most early and prominent features in vulnerable neurons in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, a concept that has revolutionized our basic understanding of the regulation of mitochondrial structure and function which has far-reaching significance in studies of health and disease. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in mitochondrial dynamics in AD brain and models and the potential underlying mechanisms. This review highlights the recent work demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and distribution in AD models and discusses how these abnormalities may contribute to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:22531428

  3. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  4. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondria are involved in active and dynamic processes, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, fission, fusion and mitophagy to maintain mitochondrial and cellular functions. In obesity and type 2 diabetes, impaired oxidation, reduced mitochondrial contents, lowered rates of oxidative phosphorylation and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production have been reported. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by various transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). Mitochondrial fusion is promoted by mitofusin 1 (MFN1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), while fission is governed by the recruitment of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) by adaptor proteins such as mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), mitochondrial dynamics proteins of 49 and 51 kDa (MiD49 and MiD51), and fission 1 (FIS1). Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and PARKIN promote DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission, and the outer mitochondrial adaptor MiD51 is required in DRP1 recruitment and PARKIN-dependent mitophagy. This review describes the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics, its abnormality in diabetes and obesity, and pharmaceuticals targeting mitochondrial biogenesis, fission, fusion and mitophagy. PMID:27339203

  5. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cardiac function is energetically demanding, reliant on efficient well-coupled mitochondria to generate adenosine triphosphate and fulfill the cardiac demand. Predictably then, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiac pathologies, often related to metabolic disease, most commonly diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by decreased left ventricular function, arises independently of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of Ca2+ handling, metabolic changes, and oxidative stress are observed in DCM, abnormalities reflected in alterations in mitochondrial energetics. Cardiac tissue from DCM patients also presents with altered mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a possible role of mitochondrial dynamics in its pathological progression. Recent Advances: Abnormal mitochondrial morphology is associated with pathologies across diverse tissues, suggesting that this highly regulated process is essential for proper cell maintenance and physiological homeostasis. Highly structured cardiac myofibers were hypothesized to limit alterations in mitochondrial morphology; however, recent work has identified morphological changes in cardiac tissue, specifically in DCM. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported independently from observations of altered mitochondrial morphology in DCM. The temporal relationship and causative nature between functional and morphological changes of mitochondria in the establishment/progression of DCM is unclear. Future Directions: Altered mitochondrial energetics and morphology are not only causal for but also consequential to reactive oxygen species production, hence exacerbating oxidative damage through reciprocal amplification, which is integral to the progression of DCM. Therefore, targeting mitochondria for DCM will require better mechanistic characterization of morphological distortion and bioenergetic dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1545–1562. PMID

  6. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John; Dasgupta, Asish; Huston, Jessica; Chen, Kuang-Huieh; Archer, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an idiopathic cardiopulmonary disease characterized by obstruction of small pulmonary arteries by excessive proliferation and apoptosis-resistance of vascular cells, as well as inflammation, thrombosis and vasoconstriction. Vascular obstruction increases the afterload faced by the right ventricle (RV), leading to RV failure. The proliferative, obstructive vasculopathy of PAH shares several mitochondrial abnormalities with cancer, notably a shift to aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondria in the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) normally serve as oxygen sensors. In PAH, acquired mitochondrial abnormalities, including epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disrupt oxygen sensing creating a pseudo-hypoxic environment characterized by normoxic activation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α). The resulting metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg phenomenon) reflects inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. In addition, altered mitochondrial dynamics result in mitochondrial fragmentation. The molecular basis of this structural change includes upregulation and activation of fission mediators, notably dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP-1), and downregulation of fusion mediators, especially mitofusin-2 (MFN2). These pathogenic mitochondrial abnormalities offer new therapeutic targets. Inhibition of mitotic fission or enhancement of fusion in PAH PASMC slows cell proliferation, causes cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis. DRP-1 inhibition or MFN2 gene therapy can regress PAH in experimental models of PAH. This review focuses on the etiology of mitochondrial fragmentation in PAH and explores the therapeutic implications of mitochondrial dynamics in the pulmonary vasculature and RV. PMID:25672499

  7. How mitochondrial dynamism orchestrates mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shirihai, Orian; Song, Moshi; Dorn, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic, except in adult cardiomyocytes. Yet, the fission and fusion-promoting proteins that mediate mitochondrial dynamism are highly expressed in, and essential to the normal functioning of, hearts. Here, we review accumulating evidence supporting important roles for mitochondrial fission and fusion in cardiac mitochondrial quality control, focusing on the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway.Based in part on recent findings from in vivo mouse models in which mitofusin-mediated mitochondrial fusion or Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission were conditionally interrupted in cardiac myocytes, we propose several new concepts that may provide insight into the cardiac mitochondrial dynamism-mitophagy interactome. PMID:25999423

  8. Deficiency of Cardiolipin Synthase Causes Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Taro; Inoue, Takao; Otomo, Yukae; Yokomori, Nagaharu; Ohno, Motoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a major membrane phospholipid specifically localized in mitochondria. At the cellular level, CL has been shown to have a role in mitochondrial energy production, mitochondrial membrane dynamics, and the triggering of apoptosis. However, the in vivo role of CL in multicellular organisms is largely unknown. In this study, by analyzing deletion mutants of a CL synthase gene (crls-1) in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrated that CL depletion selectively caused abnormal mitochondrial function and morphology in germ cells but not in somatic cell types such as muscle cells. crls-1 mutants reached adulthood but were sterile with reduced germ cell proliferation and impaired oogenesis. In the gonad of crls-1 mutants, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased, and the structure of the mitochondrial cristae was disrupted. Contrary to the abnormalities in the gonad, somatic tissues in crls-1 mutants appeared normal with respect to cell proliferation, mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial morphology. Increased susceptibility to CL depletion in germ cells was also observed in mutants of phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase, an enzyme responsible for producing phosphatidylglycerol, a precursor phospholipid of CL. We propose that the contribution of CL to mitochondrial function and morphology is different among the cell types in C. elegans. PMID:22174409

  9. Genetics and Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Sukhbir; Hellings, Jessica A; Butler, Merlin G

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status of the role and function of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the interaction of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. High lactate levels reported in about one in five children with ASD may indicate involvement of the mitochondria in energy metabolism and brain development. Mitochondrial disturbances include depletion, decreased quantity or mutations of mtDNA producing defects in biochemical reactions within the mitochondria. A subset of individuals with ASD manifests copy number variation or small DNA deletions/duplications, but fewer than 20 percent are diagnosed with a single gene condition such as fragile X syndrome. The remaining individuals with ASD have chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., 15q11-q13 duplications), other genetic or multigenic causes or epigenetic defects. Next generation DNA sequencing techniques will enable better characterization of genetic and molecular anomalies in ASD, including defects in the mitochondrial genome particularly in younger children. PMID:22294875

  10. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Khushbu; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kohli, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission) along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult. PMID:26236504

  11. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS. PMID:26663466

  12. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion have been observed, and their importance revealed, in almost every tissue and cell type except adult cardiac myocytes. As each human heart is uniquely dependent upon mitochondria to generate massive amounts of ATP that fuel its approximately 38 million contractions per year, it seems odd that cardiac myocytes are the sole exception to the general rule that mitochondrial dynamism is important to function. Here, I briefly review the mechanisms for mitochondrial fusion and fission and examine current data that dispel the previous notion that mitochondrial fusion is dispensable in the heart. Rare and generally overlooked examples of cardiomyopathies linked either to naturally-occurring mutations or to experimentally-induced mutagenesis of mitochondrial fusion/fission genes are described. New findings from genetically targeted Drosophila and mouse models wherein mitochondrial fusion deficiency has specifically been induced in cardiac myocytes are discussed. PMID:22450031

  13. Metabolic regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are renowned for their central bioenergetic role in eukaryotic cells, where they act as powerhouses to generate adenosine triphosphate from oxidation of nutrients. At the same time, these organelles are highly dynamic and undergo fusion, fission, transport, and degradation. Each of these dynamic processes is critical for maintaining a healthy mitochondrial population. Given the central metabolic function of mitochondria, it is not surprising that mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics reciprocally influence each other. We review the dynamic properties of mitochondria, with an emphasis on how these processes respond to cellular signaling events and how they affect metabolism. PMID:26858267

  14. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, A A; Liu, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, fission and fusion, were first identified in yeast with investigation in heart cells beginning only in the last 5 to 7 years. In the ensuing time, it has become evident that these processes are not only required for healthy mitochondria, but also, that derangement of these processes contributes to disease. The fission and fusion proteins have a number of functions beyond the mitochondrial dynamics. Many of these functions are related to their membrane activities, such as apoptosis. However, other functions involve other areas of the mitochondria, such as OPA1's role in maintaining cristae structure and preventing cytochrome c leak, and its essential (at least a 10 kDa fragment of OPA1) role in mtDNA replication. In heart disease, changes in expression of these important proteins can have detrimental effects on mitochondrial and cellular function. PMID:26756641

  15. Mitochondrial abnormalities-A link to idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Boelsterli, Urs A. . E-mail: phcbua@nus.edu.sg; Lim, Priscilla L.K.

    2007-04-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major clinical problem and poses a considerable challenge for drug development as an increasing number of successfully launched drugs or new potential drugs have been implicated in causing DILI in susceptible patient subsets. Although the incidence for a particular drug is very low (yet grossly underestimated), the outcome of DILI can be serious. Unfortunately, prediction has remained poor (both for patients at risk and for new chemical entities). The underlying mechanisms and the determinants of susceptibility have largely remained ill-defined. The aim of this review is to provide both clinical and experimental evidence for a major role of mitochondria both as a target of drugs causing idiosyncratic DILI and as mediators of delayed liver injury. We develop a unifying hypothesis that involves underlying genetic or acquired mitochondrial abnormalities as a major determinant of susceptibility for a number of drugs that target mitochondria and cause DILI. The mitochondrial hypothesis, implying gradually accumulating and initially silent mitochondrial injury in heteroplasmic cells which reaches a critical threshold and abruptly triggers liver injury, is consistent with the findings that typically idiosyncratic DILI is delayed (by weeks or months), that increasing age and female gender are risk factors and that these drugs are targeted to the liver and clearly exhibit a mitochondrial hazard in vitro and in vivo. New animal models (e.g., the Sod2 {sup +/-} mouse) provide supporting evidence for this concept. However, genetic analyses of DILI patient samples are needed to ultimately provide the proof-of-concept.

  16. Regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in cancer.

    PubMed

    Senft, Daniela; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics encompasses processes associated with mitochondrial fission and fusion, affecting their number, degree of biogenesis, and the induction of mitophagy. These activities determine the balance between mitochondrial energy production and cell death programs. Processes governing mitochondrial dynamics are tightly controlled in physiological conditions and are often deregulated in cancer. Mitochondrial protein homeostasis, transcriptional regulation, and post-translational modification are among processes that govern the control of mitochondrial dynamics. Cancer cells alter mitochondrial dynamics to resist apoptosis and adjust their bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs to support tumor initiating and transformation properties including proliferation, migration, and therapeutic resistance. This review focuses on key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics and their role in cancer. PMID:26896558

  17. Mitochondrial dynamics and quality control in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Dias, Pedro; Pinho, Brígida R; Soares, Tânia R; de Proença, João; Duchen, Michael R; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion mutations in the huntingtin protein. Despite its ubiquitous distribution, expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) is particularly detrimental to medium spiny neurons within the striatum. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with HD pathogenesis. Here we review the current evidence for mHtt-induced abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control, with a particular focus on brain and neuronal data pertaining to striatal vulnerability. We address mHtt effects on mitochondrial biogenesis, protein import, complex assembly, fission and fusion, mitochondrial transport, and on the degradation of damaged mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). For an integrated perspective on potentially converging pathogenic mechanisms, we also address impaired autophagosomal transport and abnormal mHtt proteostasis in HD. PMID:26388396

  18. Mitochondrial loss, dysfunction and altered dynamics in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Moody, Jennifer P.; Edgerly, Christina K.; Bordiuk, Olivia L.; Cormier, Kerry; Smith, Karen; Beal, M. Flint; Ferrante, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Although a direct causative pathway from the gene mutation to the selective neostriatal neurodegeneration remains unclear in Huntington's disease (HD), one putative pathological mechanism reported to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of this neurological disorder is mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined mitochondria in preferentially vulnerable striatal calbindin-positive neurons in moderate-to-severe grade HD patients, using antisera against mitochondrial markers of COX2, SOD2 and cytochrome c. Combined calbindin and mitochondrial marker immunofluorescence showed a significant and progressive grade-dependent reduction in the number of mitochondria in spiny striatal neurons, with marked alteration in size. Consistent with mitochondrial loss, there was a reduction in COX2 protein levels using western analysis that corresponded with disease severity. In addition, both mitochondrial transcription factor A, a regulator of mtDNA, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-co-activator gamma-1 alpha, a key transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, were also significantly reduced with increasing disease severity. Abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics were observed, showing a significant increase in the fission protein Drp1 and a reduction in the expression of the fusion protein mitofusin 1. Lastly, mitochondrial PCR array profiling in HD caudate nucleus specimens showed increased mRNA expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial localization, membrane translocation and polarization and transport that paralleled mitochondrial derangement. These findings reveal that there are both mitochondrial loss and altered mitochondrial morphogenesis with increased mitochondrial fission and reduced fusion in HD. These findings provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD. PMID:20660112

  19. Mitochondrial dynamics: Orchestrating the journey to advanced age.

    PubMed

    Biala, Agnieszka K; Dhingra, Rimpy; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2015-06-01

    Aging is a degenerative process that unfortunately is an inevitable part of life and risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Among the several theories purported to explain the effects of age on cardiac dysfunction, the mitochondrion has emerged a central regulator of this process. Hence, it is not surprising that abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control including biogenesis and turnover have such detrimental effects on cardiac function. In fact mitochondria serve as a conduit for biological signals for apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy respectively. The removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy/mitophagy is essential for mitochondrial quality control and cardiac homeostasis. Defects in mitochondrial dynamism fission/fusion events have been linked to cardiac senescence and heart failure. In this review we discuss the impact of aging on mitochondrial dynamics and senescence on cardiovascular health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CV Aging. PMID:25918048

  20. Redox metabolism abnormalities in autistic children associated with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Frye, R E; Delatorre, R; Taylor, H; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N; James, S J

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have uncovered several metabolic abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including mitochondrial disease (MD) and abnormal redox metabolism. Despite the close connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, the relation between MD and oxidative stress in children with ASD has not been studied. Plasma markers of oxidative stress and measures of cognitive and language development and ASD behavior were obtained from 18 children diagnosed with ASD who met criteria for probable or definite MD per the Morava et al. criteria (ASD/MD) and 18 age and gender-matched ASD children without any biological markers or symptoms of MD (ASD/NoMD). Plasma measures of redox metabolism included reduced free glutathione (fGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the fGSH/GSSG ratio and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT). In addition, a plasma measure of chronic immune activation, 3-chlorotyrosine (3CT), was also measured. Language was measured using the preschool language scale or the expressive one-word vocabulary test (depending on the age), adaptive behaviour was measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and core autism symptoms were measured using the Autism Symptoms Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Children with ASD/MD were found to have lower scores on the communication and daily living skill subscales of the VABS despite having similar language and ASD symptoms. Children with ASD/MD demonstrated significantly higher levels of fGSH/GSSG and lower levels of GSSG as compared with children with ASD/NoMD, suggesting an overall more favourable glutathione redox status in the ASD/MD group. However, compare with controls, both ASD groups demonstrated lower fGSH and fGSH/GSSG, demonstrating that both groups suffer from redox abnormalities. Younger ASD/MD children had higher levels of 3CT than younger ASD/NoMD children because of an age-related effect in the ASD/MD group. Both ASD groups demonstrated significantly

  1. Redox metabolism abnormalities in autistic children associated with mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Frye, R E; DeLaTorre, R; Taylor, H; Slattery, J; Melnyk, S; Chowdhury, N; James, S J

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have uncovered several metabolic abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including mitochondrial disease (MD) and abnormal redox metabolism. Despite the close connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, the relation between MD and oxidative stress in children with ASD has not been studied. Plasma markers of oxidative stress and measures of cognitive and language development and ASD behavior were obtained from 18 children diagnosed with ASD who met criteria for probable or definite MD per the Morava et al. criteria (ASD/MD) and 18 age and gender-matched ASD children without any biological markers or symptoms of MD (ASD/NoMD). Plasma measures of redox metabolism included reduced free glutathione (fGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the fGSH/GSSG ratio and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT). In addition, a plasma measure of chronic immune activation, 3-chlorotyrosine (3CT), was also measured. Language was measured using the preschool language scale or the expressive one-word vocabulary test (depending on the age), adaptive behaviour was measured using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and core autism symptoms were measured using the Autism Symptoms Questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Children with ASD/MD were found to have lower scores on the communication and daily living skill subscales of the VABS despite having similar language and ASD symptoms. Children with ASD/MD demonstrated significantly higher levels of fGSH/GSSG and lower levels of GSSG as compared with children with ASD/NoMD, suggesting an overall more favourable glutathione redox status in the ASD/MD group. However, compare with controls, both ASD groups demonstrated lower fGSH and fGSH/GSSG, demonstrating that both groups suffer from redox abnormalities. Younger ASD/MD children had higher levels of 3CT than younger ASD/NoMD children because of an age-related effect in the ASD/MD group. Both ASD groups demonstrated significantly

  2. Diet impact on mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Putti, Rosalba; Sica, Raffaella; Migliaccio, Vincenzo; Lionetti, Lillà

    2015-01-01

    Diet induced obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function and dynamic behavior. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles and the balance in fusion/fission is strictly associated with their bioenergetics. Fusion processes are associated with the optimization of mitochondrial function, whereas fission processes are associated with the removal of damaged mitochondria. In diet-induced obesity, impaired mitochondrial function and increased fission processes were found in liver and skeletal muscle. Diverse dietary fat sources differently affect mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics. In contrast to saturated fatty acids, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce fusion processes and improve mitochondrial function. Moreover, the pro-longevity effect of caloric restriction has been correlated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics leading to decreased cell oxidative injury. Noteworthy, emerging findings revealed an important role for mitochondrial dynamics within neuronal populations involved in central regulation of body energy balance. In conclusion, mitochondrial dynamic processes with their strict interconnection with mitochondrial bioenergetics are involved in energy balance and diet impact on metabolic tissues. PMID:25904870

  3. Defective insulin signaling and mitochondrial dynamics in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Westermeier, Francisco; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; López-Crisosto, Camila; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Quiroga, Clara; Bustamante, Mario; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Zalaquett, Ricardo; Ibacache, Mauricio; Parra, Valentina; Castro, Pablo F.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common consequence of longstanding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and encompasses structural, morphological, functional, and metabolic abnormalities in the heart. Myocardial energy metabolism depends on mitochondria, which must generate sufficient ATP to meet the high energy demands of the myocardium. Dysfunctional mitochondria are involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic heart disease. A large body of evidence implicates myocardial insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of DCM. Recent studies show that insulin signaling influences myocardial energy metabolism by impacting cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dynamics and function under physiological conditions. However, comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms linking insulin signaling and changes in the architecture of the mitochondrial network in diabetic cardiomyopathy is lacking. This review summarizes our current understanding of how defective insulin signaling impacts cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy and discusses the potential role of mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:25686534

  4. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM) communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution...

  5. Role of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neuronal Development: Mechanism for Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hodurova, Zuzana; Mandel, Merle; Zeb, Akbar; Choubey, Vinay; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Vasar, Eero; Veksler, Vladimir; Kaasik, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of the protein Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) is associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric abnormalities similar to those observed in pathologies showing alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that WFS1 deficiency affects neuronal function via mitochondrial abnormalities. We show that down-regulation of WFS1 in neurons leads to dramatic changes in mitochondrial dynamics (inhibited mitochondrial fusion, altered mitochondrial trafficking, and augmented mitophagy), delaying neuronal development. WFS1 deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) dysfunction and disturbed cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis, which, in turn, alters mitochondrial dynamics. Importantly, ER stress, impaired Ca2+ homeostasis, altered mitochondrial dynamics, and delayed neuronal development are causatively related events because interventions at all these levels improved the downstream processes. Our data shed light on the mechanisms of neuronal abnormalities in Wolfram syndrome and point out potential therapeutic targets. This work may have broader implications for understanding the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27434582

  6. Role of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neuronal Development: Mechanism for Wolfram Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cagalinec, Michal; Liiv, Mailis; Hodurova, Zuzana; Hickey, Miriam Ann; Vaarmann, Annika; Mandel, Merle; Zeb, Akbar; Choubey, Vinay; Kuum, Malle; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Vasar, Eero; Veksler, Vladimir; Kaasik, Allen

    2016-07-01

    Deficiency of the protein Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) is associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric abnormalities similar to those observed in pathologies showing alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that WFS1 deficiency affects neuronal function via mitochondrial abnormalities. We show that down-regulation of WFS1 in neurons leads to dramatic changes in mitochondrial dynamics (inhibited mitochondrial fusion, altered mitochondrial trafficking, and augmented mitophagy), delaying neuronal development. WFS1 deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) dysfunction and disturbed cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis, which, in turn, alters mitochondrial dynamics. Importantly, ER stress, impaired Ca2+ homeostasis, altered mitochondrial dynamics, and delayed neuronal development are causatively related events because interventions at all these levels improved the downstream processes. Our data shed light on the mechanisms of neuronal abnormalities in Wolfram syndrome and point out potential therapeutic targets. This work may have broader implications for understanding the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27434582

  7. Mitochondrial dynamics and cell death in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Marín-García, José; Akhmedov, Alexander T

    2016-03-01

    The highly regulated processes of mitochondrial fusion (joining), fission (division) and trafficking, collectively called mitochondrial dynamics, determine cell-type specific morphology, intracellular distribution and activity of these critical organelles. Mitochondria are critical for cardiac function, while their structural and functional abnormalities contribute to several common cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). The tightly balanced mitochondrial fusion and fission determine number, morphology and activity of these multifunctional organelles. Although the intracellular architecture of mature cardiomyocytes greatly restricts mitochondrial dynamics, this process occurs in the adult human heart. Fusion and fission modulate multiple mitochondrial functions, ranging from energy and reactive oxygen species production to Ca(2+) homeostasis and cell death, allowing the heart to respond properly to body demands. Tightly controlled balance between fusion and fission is of utmost importance in the high energy-demanding cardiomyocytes. A shift toward fission leads to mitochondrial fragmentation, while a shift toward fusion results in the formation of enlarged mitochondria and in the fusion of damaged mitochondria with healthy organelles. Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1 constitute the core machinery promoting mitochondrial fusion, whereas Drp1, Fis1, Mff and MiD49/51 are the core components of fission machinery. Growing evidence suggests that fusion/fission factors in adult cardiomyocytes play essential noncanonical roles in cardiac development, Ca(2+) signaling, mitochondrial quality control and cell death. Impairment of this complex circuit causes cardiomyocyte dysfunction and death contributing to heart injury culminating in HF. Pharmacological targeting of components of this intricate network may be a novel therapeutic modality for HF treatment. PMID:26872674

  8. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  9. REMOTE ISCHEMIC CONDITIONING INFLUENCES MITOCHONDRIAL DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Cellier, Laura; Tamareille, Sophie; Kalakech, Hussein; Guillou, Sophie; Lenaers, Guy; Prunier, Fabrice; Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has emerged as an attractive strategy to protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanisms by which remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is protective are to date unknown, yet a well-accepted theory holds that the mitochondria play a central role. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission. Interventions that decrease mitochondrial fission or increase mitochondrial fusion have been associated with reduced I/R injury. However, whether RIPC influences mitochondrial dynamics or not has yet to be ascertained. We sought to determine the role played by mitochondrial dynamics in RIPC-induced cardioprotection. Male adult rats exposed in vivo to myocardial I/R were assigned to one of two groups, either undergoing 40 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion (MI group) or four 5-min cycles of limb ischemia interspersed by 5 min of limb reperfusion, immediately prior to myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion (MI+RIPC group). After reperfusion, infarct size was assessed and myocardial tissue was analyzed by Western blot and electron microscopy. RIPC induced smaller infarct size (−28%), increased mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1, and preserved mitochondrial morphology. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dynamics play a role in the mechanisms of RIPC-induced cardioprotection. PMID:26555744

  10. Progressive dopaminergic alterations and mitochondrial abnormalities in LRRK2 G2019S knock in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, M.; Hinkle, K.; Davies, P.; Trushina, E.; Fiesel, F.; Christenson, T.; Schroeder, A.; Zhang, L.; Bowles, E.; Behrouz, B.; Lincoln, S.; Beevers, J.; Milnerwood, A.; Kurti, A.; McLean, P. J.; Fryer, J. D.; Springer, W.; Dickson, D.; Farrer, M.; Melrose, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most common genetic cause of late onset Parkinson’s disease. The physiological and pathological roles of LRRK2 are yet to be fully determined but evidence points towards LRRK2 mutations causing a gain in kinase function, impacting on neuronal maintenance, vesicular dynamics and neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of physiological levels of mutant LRRK2, we created knock in mice harboring the most common LRRK2 mutation G2019S in their own genome. We have performed comprehensive dopaminergic, behavioral and neuropathological analyses in this model up to 24 months of age. We find elevated kinase activity in the brain of both heterozygous and homozygous mice. Although normal at 6 months, by 12 months of age, basal and pharmacologically induced extracellular release of dopamine is impaired in both heterozygous and homozygous mice, corroborating previous findings in transgenic models over-expressing mutant LRRK2. Via in vivo microdialysis measurement of basal and drug- evoked extracellular release of dopamine and its metabolites, our findings indicate that exocytotic release from the vesicular pool is impaired. Furthermore, profound mitochondrial abnormalities are evident in the striatum of older homozygous G2019S mice, which are consistent with mitochondrial fission arrest. We anticipate the G2019S will be a useful pre-clinical model for further evaluation of early mechanistic events in LRRK2 pathogenesis and for second-hit approaches to model disease progression. PMID:25836420

  11. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  12. Mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Trincado, César; García-Carvajal, Ivonne; Pennanen, Christian; Parra, Valentina; Hill, Joseph A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is often initiated as an adaptive response to haemodynamic stress or myocardial injury, and allows the heart to meet an increased demand for oxygen. Although initially beneficial, hypertrophy can ultimately contribute to the progression of cardiac disease, leading to an increase in interstitial fibrosis and a decrease in ventricular function. Metabolic changes have emerged as key mechanisms involved in the development and progression of pathological remodelling. As the myocardium is a highly oxidative tissue, mitochondria play a central role in maintaining optimal performance of the heart. 'Mitochondrial dynamics', the processes of mitochondrial fusion, fission, biogenesis and mitophagy that determine mitochondrial morphology, quality and abundance have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease. Studies link mitochondrial dynamics to the balance between energy demand and nutrient supply, suggesting that changes in mitochondrial morphology may act as a mechanism for bioenergetic adaptation during cardiac pathological remodelling. Another critical function of mitochondrial dynamics is the removal of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy, which is dependent on the fission/fusion cycle. In this article, we discuss the latest findings regarding the impact of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy on the development and progression of cardiovascular pathologies, including diabetic cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, damage from ischaemia-reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy and decompensated heart failure. We will address the ability of mitochondrial fusion and fission to impact all cell types within the myocardium, including cardiac myocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. Finally, we will discuss how these findings can be applied to improve the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26537557

  13. Nitric oxide regulates vascular adaptive mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Knaub, Leslie A; Olivera-Fragoso, Luis F; Keller, Amy C; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Watson, Peter A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2013-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity, are all correlated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. NO-mediated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been established in many tissues, yet the role of eNOS in vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is unclear. We hypothesized that genetic eNOS deletion and 3-day nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents would result in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and defunct fission/fusion and autophagy profiles within the aorta. We observed a significant, eNOS expression-dependent decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein subunits from complexes I, II, III, and V in eNOS heterozygotes and eNOS null mice compared with age-matched controls. In response to NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment in Sprague Dawley rats, significant decreases were observed in ETC protein subunits from complexes I, III, and IV as well as voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Decreased protein content of upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, cAMP response element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, were observed in response to 3-day L-NAME treatment. Both genetic eNOS deletion and NOS inhibition resulted in decreased manganese superoxide dismutase protein. L-NAME treatment resulted in significant changes to mitochondrial dynamic protein profiles with decreased fusion, increased fission, and minimally perturbed autophagy. In addition, L-NAME treatment blocked mitochondrial adaptation to an exercise intervention in the aorta. These results suggest that eNOS/NO play a role in basal and adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis in the vasculature and regulation of mitochondrial turnover. PMID:23585138

  14. Abnormalities in Mitochondrial Structure in Cells from Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Anne M.; McPhie, Donna L.; Lange, Nicholas T.; Punzell, Steven; Elmiligy, Sarah; Ye, Nancy Z.; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Hassinger, Linda C.; Menesale, Emily B.; Sargent, Laura W.; Logan, David J.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Postmortem, genetic, brain imaging, and peripheral cell studies all support decreased mitochondrial activity as a factor in the manifestation of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Because abnormal mitochondrial morphology is often linked to altered energy metabolism, we investigated whether changes in mitochondrial structure were present in brain and peripheral cells of patients with BD. Mitochondria from patients with BD exhibited size and distributional abnormalities compared with psychiatrically-healthy age-matched controls. Specifically, in brain, individual mitochondria profiles had significantly smaller areas, on average, in BD samples (P = 0.03). In peripheral cells, mitochondria in BD samples were concentrated proportionately more within the perinuclear region than in distal processes (P = 0.0008). These mitochondrial changes did not appear to be correlated with exposure to lithium. Also, these abnormalities in brain and peripheral cells were independent of substantial changes in the actin or tubulin cytoskeleton with which mitochondria interact. The observed changes in mitochondrial size and distribution may be linked to energy deficits and, therefore, may have consequences for cell plasticity, resilience, and survival in patients with BD, especially in brain, which has a high-energy requirement. The findings may have implications for diagnosis, if they are specific to BD, and for treatment, if they provide clues as to the underlying pathophysiology of BD. PMID:20566748

  15. Dynamics of Mitochondrial Transport in Axons.

    PubMed

    Niescier, Robert F; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Joo, Se Hun; Chang, Karen T; Min, Kyung-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons. PMID:27242435

  16. Dynamics of Mitochondrial Transport in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Niescier, Robert F.; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Joo, Se Hun; Chang, Karen T.; Min, Kyung-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons. PMID:27242435

  17. Dynamics of the mitochondrial network during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kanfer, Gil; Kornmann, Benoît

    2016-04-15

    During mitosis, cells undergo massive deformation and reorganization, impacting on all cellular structures. Mitochondria, in particular, are highly dynamic organelles, which constantly undergo events of fission, fusion and cytoskeleton-based transport. This plasticity ensures the proper distribution of the metabolism, and the proper inheritance of functional organelles. During cell cycle, mitochondria undergo dramatic changes in distribution. In this review, we focus on the dynamic events that target mitochondria during mitosis. We describe how the cell-cycle-dependent microtubule-associated protein centromeric protein F (Cenp-F) is recruited to mitochondria by the mitochondrial Rho GTPase (Miro) to promote mitochondrial transport and re-distribution following cell division. PMID:27068963

  18. Sweet Mitochondrial Dynamics in VMH Neurons.

    PubMed

    Steculorum, Sophie M; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-04-12

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is a central region known to maintain glucose homeostasis. Toda et al. (2016) unravel a new mechanism underlying VMH-dependent regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis via uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)-mediated control of mitochondrial dynamics and activation of glucose-excited neurons. PMID:27076074

  19. Mitochondrial dynamics and the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kianian, Penny M. A.; Kianian, Shahryar F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear-mitochondrial (NM) communication impacts many aspects of plant development including vigor, sterility, and viability. Dynamic changes in mitochondrial number, shape, size, and cellular location takes place during the cell cycle possibly impacting the process itself and leading to distribution of this organelle into daughter cells. The genes that underlie these changes are beginning to be identified in model plants such as Arabidopsis. In animals disruption of the drp1 gene, a homolog to the plant drp3A and drp3B, delays mitochondrial division. This mutation results in increased aneuploidy due to chromosome mis-segregation. It remains to be discovered if a similar outcome is observed in plants. Alloplasmic lines provide an opportunity to understand the communication between the cytoplasmic organelles and the nucleus. Examples of studies in these lines, especially from the extensive collection in wheat, point to the role of mitochondria in chromosome movement, pollen fertility and other aspects of development. PMID:24904617

  20. Inhibition of NAPDH Oxidase 2 (NOX2) Prevents Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Abnormalities Caused by Saturated Fat in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Leroy C.; Barca, Emanuele; Subramanyam, Prakash; Komrowski, Michael; Pajvani, Utpal; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hirano, Michio; Morrow, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity. PMID:26756466

  1. Heart Failure and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Role of Mitochondrial Fission/Fusion Abnormalities and New Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, A. A.; Chen, Le; Malik, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of heart failure has evolved during the last thirty years with recognition of neurohormonal activation and the effectiveness of its inhibition in improving quality of life and survival. Over the last twenty years there has been a revolution in the investigation of the mitochondrion with the development of new techniques and the finding that mitochondria are connected in networks and undergo constant division (fission) and fusion, even in cardiac myocytes. This has led to new molecular and cellular discoveries in heart failure, which offer the potential for the development of new molecular-based therapies. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important cause of mitochondrial and cellular injury in heart failure, but there are other abnormalities, such as depressed mitochondrial fusion, that may eventually become targets of at least episodic treatment. The overall need for mitochondrial fission/fusion balance may preclude sustained change in either fission or fusion. In this review we will discuss current heart failure therapy and its impact on the mitochondria. In addition we will review some of the new drug targets under development. There is potential for effective, novel therapies for heart failure to arise from new molecular understanding. PMID:23884159

  2. Dynamic tubulation of mitochondria drives mitochondrial network formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Mingli; Feng, Peiyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yichen; Mi, Na; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Zerui; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria form networks. Formation of mitochondrial networks is important for maintaining mitochondrial DNA integrity and interchanging mitochondrial material, whereas disruption of the mitochondrial network affects mitochondrial functions. According to the current view, mitochondrial networks are formed by fusion of individual mitochondria. Here, we report a new mechanism for formation of mitochondrial networks through KIF5B-mediated dynamic tubulation of mitochondria. We found that KIF5B pulls thin, highly dynamic tubules out of mitochondria. Fusion of these dynamic tubules, which is mediated by mitofusins, gives rise to the mitochondrial network. We further demonstrated that dynamic tubulation and fusion is sufficient for mitochondrial network formation, by reconstituting mitochondrial networks in vitro using purified fusion-competent mitochondria, recombinant KIF5B, and polymerized microtubules. Interestingly, KIF5B only controls network formation in the peripheral zone of the cell, indicating that the mitochondrial network is divided into subzones, which may be constructed by different mechanisms. Our data not only uncover an essential mechanism for mitochondrial network formation, but also reveal that different parts of the mitochondrial network are formed by different mechanisms. PMID:26206315

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the cardiac mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Edward; Huang, Derrick; Cao, Quan; Dincer, T. Umut; Black, Caitie M.; Lin, Amanda J.; Lee, Jessica M.; Wang, Ding; Liem, David A.; Lam, Maggie P.Y.; Ping, Peipei

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial proteins alter in their composition and quantity drastically through time and space in correspondence to changing energy demands and cellular signaling events. The integrity and permutations of this dynamism are increasingly recognized to impact the functions of the cardiac proteome in health and disease. This article provides an overview on recent advances in defining the spatial and temporal dynamics of mitochondrial proteins in the heart. Proteomics techniques to characterize dynamics on a proteome scale are reviewed and the physiological consequences of altered mitochondrial protein dynamics are discussed. Lastly, we offer our perspectives on the unmet challenges in translating mitochondrial dynamics markers to the clinic. PMID:25752359

  4. Nicotine in Combination With a High-Fat Diet Causes Intramyocellular Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C.; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lee, Desean; Ivey, Rasheed

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be exaggerated by obesity. We hypothesize that nicotine when combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) can also cause ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, similar to recently observed hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice-daily ip injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight) or saline for 10 weeks. Transmission electron microscopy of the gastrocnemius muscle revealed substantial intramyocellular lipid accumulation in close association with intramyofibrillar mitochondria along with intramyofibrillar mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in nicotine-treated mice on an HFD compared with mice on an HFD treated with saline. These abnormalities were reversed by acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis. Mechanistically, the detrimental effect of nicotine plus HFD on skeletal muscle was associated with significantly increased oxidative stress, plasma free fatty acid, and muscle triglyceride levels coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase and activation of its downstream target, acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. We conclude that 1) greater oxidative stress together with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediates the effect of nicotine on skeletal muscle abnormalities in diet-induced obesity and 2) adipose tissue lipolysis is an important contributor of muscle steatosis and mitochondrial abnormalities. PMID:24424058

  5. DISC1-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls the Morphogenesis of Complex Neuronal Dendrites*

    PubMed Central

    Norkett, Rosalind; Modi, Souvik; Birsa, Nicol; Atkin, Talia A.; Ivankovic, Davor; Pathania, Manav; Trossbach, Svenja V.; Korth, Carsten; Hirst, Warren D.; Kittler, Josef T.

    2016-01-01

    The DISC1 protein is implicated in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. Aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are also associated with major mental illness. DISC1 plays a role in mitochondrial transport in neuronal axons, but its effects in dendrites have yet to be studied. Further, the mechanisms of this regulation and its role in neuronal development and brain function are poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated that DISC1 couples to the mitochondrial transport and fusion machinery via interaction with the outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase proteins Miro1 and Miro2, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 mitochondrial trafficking adaptors, and the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins). Using live cell imaging, we show that disruption of the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex inhibits mitochondrial transport in neurons. We also show that the fusion protein generated from the originally described DISC1 translocation (DISC1-Boymaw) localizes to the mitochondria, where it similarly disrupts mitochondrial dynamics. We also show by super resolution microscopy that DISC1 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum contact sites and that the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein decreases the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact area. Moreover, disruption of mitochondrial dynamics by targeting the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex or upon expression of the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein impairs the correct development of neuronal dendrites. Thus, DISC1 acts as an important regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in both axons and dendrites to mediate the transport, fusion, and cross-talk of these organelles, and pathological DISC1 isoforms disrupt this critical function leading to abnormal neuronal development. PMID:26553875

  6. DISC1-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls the Morphogenesis of Complex Neuronal Dendrites.

    PubMed

    Norkett, Rosalind; Modi, Souvik; Birsa, Nicol; Atkin, Talia A; Ivankovic, Davor; Pathania, Manav; Trossbach, Svenja V; Korth, Carsten; Hirst, Warren D; Kittler, Josef T

    2016-01-01

    The DISC1 protein is implicated in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and autism. Aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are also associated with major mental illness. DISC1 plays a role in mitochondrial transport in neuronal axons, but its effects in dendrites have yet to be studied. Further, the mechanisms of this regulation and its role in neuronal development and brain function are poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated that DISC1 couples to the mitochondrial transport and fusion machinery via interaction with the outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase proteins Miro1 and Miro2, the TRAK1 and TRAK2 mitochondrial trafficking adaptors, and the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins). Using live cell imaging, we show that disruption of the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex inhibits mitochondrial transport in neurons. We also show that the fusion protein generated from the originally described DISC1 translocation (DISC1-Boymaw) localizes to the mitochondria, where it similarly disrupts mitochondrial dynamics. We also show by super resolution microscopy that DISC1 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum contact sites and that the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein decreases the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact area. Moreover, disruption of mitochondrial dynamics by targeting the DISC1-Miro-TRAK complex or upon expression of the DISC1-Boymaw fusion protein impairs the correct development of neuronal dendrites. Thus, DISC1 acts as an important regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in both axons and dendrites to mediate the transport, fusion, and cross-talk of these organelles, and pathological DISC1 isoforms disrupt this critical function leading to abnormal neuronal development. PMID:26553875

  7. Mutant prenyltransferase-like mitochondrial protein (PLMP) and mitochondrial abnormalities in kd/kd mice

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Jarett, Leonard; Meade, Ray; Madaio, Michael P.; Hancock, Wayne W.; George, Alfred L.; Neilson, Eric G.; Gasser, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mice that are homozygous for the kidney disease (kd) mutation are apparently healthy for the first 8 weeks of life, but spontaneously develop a severe form of interstitial nephritis that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by 4 to 8 months of age. By testing for linkage to microsatellite markers, we previously localized the kd gene to a YAC/BAC contig. Methods The sequence of the entire critical region was examined, and candidate genes were identified. These candidate genes were sequenced in both mutant (kd/kd) mice and normal controls. The phenotype was further characterized by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Transgenic mice were constructed that carried the wild-type allele of the prime candidate gene, and this transgene was transferred to a kd/kd background by breeding. Results We have obtained evidence that kd is a mutant allele of a novel gene for a prenyltransferase-like mitochondrial protein (PLMP). This gene is alternatively spliced, with the larger gene product having one domain that resembles transprenyltransferase and another that is similar to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase. The smaller gene product includes only the first domain. An antiserum to PLMP localizes to mitochondria, and ultrastructural defects are present in the mitochondria of renal tubular epithelial cells, and to a lesser extent, hepatocytes and heart cells from kd/kd mice. In a line of kd/kd mice that carried the wild-type PLMP allele as a transgene, only 1 out of 13 animals expressed the disease by 120 days of age. Conclusion The kd allele codes for a novel protein that localizes to the mitochondria, and the kd/kd mouse has dysmorphic mitochondria in the renal tubular epithelial cells. This mouse is therefore a unique animal model for studying mechanisms that lead to tubulointerstitial nephritis. PMID:15200409

  8. [Dysfunction of mitochondrial dynamic and distribution in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Walczak, Jarosław; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex disease leading to degradation of motor neurons. One of the early symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders are mitochondrial dysfunctions. Since few decades mitochondrial morphology changes have been observed in tissues of patients with ALS. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles which constantly undergo continuous process of fusion and fission and are actively transported within the cell. Proper functioning of mitochondrial dynamics and distribution is crucial for cell survival, especially neuronal cells that have long axons. This article summarizes the current knowledge about the role of mitochondrial dynamics and distribution in pathophysiology of familial and sporadic form of ALS. PMID:26689011

  9. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S; Olsen, Preben H; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 10(6) in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy. PMID:17608618

  10. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Phing-How; Hansen, Birgit S.; Olsen, Preben H.; Tullin, Søren; Murphy, Michael P.; Brand, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    We have discovered that some weak uncouplers (typified by butylated hydroxytoluene) have a dynamic range of more than 106 in vitro: the concentration giving measurable uncoupling is less than one millionth of the concentration causing full uncoupling. They achieve this through a high-affinity interaction with the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase that causes significant but limited uncoupling at extremely low uncoupler concentrations, together with more conventional uncoupling at much higher concentrations. Uncoupling at the translocase is not by a conventional weak acid/anion cycling mechanism since it is also caused by substituted triphenylphosphonium molecules, which are not anionic and cannot protonate. Covalent attachment of the uncoupler to a mitochondrially targeted hydrophobic cation sensitizes it to membrane potential, giving a small additional effect. The wide dynamic range of these uncouplers in isolated mitochondria and intact cells reveals a novel allosteric activation of proton transport through the adenine nucleotide translocase and provides a promising starting point for designing safer uncouplers for obesity therapy. PMID:17608618

  11. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Chang, Heng-Yu; Kao, Shu-Huei; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Shuyuan; Tzeng, Chii-Reuy; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/−) were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+) oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05) and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β) and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells. PMID:25941928

  12. Implications of mitochondrial dynamics on neurodegeneration and on hypothalamic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics is a term that encompasses the movement of mitochondria along the cytoskeleton, regulation of their architecture, and connectivity mediated by tethering and fusion/fission. The importance of these events in cell physiology and pathology has been partially unraveled with the identification of the genes responsible for the catalysis of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mutations in two mitochondrial fusion genes (MFN2 and OPA1) cause neurodegenerative diseases, namely Charcot-Marie Tooth type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA). Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics may be involved in the pathophysiology of prevalent neurodegenerative conditions. Moreover, impairment of the activity of mitochondrial fusion proteins dysregulates the function of hypothalamic neurons, leading to alterations in food intake and in energy homeostasis. Here we review selected findings in the field of mitochondrial dynamics and their relevance for neurodegeneration and hypothalamic dysfunction. PMID:26113818

  13. Mitochondrial dynamism and cardiac fate--a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2013-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial biogenesis are well known to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. By contrast, mechanistic details of essential homeostatic mechanisms that maintain mitochondrial health in the heart are only recently being uncovered, and the pathological potential of these processes is largely hypothetical. I will review the role of mitochondrial dynamics, focusing on cyclic organelle fission and fusion, in normal and diseased hearts. Special attention is given to recent insights into the non-canonical functioning of the mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) outer mitochondrial membrane fusion protein as a regulator of sarcoplasmic-reticular calcium crosstalk and a critical determinant of mitophagic culling of damaged mitochondria. Because mitochondrial fusion in normal adult cardiomyocytes occurs so slowly and infrequently, I postulate that the major function of Mfn2 in the heart may not be to redundantly promote mitochondrial fusion with Mfn1, but to centrally orchestrate mitochondrial quality control.   PMID:23615052

  14. Transfer of beta-amyloid precursor protein gene using adenovirus vector causes mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured normal human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Askanas, V; McFerrin, J; Baqué, S; Alvarez, R B; Sarkozi, E; Engel, W K

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta-amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The pathogenesis of these abnormalities in IBM muscle and AD brain is not known. We now report that direct transfer of the beta APP gene, using adenovirus vector, into cultured normal human muscle fibers causes structural abnormalities of mitochondria and decreased COX activity. In this adenovirus-mediated beta APP gene transfer, we demonstrated that beta APP overproduction can induce mitochondrial abnormalities. The data suggest that excessive beta APP may be responsible for mitochondrial and COX abnormalities in IBM muscle and perhaps AD brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8577761

  15. The complex interplay between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac metabolism.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo; del Campo, Andrea; Pennanen, Christian; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Iglewski, Myriam; Hill, Joseph A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, capable of undergoing constant fission and fusion events, forming networks. These dynamic events allow the transmission of chemical and physical messengers and the exchange of metabolites within the cell. In this article we review the signaling mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission and fusion, and its relationship with cell bioenergetics, especially in the heart. Furthermore we also discuss how defects in mitochondrial dynamics might be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic cardiac diseases. PMID:21258852

  16. The complex interplay between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo; del Campo, Andrea; Pennanen, Christian; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Iglewski, Myriam; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, capable of undergoing constant fission and fusion events, forming networks. These dynamic events allow the transmission of chemical and physical messengers and the exchange of metabolites within the cell. In this article we review the signaling mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission and fusion, and its relationship with cell bioenergetics, especially in the heart. Furthermore we also discuss how defects in mitochondrial dynamics might be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic cardiac diseases. PMID:21258852

  17. Novel super-resolution capable mitochondrial probe, MitoRed AIE, enables assessment of real-time molecular mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Camden Yeung-Wah; Chen, Sijie; Creed, Sarah Jayne; Kang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Na; Tang, Ben Zhong; Elgass, Kirstin Diana

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial dynamics play vital roles in health and disease. With the intricate nanometer-scale structure and rapid dynamics of mitochondria, super-resolution microscopy techniques possess great un-tapped potential to significantly contribute to understanding mitochondrial biology and kinetics. Here we present a novel mitochondrial probe (MitoRed AIE) suitable for live mitochondrial dynamics imaging and single particle tracking (SPT), together with a multi-dimensional data analysis approach to assess local mitochondrial (membrane) fluidity. The MitoRed AIE probe localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes, with 95 ms fluorophore on-time delivering 106 photons/ms, characteristics which we exploit to demonstrate live cell 100 fps 3D time-lapse tracking of mitochondria. Combining our experimental and analytical approaches, we uncover mitochondrial dynamics at unprecedented time scales. This approach opens up a new regime into high spatio-temporal resolution dynamics in many areas of mitochondrial biology. PMID:27492961

  18. Novel super-resolution capable mitochondrial probe, MitoRed AIE, enables assessment of real-time molecular mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lo, Camden Yeung-Wah; Chen, Sijie; Creed, Sarah Jayne; Kang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Na; Tang, Ben Zhong; Elgass, Kirstin Diana

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial dynamics play vital roles in health and disease. With the intricate nanometer-scale structure and rapid dynamics of mitochondria, super-resolution microscopy techniques possess great un-tapped potential to significantly contribute to understanding mitochondrial biology and kinetics. Here we present a novel mitochondrial probe (MitoRed AIE) suitable for live mitochondrial dynamics imaging and single particle tracking (SPT), together with a multi-dimensional data analysis approach to assess local mitochondrial (membrane) fluidity. The MitoRed AIE probe localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes, with 95 ms fluorophore on-time delivering 106 photons/ms, characteristics which we exploit to demonstrate live cell 100 fps 3D time-lapse tracking of mitochondria. Combining our experimental and analytical approaches, we uncover mitochondrial dynamics at unprecedented time scales. This approach opens up a new regime into high spatio-temporal resolution dynamics in many areas of mitochondrial biology. PMID:27492961

  19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31 Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal systems, the health and activity of mitochondria and synapses are tightly coupled. For this reason, it has been postulated that mitochondrial abnormalities may, at least in part, drive neurodegeneration in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mounting evidence from multiple Alzheimer's disease cell and mouse models and postmortem brains suggest that loss of mitochondrial integrity may be a key factor that mediates synaptic loss. Therefore, the prevention or rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction may help delay or altogether prevent AD-associated neurodegeneration. Since mitochondrial health is heavily dependent on antioxidant defenses, researchers have begun to explore the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as therapeutic tools to prevent neurodegenerative diseases. This review will highlight advances made using a model mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide, SS31, as a potential treatment for AD. PMID:23226091

  20. Mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in the developing and diseased heart

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W.; Vega, Rick B.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a complex organelle that serves essential roles in energy transduction, ATP production, and a myriad of cellular signaling events. A finely tuned regulatory network orchestrates the biogenesis, maintenance, and turnover of mitochondria. The high-capacity mitochondrial system in the heart is regulated in a dynamic way to generate and consume enormous amounts of ATP in order to support the constant pumping function in the context of changing energy demands. This review describes the regulatory circuitry and downstream events involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its coordination with mitochondrial dynamics in developing and diseased hearts. PMID:26443844

  1. Plant mitochondrial dynamics and the role of membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ronghui; Hu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are continuously shaped by the antagonistic fission and fusion processes. The major machineries of mitochondrial fission and fusion, as well as mechanisms that regulate the function of key players in these processes have been analyzed in different experimental systems. In plants however, the mitochondrial fusion machinery is still largely unknown, and the regulatory mechanisms of the fission machinery are just beginning to be elucidated. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying plant mitochondrial dynamics and regulation of some of the key factors, especially the roles of membrane lipids such as cardiolipin. PMID:26317892

  2. Involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in the segregation of mitochondrial matrix proteins during stationary phase mitophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeliovich, Hagai; Zarei, Mostafa; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T. G.; Youle, Richard J.; Dengjel, Joern

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy, the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is an important housekeeping function in eukaryotic cells, and defects in mitophagy correlate with ageing phenomena and with several neurodegenerative disorders. A central mechanistic question regarding mitophagy is whether mitochondria are consumed en masse, or whether an active process segregates defective molecules from functional ones within the mitochondrial network, thus allowing a more efficient culling mechanism. Here we combine a proteomic study with a molecular genetics and cell biology approach to determine whether such a segregation process occurs in yeast mitochondria. We find that different mitochondrial matrix proteins undergo mitophagic degradation at distinctly different rates, supporting the active segregation hypothesis. These differential degradation rates depend on mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting a mechanism coupling weak physical segregation with mitochondrial dynamics to achieve a distillation-like effect. In agreement, the rates of mitophagic degradation strongly correlate with the degree of physical segregation of specific matrix proteins.

  3. Mitochondrial dynamics protein Drp1 is overexpressed in oncocytic thyroid tumors and regulates cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1--a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line--and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells' migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype. PMID:25822260

  4. Mitochondrial Dynamics Protein Drp1 Is Overexpressed in Oncocytic Thyroid Tumors and Regulates Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-da-Silva, André; Valacca, Cristina; Rios, Elisabete; Pópulo, Helena; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Scorrano, Luca; Máximo, Valdemar; Campello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transformation. Little is known about the reason for the dysmorphology of accumulated mitochondria. The proteins regulating the morphology of mitochondria, the "mitochondria-shaping" proteins, can modulate their size and number; however, nothing is known hitherto about a possible involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in oncocytic cell transformation in tumors. Our aim was to assess the status of the mitochondria morphology and its role in oncocytic cell transformation. We therefore evaluated the expression pattern of the main mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in a series of thyroid cell tumor samples, as well as in thyroid tumor cell lines, with and without oncocytic cell features. The expression of mitochondrial fusion (Opa1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a series of 88 human thyroid tumors. In vitro studies, for comparative purposes and to deepen the study, were performed using TPC1 - a papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line—and XTC.UC1, an oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line. Both IHC and in vitro protein analyses showed an overall increase in the levels of "mitochondrial-shaping" proteins in oncocytic thyroid tumors. Furthermore, overexpression of the pro-fission protein Drp1 was found to be associated with malignant oncocytic thyroid tumors. Interestingly, genetic and pharmacological blockage of Drp1 activity was able to influence thyroid cancer cells’ migration/invasion ability, a feature of tumor malignancy. In this study we show that unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics characterize the malignant features of thyroid oncocytic cell tumors, and participate in the acquisition of the migrating phenotype. PMID:25822260

  5. Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics and TBI Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tara D; Hylin, Michael J; Zhao, Jing; Moore, Anthony N; Waxham, M Neal; Dash, Pramod K

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is intimately linked to cellular survival, growth, and death. Mitochondria not only generate ATP from oxidative phosphorylation, but also mediate intracellular calcium buffering, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. Electron leakage from the electron transport chain, especially from damaged or depolarized mitochondria, can generate excess free radicals that damage cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage releases pro-apoptotic factors to initiate cell death. Previous studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) reduces mitochondrial respiration, enhances production of ROS, and triggers apoptotic cell death, suggesting a prominent role of mitochondria in TBI pathophysiology. Mitochondria maintain cellular energy homeostasis and health via balanced processes of fusion and fission, continuously dividing and fusing to form an interconnected network throughout the cell. An imbalance of these processes, particularly an excess of fission, can be detrimental to mitochondrial function, causing decreased respiration, ROS production, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is regulated by the cytosolic GTPase, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) to initiate fission. Aberrant Drp1 activity has been linked to excessive mitochondrial fission and neurodegeneration. Measurement of Drp1 levels in purified hippocampal mitochondria showed an increase in TBI animals as compared to sham controls. Analysis of cryo-electron micrographs of these mitochondria also showed that TBI caused an initial increase in the length of hippocampal mitochondria at 24 h post-injury, followed by a significant decrease in length at 72 h. Post-TBI administration of Mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1), a pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, prevented this decrease in mitochondria length. Mdivi-1 treatment also reduced the loss of newborn neurons in the

  6. Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics and TBI Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Tara D.; Hylin, Michael J.; Zhao, Jing; Moore, Anthony N.; Waxham, M. Neal; Dash, Pramod K.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is intimately linked to cellular survival, growth, and death. Mitochondria not only generate ATP from oxidative phosphorylation, but also mediate intracellular calcium buffering, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. Electron leakage from the electron transport chain, especially from damaged or depolarized mitochondria, can generate excess free radicals that damage cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage releases pro-apoptotic factors to initiate cell death. Previous studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI) reduces mitochondrial respiration, enhances production of ROS, and triggers apoptotic cell death, suggesting a prominent role of mitochondria in TBI pathophysiology. Mitochondria maintain cellular energy homeostasis and health via balanced processes of fusion and fission, continuously dividing and fusing to form an interconnected network throughout the cell. An imbalance of these processes, particularly an excess of fission, can be detrimental to mitochondrial function, causing decreased respiration, ROS production, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is regulated by the cytosolic GTPase, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) to initiate fission. Aberrant Drp1 activity has been linked to excessive mitochondrial fission and neurodegeneration. Measurement of Drp1 levels in purified hippocampal mitochondria showed an increase in TBI animals as compared to sham controls. Analysis of cryo-electron micrographs of these mitochondria also showed that TBI caused an initial increase in the length of hippocampal mitochondria at 24 h post-injury, followed by a significant decrease in length at 72 h. Post-TBI administration of Mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1), a pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, prevented this decrease in mitochondria length. Mdivi-1 treatment also reduced the loss of newborn neurons in the

  7. Analysis of mitochondrial dynamics and functions using imaging approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kasturi; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have been primarily known as the ‘power house of the cell’. However, recent advances in the field have revealed that mitochondria are also involved in many other cellular activities like lipid modifications, redox balance, calcium balance and even control cell death. These multifunctional organelles are motile and highly dynamic in shapes and forms; the dynamism is brought about by the mitochondria's ability to undergo fission and fusion with each other. Therefore it is very important to be able to image mitochondrial shape changes to relate to the variety of cellular functions these organelles have to accomplish. The protocols mentioned here will enable researchers to perform steady state and time lapse imaging of mitochondria in live cells by using confocal microscopy. High resolution 3D imaging of mitochondria will not only be helpful in understanding mitochondrial structure in detail but also could be used to analyze their structural relationships with other organelles in the cell. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) studies can be performed to understand mitochondrial dynamics or dynamics of any mitochondrial molecule within the organelle. Microirradiation assay can be performed to study functional continuity between mitochondria. Protocol for measuring mitochondrial potential has also been included in this chapter. In conclusion, the protocols described here will aid the understanding of mitochondrial structure-function relationship. PMID:20235105

  8. Dysfunctional Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Florian; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, however molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that nitrosative stress, mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), may play a role in mitochondrial pathology. Here, we review findings that highlight the abnormal mitochondrial morphology observed in many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. One mechanism whereby RNS can affect mitochondrial function and thus neuronal survival occurs via protein S-nitrosylation, representing chemical reaction of a nitric oxide (NO) group with a critical cysteine thiol. In this review, we focus on the signaling pathway whereby S-nitrosylation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1; forming S-nitrosothiol (SNO)-Drp1) precipitates excessive mitochondrial fission or fragmentation and consequent bioenergetic compromise. Subsequently, the formation of SNO-Drp1 leads to synaptic damage and neuronal death. Thus, intervention in the SNO-Drp1 pathway may provide therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24587691

  9. [Mitochondrial dynamics: a potential new therapeutic target for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Del Campo, Andrea; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Hechenleitner, Jonathan; Zepeda, Ramiro; Castro, Pablo F; Verdejo, Hugo E; Parra, Valentina; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles able to vary their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and fragmented disconnected arrays, through events of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. These events allow the transmission of signaling messengers and exchange of metabolites within the cell. They have also been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although the majority of these studies have been confined to noncardiac cells, emerging evidence suggests that changes in mitochondrial morphology could participate in cardiac development, the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review how the mitochondrial dynamics are altered in different cardiac pathologies, with special emphasis on heart failure, and how this knowledge may provide new therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21820793

  10. The mitochondrial dynamism-mitophagy-cell death interactome: multiple roles performed by members of a mitochondrial molecular ensemble.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Gerald W; Kitsis, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial research is experiencing a renaissance, in part, because of the recognition that these endosymbiotic descendants of primordial protobacteria seem to be pursuing their own biological agendas. Not only is mitochondrial metabolism required to produce most of the biochemical energy that supports their eukaryotic hosts (us) but mitochondria can actively (through apoptosis and programmed necrosis) or passively (through reactive oxygen species toxicity) drive cellular dysfunction or demise. The cellular mitochondrial collective autoregulates its population through biogenic renewal and mitophagic culling; mitochondrial fission and fusion, 2 components of mitochondrial dynamism, are increasingly recognized as playing central roles as orchestrators of these processes. Mitochondrial dynamism is rare in striated muscle cells, so cardiac-specific genetic manipulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion factors has proven useful for revealing noncanonical functions of mitochondrial dynamics proteins. Here, we review newly described functions of mitochondrial fusion/fission proteins in cardiac mitochondrial quality control, cell death, calcium signaling, and cardiac development. A mechanistic conceptual paradigm is proposed in which cell death and selective organelle culling are not distinct processes, but are components of a unified and integrated quality control mechanism that exerts different effects when invoked to different degrees, depending on pathophysiological context. This offers a plausible explanation for seemingly paradoxical expression of mitochondrial dynamics and death factors in cardiomyocytes wherein mitochondrial morphometric remodeling does not normally occur and the ability to recover from cell suicide is severely limited. PMID:25323859

  11. The Mitochondrial Dynamism-Mitophagy-Cell Death Interactome: Multiple Roles Performed by Members of a Mitochondrial Molecular Ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W; Kitsis, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial research is experiencing a renaissance in part due to the recognition that these endosymbiotic descendants of primordial protobacteria appear to be pursuing their own biological agendas. Not only is mitochondrial metabolism required to produce most of the biochemical energy that supports their eukaryotic hosts (us), but mitochondria can actively (through apoptosis and programmed necrosis) or passively (through reactive oxygen species toxicity) drive cellular dysfunction or demise. The cellular mitochondrial collective autoregulates its population through biogenic renewal and mitophagic culling; mitochondrial fission and fusion, two components of mitochondrial dynamism, are increasingly recognized as playing central roles as orchestrators of these processes. Mitochondrial dynamism is rare in striated muscle cells, so cardiac-specific genetic manipulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion factors has proven useful for revealing non-canonical functions of mitochondrial dynamics proteins. Here, we review newly described functions of mitochondrial fusion/fission proteins in cardiac mitochondrial quality control, cell death, calcium signaling, and cardiac development. A mechanistic conceptual paradigm is proposed in which cell death and selective organelle culling are not distinct processes, but are components of a unified and integrated quality control mechanism that exerts different effects when invoked to different degrees, depending upon pathophysiological context. This offers a plausible explanation for seemingly paradoxical expression of mitochondrial dynamism and death factors in cardiomyocytes wherein mitochondrial morphometric remodeling does not normally occur and the ability to recover from cell suicide is severely limited. PMID:25323859

  12. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Parkinson's Disease: Focus on Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Xiao-Hui; Grace, Lim Gui-Yin; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite intensive efforts devoted to drug discovery, the disease remains incurable. To provide more effective medical therapy for PD, better understanding of the underlying causes of the disease is clearly necessary. Recent Advances: A broad range of studies conducted over the past few decades have collectively implicated aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis as a key contributor to the development of PD. Supporting this, mutations in several PD-linked genes are directly or indirectly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, recent discoveries have identified parkin, whose mutations are causative of recessive parkinsonism, as a key regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. Critical Issues: Parkin appears to be involved in the entire spectrum of mitochondrial dynamics, including organelle biogenesis, fusion/fission, and clearance via mitophagy. How a single protein can regulate such diverse mitochondrial events is as intriguing as it is amazing; the mechanism underlying this is currently under intense research. Here, we provide an overview of mitochondrial dynamics and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases and discuss current evidence and controversies surrounding the role of parkin in mitochondrial quality control and its relevance to PD pathogenesis. Future Directions: Although the emerging field of parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control has proven to be exciting, it is important to recognize that PD pathogenesis is likely to involve an intricate network of interacting pathways. Elucidating the reciprocity of pathways, particularly how other PD-related pathways potentially influence mitochondrial homeostasis, may hold the key to therapeutic development. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 935–949. PMID:21668405

  13. Dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in Holozoa.

    PubMed

    Scheel, Bettina M; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    We studied the highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) in Holozoa. Most major clades within Holozoa are characterized by gains and/or losses of MRPs. The usefulness of gains of MRPs as rare genomic changes in phylogenetics is undermined by the high frequency of secondary losses. However, phylogenetic analyses of the MRP sequences provide evidence for the Acrosomata hypothesis, a sister group relationship between Ctenophora and Bilateria. An extensive restructuring of the mitochondrial genome and, as a consequence, of the mitochondrial ribosomes occurred in the ancestor of metazoans. The last MRP genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome were either moved to the nuclear genome or were lost. The strong decrease in size of the mitochondrial genome was probably caused by selection for rapid replication of mitochondrial DNA during oogenesis in the metazoan ancestor. A phylogenetic analysis of MRPL56 sequences provided evidence for a horizontal gene transfer of the corresponding MRP gene between metazoans and Dictyostelidae (Amoebozoa). The hypothesis that the requisition of additional MRPs compensated for a loss of rRNA segments in the mitochondrial ribosomes is corroborated by a significant negative correlation between the number of MRPs and length of the rRNA. Newly acquired MRPs evolved faster than bacterial MRPs and positions in eukaryote-specific MRPs were more strongly affected by coevolution than positions in prokaryotic MRPs in accordance with the necessity to fit these proteins into the pre-existing structure of the mitoribosome. PMID:24631858

  14. NLRP3 deletion protects against renal fibrosis and attenuates mitochondrial abnormality in mouse with 5/6 nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Mao, Song; Yu, Jing; Song, Jiayu; Jia, Zhanjun; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2016-05-15

    Progressive fibrosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the well-recognized cause leading to the progressive loss of renal function. Emerging evidence indicated a pathogenic role of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mediating kidney injury. However, the role of NLRP3 in the remnant kidney disease model is still undefined. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the function of NLRP3 in modulating renal fibrosis in a CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) and the potential involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis. Employing NLRP3(+/+) and NLRP3(-/-) mice with or without 5/6 Nx, we examined renal fibrotic response and mitochondrial function. Strikingly, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was remarkably attenuated in NLRP3(-/-) mice as evidenced by the blockade of extracellular matrix deposition. Meanwhile, renal tubular cells in NLRP3(-/-) mice maintained better mitochondrial morphology and higher mitochondrial DNA copy number, indicating an amelioration of mitochondrial abnormality. Moreover, NLRP3 deletion also blunted the severity of proteinuria and CKD-related hypertension. To further evaluate the direct role of NLRP3 in triggering fibrogenesis, mouse proximal tubular cells (PTCs) were subjected to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and the cellular phenotypic changes were detected. As expected, TGF-β1-induced alterations of PTC phenotype were abolished by NLRP3 small interfering RNA, in line with a protection of mitochondrial function. Taken together, NLRP3 deletion protected against renal fibrosis in the 5/6 Nx disease model, possibly via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26887832

  15. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  16. Mitochondrial Dynamics and the ER: The Plant Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Stefanie J.; Reski, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Whereas contact sites between mitochondria and the ER have been in the focus of animal and fungal research for several years, the importance of this organellar interface and the molecular effectors are largely unknown for plants. This work gives an introduction into known evolutionary differences of molecular effectors of mitochondrial dynamics and interactions between animals, fungi, and plants. Using the model plant Physcomitrella patens, we provide microscopic evidence for the existence of mitochondria-ER interactions in plants and their correlation with mitochondrial constriction and fission. We further investigate a previously identified protein of unknown function (MELL1), and show that it modulates the amount of mitochondrial association to the ER, as well as mitochondrial shape and number. PMID:26779478

  17. Dual Effect of Phosphate Transport on Mitochondrial Ca2+ Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, An-Chi; Liu, Ting; O'Rourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The large inner membrane electrochemical driving force and restricted volume of the matrix confer unique constraints on mitochondrial ion transport. Cation uptake along with anion and water movement induces swelling if not compensated by other processes. For mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, these include activation of countertransporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and Na+/H+ exchanger) coupled to the proton gradient, ultimately maintained by the proton pumps of the respiratory chain, and Ca2+ binding to matrix buffers. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is known to affect both the Ca2+ uptake rate and the buffering reaction, but the role of anion transport in determining mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics is poorly understood. Here we simultaneously monitor extra- and intra-mitochondrial Ca2+ and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) to examine the effects of anion transport on mitochondrial Ca2+ flux and buffering in Pi-depleted guinea pig cardiac mitochondria. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake proceeded slowly in the absence of Pi but matrix free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]mito) still rose to ∼50 μm. Pi (0.001–1 mm) accelerated Ca2+ uptake but decreased [Ca2+]mito by almost 50% while restoring ΔΨm. Pi-dependent effects on Ca2+ were blocked by inhibiting the phosphate carrier. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate was also increased by vanadate (Vi), acetate, ATP, or a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog (AMP-PNP), with differential effects on matrix Ca2+ buffering and ΔΨm recovery. Interestingly, ATP or AMP-PNP prevented the effects of Pi on Ca2+ uptake. The results show that anion transport imposes an upper limit on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and modifies the [Ca2+]mito response in a complex manner. PMID:25963147

  18. Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Fat Diet Is Associated with Mitochondrial Abnormality and Adenosine Triphosphate Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Kim, Ok-Soon; Chin, Jung Yeon; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yu Jeong; Shin, Jong Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae; Lim, Do-Seon

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is well-known as a risk factor for heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction. However, this mechanism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cardiac dysfunction develops when rats are fed with a HFD for 10 weeks; additionally, we sought to investigate the association between mitochondrial abnormalities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and cardiac dysfunction. Methods We examined myocardia in Wistar rats after 10 weeks of HFD (45 kcal% fat, n=6) or standard diet (SD, n=6). Echocardiography, histomorphologic analysis, and electron microscopy were performed. The expression levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit genes, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC1α) and anti-oxidant enzymes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial DNA copy number and myocardial ATP level were also examined. Results After 10 weeks, the body weight of the HFD group (349.6±22.7 g) was significantly higher than that of the SD group (286.8±14.9 g), and the perigonadal and epicardial fat weights of the HFD group were significantly higher than that of the SD group. Histomorphologic and electron microscopic images were similar between the two groups. However, in the myocardium of the HFD group, the expression levels of OXPHOS subunit NDUFB5 in complex I and PGC1α, and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were decreased and the oxidative stress damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased, accompanied by reduced ATP levels. Conclusion Diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by the mitochondrial abnormality and reduced ATP levels in the myocardium of 10 weeks-HFD-induced rats. PMID:26790384

  19. Mitochondrial dynamics: molecular mechanisms and the role in the heart.

    PubMed

    Jazbutyte, V

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles which actively move along the cytoskeleton within the cell, change their shape and undergo fusion and fission. The heart is a metabolically active organ with high energy demands and rich in mitochondria. Mitochondria not only supply the heart with the high energy compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but also actively participate in cell signaling and apoptotic events and communicate with the cytosol. Recent advantages in molecular biology and imaging techniques helped to study mitochondrial dynamics directly in the cell and under real time conditions. In this review, I will briefly summarize current knowledge about molecular machinery mediating mitochondrial fusion/ fission, its link to apoptosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:20440252

  20. The HIV Protein gp120 Alters Mitochondrial Dynamics in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Fields, Jerel Adam; Castellano, Paul; Dedoni, Simona; Palchik, Guillermo; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Eugenin, Eliseo; Masliah, Eliezer; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-05-01

    Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) includes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of HIV-associated neurotoxicity remain unclear, thus precluding an effective treatment of the neurological complications. The present study was undertaken to characterize novel mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity that may explain how HIV subjects develop neuronal degeneration. Several neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction; therefore, we hypothesized that HIV promotes mitochondrial damage. We first analyzed brains from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) by electron microscopy. Several sections of HIVE subjects contained enlarged and damaged mitochondria compared to brains from HIV subjects with no neurological complications. Similar pathologies were observed in mice overexpressing the HIV protein gp120, suggesting that this viral protein may be responsible for mitochondrial pathology found in HIVE. To gain more information about the cellular mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity, we exposed rat cortical neurons to gp120 and we determined cellular oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial distribution, and trafficking. Our data show that gp120 evokes impairment in mitochondrial function and distribution. These data suggest that one of the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity includes altered mitochondrial dynamics in neurons. PMID:26936603

  1. Miro sculpts mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Devine, Michael J; Birsa, Nicol; Kittler, Josef T

    2016-06-01

    Neurons are highly polarised cells with an elaborate and diverse cytoarchitecture. But this complex architecture presents a major problem: how to appropriately distribute metabolic resources where they are most needed within the cell. The solution comes in the form of mitochondria: highly dynamic organelles subject to a repertoire of trafficking, fission/fusion and quality control systems which work in concert to orchestrate a precisely distributed and healthy mitochondrial network. Mitochondria are critical for maintaining local energy supply and buffering Ca(2+) flux within neurons, and are increasingly recognised as being essential for healthy neuronal function. Mitochondrial movements are facilitated by their coupling to microtubule-based transport via kinesin and dynein motors. Adaptor proteins are required for this coupling and the mitochondrial Rho GTPases Miro1 and Miro2 are core components of this machinery. Both Miros have Ca(2+)-sensing and GTPase domains, and are therefore ideally suited to coordinating mitochondrial dynamics with intracellular signalling pathways and local energy turnover. In this review, we focus on Miro's role in mediating mitochondrial transport in neurons, and the relevance of these mechanisms to neuronal health and disease. PMID:26707701

  2. Acquired Mitochondrial Abnormalities, Including Epigenetic Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase 2, in Pulmonary Hypertension and Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    There is no cure for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Therapies lack efficacy and/or are toxic, reflecting a failure to target disease abnormalities that are distinct from processes vital to normal cells. NSCLC and PAH share reversible mitochondrial-metabolic abnormalities which may offer selective therapeutic targets. The following mutually reinforcing, mitochondrial abnormalities favor proliferation, impair apoptosis, and are relatively restricted to PAH and cancer cells: (1) Epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) by methylation of CpG islands creates a pseudohypoxic redox environment that causes normoxic activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α). (2) HIF-1α increases expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), which impairs oxidative metabolism and promotes a glycolytic metabolic state. (3) Mitochondrial fragmentation, partially due to mitofusin-2 downregulation, promotes proliferation. This review focuses on the recent discovery that decreased expression of SOD2, a putative tumor-suppressor gene and the major source of H2O2, results from hypermethylation of CpG islands. In cancer and PAH hypermethylation of a site in the enhancer region of intron 2 inhibits SOD2 transcription. In normal PASMC, SOD2 siRNA decreases H2O2 and activates HIF-1α. In PAH, reduced SOD2 expression decreases H2O2, reduces the cytosol and thereby activates HIF-1α. This causes a glycolytic shift in metabolism and increases the proliferation/apoptosis ratio by downregulating Kv1.5 channels, increasing cytosolic calcium, and inhibiting caspases. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which restores SOD2 expression, corrects the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance in PAH and cancer cells. The specificity of PAH for lung vessels may relate to the selective upregulation of DNA methyltransferases that mediate CpG methylation in PASMC (DNA MT-1A and -3B). SOD2 augmentation inactivates HIF-1α in PAH

  3. Cause and Consequence: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Initiates and Propagates Neuronal Dysfunction, Neuronal Death and Behavioral Abnormalities in Age Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Starkov, Anatoly; Blass, John P.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and accumulation of abnormal proteins. Within the cell, the mitochondria appears to be a dominant site for initiation and propagation of disease processes. Shifts in metabolism in response to mild metabolic perturbations may decrease the threshold for irreversible injury in response to ordinarily sub lethal metabolic insults. Mild impairment of metabolism accrue from and lead to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS change cell signaling via post transcriptional and transcriptional changes. The cause and consequences of mild impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is one focus of this review. Many experiments in tissues from humans support the notion that oxidative modification of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) compromises neuronal energy metabolism and enhance ROS production in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). These data suggest that cognitive decline in AD derives from the selective tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle abnormalities. By contrast in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a movement disorder with cognitive features distinct form AD, complex II + III abnormalities may dominate. These distinct mitochondrial abnormalities culminate in oxidative stress, energy dysfunction, and aberrant homeostasis of cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium, elevations even only transiently, leads to hyperactivity of a number of enzymes. One calcium activated enzyme with demonstrated pathophysiological import in HD and AD is transglutaminase (TGase). TGase is a cross linking enzymes that can modulate transcrption, inactivate metabolic enzymes, and cause aggregation of critical proteins. Recent data indicate that TGase can silence expression of genes involved in compensating for metabolic stress. Altogether, our results suggest that increasing KGDHC via inhibition of TGase or via a host of other strategies to be described would be effective therapeutic

  4. New Insights into the Role of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Autophagy during Oxidative Stress and Aging in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The heart is highly sensitive to the aging process. In the elderly, the heart tends to become hypertrophic and fibrotic. Stiffness increases with ensuing systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Aging also affects the cardiac response to stress. At the molecular level, the aging process is associated with accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles, partially due to defects in protein quality control systems. The accumulation of dysfunctional and abnormal mitochondria is an important pathophysiological feature of the aging process, which is associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial fusion and fission and mitochondrial autophagy are crucial mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial function and preserving energy production. In particular, mitochondrial fission allows for selective segregation of damaged mitochondria, which are afterward eliminated by autophagy. Unfortunately, recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy are progressively impaired over time, contributing to the aging process. This suggests that restoration of these mechanisms could delay organ senescence and prevent age-associated cardiac diseases. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the close relationship between mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, oxidative stress, and aging, with a particular focus on the heart. PMID:25132912

  5. Dynamics of morphological changes for mitochondrial fission and fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqi; Fu, Changliang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Quan; Long, Mian

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondria experience continuous fusion and fission in a living cell, but their dynamics remains poorly quantified. Here a theoretical model was developed, upon a simplified population balance equation (PBE), to predict the morphological changes induced by mitochondrial fission and fusion. Assuming that both fission and fusion events are statistically independent, the survival probability of mitochondria staying in the fission or fusion state was formulated as an exponentially-decayed function with time, which depended on the time-dependent distribution of the mitochondrial volume and the fission and fusion rates. Parametric analysis was done for two typical volume distributions. One was Gamma distribution and the other was Gaussian distribution, derived from the measurements of volume distribution for individual mitochondria in a living cell and purified mitochondria in vitro. The predictions indicated that the survival probability strongly depended on morphological changes of individual mitochondria and was inversely correlated to the fission and fusion rates. This work provided a new insight into quantifying the mitochondrial dynamics via monitoring the evolution of the mitochondrial volume.

  6. Regulation of Mitoflash Biogenesis and Signaling by Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Sun, Tao; Liu, Beibei; Wu, Di; Qi, Wenfeng; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing constant network reorganization and exhibiting stochastic signaling events in the form of mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes). Here we investigate whether and how mitochondrial network dynamics regulate mitoflash biogenesis and signaling. We found that mitoflash frequency was largely invariant when network fragmentized or redistributed in the absence of mitofusin (Mfn) 1, Mfn2, or Kif5b. However, Opa1 deficiency decreased spontaneous mitoflash frequency due to superimposing changes in respiratory function, whereas mitoflash response to non-metabolic stimulation was unchanged despite network fragmentation. In Drp1- or Mff-deficient cells whose mitochondria hyperfused into a single whole-cell reticulum, the frequency of mitoflashes of regular amplitude and duration was again unaltered, although brief and low-amplitude "miniflashes" emerged because of improved detection ability. As the network reorganized, however, the signal mass of mitoflash signaling was dynamically regulated in accordance with the degree of network connectivity. These findings demonstrate a novel functional role of mitochondrial network dynamics and uncover a magnitude- rather than frequency-modulatory mechanism in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. In addition, our data support a stochastic trigger model for the ignition of mitoflashes. PMID:27623243

  7. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility. PMID:26700320

  8. PMPCA mutations cause abnormal mitochondrial protein processing in patients with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Rebekah K; Assoum, Mirna; Gakh, Oleksandr; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian A; Mignot, Cyril; Roze, Emmanuel; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Lévy, Nicolas; Prasad, Chitra; Paton, Tara; Paterson, Andrew D; Roslin, Nicole M; Marshall, Christian R; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Roëckel-Trevisiol, Nathalie; Scherer, Stephen W; Rouleau, Guy A; Mégarbané, André; Isaya, Grazia; Delague, Valérie; Yoon, Grace

    2015-06-01

    Non-progressive cerebellar ataxias are a rare group of disorders that comprise approximately 10% of static infantile encephalopathies. We report the identification of mutations in PMPCA in 17 patients from four families affected with cerebellar ataxia, including the large Lebanese family previously described with autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and short stature of Norman type and localized to chromosome 9q34 (OMIM #213200). All patients present with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, and the majority have intellectual disability of variable severity. PMPCA encodes α-MPP, the alpha subunit of mitochondrial processing peptidase, the primary enzyme responsible for the maturation of the vast majority of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, which is necessary for life at the cellular level. Analysis of lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts from patients homozygous for the PMPCA p.Ala377Thr mutation and carriers demonstrate that the mutation impacts both the level of the alpha subunit encoded by PMPCA and the function of mitochondrial processing peptidase. In particular, this mutation impacts the maturation process of frataxin, the protein which is depleted in Friedreich ataxia. This study represents the first time that defects in PMPCA and mitochondrial processing peptidase have been described in association with a disease phenotype in humans. PMID:25808372

  9. PMPCA mutations cause abnormal mitochondrial protein processing in patients with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, Rebekah K.; Assoum, Mirna; Gakh, Oleksandr; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian A.; Mignot, Cyril; Roze, Emmanuel; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Lévy, Nicolas; Prasad, Chitra; Paton, Tara; Paterson, Andrew D.; Roslin, Nicole M.; Marshall, Christian R.; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Roëckel-Trevisiol, Nathalie; Scherer, Stephen W.; Rouleau, Guy A.; Mégarbané, André; Isaya, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Non-progressive cerebellar ataxias are a rare group of disorders that comprise approximately 10% of static infantile encephalopathies. We report the identification of mutations in PMPCA in 17 patients from four families affected with cerebellar ataxia, including the large Lebanese family previously described with autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia and short stature of Norman type and localized to chromosome 9q34 (OMIM #213200). All patients present with non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, and the majority have intellectual disability of variable severity. PMPCA encodes α-MPP, the alpha subunit of mitochondrial processing peptidase, the primary enzyme responsible for the maturation of the vast majority of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, which is necessary for life at the cellular level. Analysis of lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts from patients homozygous for the PMPCA p.Ala377Thr mutation and carriers demonstrate that the mutation impacts both the level of the alpha subunit encoded by PMPCA and the function of mitochondrial processing peptidase. In particular, this mutation impacts the maturation process of frataxin, the protein which is depleted in Friedreich ataxia. This study represents the first time that defects in PMPCA and mitochondrial processing peptidase have been described in association with a disease phenotype in humans. PMID:25808372

  10. Tools for assessing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse tissues and neurodegenerative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh H.

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo membrane fusion and fission and transport. The dynamic properties of mitochondria are important for regulating mitochondrial function. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are linked neurodegenerative diseases and affect the development of many tissues. To investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in diseases, versatile tools are needed to explore the physiology of these dynamic organelles in multiple tissues. Current tools for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics have been limited to studies in cell culture, which may be inadequate model systems for exploring the network of tissues. Here, we have generated mouse models for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. The Photo-Activatable Mitochondrial (PhAM floxed) line enables Cre-inducible expression of a mitochondrial targeted photoconvertible protein, Dendra2 (mito-Dendra2). In the PhAMexcised line, mito-Dendra2 is ubiquitously expressed to facilitate broad analysis of mitochondria at various developmental processes. We have utilized these models to study mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the development of skeletal muscles. Increasing evidences implicate aberrant regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission in models of PD. To assess the function of mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit, we utilized transgenic techniques to abrogate mitochondrial fusion. We show that deletion of the Mfn2 leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's-like features in mice. To elucidate the dynamic properties of mitochondria during muscle development, we established a platform for examining mitochondrial compartmentalization in skeletal muscles. This model system may yield clues to the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial myopathies.

  11. A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants.

    PubMed Central

    Johns, C; Lu, M; Lyznik, A; Mackenzie, S

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in common bean is associated with the presence of a 3-kb unique mitochondrial sequence designated pvs. The pvs sequence encodes at least two open reading frames (297 and 720 bp in length) with portions derived from the chloroplast genome. Fertility restoration by the nuclear restorer gene Fr results in the loss of this transcriptionally active unique region. We examined the effect of CMS (pvs present) and fertility restoration by Fr (pvs absent) on the pattern of pollen development in bean. In the CMS line, pollen aborted in the tetrad stage late in microgametogenesis. Microspores maintained cytoplasmic connections throughout pollen development, indicating aberrant or incomplete cytokinesis. Pollen-specific events associated with pollen abortion and fertility restoration imply that a gametophytic factor or event may be involved in CMS. In situ hybridization experiments suggested that significant reduction or complete loss of the mitochondrial sterility-associated sequence occurred in fertile pollen of F2 populations segregating for fertility. These observations support a model of fertility restoration by the loss of a mitochondrial DNA sequence prior to or during microsporogenesis/gametogenesis. PMID:1498602

  12. Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate through Metabolic Programming.

    PubMed

    Buck, Michael D; O'Sullivan, David; Klein Geltink, Ramon I; Curtis, Jonathan D; Chang, Chih-Hao; Sanin, David E; Qiu, Jing; Kretz, Oliver; Braas, Daniel; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Chen, Qiongyu; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; O'Neill, Christina M; Edelson, Brian T; Pearce, Edward J; Sesaki, Hiromi; Huber, Tobias B; Rambold, Angelika S; Pearce, Erika L

    2016-06-30

    Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned whether mitochondrial dynamics controls T cell metabolism. We show that TE cells have punctate mitochondria, while TM cells maintain fused networks. The fusion protein Opa1 is required for TM, but not TE cells after infection, and enforcing fusion in TE cells imposes TM cell characteristics and enhances antitumor function. Our data suggest that, by altering cristae morphology, fusion in TM cells configures electron transport chain (ETC) complex associations favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and FAO, while fission in TE cells leads to cristae expansion, reducing ETC efficiency and promoting aerobic glycolysis. Thus, mitochondrial remodeling is a signaling mechanism that instructs T cell metabolic programming. PMID:27293185

  13. Complex patterns of mitochondrial dynamics in human pancreatic cells revealed by fluorescent confocal imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Hermann, Martin; Troppmair, Jakob; Margreiter, Raimund; Hengster, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial morphology and intracellular organization are tightly controlled by the processes of mitochondrial fission-fusion. Moreover, mitochondrial movement and redistribution provide a local ATP supply at cellular sites of particular demands. Here we analysed mitochondrial dynamics in isolated primary human pancreatic cells. Using real time confocal microscopy and mitochondria-specific fluorescent probes tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and MitoTracker Green we documented complex and novel patterns of spatial and temporal organization of mitochondria, mitochondrial morphology and motility. The most commonly observed types of mitochondrial dynamics were (i) fast fission and fusion; (ii) small oscillating movements of the mitochondrial network; (iii) larger movements, including filament extension, retraction, fast (0.1-0.3 mum/sec.) and frequent oscillating (back and forth) branching in the mitochondrial network; (iv) as well as combinations of these actions and (v) long-distance intracellular translocation of single spherical mitochondria or separated mitochondrial filaments with velocity up to 0.5 mum/sec. Moreover, we show here for the first time, a formation of unusual mitochondrial shapes like rings, loops, and astonishingly even knots created from one or more mitochondrial filaments. These data demonstrate the presence of extensive heterogeneity in mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in living cells under primary culture conditions. In summary, this study reports new patterns of morphological changes and dynamic motion of mitochondria in human pancreatic cells, suggesting an important role of integrations of mitochondria with other intracellular structures and systems. PMID:19382913

  14. Activation of a Mitochondrial ATPase Gene Induces Abnormal Seed Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kon; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    The ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) proteins are widespread in living organisms. Some of the AAA-type ATPases possess metalloprotease activities. Other members constitute the 26S proteasome complexes. In recent years, a few AAA members have been implicated in vesicle-mediated secretion, membrane fusion, cellular organelle biogenesis, and hypersensitive responses (HR) in plants. However, the physiological roles and biochemical activities of plant AAA proteins have not yet been defined at the molecular level, and regulatory mechanisms underlying their functions are largely unknown. In this study, we showed that overexpression of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a mitochondrial AAA protein, ATPase-in-Seed-Development (ASD), induces morphological and anatomical defects in seed maturation. The ASD gene is expressed at a high level during the seed maturation process and in mature seeds but is repressed rapidly in germinating seeds. Transgenic plants overexpressing the ASD gene are morphologically normal. However, seed formation is severely disrupted in the transgenic plants. The ASD gene is induced by abiotic stresses, such as low temperatures and high salinity, in an abscisic acid (ABA)- dependent manner. The ASD protein possesses ATPase activity and is localized into the mitochondria. Our observations suggest that ASD may play a role in seed maturation by influencing mitochondrial function under abiotic stress. PMID:21359673

  15. Effects of abnormal excitation on the dynamics of spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Yi, Deng; Xue-Liang, Zhang; Jing-Yu, Dai

    2016-01-01

    The effect of physiological and pathological abnormal excitation of a myocyte on the spiral waves is investigated based on the cellular automaton model. When the excitability of the medium is high enough, the physiological abnormal excitation causes the spiral wave to meander irregularly and slowly. When the excitability of the medium is low enough, the physiological abnormal excitation leads to a new stable spiral wave. On the other hand, the pathological abnormal excitation destroys the spiral wave and results in the spatiotemporal chaos, which agrees with the clinical conclusion that the early after depolarization is the pro-arrhythmic mechanism of some anti-arrhythmic drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11365003 and 11165004).

  16. Dynamic Localization of Trypanosoma brucei Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase ID

    PubMed Central

    Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Luo, Juemin

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomes contain a unique form of mitochondrial DNA called kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) that is a catenated network composed of minicircles and maxicircles. Several proteins are essential for network replication, and most of these localize to the antipodal sites or the kinetoflagellar zone. Essential components for kDNA synthesis include three mitochondrial DNA polymerases TbPOLIB, TbPOLIC, and TbPOLID). In contrast to other kDNA replication proteins, TbPOLID was previously reported to localize throughout the mitochondrial matrix. This spatial distribution suggests that TbPOLID requires redistribution to engage in kDNA replication. Here, we characterize the subcellular distribution of TbPOLID with respect to the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle using immunofluorescence microscopy. Our analyses demonstrate that in addition to the previously reported matrix localization, TbPOLID was detected as discrete foci near the kDNA. TbPOLID foci colocalized with replicating minicircles at antipodal sites in a specific subset of the cells during stages II and III of kDNA replication. Additionally, the TbPOLID foci were stable following the inhibition of protein synthesis, detergent extraction, and DNase treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TbPOLID has a dynamic localization that allows it to be spatially and temporally available to perform its role in kDNA replication. PMID:22286095

  17. Human wild-type full-length tau accumulation disrupts mitochondrial dynamics and the functions via increasing mitofusins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia-Chun; Hu, Yu; Wang, Zhi-hao; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Feng, Qiong; Wang, Qun; Ye, Keqiang; Liu, Gong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of tau protein is hallmark of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, the cellular mechanism whereby tau accumulation causes neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Here we report that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed htau) disrupted mitochondrial dynamics by enhancing fusion and induced their perinuclear accumulation in HEK293 cells and rat primary hippocampal neurons. The htau accumulation at later stage inhibited mitochondrial functions shown by the decreased ATP level, the ratio of ATP/ADP and complex I activity. Simultaneously, the cell viability was decreased with retraction of the cellular/neuronal processes. Further studies demonstrated that htau accumulation increased fusion proteins, including OPA1 and mitofusins (Mfn1, Mfn2) and reduced the ubiquitination of Mfn2. Downregulation of the mitofusins by shRNA to ~45% or ~52% of the control levels attenuated the htau-enhanced mitochondrial fusion and restored the functions, while downregulation of OPA1 to ~50% of the control level did not show rescue effects. Finally, abnormal mitochondrial accumulation and dysfunction were also observed in the brains of htau transgenic mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that htau accumulation decreases cell viability and causes degeneration via enhancing mitofusin-associated mitochondrial fusion, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tauopathies. PMID:27099072

  18. Altered mitochondrial dynamics and response to insulin in cybrid cells harboring a diabetes-susceptible mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Weng, Shao-Wen; Chang, Alice Y W; Huang, Hung-Tu; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Liou, Chia-Wei; Tai, Ming-Hong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Wang, Pei-Wen

    2016-07-01

    The advantage of using a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) model to study the genetic effects of mitochondria is that the cells have the same nuclear genomic background. We previously demonstrated the independent role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR) and pro-inflammation in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we compared mitochondrial dynamics and related physiological functions between cybrid cells harboring diabetes-susceptible (B4) and diabetes-protective (D4) mitochondrial haplogroups, especially the responses before and after insulin stimulation. Cybrid B4 showed a more fragmented mitochondrial network, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, increased apoptosis and ineffective mitophagy and a low expression of fusion-related molecules. Upon insulin stimulation, increases in network formation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and ATP production were observed only in cybrid D4. Insulin promoted a pro-fusion dynamic status in both cybrids, but the trend was greater in cybrid D4. In cybrid B4, the imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics and impaired biogenesis and bioenergetics, and increased apoptosis were significantly improved in response to antioxidant treatment. We concluded that diabetes-susceptible mtDNA variants are themselves resistant to insulin. PMID:27107769

  19. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  20. Aerobic Interval Training Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Post-Myocardial Infarction: Roles of Mitochondrial Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Ke; Wang, You-Hua; Sun, Lei; He, Xi; Zhao, Mei; Feng, Zhi-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) can favorably affect cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of AIT on post-myocardial infarction (MI)—associated mitochondrial dysfunctions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AIT on myocardial mitochondria in post-MI rats by focusing on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission). Mitochondrial respiratory functions (as measured by the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the ratio of ADP to oxygen consumption (P/O)); complex activities; dynamic proteins (mitofusin (mfn) 1/2, type 1 optic atrophy (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein1 (DRP1)); nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α); and the oxidative signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P53 were observed. Post-MI rats exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and adverse mitochondrial network dynamics (reduced fusion and increased fission), which was associated with activated ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and decreased nuclear PGC-1α. After AIT, MI-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was improved (elevated RCR and P/O and enhanced complex I, III and IV activities); in addition, increased fusion (mfn2 and OPA1), decreased fission (DRP1), elevated nuclear PGC-1α and inactivation of the ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling were observed. These data demonstrate that AIT may restore the post-MI mitochondrial function by inhibiting dynamics pathological remodeling, which may be associated with inactivation of ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and increase in nuclear PGC-1α expression. PMID:24675698

  1. A spontaneous mutation in the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene of C57BL/6J mice results in mitochondrial redox abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Juliana A; Figueira, Tiago R; Ravagnani, Felipe G; Oliveira, Helena C F; Vercesi, Anibal E; Castilho, Roger F

    2013-10-01

    NADPH is the reducing agent for mitochondrial H2O2 detoxification systems. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT), an integral protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, contributes to an elevated mitochondrial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of NADP(+) at the expense of NADH oxidation and H(+) reentry to the mitochondrial matrix. A spontaneous Nnt mutation in C57BL/6J (B6J-Nnt(MUT)) mice arose nearly 3 decades ago but was only discovered in 2005. Here, we characterize the consequences of the Nnt mutation on the mitochondrial redox functions of B6J-Nnt(MUT) mice. Liver mitochondria were isolated both from an Nnt wild-type C57BL/6 substrain (B6JUnib-Nnt(W)) and from B6J-Nnt(MUT) mice. The functional evaluation of respiring mitochondria revealed major redox alterations in B6J-Nnt(MUT) mice, including an absence of transhydrogenation between NAD and NADP, higher rates of H2O2 release, the spontaneous oxidation of NADPH, the poor ability to metabolize organic peroxide, and a higher susceptibility to undergo Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, the mitochondria of B6J-Nnt(MUT) mice exhibited increased oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios as compared to B6JUnib-Nnt(W) mice. Nonetheless, the maximal activity of NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is a coexisting source of mitochondrial NADPH, was similar between both groups. Altogether, our data suggest that NNT functions as a high-capacity source of mitochondrial NADPH and that its functional loss due to the Nnt mutation results in mitochondrial redox abnormalities, most notably a poor ability to sustain NADP and glutathione in their reduced states. In light of these alterations, the potential drawbacks of using B6J-Nnt(MUT) mice in biomedical research should not be overlooked. PMID:23747984

  2. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

  3. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts. PMID:26758245

  4. Mitochondrial dynamics and inheritance during cell division, development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prashant; Chan, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Preface During cell division, it is critical to properly partition functional sets of organelles to each daughter cell. The partitioning of mitochondria shares some common features with other organelles, particularly in their interactions with cytoskeletal elements to facilitate delivery to the daughter cells. However, mitochondria have unique features – including their own genome and a maternal mode of germline transmission – that place additional demands on this process. We discuss the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial segregation during cell division, oogenesis, fertilization and tissue development. The mechanisms that ensure the integrity of these organelles and their DNA include fusion-fission dynamics, organelle transport, mitophagy, and genetic selection of functional genomes. Defects in these processes can lead to cell and tissue pathologies. PMID:25237825

  5. Mitochondrial dynamics and their intracellular traffic in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamochi, T; Hashimoto, S; Amo, A; Goto, H; Yamanaka, M; Inoue, M; Nakaoka, Y; Morimoto, Y

    2016-08-01

    Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes. PMID:26364763

  6. ABT737 enhances cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhongqi; Yu, Huimei; Cui, Ni; Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Chang, Yulei; Wu, Yao; Sun, Liankun; Wang, Guangyi

    2015-07-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma responses weakly to cisplatin. Mitochondrial dynamics participate in the response to various stresses, and mainly involve mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in orchestrating mitochondrial dynamics, and are involved in the resistance to cisplatin. Here we reported that ABT737, combined with cisplatin, can promote cholangiocarcinoma cells to undergo apoptosis. We found that the combined treatment decreased the Mcl-1 pro-survival form and increased Bak. Cells undergoing cisplatin treatment showed hyperfused mitochondria, whereas fragmentation was dominant in the mitochondria of cells exposed to the combined treatment, with higher Fis1 levels, decreased Mfn2 and OPA1 levels, increased ratio of Drp1 60 kD to 80 kD form, and more Drp1 located on mitochondria. More p62 aggregates were observed in cells with fragmented mitochondria, and they gradually translocated to mitochondria. Mitophagy was induced by the combined treatment. Knockdown p62 decreased the Drp1 ratio, increased Tom20, and increased cell viability. Our data indicated that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in the response of cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin. ABT737 might enhance cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the balance within Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, p62 seems to be critical in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • Cholangiocarcinoma may adapt to cisplatin through mitochondrial fusion. • ABT737 sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin by promoting fission and mitophagy. • p62 might participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy.

  7. Live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in CNS dopaminergic neurons in vivo demonstrates early reversal of mitochondrial transport following MPP(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Dukes, April A; Bai, Qing; Van Laar, Victor S; Zhou, Yangzhong; Ilin, Vladimir; David, Christopher N; Agim, Zeynep S; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Cannon, Jason R; Watkins, Simon C; Croix, Claudette M St; Burton, Edward A; Berman, Sarah B

    2016-11-01

    Extensive convergent evidence collectively suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, changes in the dynamic properties of mitochondria have been increasingly implicated as a key proximate mechanism underlying neurodegeneration. However, studies have been limited by the lack of a model in which mitochondria can be imaged directly and dynamically in dopaminergic neurons of the intact vertebrate CNS. We generated transgenic zebrafish in which mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons are labeled with a fluorescent reporter, and optimized methods allowing direct intravital imaging of CNS dopaminergic axons and measurement of mitochondrial transport in vivo. The proportion of mitochondria undergoing axonal transport in dopaminergic neurons decreased overall during development between 2days post-fertilization (dpf) and 5dpf, at which point the major period of growth and synaptogenesis of the relevant axonal projections is complete. Exposure to 0.5-1.0mM MPP(+) between 4 and 5dpf did not compromise zebrafish viability or cause detectable changes in the number or morphology of dopaminergic neurons, motor function or monoaminergic neurochemistry. However, 0.5mM MPP(+) caused a 300% increase in retrograde mitochondrial transport and a 30% decrease in anterograde transport. In contrast, exposure to higher concentrations of MPP(+) caused an overall reduction in mitochondrial transport. This is the first time mitochondrial transport has been observed directly in CNS dopaminergic neurons of a living vertebrate and quantified in a PD model in vivo. Our findings are compatible with a model in which damage at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals causes an early compensatory increase in retrograde transport of compromised mitochondria for degradation in the cell body. These data are important because manipulation of early pathogenic mechanisms might be a valid therapeutic approach to PD. The novel transgenic lines and

  8. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells.

  9. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells. PMID:26864567

  10. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells. PMID:26864567

  11. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  12. Real-time tracking mitochondrial dynamic remodeling with two-photon phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Diao, JiaJie; Liu, Jiankang; Ji, Liangnian; Long, Jiangang; Chao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion control the shape, size, number, and function of mitochondria in the cells of organisms from yeast to mammals. The disruption of mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved in severe human diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Agents that can real-time track the mitochondrial dynamics are of great importance. However, the short excitation wavelengths and rapidly photo-bleaching properties of commercial mitochondrial dyes render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics. Thus, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior photo-stability under continual light irradiation, deep tissue penetration and at intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds employ low-energy near-infrared light and have emerged as a non-invasive tool for real-time cell imaging. Here, cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir5) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for the real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion. The results indicate that Ir2 is well suited for two-photon phosphorescent tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion in living cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This study provides a practical use for mitochondrial targeting two-photon phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes. PMID:26796044

  13. Cardiac mitochondrial proteome dynamics with heavy water reveals stable rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis in heart failure despite decline in mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Li, Ling; Dabkowski, Erinne R; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio Faustino; Hecker, Peter A; Recchia, Fabio A; Sadygov, Rovshan G; Willard, Belinda; Kasumov, Takhar; Stanley, William C

    2014-10-01

    We recently developed a method to measure mitochondrial proteome dynamics with heavy water ((2)H2O)-based metabolic labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry. We reported the half-lives and synthesis rates of several proteins in the two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar (SSM and IFM), in Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial protein synthesis rate is reduced in heart failure, with possible differential changes in SSM versus IFM. Six to seven week old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and developed moderate heart failure after 22weeks. Heart failure and sham rats of the same age received heavy water (5% in drinking water) for up to 80days. Cardiac SSM and IFM were isolated from both groups and the proteins were separated by 1D gel electrophoresis. Heart failure reduced protein content and increased the turnover rate of several proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and ATP synthesis, while it decreased the turnover of other proteins, including pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit in IFM, but not in SSM. Because of these bidirectional changes, the average overall half-life of proteins was not altered by heart failure in both SSM and IFM. The kinetic measurements of individual mitochondrial proteins presented in this study may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial alterations in the failing heart. PMID:24995939

  14. Noninvasive evaluation of corneal abnormalities using static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-06-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  15. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Corneal Abnormalities Using Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  16. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  17. Mitochondrial Structure, Function and Dynamics Are Temporally Controlled by c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Graves, J. Anthony; Wang, Yudong; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Cherok, Edward; Rothermund, Kristi; Branca, Maria F.; Elster, Jennifer; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Van Houten, Bennett; Vockley, Jerry; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Although the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein controls mitochondrial biogenesis and multiple enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the coordination of these events and the mechanistic underpinnings of their regulation remain largely unexplored. We show here that re-expression of Myc in myc−/− fibroblasts is accompanied by a gradual accumulation of mitochondrial biomass and by increases in membrane polarization and mitochondrial fusion. A correction of OXPHOS deficiency is also seen, although structural abnormalities in electron transport chain complexes (ETC) are not entirely normalized. Conversely, the down-regulation of Myc leads to a gradual decrease in mitochondrial mass and a more rapid loss of fusion and membrane potential. Increases in the levels of proteins specifically involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion support the idea that Myc affects mitochondrial mass by influencing both of these processes, albeit favoring the latter. The ETC defects that persist following Myc restoration may represent metabolic adaptations, as mitochondrial function is re-directed away from producing ATP to providing a source of metabolic precursors demanded by the transformed cell. PMID:22629444

  18. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Eguchi, Takahiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Hasegawa, Nanami; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tanoue, Akito; Tamura, Hiroomi; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-07-03

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationships between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related diseases may

  19. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. PMID:26276815

  20. Carboxylic Acid Fullerene (C60) Derivatives Attenuated Neuroinflammatory Responses by Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shefang; Zhou, Tong; Cheng, Keman; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Yange; Jiang, Yuanqin; Yang, Peiyan

    2015-05-01

    Fullerene (C60) derivatives, a unique class of compounds with potent antioxidant properties, have been reported to exert a wide variety of biological activities including neuroprotective properties. Mitochondrial dynamics are an important constituent of cellular quality control and function, and an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell dysfunctions. This study aimed to assess the effects of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives (C60-COOH) on mitochondrial dynamics and elucidate its associated mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cell model. Using a cell-based functional screening system labeled with DsRed2-mito in BV-2 cells, we showed that LPS stimulation led to excessive mitochondrial fission, increased mitochondrial localization of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), both of which were markedly suppressed by C60-COOH pretreatment. LPS-induced mitochondria reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ Ψm) were also significantly inhibited by C60-COOH. Moreover, we also found that C60-COOH pretreatment resulted in the attenuation of LPS-mediated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that carboxylic acid C60 derivatives may exert neuroprotective effects through regulating mitochondrial dynamics and functions in microglial cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of the neuroprotective properties of carboxylic acid C60 derivatives.

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. PMID:26807480

  2. Bidirectional Ca2+-dependent control of mitochondrial dynamics by the Miro GTPase

    PubMed Central

    Saotome, Masao; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Szabadkai, György; Das, Sudipto; Fransson, Åsa; Aspenstrom, Pontus; Rizzuto, Rosario; Hajnóczky, György

    2008-01-01

    Calcium oscillations suppress mitochondrial movements along the microtubules to support on-demand distribution of mitochondria. To activate this mechanism, Ca2+ targets a yet unidentified cytoplasmic factor that does not seem to be a microtubular motor or a kinase/phosphatase. Here, we have studied the dependence of mitochondrial dynamics on the Miro GTPases that reside in the mitochondria and contain two EF-hand Ca2+-binding domains, in H9c2 cells and primary neurons. At resting cytoplasmic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c), movements of the mitochondria were enhanced by Miro overexpression irrespective of the presence of the EF-hands. The Ca2+-induced arrest of mitochondrial motility was also promoted by Miro overexpression and was suppressed when either the Miro were depleted or their EF-hand was mutated. Miro also enhanced the fusion state of the mitochondria at resting [Ca2+]c but promoted mitochondrial fragmentation at high [Ca2+]c. These effects of Miro on mitochondrial morphology seem to involve Drp1 suppression and activation, respectively. In primary neurons, Miro also caused an increase in dendritic mitochondrial mass and enhanced mitochondrial calcium signaling. Thus, Miro proteins serve as a [Ca2+]c-sensitive switch and bifunctional regulator for both the motility and fusion-fission dynamics of the mitochondria. PMID:19098100

  3. Nestin regulates proliferation and invasion of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells by altering mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Cai, J; Huang, Y; Ke, Q; Wu, B; Wang, S; Han, X; Wang, T; Wang, Y; Li, W; Lao, C; Song, W; Xiang, A P

    2016-06-16

    Nestin is widely expressed in numerous tumors and has become a diagnostic and prognostic indicator. However, the exact mechanism by which nestin contributes to tumor malignancy remains poorly understood. Here, we found marked upregulation of nestin expression in highly proliferative and invasive gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) specimens. Nestin knockdown in GIST cells reduced the proliferative and invasive activity owing to a decrease of mitochondrial intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, nestin was co-localized with mitochondria, and knockdown of nestin increased mitochondrial elongation and influenced the mitochondrial function, including oxygen consumption rates, ATP generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and so on. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we demonstrated nestin knockdown inhibited the mitochondrial recruitment of Dynamin-related protein1 and induced the change of mitochondrial dynamics. Thus, nestin may have an important role in GIST malignancy by regulating mitochondrial dynamics and altering intracellular ROS levels. The findings provide new clues to reveal mechanisms by which nestin mediates the proliferation and invasion of GISTs. PMID:26434586

  4. Dysfunction of mitochondrial dynamics in the brains of scrapie-infected mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Shin, Hae-Young; Oh, Jae-Min; Park, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Il; Carp, Richard I.; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2014-05-30

    Highlights: • Mfn1 and Fis1 are significantly increased in the hippocampal region of the ME7 prion-infected brain, whereas Dlp1 is significantly decreased in the infected brain. • Dlp1 is significantly decreased in the cytosolic fraction of the hippocampus in the infected brain. • Neuronal mitochondria in the prion-infected brains are enlarged and swollen compared to those of control brains. • There are significantly fewer mitochondria in the ME7-infected brain compared to the number in control brain. - Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common and prominent feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases; it is induced by oxidative stress in scrapie-infected animal models. In previous studies, we found swelling and dysfunction of mitochondria in the brains of scrapie-infected mice compared to brains of controls, but the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction remain unclear. To examine whether the dysregulation of mitochondrial proteins is related to the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with prion disease, we investigated the expression patterns of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in the brains of ME7 prion-infected mice. Immunoblot analysis revealed that Mfn1 was up-regulated in both whole brain and specific brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, of ME7-infected mice compared to controls. Additionally, expression levels of Fis1 and Mfn2 were elevated in the hippocampus and the striatum, respectively, of the ME7-infected brain. In contrast, Dlp1 expression was significantly reduced in the hippocampus in the ME7-infected brain, particularly in the cytosolic fraction. Finally, we observed abnormal mitochondrial enlargement and histopathological change in the hippocampus of the ME7-infected brain. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction, which is presumably caused by the dysregulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins, may contribute to the

  5. A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, D A; Frye, R E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures (‘four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third, the time trends in the four major areas were compared with trends in neuroimaging, neuropathology, theory of mind and genetics (‘four comparison areas'). The number of publications per 5-year block in all eight areas was calculated in order to identify significant changes in trends. Prior to 1986, only 12 publications were identified in the four major areas and 51 in the four comparison areas (42 for genetics). For each 5-year period, the total number of publications in the eight combined areas increased progressively. Most publications (552 of 895, 62%) in the four major areas were published in the last 5 years (2006–2010). Evaluation

  6. Cardiolipin-Mediated Mitochondrial Dynamics and Stress Response in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ronghui; Jones, A. Daniel; Hu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential and dynamic organelles in eukaryotes. Cardiolipin (CL) is a key phospholipid in mitochondrial membranes, playing important roles in maintaining the functional integrity and dynamics of mitochondria in animals and yeasts. However, CL’s role in plants is just beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana to examine the subcellular distribution of CL and CARDIOLIPIN SYNTHASE (CLS) and analyzed loss-of-function cls mutants for defects in mitochondrial morphogenesis and stress response. We show that CL localizes to mitochondria and is enriched at specific domains, and CLS targets to the inner membrane of mitochondria with its C terminus in the intermembrane space. Furthermore, cls mutants exhibit significantly impaired growth as well as altered structural integrity and morphogenesis of mitochondria. In contrast to animals and yeasts, in which CL’s effect on mitochondrial fusion is more profound, Arabidopsis CL plays a dominant role in mitochondrial fission and exerts this function, at least in part, through stabilizing the protein complex of the major mitochondrial fission factor, DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN3. CL also plays a role in plant responses to heat and extended darkness, stresses that induce programmed cell death. Our study has uncovered conserved and plant-specific aspects of CL biology in mitochondrial dynamics and the organism response to environmental stresses. PMID:24443516

  7. Mitochondrial Dynamics Decrease Prior to Axon Degeneration Induced by Vincristine and are Partially Rescued by Overexpressed cytNmnat1

    PubMed Central

    Berbusse, Gregory W.; Woods, Laken C.; Vohra, Bhupinder P. S.; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Axon degeneration is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, and is often characterized by aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility have been shown to be particularly important in progressive neurodegeneration. Thus we investigated these imperative dynamics, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation in vincristine induced axon degradation in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. CytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration in various paradigms including vincristine toxicity. The mechanism of its protection is not yet fully understood; therefore, we also investigated the effect of cytNmnat1 on mitochondrial dynamics in vincristine treated neurons. We observed that vincristine treatment decreases the rate of mitochondrial fission, fusion and motility and induces mitochondrial fragmentation. These mitochondrial events precede visible axon degeneration. Overexpression of cytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration and preserves the normal mitochondrial dynamics and motility in vincristine treated neurons. We suggest the alterations in mitochondrial structure and dynamics are early events which lead to axon degeneration and cytNmnat1 blocks axon degeneration by halting the vincristine induced changes to mitochondrial structure and dynamics. PMID:27486387

  8. Mitochondrial Dynamics Decrease Prior to Axon Degeneration Induced by Vincristine and are Partially Rescued by Overexpressed cytNmnat1.

    PubMed

    Berbusse, Gregory W; Woods, Laken C; Vohra, Bhupinder P S; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Axon degeneration is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and is often characterized by aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility have been shown to be particularly important in progressive neurodegeneration. Thus we investigated these imperative dynamics, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation in vincristine induced axon degradation in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. CytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration in various paradigms including vincristine toxicity. The mechanism of its protection is not yet fully understood; therefore, we also investigated the effect of cytNmnat1 on mitochondrial dynamics in vincristine treated neurons. We observed that vincristine treatment decreases the rate of mitochondrial fission, fusion and motility and induces mitochondrial fragmentation. These mitochondrial events precede visible axon degeneration. Overexpression of cytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration and preserves the normal mitochondrial dynamics and motility in vincristine treated neurons. We suggest the alterations in mitochondrial structure and dynamics are early events which lead to axon degeneration and cytNmnat1 blocks axon degeneration by halting the vincristine induced changes to mitochondrial structure and dynamics. PMID:27486387

  9. Inversion of the western Pacific subtropical high dynamic model and analysis of dynamic characteristics for its abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Zhang, R.; Li, J. X.; Ge, J. J.; Liu, K. F.

    2013-02-01

    Based on time series data of 500 hPa potential field from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Forecast of American/National Center for Atmospheric Research), a novel consideration of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) time-space separation and dynamic system reconstruction for time series is introduced. This method consists of two parts: first, the dynamical model inversion and model parameter optimization are carried out on the EOF time coefficient series using the genetic algorithm (GA), and, second, a nonlinear dynamic model representing the subtropical high (SH) activity and its abnormality is established. The SH activity and its abnormal mechanism is studied using the developed dynamical model. Results show that the configuration and diversification of the SH equilibriums have good correspondence with the actual short-medium term abnormal activity of the SH. Change of SH potential field brought by the combination of equilibriums is more complex than that by mutation, and their exhibition patterns are different. The mutation behavior from high-value to low-value equilibriums of the SH in summer corresponds with the southward drop of the SH in the observed weather process. The combination behavior of the two steady equilibriums corresponds with disappearance of the "double-ridge" phenomenon of the SH. Dynamical mechanisms of these phenomena are explained.

  10. Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cell Commitment to Differentiation Is Regulated by Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Forni, Maria Fernanda; Peloggia, Julia; Trudeau, Kyle; Shirihai, Orian; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2016-03-01

    Mouse skin mesenchymal stem cells (msMSCs) are dermis CD105(+) CD90(+) CD73(+) CD29(+) CD34(-) mesodermal precursors which, after in vitro induction, undergo chondro, adipo, and osteogenesis. Extensive metabolic reconfiguration has been found to occur during differentiation, and the bioenergetic status of a cell is known to be dependent on the quality and abundance of the mitochondrial population, which may be regulated by fusion and fission. However, little is known regarding the impact of mitochondrial dynamics on the differentiation process. We addressed this knowledge gap by isolating MSCs from Swiss female mice, inducing these cells to differentiate into osteo, chondro, and adipocytes and measuring changes in mass, morphology, dynamics, and bioenergetics. Mitochondrial biogenesis was increased in adipogenesis, as evaluated through confocal microscopy, citrate synthase activity, and mtDNA content. The early steps of adipo and osteogenesis involved mitochondrial elongation, as well as increased expression of mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1 and 2. Chondrogenesis involved a fragmented mitochondrial phenotype, increased expression of fission proteins Drp1, Fis1, and 2, and enhanced mitophagy. These events were accompanied by profound bioenergetic alterations during the commitment period. Moreover, knockdown of Mfn2 in adipo and osteogenesis and the overexpression of a dominant negative form of Drp1 during chondrogenesis resulted in a loss of differentiation ability. Overall, we find that mitochondrial morphology and its regulating processes of fission/fusion are modulated early on during commitment, leading to alterations in the bioenergetic profile that are important for differentiation. We thus propose a central role for mitochondrial dynamics in the maintenance/commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:26638184

  11. Mitochondrial translocation of EGFR regulates mitochondria dynamics and promotes metastasis in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Che, Ting-Fang; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Han, Chia-Li; Chang, Yih-leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mitochondria is well-known for being associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondria proteomics of lung cancer cell lines with different invasion abilities and found that EGFR is highly expressed in the mitochondria of highly invasive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGF induces the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR; further, it leads to mitochondrial fission and redistribution in the lamellipodia, upregulates cellular ATP production, and enhances motility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR can regulate mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with Mfn1 and disturbing Mfn1 polymerization. Overexpression of Mfn1 reverses the phenotypes resulting from EGFR mitochondrial translocation. We show that the mitochondrial EGFR expressions are higher in paired samples of the metastatic lymph node as compared with primary lung tumor and are inversely correlated with the overall survival in NSCLC patients. Therefore, our results demonstrate that besides the canonical role of EGFR as a receptor tyrosine, the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR may enhance cancer invasion and metastasis through regulating mitochondria dynamics. PMID:26497368

  12. Abnormal intrinsic dynamics of dendritic spines in a fragile X syndrome mouse model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Akira; Takehara, Hiroaki; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Noguchi, Jun; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Shirai, Fukutoshi; Yagishita, Sho; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori; Kasai, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spine generation and elimination play an important role in learning and memory, the dynamics of which have been examined within the neocortex in vivo. Spine turnover has also been detected in the absence of specific learning tasks, and is frequently exaggerated in animal models of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to examine whether the baseline rate of spine turnover was activity-dependent. This was achieved using a microfluidic brain interface and open-dura surgery, with the goal of abolishing neuronal Ca2+ signaling in the visual cortex of wild-type mice and rodent models of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1 knockout [KO]). In wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice, the majority of baseline turnover was found to be activity-independent. Accordingly, the application of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors selectively restored the abnormal spine dynamics observed in Fmr1 KO mice, without affecting the intrinsic dynamics of spine turnover in wild-type mice. Such findings indicate that the baseline turnover of dendritic spines is mediated by activity-independent intrinsic dynamics. Furthermore, these results suggest that the targeting of abnormal intrinsic dynamics might pose a novel therapy for ASD. PMID:27221801

  13. Abnormal intrinsic dynamics of dendritic spines in a fragile X syndrome mouse model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Akira; Takehara, Hiroaki; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Noguchi, Jun; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Shirai, Fukutoshi; Yagishita, Sho; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori; Kasai, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spine generation and elimination play an important role in learning and memory, the dynamics of which have been examined within the neocortex in vivo. Spine turnover has also been detected in the absence of specific learning tasks, and is frequently exaggerated in animal models of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to examine whether the baseline rate of spine turnover was activity-dependent. This was achieved using a microfluidic brain interface and open-dura surgery, with the goal of abolishing neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in the visual cortex of wild-type mice and rodent models of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1 knockout [KO]). In wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice, the majority of baseline turnover was found to be activity-independent. Accordingly, the application of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors selectively restored the abnormal spine dynamics observed in Fmr1 KO mice, without affecting the intrinsic dynamics of spine turnover in wild-type mice. Such findings indicate that the baseline turnover of dendritic spines is mediated by activity-independent intrinsic dynamics. Furthermore, these results suggest that the targeting of abnormal intrinsic dynamics might pose a novel therapy for ASD. PMID:27221801

  14. The Differential DRP1 Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Regional Specific Astroglial Death Induced by Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ah-Reum; Hyun, Hye-Won; Min, Su-Ji; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    The response and susceptibility to astroglial degenerations are relevant to the distinctive properties of astrocytes in a hemodynamic-independent manner following status epilepticus (SE). Since impaired mitochondrial fission plays an important role in mitosis, apoptosis and programmed necrosis, we investigated whether the unique pattern of mitochondrial dynamics is involved in the characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. In the present study, SE induced astroglial apoptosis in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial length. In contrast, clasmatodendritic (autophagic) astrocytes in the CA1 region showed mitochondrial elongation induced by SE. Mdivi-1 (an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission) effectively attenuated astroglial apoptosis, but WY14643 (an enhancer of mitochondrial fission) aggravated it. In addition, Mdivi-1 accelerated clasmatodendritic changes in astrocytes. These regional specific mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytes were closely correlated with dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) phosphorylation, not optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; a mitochondrial fusion protein) expression. To the best of our knowledge, the present data demonstrate for the first time the novel role of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission in astroglial loss. Thus, the present findings suggest that the differential astroglial mitochondrial dynamics may participate in the distinct characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. PMID:27242436

  15. Metabolic abnormalities induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of the renal carcinoma Eker (TSC2+/-) rat model.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yumi; Shirai, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Hino, Okio; Tsujii, Yoshimasa; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kazami, Machiko; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) is a mediator of insulin signal transduction, and a loss of function in TSC2 induces hyperactivation of mTORC1 pathway, which leads to tumorigenesis. We have previously demonstrated that Eker rat model, which is heterozygous for a TSC2 mutation, exhibits hyperglycemia and hyperketonemia. The present study was to investigate whether these changes also can affect metabolism in skeletal muscle of the Eker rat. Wild-type (TSC2+/+) and Eker (TSC2+/-) rats underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and the latter showed decrease in whole-body glucose utilization. Additionally, reductions in the expression of glycolysis-, lipolysis-, and ketone body-related genes in skeletal muscle were observed in Eker rats. Furthermore, ATP content and mitochondrial DNA copy number were lower in skeletal muscle of Eker rats. These data demonstrate that heterozygous to mutation TSC2 not only affects the liver metabolism, but also skeletal muscle metabolism, via mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27031579

  16. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E.; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R.; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3 mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20-min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca2+-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  17. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  18. Alterations of mitochondrial dynamics allow retrograde propagation of locally initiated axonal insults.

    PubMed

    Lassus, Benjamin; Magifico, Sebastien; Pignon, Sandra; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Peyrin, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In chronic neurodegenerative syndromes, neurons progressively die through a generalized retraction pattern triggering retrograde axonal degeneration toward the cell bodies, which molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent observations suggest that direct activation of pro-apoptotic signaling in axons triggers local degenerative events associated with early alteration of axonal mitochondrial dynamics. This raises the question of the role of mitochondrial dynamics on both axonal vulnerability stress and their implication in the spreading of damages toward unchallenged parts of the neuron. Here, using microfluidic chambers, we assessed the consequences of interfering with OPA1 and DRP1 proteins on axonal degeneration induced by local application of rotenone. We found that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevented axonal damage induced by rotenone, in low glucose conditions. While alteration of mitochondrial dynamics per se did not lead to spontaneous axonal degeneration, it dramatically enhanced axonal vulnerability to rotenone, which had no effect in normal glucose conditions, and promoted retrograde spreading of axonal degeneration toward the cell body. Altogether, our results suggest a mitochondrial priming effect in axons as a key process of axonal degeneration. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, mitochondria fragmentation could hasten neuronal death and initiate spatial dispersion of locally induced degenerative events. PMID:27604820

  19. Mitochondrial Dynamics Impacts Stem Cell Identity and Fate Decisions by Regulating a Nuclear Transcriptional Program.

    PubMed

    Khacho, Mireille; Clark, Alysen; Svoboda, Devon S; Azzi, Joelle; MacLaurin, Jason G; Meghaizel, Cynthia; Sesaki, Hiromi; Lagace, Diane C; Germain, Marc; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Park, David S; Slack, Ruth S

    2016-08-01

    Regulated mechanisms of stem cell maintenance are key to preventing stem cell depletion and aging. While mitochondrial morphology plays a fundamental role in tissue development and homeostasis, its role in stem cells remains unknown. Here, we uncover that mitochondrial dynamics regulates stem cell identity, self-renewal, and fate decisions by orchestrating a transcriptional program. Manipulation of mitochondrial structure, through OPA1 or MFN1/2 deletion, impaired neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal, with consequent age-dependent depletion, neurogenesis defects, and cognitive impairments. Gene expression profiling revealed ectopic expression of the Notch self-renewal inhibitor Botch and premature induction of transcription factors that promote differentiation. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics regulate stem cell fate decisions by driving a physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated process, which triggers a dual program to suppress self-renewal and promote differentiation via NRF2-mediated retrograde signaling. These findings reveal mitochondrial dynamics as an upstream regulator of essential mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and fate decisions through transcriptional programming. PMID:27237737

  20. Alterations of mitochondrial dynamics allow retrograde propagation of locally initiated axonal insults

    PubMed Central

    Lassus, Benjamin; Magifico, Sebastien; Pignon, Sandra; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Peyrin, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In chronic neurodegenerative syndromes, neurons progressively die through a generalized retraction pattern triggering retrograde axonal degeneration toward the cell bodies, which molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent observations suggest that direct activation of pro-apoptotic signaling in axons triggers local degenerative events associated with early alteration of axonal mitochondrial dynamics. This raises the question of the role of mitochondrial dynamics on both axonal vulnerability stress and their implication in the spreading of damages toward unchallenged parts of the neuron. Here, using microfluidic chambers, we assessed the consequences of interfering with OPA1 and DRP1 proteins on axonal degeneration induced by local application of rotenone. We found that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevented axonal damage induced by rotenone, in low glucose conditions. While alteration of mitochondrial dynamics per se did not lead to spontaneous axonal degeneration, it dramatically enhanced axonal vulnerability to rotenone, which had no effect in normal glucose conditions, and promoted retrograde spreading of axonal degeneration toward the cell body. Altogether, our results suggest a mitochondrial priming effect in axons as a key process of axonal degeneration. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, mitochondria fragmentation could hasten neuronal death and initiate spatial dispersion of locally induced degenerative events. PMID:27604820

  1. Mitome: dynamic and interactive database for comparative mitochondrial genomics in metazoan animals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeongsu; Kim, Young Uk; Kim, Namchul; Yang, Sungjin; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2008-01-01

    Mitome is a specialized mitochondrial genome database designed for easy comparative analysis of various features of metazoan mitochondrial genomes such as base frequency, A+T skew, codon usage and gene arrangement pattern. A particular function of the database is the automatic reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans selected by a user from a taxonomic tree menu based on nucleotide sequences, amino acid sequences or gene arrangement patterns. Mitome also enables us (i) to easily find the taxonomic positions of organisms of which complete mitochondrial genome sequences are publicly available; (ii) to acquire various metazoan mitochondrial genome characteristics through a graphical genome browser; (iii) to search for homology patterns in mitochondrial gene arrangements; (iv) to download nucleotide or amino acid sequences not only of an entire mitochondrial genome but also of each component; and (v) to find interesting references easily through links with PubMed. In order to provide users with a dynamic, responsive, interactive and faster web database, Mitome is constructed using two recently highlighted techniques, Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) and Web Services. Mitome has the potential to become very useful in the fields of molecular phylogenetics and evolution and comparative organelle genomics. The database is available at: http://www.mitome.info. PMID:17940090

  2. Roles of Mitochondrial Dynamics under Stressful and Normal Conditions in Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knorre, Dmitry A.; Popadin, Konstantin Y.; Sokolov, Svyatoslav S.; Severin, Fedor F.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain dynamic mitochondrial filaments: they fuse and divide. Here we summarize data on the protein machinery driving mitochondrial dynamics in yeast and also discuss the factors that affect the fusion-fission balance. Fission is a general stress response of cells, and in the case of yeast this response appears to be prosurvival. At the same time, even under normal conditions yeast mitochondria undergo continuous cycles of fusion and fission. This seems to be a futile cycle and also expensive from the energy point of view. Why does it exist? Benefits might be the same as in the case of sexual reproduction. Indeed, mixing and separating of mitochondrial content allows mitochondrial DNA to segregate and recombine randomly, leading to high variation in the numbers of mutations per individual mitochondrion. This opens a possibility for effective purifying selection-elimination of mitochondria highly contaminated by deleterious mutations. The beneficial action presumes a mechanism for removal of defective mitochondria. We argue that selective mitochondrial autophagy or asymmetrical distribution of mitochondria during cell division could be at the core of such mechanism. PMID:23956814

  3. Manganese induces mitochondrial dynamics impairment and apoptotic cell death: a study in human Gli36 cells.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Miglietta, Esteban A; Villarreal, Alejandro; Ramos, Alberto J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2013-10-25

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element due to its participation in many physiological processes. However, overexposure to this metal leads to a neurological disorder known as Manganism whose clinical manifestations and molecular mechanisms resemble Parkinson's disease. Several lines of evidence implicate astrocytes as an early target of Mn neurotoxicity being the mitochondria the most affected organelles. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mitochondrial dynamics alterations in Mn-exposed human astrocytes. Therefore, we employed Gli36 cells which express the astrocytic markers GFAP and S100B. We demonstrated that Mn triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway revealed by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and by caspase-9 activation. This apoptotic program may be in turn responsible of caspase-3/7 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation. In addition, we determined that Mn induces deregulation in mitochondria-shaping proteins (Opa-1, Mfn-2 and Drp-1) expression levels in parallel with the disruption of the mitochondrial network toward to an exacerbated fragmentation. Since mitochondrial dynamics is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases, these proteins could become future targets to be considered in Manganism treatment. PMID:24021799

  4. Mitochondrial pleomorphy in plant cells is driven by contiguous ER dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Barton, Kiah A.; Mathur, Neeta; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are pleomorphic, double membrane-bound organelles involved in cellular energetics in all eukaryotes. Mitochondria in animal and yeast cells are typically tubular-reticulate structures and several micro-meters long but in green plants they are predominantly observed as 0.2–1.5 μm punctae. While fission and fusion, through the coordinated activity of several conserved proteins, shapes mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently been identified as an additional player in this process in yeast and mammalian cells. The mitochondria-ER relationship in plant cells remains largely uncharacterized. Here, through live-imaging of the entire range of mitochondria pleomorphy we uncover the underlying basis for the predominantly punctate mitochondrial form in plants. We demonstrate that mitochondrial morphology changes in response to light and cytosolic sugar levels in an ER mediated manner. Whereas, large ER polygons and low dynamics under dark conditions favor mitochondrial fusion and elongation, small ER polygons result in increased fission and predominantly small mitochondria. Hypoxia also reduces ER dynamics and increases mitochondrial fusion to produce giant mitochondria. By observing elongated mitochondria in normal plants and fission-impaired Arabidopsis nmt1-2 and drp3a mutants we also establish that thin extensions called matrixules and a beads-on-a-string mitochondrial phenotype are direct consequences of mitochondria-ER interactions. PMID:26442089

  5. Comparative mitochondrial genomics of snakes: extraordinary substitution rate dynamics and functionality of the duplicate control region

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi J; Castoe, Todd A; Austin, Christopher C; Burbrink, Frank T; Herron, Matthew D; McGuire, Jimmy A; Parkinson, Christopher L; Pollock, David D

    2007-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genomes of snakes are characterized by an overall evolutionary rate that appears to be one of the most accelerated among vertebrates. They also possess other unusual features, including short tRNAs and other genes, and a duplicated control region that has been stably maintained since it originated more than 70 million years ago. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of evolutionary dynamics in snake mitochondrial genomes to better understand the basis of these extreme characteristics, and to explore the relationship between mitochondrial genome molecular evolution, genome architecture, and molecular function. We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from Slowinski's corn snake (Pantherophis slowinskii) and two cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) to complement previously existing mitochondrial genomes, and to provide an improved comparative view of how genome architecture affects molecular evolution at contrasting levels of divergence. Results We present a Bayesian genetic approach that suggests that the duplicated control region can function as an additional origin of heavy strand replication. The two control regions also appear to have different intra-specific versus inter-specific evolutionary dynamics that may be associated with complex modes of concerted evolution. We find that different genomic regions have experienced substantial accelerated evolution along early branches in snakes, with different genes having experienced dramatic accelerations along specific branches. Some of these accelerations appear to coincide with, or subsequent to, the shortening of various mitochondrial genes and the duplication of the control region and flanking tRNAs. Conclusion Fluctuations in the strength and pattern of selection during snake evolution have had widely varying gene-specific effects on substitution rates, and these rate accelerations may have been functionally related to unusual changes in genomic architecture. The among-lineage and

  6. The Initiation and Propagation of Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Worthington, Daniel L.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    Plastic straining can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at temperatures significantly lower than is possible by static annealing. This phenomenon is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG). Experiments that produce DAGG in commercial-purity molybdenum sheet materials are used to study the initiation and propagation of abnormal grains by plastic straining at temperatures from 1673 K to 2073 K (1400° C to 1800° C). The minimum strain necessary to initiate DAGG, termed the critical strain, decreases approximately linearly with increasing temperature. The variation in critical strain values observed at a single temperature and strain rate is well described by a normal distribution. An increased fraction of grains aligned with the < 110rangle along the tensile axis, a preferred orientation for DAGG grains, appears to decrease the critical strain for DAGG initiation. DAGG grains preferentially grow into the finest-grained polycrystalline regions, which suggests that the driving force for DAGG propagation is primarily from grain-boundary curvature. No effects of local crystallographic texture variation on growth are evident in microstructures containing DAGG grains. Together, these observations support the hypothesis that plastic straining during DAGG acts primarily to increase boundary mobility, rather than to increase the driving force for boundary migration.

  7. Sessile snails, dynamic genomes: gene rearrangements within the mitochondrial genome of a family of caenogastropod molluscs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    order within a family of caenogastropod molluscs that are indicative of a highly dynamic mitochondrial genome. Studies of mitochondrial genomes at such low taxonomic levels should help to illuminate the dynamics of gene order change, since the telltale vestiges of gene duplication, translocation, and remolding have not yet been erased entirely. Likewise, gene order characters may improve phylogenetic hypotheses at finer taxonomic levels than once anticipated and aid in investigating the conditions under which sequence-based phylogenies lack resolution or prove misleading. PMID:20642828

  8. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Wendy S.; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Burrill, Joel S.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Foncea, Rocio; Jensen, Michael D.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics. Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and the chronic low-grade production of inflammatory cytokines have been mechanistically linked to the development of insulin resistance, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the chronic effects of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β on adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism and morphology using the 3T3-L1 model cell system. TNFα treatment of cultured adipocytes led to significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, including increased proton leak, decreased ΔΨm, increased basal respiration, and decreased ATP turnover. In contrast, although IL-6 and IL-1β decreased maximal respiratory capacity, they had no effect on ΔΨm and varied effects on ATP turnover, proton leak, or basal respiration. Only TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase in oxidative stress (as measured by superoxide anion production and protein carbonylation) and C16 ceramide synthesis. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with cytokines led to decreased mRNA expression of key transcription factors and control proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1α and eNOS as well as deceased expression of COX IV and Cyt C. Whereas each cytokine led to effects on expression of mitochondrial markers, TNFα exclusively led to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased the total level of OPA1 while increasing OPA1 cleavage, without expression of levels of mitofusin 2, DRP-1, or mitofilin being affected. In summary, these results indicate that inflammatory cytokines have unique and specialized effects on adipocyte metabolism, but each leads to decreased mitochondrial function and a reprogramming of fat cell biology. PMID:24595304

  9. Mitochondrial DNA depletion and thymidine phosphate pool dynamics in a cellular model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pontarin, Giovanna; Ferraro, Paola; Valentino, Maria L; Hirano, Michio; Reichard, Peter; Bianchi, Vera

    2006-08-11

    Mitochondrial (mt) neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with depletion, deletions, and point mutations of mtDNA. Patients lack a functional thymidine phosphorylase and their plasma contains high concentrations of thymidine and deoxyuridine; elevation of the corresponding triphosphates probably impairs normal mtDNA replication and repair. To study metabolic events leading to MNGIE we used as model systems skin and lung fibroblasts cultured in the presence of thymidine and/or deoxyuridine at concentrations close to those in the plasma of the patients, a more than 100-fold excess relative to controls. The two deoxynucleosides increased the mt and cytosolic dTTP pools of skin fibroblasts almost 2-fold in cycling cells and 8-fold in quiescent cells. During up to a two-month incubation of quiescent fibroblasts with thymidine (but not with deoxyuridine), mtDNA decreased to approximately 50% without showing deletions or point mutations. When we removed thymidine, but maintained the quiescent state, mtDNA recovered rapidly. With thymidine in the medium, the dTTP pool of quiescent cells turned over rapidly at a rate depending on the concentration of thymidine, due to increased degradation and resynthesis of dTMP in a substrate (=futile) cycle between thymidine kinase and 5'-deoxyribonucleotidase. The cycle limited the expansion of the dTTP pool at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. We propose that the substrate cycle represents a regulatory mechanism to protect cells from harmful increases of dTTP. Thus MNGIE patients may increase their consumption of ATP to counteract an unlimited expansion of the dTTP pool caused by circulating thymidine. PMID:16774911

  10. Sirtuin 3–dependent mitochondrial dynamic improvements protect against acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Morigi, Marina; Perico, Luca; Rota, Cinzia; Longaretti, Lorena; Conti, Sara; Rottoli, Daniela; Novelli, Rubina; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health concern with an annual mortality rate that exceeds those of breast and prostate cancer, heart failure, and diabetes combined. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are drivers of AKI-associated pathology; however, the pathways that mediate these events are poorly defined. Here, using a murine cisplatin-induced AKI model, we determined that both oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are associated with reduced levels of renal sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR or the antioxidant agent acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) restored SIRT3 expression and activity, improved renal function, and decreased tubular injury in WT animals, but had no effect in Sirt3–/– mice. Moreover, Sirt3-deficient mice given cisplatin experienced more severe AKI than WT animals and died, and neither AICAR nor ALCAR treatment prevented death in Sirt3–/– AKI mice. In cultured human tubular cells, cisplatin reduced SIRT3, resulting in mitochondrial fragmentation, while restoration of SIRT3 with AICAR and ALCAR improved cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our results indicate that SIRT3 is protective against AKI and suggest that enhancing SIRT3 to improve mitochondrial dynamics has potential as a strategy for improving outcomes of renal injury. PMID:25607838

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics, quality control and miRNA regulation in skeletal muscle: implications for obesity and related metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Dahlmans, Dennis; Houzelle, Alexandre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris

    2016-06-01

    The western dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle largely contributes to the growing epidemic of obesity. Mitochondria are at the front line of cellular energy homoeostasis and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. In recent years, novel aspects in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, such as mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial protein quality control and post-transcriptional regulation of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins, have emerged. In this review, we discuss the recent findings concerning the dysregulation of these processes in skeletal muscle in obesogenic conditions. PMID:27129097

  12. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger Loss of Function and Perturbation of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Wilson, Christina L.; Hayward, Stephen L.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are one of the most highly manufactured and employed nanomaterials in the world with applications in copious industrial and consumer products. The liver is a major accumulation site for many nanoparticles, including TiO2, directly through intentional exposure or indirectly through unintentional ingestion via water, food or animals and increased environmental contamination. Growing concerns over the current usage of TiO2 coupled with the lack of mechanistic understanding of its potential health risk is the motivation for this study. Here we determined the toxic effect of three different TiO2 nanoparticles (commercially available rutile, anatase and P25) on primary rat hepatocytes. Specifically, we evaluated events related to hepatocyte functions and mitochondrial dynamics: (1) urea and albumin synthesis using colorimetric and ELISA assays, respectively; (2) redox signaling mechanisms by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); (3) OPA1 and Mfn-1 expression that mediates the mitochondrial dynamics by PCR; and (4) mitochondrial morphology by MitoTracker Green FM staining. All three TiO2 nanoparticles induced a significant loss (p < 0.05) in hepatocyte functions even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm with commercially used P25 causing maximum damage. TiO2 nanoparticles induced a strong oxidative stress in primary hepatocytes. TiO2 nanoparticles exposure also resulted in morphological changes in mitochondria and substantial loss in the fusion process, thus impairing the mitochondrial dynamics. Although this study demonstrated that TiO2 nanoparticles exposure resulted in substantial damage to primary hepatocytes, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to determine the complete toxicological mechanism in primary hepatocytes and subsequently liver function. PMID:26247363

  13. Mitochondrial Morphology and Fundamental Parameters of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Are Altered in Caenorhabditis elegans Strains Deficient in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Homeostasis Processes

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Anthony L.; Rooney, John P.; Kubik, Laura L.; Gonzalez, Claudia P.; Song, Dong Hoon; Meyer, Joel N.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors), carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler) and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1)-, fusion (fzo-1)-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1)-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1)-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes. PMID:26106885

  14. To unite or divide: mitochondrial dynamics in the murine outer retina that preceded age related photoreceptor loss

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function declines with age and is associated with age-related disorders and cell death. In the retina this is critical as photoreceptor energy demands are the greatest in the body and aged cell loss large (~30%). But mitochondria can fuse or divide to accommodate changing demands. We explore ageing mitochondrial dynamics in young (1 month) and old (12 months) mouse retina, investigating changes in mitochondrial fission (Fis1) and fusion (Opa1) proteins, cytochrome C oxidase (COX III), which reflects mitochondrial metabolic status, and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) that is a mitochondrial chaperon for protein folding. Western blots showed each protein declined with age. However, within this, immunostaining revealed increases of around 50% in Fis1 and Opa1 in photoreceptor inner segments (IS). Electron microscope analysis revealed mitochondrial fragmentation with age and marked changes in morphology in IS, consistent with elevated dynamics. COX III declined by approximately 30% in IS, but Hsp60 reductions were around 80% in the outer plexiform layer. Our results are consistent with declining mitochondrial metabolism. But also with increased photoreceptor mitochondrial dynamics that differ from other retinal regions, perhaps reflecting attempts to maintain function. These changes are the platform for age related photoreceptor loss initiated after 12 months. PMID:26393878

  15. Energy Flux, Lactate Shuttling, Mitochondrial Dynamics, and Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of what happens in working muscle and at the whole-body level at sea level and at high altitude is different from that a few years ago. If dietary CHO and nutrition are adequate, at sea level metabolism shifts from a mix of lipid and CHO-derived fuels toward carbohydrate (glycogen, glucose, and lactate) oxidation at moderate and greater exercise intensities. As given by the Crossover Concept, a percentage to total energy expenditure, lipid oxidation is greatest at exercise power outputs eliciting 45-50 % of VO2max with greater intensities requiring relatively more CHO and lesser lipid oxidation. At altitude, a given exercise power output is achieved at a greater relative intensity expressed as % VO2max. Hence, exercise under conditions of hypoxia requires greater glycolytic flux, and lactate production than does the same effort at sea level, normoxic conditions. Glycolytic flux is further augmented at altitude by the effect of hypoxemia on sympathetic nervous system activity. Hence, augmented lactate production during exercise is adaptive. Over the short term, accelerated lactate flux provides ATP supporting muscle contraction and balances cytosolic redox. As well, lactate provides and energy substrate and gluconeogenic precursor. Over a longer term, via redox and ROS-generating mechanisms, lactate may affect adaptations in mitochondrial biogenesis and solute (glucose and lactate) transport. While important, the energy substrate, gluconeogenic, and signaling qualities of lactate production and disposal at altitude need to be considered within the context of overall dietary energy intake and expenditure during exercise at sea level and high altitude. PMID:27343113

  16. Mitochondrial Division and Fusion in Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Madhuparna; Reddy, P. Hemachandra; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria govern many metabolic processes. In addition, mitochondria sense the status of metabolism and change their functions to regulate energy production, cell death, and thermogenesis. Recent studies have revealed that mitochondrial structural remodeling through division and fusion is critical to the organelle’s function. It has also become clear that abnormalities in mitochondrial division and fusion are linked to the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics and their role in cellular and organismal metabolism. PMID:25703628

  17. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Lombes, A; Bonilla, E; Dimauro, S

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly numerous studies are being devoted to mitochondrial diseases, notably those which involve the neuromuscular system. Our knowledge and understanding of these diseases is progressing rapidly. We owe to Luft et al. (1962) the first description of this type of diseases. Their patient, a woman, presented with clinical symptoms suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction, major histological abnormalities of skeletal muscle mitochondria and defective oxidative phosphorylation coupling clearly demonstrated in mitochondria isolated from muscle. This clinical, histological and biochemical triad led to the definition of mitochondrial myopathies. Subsequently, the triad was seldom encountered, and most mitochondrial myopathies were primarily defined by the presence of morphological abnormalities of muscle mitochondria. This review deals with the morphological, clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The various morphological abnormalities of mitochondria are described. These are not specific of any particular disease. They may be present in some non-mitochondrial diseases and may be lacking in diseases due to specific defects of mitochondrial enzymes (e.g. carnitine palmityl-transferase or pyruvate dehydrogenase). The clinical classification of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies is discussed. There are two main schools of thought: the "lumpers" do not recognize specific syndromes within the spectrum of mitochondrial "cytopathies", the "splitters" try to identify specific syndromes while recognizing the existence of borderline cases. The following syndromes are described: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), MERRF syndrome (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers), MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes) and Leigh and Alpers syndromes. The biochemical classification comprises five types of abnormalities: defects of transport

  18. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in Parkinson's disease: A fly point of view.

    PubMed

    Von Stockum, Sophia; Nardin, Alice; Schrepfer, Emilie; Ziviani, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane-bounded organelles residing in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, which convert energy from the disposal of organic substrates into an electrochemical gradient that is in turn converted into ATP. However, the ion gradient that is generated through the oxidation of nutrients, may lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can generate free radicals, damaging cells and contributing to disease. Originally described as static structures, to date they are considered extremely plastic and dynamic organelles. In this respect, mitochondrial dynamics is crucial to prevent potential damage that is generated by ROS. For instance, mitochondria elongate to dilute oxidized proteins into the mitochondrial network, and they fragment to allow selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. Accordingly, mitochondrial dynamics perturbation may compromise the selective elimination of damaged proteins and dysfunctional organelles and lead to the development of different diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. In recent years the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to evaluate the consequences of mitochondria quality control dysfunction in vivo, particularly with respect to PINK1/Parkin dependent dysregulation of mitophagy in the onset of Parkinson's Disease (PD). The current challenge is to be able to use fly based genetic strategies to gain further insights into molecular mechanisms underlying disease in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of mitochondria in physiological and pathophysiological functions in the central nervous system. PMID:26550693

  19. PGC-1α controls mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in lead-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dabrowska, Aleksandra; Venero, Jose Luis; Iwasawa, Ryota; Hankir, Mohammed-khair; Rahman, Sunniyat; Boobis, Alan; Hajji, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Due to its role in regulation of mitochondrial function, PGC1α is emerging as an important player in ageing and neurodegenerative disorders. PGC1α exerts its neuroprotective effects by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) and functioning. However, the precise regulatory role of PGC1α in the control of mitochondrial dynamics (MD) and neurotoxicity is still unknown. Here we elucidate the role of PGC1α in vitro and in vivo in the regulatory context of MB and MD in response to lead (II) acetate as a relevant model of neurotoxicity. We show that there is an adaptive response (AR) to lead, orchestrated by the BAP31-calcium signalling system operating between the ER and mitochondria. We find that this hormetic response is controlled by a cell-tolerated increase of PGC1α expression, which in turn induces a balanced expression of fusion/fission genes by binding to their promoters and implying its direct role in regulation of MD. However, dysregulation of PGC1α expression through either stable downregulation or overexpression, renders cells more susceptible to lead insult leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. Our data provide novel evidence that PGC1α expression is a key regulator of MD and the maintenance of tolerated PGC1α expression may offer a promising strategy for neuroprotective therapies. PMID:26363853

  20. Leptin Modulates Mitochondrial Function, Dynamics and Biogenesis in MCF-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Blanquer-Rosselló, M Mar; Santandreu, Francisca M; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar; Valle, Adamo

    2015-09-01

    The adipokine leptin, known for its key role in the control of energy metabolism, has been shown to be involved in both normal and tumoral mammary growth. One of the hallmarks of cancer is an alteration of tumor metabolism since cancerous cells must rewire metabolism to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. Considering the sensibility of breast cancer cells to leptin, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of this adipokine on their metabolism. To this aim, we treated the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with 50 ng/mL leptin and analyzed several features related to cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. As a result, leptin increased cell proliferation, shifted ATP production from glycolysis to mitochondria and decreased the levels of the glycolytic end-product lactate. We observed an improvement in ADP-dependent oxygen consumption and an amelioration of oxidative stress without changes in total mitochondrial mass or specific oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blot showed an up-regulation for genes and proteins related to biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics. This expression signature, together with an increased mitophagy observed by confocal microscopy suggests that leptin may improve mitochondrial quality and function. Taken together, our results propose that leptin may improve bioenergetic efficiency by avoiding the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and conferring benefits for growth and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PMID:25752935

  1. Mitochondrial structure and dynamics as critical factors in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) caste development.

    PubMed

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Alberici, Luciane Carla; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between nutrition and phenotype is an especially challenging question in cases of facultative polyphenism, like the castes of social insects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, unexpected modifications in conserved signaling pathways revealed the hypoxia response as a possible mechanism underlying the regulation of body size and organ growth. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate possible causes of why the three hypoxia core genes are overexpressed in worker larvae. Parting from the hypothesis that this has an endogenous cause and is not due to differences in external oxygen levels we investigated mitochondrial numbers and distribution, as well as mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in fat body cells of queen and worker larvae during the caste fate-critical larval stages. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy we found higher densities of mitochondria in queen larval fat body, a finding further confirmed by a citrate synthase assay quantifying mitochondrial functional units. Oxygen consumption measurements by high-resolution respirometry revealed that queen larvae have higher maximum capacities of ATP production at lower physiological demand. Finally, the expression analysis of mitogenesis-related factors showed that the honey bee TFB1 and TFB2 homologs, and a nutritional regulator, ERR, are overexpressed in queen larvae. These results are strong evidence that the differential nutrition of queen and worker larvae by nurse bees affects mitochondrial dynamics and functionality in the fat body of these larvae, hence explaining their differential hypoxia response. PMID:27058771

  2. Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

    PubMed

    Marques-Aleixo, I; Santos-Alves, E; Balça, M M; Rizo-Roca, D; Moreira, P I; Oliveira, P J; Magalhães, J; Ascensão, A

    2015-08-20

    We here investigate the effects of two exercise modalities (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free-wheel activity-FW) on the brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics, permeability transition pore (mPTP), oxidative stress, as well as on proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and quality control. Eighteen male rats were assigned to sedentary-SED, TM and FW groups. Behavioral alterations and ex vivo brain mitochondrial function endpoints were assessed. Proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, including the adenine nucleotide translocator), oxidative stress markers and regulatory proteins (SIRT3, p66shc, UCP2, carbonyls, MDA, -SH, aconitase, Mn-SOD), as well as proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, TFAM) were evaluated. Apoptotic signaling was measured through quantifying caspase 3, 8 and 9-like activities, Bax, Bcl2, CypD, and cofilin expression. Mitochondrial dynamics (Mfn1/2, OPA1 and DRP1) and auto(mito)phagy (LC3II, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, p62)-related proteins were also measured by Western blotting. Only the TM exercise group showed increased spontaneous alternation and exploratory activity. Both exercise regimens improved mitochondrial respiratory activity, increased OXPHOS complexes I, III and V subunits in both brain subareas and decreased oxidative stress markers. Increased resistance to mPTP and decreased apoptotic signaling were observed in the brain cortex from TM and in the cerebellum from TM and FW groups. Also, exercise increased the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy and fusion, simultaneous with decreased expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein DRP1. In conclusion, physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial function, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptotic related markers. It is also possible that favorable alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy signaling induced by exercise

  3. Real-time monitoring of metabolic function in liver-on-chip microdevices tracks the dynamics of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bavli, Danny; Prill, Sebastian; Ezra, Elishai; Levy, Gahl; Cohen, Merav; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanfleteren, Jan; Jaeger, Magnus; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2016-04-19

    Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technology aims to replace animal toxicity testing, but thus far has demonstrated few advantages over traditional methods. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of chemical and pharmaceutical toxicity, as well as pluripotency and disease processes. However, current methods to evaluate mitochondrial activity still rely on end-point assays, resulting in limited kinetic and prognostic information. Here, we present a liver-on-chip device capable of maintaining human tissue for over a month in vitro under physiological conditions. Mitochondrial respiration was monitored in real time using two-frequency phase modulation of tissue-embedded phosphorescent microprobes. A computer-controlled microfluidic switchboard allowed contiguous electrochemical measurements of glucose and lactate, providing real-time analysis of minute shifts from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis, an early indication of mitochondrial stress. We quantify the dynamics of cellular adaptation to mitochondrial damage and the resulting redistribution of ATP production during rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and troglitazone (Rezulin)-induced mitochondrial stress. We show troglitazone shifts metabolic fluxes at concentrations previously regarded as safe, suggesting a mechanism for its observed idiosyncratic effect. Our microfluidic platform reveals the dynamics and strategies of cellular adaptation to mitochondrial damage, a unique advantage of organ-on-chip technology. PMID:27044092

  4. Mic60/mitofilin overexpression alters mitochondrial dynamics and attenuates vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to dopamine and rotenone.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Victor S; Berman, Sarah B; Hastings, Teresa G

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology. Mic60, also known as mitofilin, is a protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a key component of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction organizing system (MICOS). Mic60 is critical for maintaining mitochondrial membrane structure and function. We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial Mic60 protein is susceptible to both covalent modification and loss in abundance following exposure to dopamine quinone. In this study, we utilized neuronally-differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic cell lines to examine the effects of altered Mic60 levels on mitochondrial function and cellular vulnerability in response to PD-relevant stressors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous Mic60 protein in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells significantly potentiated dopamine-induced cell death, which was rescued by co-expressing shRNA-insensitive Mic60. Conversely, in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, Mic60 overexpression significantly attenuated both dopamine- and rotenone-induced cell death as compared to controls. Mic60 overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells was also associated with increased mitochondrial respiration, and, following rotenone exposure, increased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 knockdown cells exhibited suppressed respiration and, following rotenone treatment, decreased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 overexpression also affected mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics. PC12 cells overexpressing Mic60 exhibited increased mitochondrial interconnectivity. Further, both PC12 cells and primary rat cortical neurons overexpressing Mic60 displayed suppressed mitochondrial fission and increased mitochondrial length in neurites. These results suggest that altering levels of Mic60 in dopaminergic neuronal cells significantly affects both mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular vulnerability to the PD-relevant stressors dopamine and rotenone, carrying implications for PD

  5. Homeostatic Responses Regulate Selfish Mitochondrial Genome Dynamics in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Gitschlag, Bryan L; Kirby, Cait S; Samuels, David C; Gangula, Rama D; Mallal, Simon A; Patel, Maulik R

    2016-07-12

    Mutant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) can be viewed as selfish genetic elements that persist in a state of heteroplasmy despite having potentially deleterious metabolic consequences. We sought to study regulation of selfish mtDNA dynamics. We establish that the large 3.1-kb deletion-bearing mtDNA variant uaDf5 is a selfish genome in Caenorhabditis elegans. Next, we show that uaDf5 mutant mtDNA replicates in addition to, not at the expense of, wild-type mtDNA. These data suggest the existence of a homeostatic copy-number control that is exploited by uaDf5 to "hitchhike" to high frequency. We also observe activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in uaDf5 animals. Loss of UPR(mt) causes a decrease in uaDf5 frequency, whereas its constitutive activation increases uaDf5 levels. UPR(mt) activation protects uaDf5 from mitophagy. Taken together, we propose that mtDNA copy-number control and UPR(mt) represent two homeostatic response mechanisms that play important roles in regulating selfish mitochondrial genome dynamics. PMID:27411011

  6. S-Nitrosylation of Drp1 links excessive mitochondrial fission to neuronal injury in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cieplak, Piotr; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Godzik, Adam; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are known to use large amounts of energy for their normal function and activity. In order to meet this demand, mitochondrial fission, fusion, and movement events (mitochondrial dynamics) control mitochondrial morphology, facilitating biogenesis and proper distribution of mitochondria within neurons. In contrast, dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics results in reduced cell bioenergetics and thus contributes to neuronal injury and death in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. We recently reported that amyloid-β peptide, thought to be a key mediator of AD pathogenesis, engenders S-nitrosylation and thus hyperactivation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. This activation leads to excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, bioenergetic compromise, and synaptic damage in models of AD. Here, we provide an extended commentary on our findings of nitric oxide-mediated abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:20447471

  7. S-nitrosylation of Drp1 links excessive mitochondrial fission to neuronal injury in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cieplak, Piotr; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Godzik, Adam; Lipton, Stuart A

    2010-08-01

    Neurons are known to use large amounts of energy for their normal function and activity. In order to meet this demand, mitochondrial fission, fusion, and movement events (mitochondrial dynamics) control mitochondrial morphology, facilitating biogenesis and proper distribution of mitochondria within neurons. In contrast, dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics results in reduced cell bioenergetics and thus contributes to neuronal injury and death in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. We recently reported that amyloid-beta peptide, thought to be a key mediator of AD pathogenesis, engenders S-nitrosylation and thus hyperactivation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. This activation leads to excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, bioenergetic compromise, and synaptic damage in models of AD. Here, we provide an extended commentary on our findings of nitric oxide-mediated abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:20447471

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of creatine kinase and adenine nucleotide translocase in mitochondrial membrane patch.

    PubMed

    Karo, Jaanus; Peterson, Pearu; Vendelin, Marko

    2012-03-01

    Interaction between mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) can play an important role in determining energy transfer pathways in the cell. Although the functional coupling between MtCK and ANT has been demonstrated, the precise mechanism of the coupling is not clear. To study the details of the coupling, we turned to molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce a new coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of a patch of the mitochondrial inner membrane containing a transmembrane ANT and an MtCK above the membrane. The membrane model consists of three major types of lipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin) in a roughly 2:1:1 molar ratio. A thermodynamics-based coarse-grained force field, termed MARTINI, has been used together with the GROMACS molecular dynamics package for all simulated systems in this work. Several physical properties of the system are reproduced by the model and are in agreement with known data. This includes membrane thickness, dimension of the proteins, and diffusion constants. We have studied the binding of MtCK to the membrane and demonstrated the effect of cardiolipin on the stabilization of the binding. In addition, our simulations predict which part of the MtCK protein sequence interacts with the membrane. Taken together, the model has been verified by dynamical and structural data and can be used as the basis for further studies. PMID:22241474

  9. Stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors reduces intracellular cholesterol accumulation and rescues mitochondrial abnormalities in human neural cell models of Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A; De Nuccio, C; Pepponi, R; Visentin, S; Martire, A; Bernardo, A; Minghetti, L; Popoli, P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann Pick C 1 (NPC1) disease is an incurable, devastating lysosomal-lipid storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, progressive neurological impairment and early death. Current treatments are very limited and the research of new therapeutic targets is thus mandatory. We recently showed that the stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) rescues the abnormal phenotype of fibroblasts from NPC1 patients suggesting that A2AR agonists could represent a therapeutic option for this disease. However, since all NPC1 patients develop severe neurological symptoms which can be ascribed to the complex pathology occurring in both neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the present paper we tested the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 in human neuronal and oligodendroglial NPC1 cell lines (i.e. neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and oligodendroglial MO3.13 transiently transfected with NPC1 small interfering RNA). The down-regulation of the NPC1 protein effectively resulted in intracellular cholesterol accumulation and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Both effects were significantly attenuated by CGS21680 (500 nM). The protective effects of CGS were prevented by the selective A2AR antagonist ZM241385 (500 nM). The involvement of calcium modulation was demonstrated by the ability of Bapta-AM (5-7 μM) in reverting the effect of CGS. The A2A-dependent activity was prevented by the PKA-inhibitor KT5720, thus showing the involvement of the cAMP/PKA signaling. These findings provide a clear in vitro proof of concept that A2AR agonists are promising potential drugs for NPC disease. PMID:26631535

  10. Alterations in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Tammineni, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the earliest and most prominent features in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Neurons are metabolically active cells, causing them to be particularly dependent on mitochondrial function for survival and maintenance. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria are characterized by a balance of fusion and fission, transport, and mitophagy, all of which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy can therefore be identified as key pathways in mitochondrial quality control. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in these key aspects of mitochondrial biology in the vulnerable neurons of AD brains and mouse models, and the potential underlying mechanisms of such changes. This review highlights recent findings on alterations in the mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in AD and discusses how these abnormalities impact mitochondrial quality control and thus contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. PMID:26903809

  11. Stress-induced OMA1 activation and autocatalytic turnover regulate OPA1-dependent mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael J; Lampe, Philipp A; Stojanovski, Diana; Korwitz, Anne; Anand, Ruchika; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic network of mitochondria fragments under stress allowing the segregation of damaged mitochondria and, in case of persistent damage, their selective removal by mitophagy. Mitochondrial fragmentation upon depolarisation of mitochondria is brought about by the degradation of central components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery. The OMA1 peptidase mediates the degradation of long isoforms of the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1 in the inner membrane. Here, we demonstrate that OMA1-mediated degradation of OPA1 is a general cellular stress response. OMA1 is constitutively active but displays strongly enhanced activity in response to various stress insults. We identify an amino terminal stress-sensor domain of OMA1, which is only present in homologues of higher eukaryotes and which modulates OMA1 proteolysis and activation. OMA1 activation is associated with its autocatalyic degradation, which initiates from both termini of OMA1 and results in complete OMA1 turnover. Autocatalytic proteolysis of OMA1 ensures the reversibility of the response and allows OPA1-mediated mitochondrial fusion to resume upon alleviation of stress. This differentiated stress response maintains the functional integrity of mitochondria and contributes to cell survival. PMID:24550258

  12. The EF-Hand Ca2+ Binding Protein MICU Choreographs Mitochondrial Ca2+ Dynamics in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carraretto, Luca; Teardo, Enrico; Cendron, Laura; Füßl, Magdalena; Doccula, Fabrizio G.; Szabò, Ildikò

    2015-01-01

    Plant organelle function must constantly adjust to environmental conditions, which requires dynamic coordination. Ca2+ signaling may play a central role in this process. Free Ca2+ dynamics are tightly regulated and differ markedly between the cytosol, plastid stroma, and mitochondrial matrix. The mechanistic basis of compartment-specific Ca2+ dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we studied the function of At-MICU, an EF-hand protein of Arabidopsis thaliana with homology to constituents of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter machinery in mammals. MICU binds Ca2+ and localizes to the mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In vivo imaging of roots expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor in the mitochondrial matrix revealed that lack of MICU increased resting concentrations of free Ca2+ in the matrix. Furthermore, Ca2+ elevations triggered by auxin and extracellular ATP occurred more rapidly and reached higher maximal concentrations in the mitochondria of micu mutants, whereas cytosolic Ca2+ signatures remained unchanged. These findings support the idea that a conserved uniporter system, with composition and regulation distinct from the mammalian machinery, mediates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in plants under in vivo conditions. They further suggest that MICU acts as a throttle that controls Ca2+ uptake by moderating influx, thereby shaping Ca2+ signatures in the matrix and preserving mitochondrial homeostasis. Our results open the door to genetic dissection of mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling in plants. PMID:26530087

  13. FUNDC1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics at the ER-mitochondrial contact site under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenxian; Lin, Chunxia; Wu, Keng; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Wen; Zhuang, Haixia; Zhang, Xingliang; Chen, Hao; Li, Shupeng; Yang, Yue; Lu, Yue; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Runzhi; Zhang, Liangqing; Sui, Senfang; Tan, Ning; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Longxuan; Feng, Du

    2016-07-01

    In hypoxic cells, dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively removed by a specialized autophagic process called mitophagy. The ER-mitochondrial contact site (MAM) is essential for fission of mitochondria prior to engulfment, and the outer mitochondrial membrane protein FUNDC1 interacts with LC3 to recruit autophagosomes, but the mechanisms integrating these processes are poorly understood. Here, we describe a new pathway mediating mitochondrial fission and subsequent mitophagy under hypoxic conditions. FUNDC1 accumulates at the MAM by associating with the ER membrane protein calnexin. As mitophagy proceeds, FUNDC1/calnexin association attenuates and the exposed cytosolic loop of FUNDC1 interacts with DRP1 instead. DRP1 is thereby recruited to the MAM, and mitochondrial fission then occurs. Knockdown of FUNDC1, DRP1, or calnexin prevents fission and mitophagy under hypoxic conditions. Thus, FUNDC1 integrates mitochondrial fission and mitophagy at the interface of the MAM by working in concert with DRP1 and calnexin under hypoxic conditions in mammalian cells. PMID:27145933

  14. Dynamic Changes of Striatal and Extrastriatal Abnormalities in Glutaric Aciduria Type I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harting, Inga; Neumaier-Probst, Eva; Seitz, Angelika; Maier, Esther M.; Assmann, Birgit; Baric, Ivo; Troncoso, Monica; Muhlhausen, Chris; Zschocke, Johannes; Boy, Nikolas P. S.; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Garbade, Sven F.; Kolker, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In glutaric aciduria type I, an autosomal recessive disease of mitochondrial lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan catabolism, striatal lesions are characteristically induced by acute encephalopathic crises during a finite period of brain development (age 3-36 months). The frequency of striatal injury is significantly less in patients diagnosed as…

  15. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  16. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy E; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  17. Dynamin-related protein 1 and mitochondrial fragmentation in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Reddy, Tejaswini P; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Mao, Peizhong

    2011-06-24

    The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The GTPase family of proteins, including fission proteins, dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), and fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) are essential to maintain mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, and to provide necessary adenosine triphosphate to neurons. Among these, Drp1 is involved in several important aspects of mitochondria, including shape, size, distribution, remodeling, and maintenance of mitochondria in mammalian cells. In addition, recent advancements in molecular, cellular, electron microscopy, and confocal imaging studies revealed that Drp1 is associated with several cellular functions, including mitochondrial and peroxisomal fragmentation, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, ubiquitination, and cell death. In the last two decades, tremendous progress has been made in researching mitochondrial dynamics, in yeast, worms, and mammalian cells; and this research has provided evidence linking Drp1 to neurodegenerative diseases. Researchers in the neurodegenerative disease field are beginning to recognize the possible involvement of Drp1 in causing mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This article summarizes research findings relating Drp1 to mitochondrial fission and fusion, in yeast, worms, and mammals. Based on findings from the Reddy laboratory and others', we propose that mutant proteins of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, PD, HD, and ALS, interact with Drp1, activate mitochondrial fission machinery, fragment mitochondria excessively, and impair mitochondrial transport and mitochondrial dynamics, ultimately causing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal damage. PMID:21145355

  18. Control of Mitochondrial Dynamics by Fas-induced Caspase-8 Activation in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyo Min

    2015-01-01

    Cells undergo apoptosis mainly via two pathways-the mitochondrial pathway and the cytosolic pathway. It has been well documented that activation of the mitochondrial pathway promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and inhibition of mitochondrial fragmentation partly represses cell death. However, the mitochondrial events following activation of the cytosolic pathway are less understood. In this study, we treated Fas-activating antibody and found mitochondrial fragmentation without cell death in hippocampal primary neurons and HT-22 cell lines. Fas antibody treatment, in fact, promoted rapid activation of caspase-8, while executioner caspase-3 activation was not observed. Furthermore, blockage of caspase-8 efficiently prevented Fas antibody-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. These results suggest that the cytosolic pathway induced by death receptor activation promotes caspase-8-dependent mitochondrial fission. PMID:26412971

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the hornwort Megaceros aenigmaticus shows a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution in early land plant mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Wang, Bin; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2009-06-01

    Land plants possess some of the most unusual mitochondrial genomes among eukaryotes. However, in early land plants these genomes resemble those of green and red algae or early eukaryotes. The question of when during land plant evolution the dramatic change in mtDNAs occurred remains unanswered. Here we report the first completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of the hornwort, Megaceros aenigmaticus, a member of the sister group of vascular plants. It is a circular molecule of 184,908 base pairs, with 32 protein genes, 3 rRNA genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 30 group II introns. The genome contains many genes arranged in the same order as in those of a liverwort, a moss, several green and red algae, and Reclinomonas americana, an early-branching eukaryote with the most ancestral form of mtDNA. In particular, the gene order between mtDNAs of the hornwort and Physcomitrella patens (moss) differs by only 8 inversions and translocations. However, the hornwort mtDNA possesses 4 derived features relative to green alga mtDNAs--increased genome size, RNA editing, intron gains, and gene losses--which were all likely acquired during the origin and early evolution of land plants. Overall, this genome and those of other 2 bryophytes show that mitochondrial genomes in early land plants, unlike their seed plant counterparts, exhibit a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution. PMID:19475442

  20. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Agostini, Deborah; Polidori, Emanuela; Potenza, Lucia; Guescini, Michele; Lucertini, Francesco; Annibalini, Giosuè; Stocchi, Laura; De Santi, Mauro; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise. PMID:25945152

  1. Abnormalities of pulmonary vascular dynamics and inflammation in early progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Furst, D.E.; Davis, J.A.; Clements, P.J.; Chopra, S.K.; Theofilopoulos, A.N.; Chia, D.

    1981-11-01

    Abnormalities of pulmonary function were studied in 10 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and 3 control subjects. All underwent 81M krypton lung scanning and total body gallium scanning. Immune complexes were measured by Raji cell radioimmunoassay and polyethylene glycol (PEG) assay. Perfusion scans were abnormal in 7 of 9 patients, and 5 of 9 showed a decrease in pulmonary perfusion after cold challenge. Increased gallium uptake was noted in the lungs of 6 of 9 patients. Krypton scans were normal in the control group. Elevated immune complexes were noted in 8 of 10 patients by the Raji assay and in 5 of 10 with the PEG assay. Efforts to separate patients with PSS into subgroups may lead to a better understanding of and advances in therapy for PSS.

  2. Troglitazone-induced hepatic mitochondrial proteome expression dynamics in heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice: Two-stage oxidative injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H. |; Chung, Maxey C.M. | Lin Qingsong; Boelsterli, Urs A. ||

    2008-08-15

    The determinants of susceptibility to troglitazone-induced idiosyncratic liver injury have not yet been determined; however, troglitazone has been shown to target mitochondria and induce mitochondria-mediated hepatocellular injury in vitro. The aim of this study was to use a systems approach to analyze the dynamics of mitochondrial changes at the proteome level and more clearly define the mechanisms and time course of troglitazone hepatotoxicity by using a previously characterized mouse model that is highly sensitized to troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Mice heterozygous in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (Sod2{sup +/-}) were injected intraperitoneally with troglitazone (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Hepatic mitochondria were isolated, purified, and subjected to two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found that among the {approx} 1500 resolved hepatic mitochondrial proteins, 70 exhibited significantly altered abundance after troglitazone treatment. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that early changes (2 weeks) included increased levels of heat shock protein family members (mortalin, HSP7C), Lon protease, and catalase, indicating induction of a mitochondrial stress response. In contrast, after 4 weeks, a number of critical proteins including ATP synthase {beta}-subunit, aconitase-2, and catalase exhibited decreased abundance, and total protein carbonyls were significantly increased, suggesting uncompensated oxidative damage. Aconitase-2 (ACO2) was decreased at both time points, making this protein a potential sensitive and early biomarker for mitochondrial oxidant stress. These results show that, in this murine model of underlying clinically silent mitochondrial stress, superimposed troglitazone induces a two-stage response: an initial adaptive response, followed by a toxic response involving oxidant injury to mitochondrial proteins.

  3. Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae).

    PubMed

    Guerra, D; Ghiselli, F; Milani, L; Breton, S; Passamonti, M

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy, which is maintained by strictly maternal inheritance and a series of bottlenecks, is thought to be an adaptive condition for metazoans. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission found in bivalve species, in which two distinct mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) lines are present, one inherited through eggs (F) and one through sperm (M). During development, the two lines segregate in a sex- and tissue-specific manner: females lose M during embryogenesis, whereas males actively segregate it in the germ line. These two pivotal events are still poorly characterized. Here we investigated mtDNA replication dynamics during embryogenesis and pre-adulthood of the venerid Ruditapes philippinarum using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that both mtDNAs do not detectably replicate during early embryogenesis, and that the M line might be lost from females around 24 h of age. A rise in mtDNA copy number was observed before the first reproductive season in both sexes, with the M mitochondrial genome replicating more than the F in males, and we associate these boosts to the early phase of gonad production. As evidence indicates that DUI relies on the same molecular machine of mitochondrial maternal inheritance that is common in most animals, our data are relevant not only to DUI but also to shed light on how differential segregations of mtDNA variants, in the same nuclear background, may be controlled during development. PMID:26626575

  4. Dynamin-related Protein 1 Inhibition Mitigates Bisphenol A-mediated Alterations in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Khare, Puneet; Ray, Ratan Singh; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2016-07-29

    The regulatory dynamics of mitochondria comprises well orchestrated distribution and mitochondrial turnover to maintain the mitochondrial circuitry and homeostasis inside the cells. Several pieces of evidence suggested impaired mitochondrial dynamics and its association with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. We found that chronic exposure of synthetic xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a component of consumer plastic products, impaired autophagy-mediated mitochondrial turnover, leading to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis in hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). It also inhibited hippocampal derived NSC proliferation and differentiation, as evident by the decreased number of BrdU- and β-III tubulin-positive cells. All these effects were reversed by the inhibition of oxidative stress using N-acetyl cysteine. BPA up-regulated the levels of Drp-1 (dynamin-related protein 1) and enhanced its mitochondrial translocation, with no effect on Fis-1, Mfn-1, Mfn-2, and Opa-1 in vitro and in the hippocampus. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy studies suggested increased mitochondrial fission and accumulation of fragmented mitochondria and decreased elongated mitochondria in the hippocampus of the rat brain. Impaired mitochondrial dynamics by BPA resulted in increased reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP decline. Pharmacological (Mdivi-1) and genetic (Drp-1siRNA) inhibition of Drp-1 reversed BPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions, fragmentation, and apoptosis. Interestingly, BPA-mediated inhibitory effects on NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiations were also mitigated by Drp-1 inhibition. On the other hand, Drp-1 inhibition blocked BPA-mediated Drp-1 translocation, leading to decreased apoptosis of NSC. Overall, our studies implicate Drp-1 as a potential therapeutic target against BPA-mediated impaired mitochondrial dynamics and

  5. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy dynamics in a kindred harboring a novel pathogenic mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA glutamate gene

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, C.T.; Hao, H.; Bonilla, E.; DiMauro, S.

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in a 32-year-old male with a myopathy (without progressive external ophthalmoplegia) and mild pyramidal involvement. This A{yields}G transition at mtDNA position 14709 alters an evolutionary conserved nucleotide in a region coding for the anticodon loop of the mitcohondrial tRNA{sup Glu}. The 14709 mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic but present at very high levels in the patient`s muscle (95%), white blood cells (81%) and hair follicles (90%). The same mutant mtDNA population was observed in white blood cells and hair follicles of all maternal relatives, but a lesser percentage (25-80%). The patient`s muscle showed many ragged-red fibers and a severe focal defect in cytochrome c oxidase activity, accompanied by the absence of cross-reacting material for mitochondrially synthesized polypeptides (ND 1 and COX II). The percentage of mutant mtDNA was not preferentially increased over two generations. Rather, the percentage of mutant mtDNA observed in siblings seemed to follow a normal distribution around the percentage observed in their mothers. Single hair PCR/RFLP analysis showed that the intercellular fluctuation in the percentage of mutant mtDNA differs among family members. Younger generations tend to have a more homogeneous distribution of mutant mtDNA in different hair follicles. The highest degree of variability between individual hair follicles was observed in the patient`s grandmother. These results suggest that the intercellular distribution of the mutant and wild-type mtDNA populations may drift towards homogeneity in subsequent generations.

  6. Abnormal dynamic changes in β-tubulin in somatic nuclear transfer cloned mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jingling; Wang, Zhendong; Shen, Xinghui; Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Qinghua; Feng, Xiuqing; Hu, Lili; Lei, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning remains low, thus limiting the applications of this technique. In this study, we used immunochemistry and confocal microscopy to detect the microtubule component, β-tubulin, in SCNT, parthenogenetic (PA), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) embryos before the first mitotic division. β-Tubulin is the component subunit of microtubule, which plays critical roles in regulating localization of cellular organelles, and the growth, maturation and fertilization of oocytes. Our results demonstrated similar changes of spindle patterns in PA and ICSI embryos. The second meiotic division resumed 1 h post-treatment, and the cytoplasmic asters (CAs) disappeared. After about 4-6 h of treatment, pronuclei formed with the midbodies connecting each other. Meanwhile, the CAs reappeared and a microtubule network developed in the cytoplasm. However, SCNT embryos showed abnormal multipolar spindles, and the pseudopronuclei that contained many nucleoli existed after 6 h of SrCl2 activation. Enucleated oocytes alone did not form spindle-like structures when they were artificially activated for 6 h, indicating that somatic cell chromosomes might be necessary for spindle formation in SCNT embryos. These results demonstrated abnormal changes of β-tubulin in mouse SCNT embryos, compared with PA and ICSI embryos. PMID:24345634

  7. BRG1 and BRM SWI/SNF ATPases redundantly maintain cardiomyocyte homeostasis by regulating cardiomyocyte mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bultman, Scott J; Holley, Darcy Wood; G de Ridder, Gustaaf; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Murray, Katherine T; Jensen, Brian C; Wang, Zhongjing; Bevilacqua, Ariana; Chen, Xin; Quintana, Megan T; Tannu, Manasi; Rosson, Gary B; Pandya, Kumar; Willis, Monte S

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition that mitochondrial perturbations play a central role in human heart failure. Mitochondrial networks, whose function is to maintain the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, autophagy ('mitophagy') and mitochondrial fusion/fission, are new potential therapeutic targets. Yet our understanding of the molecular underpinning of these processes is just emerging. We recently identified a role of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in the metabolic homeostasis of the adult cardiomyocyte using cardiomyocyte-specific and inducible deletion of the SWI/SNF ATPases BRG1 and BRM in adult mice (Brg1/Brm double mutant mice). To build upon these observations in early altered metabolism, the present study looks at the subsequent alterations in mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in the impaired adult cardiomyocyte. We identified that Brg1/Brm double-mutant mice exhibited increased mitochondrial biogenesis, increases in 'mitophagy', and alterations in mitochondrial fission and fusion that led to small, fragmented mitochondria. Mechanistically, increases in the autophagy and mitophagy-regulated proteins Beclin1 and Bnip3 were identified, paralleling changes seen in human heart failure. Evidence for perturbed cardiac mitochondrial dynamics included decreased mitochondria size, reduced numbers of mitochondria, and an altered expression of genes regulating fusion (Mfn1, Opa1) and fission (Drp1). We also identified cardiac protein amyloid accumulation (aggregated fibrils) during disease progression along with an increase in pre-amyloid oligomers and an upregulated unfolded protein response including increased GRP78, CHOP, and IRE-1 signaling. Together, these findings described a role for BRG1 and BRM in mitochondrial quality control, by regulating mitochondrial number, mitophagy, and mitochondrial dynamics not previously recognized in the adult cardiomyocyte. As critical to the pathogenesis of heart failure, epigenetic

  8. The mitochondrial genomes of the early land plants Treubia lacunosa and Anomodon rugelii: dynamic and conservative evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wang, Bin; Li, Libo; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-01-01

    Early land plant mitochondrial genomes captured important changes of mitochondrial genome evolution when plants colonized land. The chondromes of seed plants show several derived characteristics, e.g., large genome size variation, rapid intra-genomic rearrangement, abundant introns, and highly variable levels of RNA editing. On the other hand, the chondromes of charophytic algae are still largely ancestral in these aspects, resembling those of early eukaryotes. When the transition happened has been a long-standing question in studies of mitochondrial genome evolution. Here we report complete mitochondrial genome sequences from an early-diverging liverwort, Treubia lacunosa, and a late-evolving moss, Anomodon rugelii. The two genomes, 151,983 and 104,239 base pairs in size respectively, contain standard sets of protein coding genes for respiration and protein synthesis, as well as nearly full sets of rRNA and tRNA genes found in the chondromes of the liverworts Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The gene orders of these two chondromes are identical to those of the other liverworts and moss. Their intron contents, with all cis-spliced group I or group II introns, are also similar to those in the previously sequenced liverwort and moss chondromes. These five chondromes plus the two from the hornworts Phaeoceros laevis and Megaceros aenigmaticus for the first time allowed comprehensive comparative analyses of structure and organization of mitochondrial genomes both within and across the three major lineages of bryophytes. These analyses led to the conclusion that the mitochondrial genome experienced dynamic evolution in genome size, gene content, intron acquisition, gene order, and RNA editing during the origins of land plants and their major clades. However, evolution of this organellar genome has remained rather conservative since the origin and initial radiation of early land plants, except within vascular plants. PMID

  9. Mitochondrial dynamics in model organisms: what yeasts, worms and flies have taught us about fusion and fission of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Benedikt

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial fusion and fission are important for a great variety of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, development, aging and cell death. Many of the core components mediating mitochondrial dynamics in human cells have been first identified and mechanistically analyzed in model organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, the functions of FZO/mitofusin and Mgm1/EAT-3/OPA1 in fusion and Dnm1/DRP1 in fission have been remarkably well conserved in yeasts, worms, flies and mammals. On the other hand, mechanisms to coordinate and regulate the activity of these molecular machines appear to be more diverse in different organisms. Here, I will discuss how S. cerevisiae, C. elegans and Drosophila have contributed to our current understanding of the cellular machineries mediating the dynamic behaviour of mitochondria. PMID:20006727

  10. Modeling of abnormal mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloy by three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Zhenhuan; Huang, Minsheng

    2014-12-01

    Unlike common single crystals, the nickel-based single crystal superalloy shows surprisingly anomalous flow strength (i.e. with the increase of temperature, the yield strength first increases to a peak value and then decreases) and tension-compression (TC) asymmetry. A comprehensive three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (3D-DDD) procedure was developed to model these abnormal mechanical properties. For this purpose, a series of complicated dynamic evolution details of Kear-Wilsdorf (KW) locks, which are closely related to the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry, were incorporated into this 3D-DDD framework. Moreover, the activation of the cubic slip system, which is the origin of the decrease in yield strength with increasing temperature at relatively high temperatures, was especially taken into account by introducing a competition criterion between the unlocking of the KW locks and the activation of the cubic slip system. To test our framework, a series of 3D-DDD simulations were performed on a representative volume cell model with a cuboidal Ni3Al precipitate phase embedded in a nickel matrix. Results show that the present 3D-DDD procedure can successfully capture the dynamic evolution of KW locks, the flow strength anomaly and TC asymmetry. Then, the underlying dislocation mechanisms leading to these abnormal mechanical responses were investigated and discussed in detail. Finally, a cyclic deformation of the nickel-based single crystal superalloy was modeled by using the present DDD model, with a special focus on the influence of KW locks on the Bauschinger effect and cyclic softening.

  11. Use of non-linear EEG analysis to study abnormal brain dynamics in deaf human subjects.

    PubMed

    Micheloyannis, S; Stam, C J; Fountoulakis, E; Bourkas, M; Arvanitis, S; Papanikolaou, E

    1998-06-19

    We compared the cortical dynamics of deaf subjects to those of control subjects at rest with eyes closed and during reading with the help of a non-linear prediction statistic. This method is suitable for short-term noisy time series such as electroencephalographic signals. Furthermore, we used surrogate data to test for non-linear dynamics underlying the electroencephalographic time series recorded. Our results indicate that significant non-linearity accompanies cortical activation during reading. This is more diffuse in deaf subjects and could be due to the widespread reorganization of their cerebral cortex. Predictability was lower in deaf subjects at rest, which indicates their increased 'readiness' in the resting condition. Finally, our results indicate that normal and deaf subjects differ significantly in terms of cortical dynamics. PMID:9682843

  12. Dynamics of Human Mitochondrial Complex I Assembly: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Giachin, Gabriele; Bouverot, Romain; Acajjaoui, Samira; Pantalone, Serena; Soler-López, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are extremely energy demanding cells and highly dependent on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondria generate the energetic potential via the respiratory complexes I to IV, which constitute the electron transport chain (ETC), together with complex V. These redox reactions release energy in the form of ATP and also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are involved in cell signaling but can eventually lead to oxidative stress. Complex I (CI or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest ETC enzyme, containing 44 subunits and the main contributor to ROS production. In recent years, the structure of the CI has become available and has provided new insights into CI assembly. A number of chaperones have been identified in the assembly and stability of the mature holo-CI, although they are not part of its final structure. Interestingly, CI dysfunction is the most common OXPHOS disorder in humans and defects in the CI assembly process are often observed. However, the dynamics of the events leading to CI biogenesis remain elusive, which precludes our understanding of how ETC malfunctioning affects neuronal integrity. Here, we review the current knowledge of the structural features of CI and its assembly factors and the potential role of CI misassembly in human disorders such as Complex I Deficiencies or Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:27597947

  13. Dynamics of Human Mitochondrial Complex I Assembly: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Giachin, Gabriele; Bouverot, Romain; Acajjaoui, Samira; Pantalone, Serena; Soler-López, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are extremely energy demanding cells and highly dependent on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondria generate the energetic potential via the respiratory complexes I to IV, which constitute the electron transport chain (ETC), together with complex V. These redox reactions release energy in the form of ATP and also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are involved in cell signaling but can eventually lead to oxidative stress. Complex I (CI or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the largest ETC enzyme, containing 44 subunits and the main contributor to ROS production. In recent years, the structure of the CI has become available and has provided new insights into CI assembly. A number of chaperones have been identified in the assembly and stability of the mature holo-CI, although they are not part of its final structure. Interestingly, CI dysfunction is the most common OXPHOS disorder in humans and defects in the CI assembly process are often observed. However, the dynamics of the events leading to CI biogenesis remain elusive, which precludes our understanding of how ETC malfunctioning affects neuronal integrity. Here, we review the current knowledge of the structural features of CI and its assembly factors and the potential role of CI misassembly in human disorders such as Complex I Deficiencies or Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:27597947

  14. Abnormal dynamics of activation of object use information in apraxia: evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Mirman, Daniel; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Action representations associated with object use may be incidentally activated during visual object processing, and the time course of such activations may be influenced by lexical-semantic context (e.g., Lee, Middleton, Mirman, Kalénine, & Buxbaum, 2012). In this study we used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm to examine whether a deficit in producing skilled object-use actions (apraxia) is associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information, and assessed the neuroanatomical substrates of any such deficits. Twenty left hemisphere stroke patients, ten of whom were apraxic, performed a task requiring identification of a named object in a visual display containing manipulation-related and unrelated distractor objects. Manipulation relationships among objects were not relevant to the identification task. Objects were cued with neutral (“S/he saw the….”), or action-relevant (“S/he used the….”) sentences. Non-apraxic participants looked at use-related non-target objects significantly more than at unrelated non-target objects when cued both by neutral and action-relevant sentences, indicating that action information is incidentally activated. In contrast, apraxic participants showed delayed activation of manipulation-based action information during object identification when cued by neutral sentences. The magnitude of delayed activation in the neutral sentence condition was reliably predicted by lower scores on a test of gesture production to viewed objects, as well as by lesion loci in the inferior parietal and posterior temporal lobes. However, when cued by a sentence containing an action verb, apraxic participants showed fixation patterns that were statistically indistinguishable from non-apraxic controls. In support of grounded theories of cognition, these results suggest that apraxia and temporal-parietal lesions may be associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information from objects. Further

  15. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; Folmes, Clifford D; Wang, Xuewei; Lanza, Ian R; Schaible, Niccole S; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-15

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1α-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength. PMID:26601949

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of cytoplasmic segregation and fusion: Mitochondrial mixing facilitated the evolution of sex at the origin of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L

    2016-09-01

    Sexual reproduction is a trait shared by all complex life, but the complete account of its origin is missing. Virtually all theoretical work on the evolution of sex has been centered around the benefits of reciprocal recombination among nuclear genes, paying little attention to the evolutionary dynamics of multi-copy mitochondrial genomes. Here I develop a mathematical model to study the evolution of nuclear alleles inducing cell fusion in an ancestral population of clonal proto-eukaryotes. Segregational drift maintains high mitochondrial variance between clonally reproducing hosts, but the effect of segregation is opposed by cytoplasmic mixing which tends to reduce variation between cells in favor of higher heterogeneity within the cell. Despite the reduced long-term population fitness, alleles responsible for sexual cell fusion can spread to fixation. The evolution of sex requires negative epistatic interactions between mitochondrial mutations under strong purifying selection, low mutation load and weak mitochondrial-nuclear associations. I argue that similar conditions could have been maintained during the late stages of eukaryogenesis, facilitating the evolution of sexual cell fusion and meiotic recombination without compromising the stability of the emerging complex cell. PMID:27266671

  17. Protective Role of PGC-1α in Diabetic Nephropathy Is Associated with the Inhibition of ROS through Mitochondrial Dynamic Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Wu, Mian; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Haoyong; Zhang, Mingliang; Bao, Yuqian; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of PGC-1α in the pathogenesis of DN. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (RMCs) were incubated in normal or high glucose medium with or without the PGC-1α-overexpressing plasmid (pcDNA3-PGC-1α) for 48 h. In the diabetic rats, decreased PGC-1α expression was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS generation in the renal cortex, increased proteinuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and higher glomerular 8-OHdG (a biomarker for oxidative stress). In vitro, hyperglycemia induced the downregulation of PGC-1α, which led to increased DRP1 expression, increased mitochondrial fragmentation and damaged network structure. This was associated with an increase in ROS generation and mesangial cell hypertrophy. These pathological changes were reversed in vitro by the transfection of pcDNA3-PGC-1α. These data suggest that PGC-1α may protect DN via the inhibition of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial dynamic remodeling and ROS production. These findings may assist the development of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with DN. PMID:25853493

  18. Abnormalities in synaptic dynamics during development in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Yusuke; Watase, Kei; Wada, Keiji; Nagai, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Late-onset neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by neurological symptoms and progressive neuronal death. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction, rather than neuronal death, causes the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction that occurs prior to cell death remain unclear. To investigate the synaptic basis of this dysfunction, we employed in vivo two-photon imaging to analyse excitatory postsynaptic dendritic protrusions. We used Sca1154Q/2Q mice, an established knock-in mouse model of the polyglutamine disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), which replicates human SCA1 features including ataxia, cognitive impairment, and neuronal death. We found that Sca1154Q/2Q mice exhibited greater synaptic instability than controls, without synaptic loss, in the cerebral cortex, where obvious neuronal death is not observed, even before the onset of distinct symptoms. Interestingly, this abnormal synaptic instability was evident in Sca1154Q/2Q mice from the synaptic developmental stage, and persisted into adulthood. Expression of synaptic scaffolding proteins was also lower in Sca1154Q/2Q mice than controls before synaptic maturation. As symptoms progressed, synaptic loss became evident. These results indicate that aberrant synaptic instability, accompanied by decreased expression of scaffolding proteins during synaptic development, is a very early pathology that precedes distinct neurological symptoms and neuronal cell death in SCA1. PMID:26531852

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H L; Rašić, G; Endersby-Harshman, N M; Lee, S F; Arguni, E; Le Nguyen, H; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations. PMID:26531251

  20. Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, H L; Rašić, G; Endersby-Harshman, N M; Lee, S F; Arguni, E; Le Nguyen, H; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations. PMID:26531251

  1. Alzheimer's disease: diverse aspects of mitochondrial malfunctioning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Renato X; Correia, Sónia C; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Moreira, Paula I; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, either assuming a sporadic, age-associated, late-onset form, or a familial form, with early onset, in a smaller fraction of the cases. Whereas in the familial cases several mutations have been identified in genes encoding proteins related with the pathogenesis of the disease, for the sporadic form several causes have been proposed and are currently under debate. Mitochondrial dysfunction has surfaced as one of the most discussed hypotheses acting as a trigger for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondria assume central functions in the cell, including ATP production, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptotic signaling. Although their role as the cause of the disease may be controversial, there is no doubt that mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and degradation by mitophagy occur during the disease process, contributing to its onset and progression. PMID:20661404

  2. A new 4D trajectory-based approach unveils abnormal LV revolution dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    ventricle deformation in patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared to healthy subjects may be assessed by modern shape analysis better than by traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathophysiology was unveiled in a new manner whereby also diastolic phase abnormalities are evident which is more difficult to investigate by traditional ecocardiographic techniques. PMID:25875818

  3. A New 4D Trajectory-Based Approach Unveils Abnormal LV Revolution Dynamics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Left ventricle deformation in patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared to healthy subjects may be assessed by modern shape analysis better than by traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathophysiology was unveiled in a new manner whereby also diastolic phase abnormalities are evident which is more difficult to investigate by traditional ecocardiographic techniques. PMID:25875818

  4. Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. PMID:24768438

  5. Manganese suppresses ATP-dependent intercellular calcium waves in astrocyte networks through alteration of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum calcium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tjalkens, Ronald B; Zoran, Mark J; Mohl, Brianne; Barhoumi, Roula

    2006-10-01

    The neurotoxicity of manganese [Mn] is due in part to glutamate excitotoxicity. Release of ATP by astrocytes is a critical modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) waves that propagate through astrocytic networks in response to synaptic activity. It was postulated that Mn alters ATP-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in astrocytes, thereby suppressing Ca(2+) wave activity. Confluent primary cultures of cortical astrocytes were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fluo-4 and examined by fluorescence microscopy for Ca(2+) wave activity following micropipet mechanical stimulation of a single cell. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy following addition of ATP using the mitochondrial-specific Ca(2+) dye rhod-2-AM. Imaging studies revealed that pretreatment of astrocytes with 1-10 microM Mn significantly reduced the rate, area, and amplitude of mechanically induced Ca(2+) waves. This attenuation was not a result of inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake because robust calcium waves were still observed following pretreatment of astrocytes with Ru360, an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, either in coupling or uncoupling conditions. However, determination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) levels in cells using the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin indicated that Mn reduced the available pool of releasable ER Ca(2+) at concentrations as low as 1 muM. Examination of ATP-stimulated changes in mitochondrial Ca(2+) indicated that, in cells pretreated with Mn, mitochondria retained high levels of Ca(2+). It is concluded that exposure of astrocytes to low concentrations of Mn(2+) results in sequestration of Ca(2+) within the mitochondria that reduces the available pool of releasable Ca(2+) within the ER, thereby inhibiting calcium wave activity. PMID:16934782

  6. Bcl-xL-mediated antioxidant function abrogates the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics induced by LRRK2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Saez-Atienzar, Sara; Bonet-Ponce, Luis; da Casa, Carmen; Perez-Dolz, Laura; Blesa, Jose R; Nava, Eduardo; Galindo, Maria F; Jordan, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    We have used the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y overexpressing Bcl-xL (SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL) to clarify the effects of this mitochondrial protein on the control of mitochondrial dynamics and the autophagic processes which occur after the inhibition of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) with GSK2578215A. In wild type (SH-SY5Y/Neo) cells, GSK2578215A (1nM) caused a disruption of mitochondrial morphology and an imbalance in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal. However, SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells under GSK2578215A treatment, unlike the wild type, preserved a high mitochondrial membrane potential and did not exhibit apoptotical chromatins. In contrast to wild type cells, in SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, GSK2578215A did not induce mitochondrial translocation of neither dynamin related protein-1 nor the proapoptotic protein, Bax. In SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, mitochondrial fragmentation elicited by GSK2578215A precedes an autophagic response. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bcl-xL protein restores the autophagic flux pathway disrupted by this inhibitor. SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, responded to LRRK2 inhibition by an increase in the levels of acetylated tubulin, indicating that this was abrogated by Bcl-xL overexpression. This hyperacetylation of tubulin took place earlier than any of the above-mentioned events suggesting that it is involved in the autophagic flux interruption. Pre-treatment with tempol prevented the GSK2578215A-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, autophagy and the rise in acetylated tubulin in SH-SY5Y/Neo cells. Thus, these data support the notion that ROS act as a second messenger connexion between LRRK2 inhibition and these deleterious responses, which are markedly alleviated by the Bcl-xL-mediated ROS generation blockade. PMID:26435084

  7. Use of 32P to Study Dynamics of the Mitochondrial Phosphoproteome

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Angel M.; Phillips, Darci; Hopper, Rachel K.; Johnson, D. Thor; Harris, Robert A.; Blinova, Ksenia; Boja, Emily S.; French, Stephanie; Balaban, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a well characterized regulatory mechanism in the cytosol, but remains poorly defined in the mitochondrion. In this study, we characterized the use of 32P-labeling to monitor the turnover of protein phosphorylation in the heart and liver mitochondria matrix. The 32P labeling technique was compared and contrasted to Phos-tag protein phosphorylation fluorescent stain and 2D isoelectric focusing. Of the 64 proteins identified by MS spectroscopy in the Phos-Tag gels, over 20 proteins were correlated with 32P labeling. The high sensitivity of 32P incorporation detected proteins well below the mass spectrometry and even 2D gel protein detection limits. Phosphate-chase experiments revealed both turnover and phosphate associated protein pool size alterations dependent on initial incubation conditions. Extensive weak phosphate/phosphate metabolite interactions were observed using non-disruptive native gels, providing a novel approach to screen for potential allosteric interactions of phosphate metabolites with matrix proteins. We confirmed the phosphate associations in Complexes V and I due to their critical role in oxidative phosphorylation and to validate the 2D methods. These complexes were isolated by immunocapture, after 32P labeling in the intact mitochondria, and revealed 32P-incorporation for the α, β, γ, OSCP, and d subunits in Complex V and the 75kDa, 51kDa, 42kDa, 23kDa, and 13a kDa subunits in Complex I. These results demonstrate that a dynamic and extensive mitochondrial matrix phosphoproteome exists in heart and liver. PMID:19351177

  8. Structural, energetic, and dynamic insights into the abnormal xylene separation behavior of hierarchical porous crystal

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiao-Min; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Lin, Rui-Biao; Zhang, Jie-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of highly similar molecules and understanding the underlying mechanism are of paramount theoretical and practical importance, but visualization of the host-guest structure, energy, or dynamism is very difficult and many details have been overlooked. Here, we report a new porous coordination polymer featuring hierarchical porosity and delicate flexibility, in which the three structural isomers of xylene (also similar disubstituted benzene derivatives) can be efficiently separated with an elution sequence inversed with those for conventional mechanisms. More importantly, the separation mechanism is comprehensively and quantitatively visualized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography coupled with multiple computational simulation methods, in which the small apertures not only fit best the smallest para-isomer like molecular sieves, but also show seemingly trivial yet crucial structural alterations to distinguish the meta- and ortho-isomers via a gating mechanism, while the large channels allow fast guest diffusion and enable the structural/energetic effects to be accumulated in the macroscopic level. PMID:26113287

  9. Abnormal Brain Dynamics Underlie Speech Production in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pang, Elizabeth W; Valica, Tatiana; MacDonald, Matt J; Taylor, Margot J; Brian, Jessica; Lerch, Jason P; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2016-02-01

    A large proportion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have speech and/or language difficulties. While a number of structural and functional neuroimaging methods have been used to explore the brain differences in ASD with regards to speech and language comprehension and production, the neurobiology of basic speech function in ASD has not been examined. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a neuroimaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be applied to the examination of brain dynamics underlying speech as it can capture the fast responses fundamental to this function. We acquired MEG from 21 children with high-functioning autism (mean age: 11.43 years) and 21 age- and sex-matched controls as they performed a simple oromotor task, a phoneme production task and a phonemic sequencing task. Results showed significant differences in activation magnitude and peak latencies in primary motor cortex (Brodmann Area 4), motor planning areas (BA 6), temporal sequencing and sensorimotor integration areas (BA 22/13) and executive control areas (BA 9). Our findings of significant functional brain differences between these two groups on these simple oromotor and phonemic tasks suggest that these deficits may be foundational and could underlie the language deficits seen in ASD. PMID:26363154

  10. The ageing neuromuscular system and sarcopenia: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Rygiel, Karolina A; Picard, Martin; Turnbull, Doug M

    2016-08-15

    Skeletal muscles undergo structural and functional decline with ageing, culminating in sarcopenia. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms have been the subject of intense investigation, revealing mitochondrial abnormalities as potential culprits within both nerve and muscle cells. Implicated mechanisms involve impaired mitochondrial dynamics, reduced organelle biogenesis and quality control via mitophagy, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and respiratory chain defect, metabolic disturbance, pro-apoptotic signalling, and oxidative stress. This article provides an overview of the cellular mechanisms whereby mitochondria may promote maladaptive changes within motor neurons, the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and muscle fibres. Lifelong physical activity, which promotes mitochondrial health across tissues, is emerging as an effective countermeasure for sarcopenia. PMID:26921061

  11. Mcl-1 involvement in mitochondrial dynamics is associated with apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Morciano, Giampaolo; Giorgi, Carlotta; Balestra, Dario; Marchi, Saverio; Perrone, Daniela; Pinotti, Mirko; Pinton, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins are critical regulators of apoptosis and consist of both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Within this family, the myeloid cell leukemia factor 1 (Mcl-1) protein exists in two forms as the result of alternative splicing. The long variant (Mcl-1L) acts as an antiapoptotic factor, whereas the short isoform (Mcl-1S) displays proapoptotic activity. In this study, using splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), we increased the synthesis of Mcl-1S, which induced a concurrent reduction of Mcl-1L, resulting in increased sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli. The Mcl-1 ASOs also induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and a consequent increase in mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) accumulation. The high Mcl-1S/L ratio correlated with significant hyperfusion of the entire mitochondrial network, which occurred in a dynamin-related protein (Drp1)–dependent manner. Our data indicate that the balance between the long and short variants of the Mcl-1 gene represents a key aspect of the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. We propose that the Mcl-1L/S balance is a novel regulatory factor controlling the mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery. PMID:26538029

  12. Dynamics of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein complex in Trypanosoma brucei and its petite mutant under optimized immobilization conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenqiu; Kaltenbrunner, Sabine; Šimková, Eva; Stanĕk, David; Lukeš, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    There are a variety of complex metabolic processes ongoing simultaneously in the single, large mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Understanding the organellar environment and dynamics of mitochondrial proteins requires quantitative measurement in vivo. In this study, we have validated a method for immobilizing both procyclic stage (PS) and bloodstream stage (BS) T. brucei brucei with a high level of cell viability over several hours and verified its suitability for undertaking fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with mitochondrion-targeted yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Next, we used this method for comparative analysis of the translational diffusion of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 (MRP1) in the BS and in T. b. evansi. The latter flagellate is like petite mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it lacks organelle-encoded nucleic acids. FRAP measurement of YFP-tagged MRP1 in both cell lines illuminated from a new perspective how the absence or presence of RNA affects proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. This work represents the first attempt to examine this process in live trypanosomes. PMID:25063375

  13. p53 and Mitochondrial Function in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Morrison, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in dictating cell survival and death as a cellular sensor for a myriad of stresses including DNA damage, oxidative and nutritional stress, ischemia and disruption of nucleolar function. Activation of p53-dependent apoptosis leads to mitochondrial apoptotic changes via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways triggering cell death execution most notably by release of cytochrome c and activation of the caspase cascade. Although it was previously believed that p53 induces apoptotic mitochondrial changes exclusively through transcription-dependent mechanisms, recent studies suggest that p53 also regulates apoptosis via a transcription-independent action at the mitochondria. Recent evidence further suggests that p53 can regulate necrotic cell death and autophagic activity including mitophagy. An increasing number of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism and respiration are regulated by p53, which influences mitochondrial ROS production as well. Cellular redox homeostasis is also directly regulated by p53 through modified expression of pro- and anti-oxidant proteins. Proper regulation of mitochondrial size and shape through fission and fusion assures optimal mitochondrial bioenergetic function while enabling adequate mitochondrial transport to accommodate local energy demands unique to neuronal architecture. Abnormal regulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, where elevated levels of p53 may have a direct contribution as the expression of some fission/fusion proteins are directly regulated by p53. Thus, p53 may have a much wider influence on mitochondrial integrity and function than one would expect from its well-established ability to transcriptionally induce mitochondrial apoptosis. However, much of the evidence demonstrating that p53 can influence mitochondria through nuclear, cytosolic or intra-mitochondrial sites of action has yet to be

  14. Raft endocytosis of AMF regulates mitochondrial dynamics through Rac1 signaling and the Gp78 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jay; Kojic, Liliana D; St-Pierre, Pascal; Wang, Peter T C; Fu, Min; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan R

    2013-08-01

    Gp78 is a cell surface receptor that also functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The Gp78 ligand, the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI; also called autocrine motility factor, AMF), functions as a cytokine upon secretion by tumor cells. AMF is internalized through a PI3K- and dynamin-dependent raft endocytic pathway to the smooth ER; however, the relationship between AMF and Gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity remains unclear. AMF uptake to the smooth ER is inhibited by the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, is reduced in Gp78 knockdown cells and induces the dynamin-dependent downregulation of its cell surface receptor. AMF uptake is Rac1-dependent and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative Rac1 and the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, and is therefore distinct from Cdc42- and RhoA-dependent raft endocytic pathways. AMF stimulates Rac1 activation, but this is reduced by dynasore treatment and is absent in Gp78-knockdown cells; therefore, AMF activities require Gp78-mediated endocytosis. AMF also prevents Gp78-induced degradation of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusin 1 and 2 in a dynamin-, Rac1- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Gp78 induces mitochondrial clustering and fission in a manner dependent on GP78 ubiquitin ligase activity, and this is also reversed by uptake of AMF. The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF, therefore, promotes Rac1-PI3K signaling that feeds back to promote AMF endocytosis and also inhibits the ability of Gp78 to target the mitofusins for degradation, thereby preventing Gp78-dependent mitochondrial fission. Through regulation of an ER-localized ubiquitin ligase, the raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF represents an extracellular regulator of mitochondrial fusion and dynamics. PMID:23690547

  15. Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Dysfunction of Mitochondrial Dynamics Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Feng; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Da-Jian; Wang, Ming; Yin, Yi; Chen, De-Xiu; Wei, Lian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the chronic fatigue induced by excessive exercise and the restoration effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on mitochondria. In vivo, we found that excessive exercise could cause oxidative stress statue which led to morphological and functional changes of mitochondria. The changes, including imbalance between mitochondria fusion-fission processes, activation of mitophagy, and decrease of PGC-1α expression, could be restored by APS. We further confirmed in vitro, and what is more, we found that APS may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction through Sirt1 pathway. Based on the results, we may figure out part of the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial amelioration by APS. PMID:26881048

  16. Alterations of Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Human Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Roden, Michael

    2016-07-17

    Mitochondrial function refers to a broad spectrum of features such as resting mitochondrial activity, (sub)maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), and mitochondrial dynamics, turnover, and plasticity. The interaction between mitochondria and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional and varies depending on tissue, experimental model, methodological approach, and features of mitochondrial function tested. In human skeletal muscle, mitochondrial abnormalities may be inherited (e.g., lower mitochondrial content) or acquired (e.g., impaired OXPHOS capacity and plasticity). Abnormalities ultimately lead to lower mitochondrial functionality due to or resulting in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similar mechanisms can also operate in adipose tissue and heart muscle. In contrast, mitochondrial oxidative capacity is transiently upregulated in the liver of obese insulin-resistant humans with or without fatty liver, giving rise to oxidative stress and declines in advanced fatty liver disease. These data suggest a highly tissue-specific interaction between insulin sensitivity and oxidative metabolism during the course of metabolic diseases in humans. PMID:27146012

  17. Alterations in lipid raft composition and dynamics contribute to abnormal T cell responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sandeep; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Warke, Vishal G; Fisher, Carolyn U; Mitchell, Jeanne; Delaney, Nancy; Tsokos, George C

    2004-06-15

    In response to appropriate stimulation, T lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased and faster intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and free calcium responses. We have explored whether the composition and dynamics of lipid rafts are responsible for the abnormal T cell responses in SLE. SLE T cells generate and possess higher amounts of ganglioside-containing lipid rafts and, unlike normal T cells, SLE T cell lipid rafts include FcRgamma and activated Syk kinase. IgM anti-CD3 Ab-mediated capping of TCR complexes occurs more rapidly in SLE T cells and concomitant with dramatic acceleration of actin polymerization kinetics. The significance of these findings is evident from the observation that cross-linking of lipid rafts evokes earlier and higher calcium responses in SLE T cells. Thus, we propose that alterations in the lipid raft signaling machinery represent an important mechanism that is responsible for the heightened and accelerated T cell responses in SLE. PMID:15187166

  18. Anoxia-Reoxygenation Regulates Mitochondrial Dynamics through the Hypoxia Response Pathway, SKN-1/Nrf, and Stomatin-Like Protein STL-1/SLP-2

    PubMed Central

    Tabakin, Alexandra; Salazar-Vasquez, Nathaly; Rongo, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Many aerobic organisms encounter oxygen-deprived environments and thus must have adaptive mechanisms to survive such stress. It is important to understand how mitochondria respond to oxygen deprivation given the critical role they play in using oxygen to generate cellular energy. Here we examine mitochondrial stress response in C. elegans, which adapt to extreme oxygen deprivation (anoxia, less than 0.1% oxygen) by entering into a reversible suspended animation state of locomotory arrest. We show that neuronal mitochondria undergo DRP-1-dependent fission in response to anoxia and undergo refusion upon reoxygenation. The hypoxia response pathway, including EGL-9 and HIF-1, is not required for anoxia-induced fission, but does regulate mitochondrial reconstitution during reoxygenation. Mutants for egl-9 exhibit a rapid refusion of mitochondria and a rapid behavioral recovery from suspended animation during reoxygenation; both phenotypes require HIF-1. Mitochondria are significantly larger in egl-9 mutants after reoxygenation, a phenotype similar to stress-induced mitochondria hyperfusion (SIMH). Anoxia results in mitochondrial oxidative stress, and the oxidative response factor SKN-1/Nrf is required for both rapid mitochondrial refusion and rapid behavioral recovery during reoxygenation. In response to anoxia, SKN-1 promotes the expression of the mitochondrial resident protein Stomatin-like 1 (STL-1), which helps facilitate mitochondrial dynamics following anoxia. Our results suggest the existence of a conserved anoxic stress response involving changes in mitochondrial fission and fusion. PMID:24385935

  19. Dynamic buffering of mitochondrial Ca2+ during Ca2+ uptake and Na+-induced Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Blomeyer, Christoph A.; Bazil, Jason N.; Stowe, David F.; Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiac mitochondria, matrix free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) is primarily regulated by Ca2+ uptake and release via the Ca2+ uniporter (CU) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCE) as well as by Ca2+ buffering. Although experimental and computational studies on the CU and NCE dynamics exist, it is not well understood how matrix Ca2+ buffering affects these dynamics under various Ca2+ uptake and release conditions, and whether this influences the stoichiometry of the NCE. To elucidate the role of matrix Ca2+ buffering on the uptake and release of Ca2+, we monitored Ca2+ dynamics in isolated mitochondria by measuring both the extra-matrix free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]e) and [Ca2+]m. A detailed protocol was developed and freshly isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts were exposed to five different [CaCl2] followed by ruthenium red and six different [NaCl]. By using the fluorescent probe indo-1, [Ca2+] and [Ca2+e]m were spectrofluorometrically quantified, and the stoichiometry of the NCE was determined. In addition, we measured NADH, membrane potential, matrix volume and matrix pH to monitor Ca2+-induced changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our [Ca2+]e and [Ca2+]m measurements demonstrate that Ca2+ uptake and release do not show reciprocal Ca2+ dynamics in the extra-matrix and matrix compartments. This salient finding is likely caused by a dynamic Ca2+ buffering system in the matrix compartment. The Na+ - induced Ca2+ release demonstrates an electrogenic exchange via the NCE by excluding an electroneutral exchange. Mitochondrial bioenergetics were only transiently affected by Ca2+ uptake in the presence of large amounts of CaCl2, but not by Na+- induced Ca2+ release. PMID:23225099

  20. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB.

    PubMed

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2014-05-26

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro-Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  1. The Drosophila effector caspase Dcp-1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic flux via SesB

    PubMed Central

    DeVorkin, Lindsay; Go, Nancy Erro; Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence reveals that a subset of proteins participates in both the autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this intersection is important in normal physiological contexts and in pathological settings. In this paper, we show that the Drosophila effector caspase, Drosophila caspase 1 (Dcp-1), localizes within mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial morphology and autophagic flux. Loss of Dcp-1 led to mitochondrial elongation, increased levels of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase stress-sensitive B (SesB), increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a reduction in autophagic flux. Moreover, we find that SesB suppresses autophagic flux during midoogenesis, identifying a novel negative regulator of autophagy. Reduced SesB activity or depletion of ATP by oligomycin A could rescue the autophagic defect in Dcp-1 loss-of-function flies, demonstrating that Dcp-1 promotes autophagy by negatively regulating SesB and ATP levels. Furthermore, we find that pro–Dcp-1 interacts with SesB in a nonproteolytic manner to regulate its stability. These data reveal a new mitochondrial-associated molecular link between nonapoptotic caspase function and autophagy regulation in vivo. PMID:24862573

  2. Reciprocal Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Calcium Signaling in Astrocyte Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that inhibition of neuronal activity, glutamate uptake, or reversed-Na+/Ca2+-exchange with TTX, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769, respectively, increases mitochondrial mobility in astrocytic processes. In the present study, we examined the interrelationships between mitochondrial mobility and Ca2+ signaling in astrocyte processes in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus. All of the treatments that increase mitochondrial mobility decreased basal Ca2+. As recently reported, we observed spontaneous Ca2+ spikes with half-lives of ∼1 s that spread ∼6 μm and are almost abolished by a TRPA1 channel antagonist. Virtually all of these Ca2+ spikes overlap mitochondria (98%), and 62% of mitochondria are overlapped by these spikes. Although tetrodotoxin, TFB-TBOA, or YM-244769 increased Ca2+ signaling, the specific effects on peak, decay time, and/or frequency were different. To more specifically manipulate mitochondrial mobility, we explored the effects of Miro motor adaptor proteins. We show that Miro1 and Miro2 are both expressed in astrocytes and that exogenous expression of Ca2+-insensitive Miro mutants (KK) nearly doubles the percentage of mobile mitochondria. Expression of Miro1KK had a modest effect on the frequency of these Ca2+ spikes but nearly doubled the decay half-life. The mitochondrial proton ionophore, FCCP, caused a large, prolonged increase in cytosolic Ca2+ followed by an increase in the decay time and the spread of the spontaneous Ca2+ spikes. Photo-ablation of mitochondria in individual astrocyte processes has similar effects on Ca2+. Together, these studies show that Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial mobility, and mitochondria in turn regulate Ca2+ signals in astrocyte processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In neurons, the movement and positioning of mitochondria at sites of elevated activity are important for matching local energy and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Previously, we demonstrated that mitochondria are immobilized in astrocytes in response

  3. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  4. Mitofusin 2 regulates the oocytes development and quality by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lingjuan; Zhang, Ling; Xiang, Wenpei

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), one of the mitochondrial dynamic proteins plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, it is unknown if Mfn2 influences the quality of oocytes in the process of development by modulating mitochondrial function in vitro. In this study, immature oocytes were transfected with Mfn2-siRNA for 16 h. We found that the expression level of the Mfn2 gene was significantly lower than those of the control group. The rates of maturation and fertility were also found to have declined. Moreover, mitochondrial structure and function, especially the morphogenesis of spindles, were observed as abnormal during meiosis. Thus, the above findings indicate that down-regulation of Mfn2 may have an impact on the maturation and fertilization of immature oocytes in vitro by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function. PMID:27469431

  5. Mitofusin 2 regulates the oocytes development and quality by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lingjuan; Zhang, Ling; Xiang, Wenpei

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), one of the mitochondrial dynamic proteins plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial morphology and function. However, it is unknown if Mfn2 influences the quality of oocytes in the process of development by modulating mitochondrial function in vitro. In this study, immature oocytes were transfected with Mfn2-siRNA for 16 h. We found that the expression level of the Mfn2 gene was significantly lower than those of the control group. The rates of maturation and fertility were also found to have declined. Moreover, mitochondrial structure and function, especially the morphogenesis of spindles, were observed as abnormal during meiosis. Thus, the above findings indicate that down-regulation of Mfn2 may have an impact on the maturation and fertilization of immature oocytes in vitro by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function. PMID:27469431

  6. The small GTPase Arf1 modulates mitochondrial morphology and function

    PubMed Central

    Ackema, Karin B; Hench, Jürgen; Böckler, Stefan; Wang, Shyi Chyi; Sauder, Ursula; Mergentaler, Heidi; Westermann, Benedikt; Bard, Frédéric; Frank, Stephan; Spang, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The small GTPase Arf1 plays critical roles in membrane traffic by initiating the recruitment of coat proteins and by modulating the activity of lipid-modifying enzymes. Here, we report an unexpected but evolutionarily conserved role for Arf1 and the ArfGEF GBF1 at mitochondria. Loss of function of ARF-1 or GBF-1 impaired mitochondrial morphology and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Similarly, mitochondrial defects were observed in mammalian and yeast cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aberrant clusters of the mitofusin Fzo1 accumulated in arf1-11 mutants and were resolved by overexpression of Cdc48, an AAA-ATPase involved in ER and mitochondria-associated degradation processes. Yeast Arf1 co-fractionated with ER and mitochondrial membranes and interacted genetically with the contact site component Gem1. Furthermore, similar mitochondrial abnormalities resulted from knockdown of either GBF-1 or contact site components in worms, suggesting that the role of Arf1 in mitochondrial functioning is linked to ER–mitochondrial contacts. Thus, Arf1 is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and dynamics, independent of its role in vesicular traffic. PMID:25190516

  7. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring

    PubMed Central

    Borengasser, Sarah J.; Faske, Jennifer; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of pregnant women who are obese at conception continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are maternally inherited, and we have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero. Mitochondrial health is maintained by mitochondrial dynamics, or the processes of fusion and fission, which serve to repair damaged mitochondria, remove irreparable mitochondria, and maintain mitochondrial morphology. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and reproduction complications. In the present study, we examined the influence of maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) on key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission in rat offspring at important developmental milestones which included postnatal day (PND)35 (2 wk HFD) and PND130 (∼16 wk HFD). Our results indicate HFD-fed offspring had reduced mRNA expression of presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL), optic atrophy (OPA)1, mitofusin (Mfn)1, Mfn2, fission (Fis)1, and nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf)1 at PND35, while OPA1 and Mfn2 remained decreased at PND130. Putative transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial dynamics were reduced in rat placenta and offspring liver and skeletal muscle [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1)α, PGC1β, and estrogen-related receptor (ERR)α], consistent with indirect calorimetry findings revealing reduced energy expenditure and impaired fat utilization. Overall, maternal obesity detrimentally alters mitochondrial targets that may contribute to impaired mitochondrial health and increased obesity susceptibility in later life. PMID:25336449

  8. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  9. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A simulation of three-dimensional systolic flow dynamics in a spherical ventricle: effects of abnormal wall motion.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E; Schoephoerster, R T

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricle (LV) wall motion induced by ischemia will affect flow dynamics, and these altered flow fields can be used to evaluate LV pumping efficiency. LV chamber flow fields were obtained in this study by solving the discretized three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible unsteady flow by using the finite analytic method. Several cases of abnormal wall motion (AWM) were simulated by a manipulation of the boundary conditions to produce regions of hypokinesis, akinesis, and dyskinesis. These solutions were used to determine the central ejection region (CER), defined as the region of flow domain in which the obtained velocity field vectors are aligned +/- 3 degrees from the LV long axis. A CER coefficient was computed from information on the location and orientation of the CER within the LV cavity. Contraction of the spherical ventricle produced a vector field that was symmetric with respect to the long axis. For the simulations of AWM, an asymmetrical flow pattern developed, became more pronounced with increasing severity of AWM, and resulted in a shorter CER that shifted toward the ischemic region. The CER coefficients decreased monotonically with increased severity in AWM from 0.948 in the normal case to a low of 0.164 for the most severe case of AWM. The CER coefficient quantitatively displayed the sensitivity of the flow patterns to even moderate degrees of hypokinesis. In addition, visualization of the three-dimensional flow field reinforced the necessity of three-dimensional simulations to capture aspects of the flow that existing methods of two-dimensional flow imaging that use ultrasound may miss. PMID:8669717

  11. Restriction enzyme analysis of the mitochondrial genome in mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, J; Turnbull, D M; Mehta, A B; Wilson, J; Gardiner, R M

    1988-01-01

    The mitochondrial myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders some of which may be caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial DNA from 10 patients with mitochondrial myopathy and their mothers was analysed using five restriction enzymes and 11 mitochondrial probes in bacteriophage M13. No abnormalities were found in seven out of the 10 patients. Polymorphisms which have not previously been reported were detected in three patients and two of their mothers. These results exclude the presence of deletions or insertions of greater than 60 bp in the region of the mitochondrial genome examined. Any causative mitochondrial DNA mutations in these disorders are therefore likely to be point mutations or small structural rearrangements. Images PMID:2903249

  12. Absolute Quantification of Matrix Metabolites Reveals the Dynamics of Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Wang, Tim; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Sabatini, David M

    2016-08-25

    Mitochondria house metabolic pathways that impact most aspects of cellular physiology. While metabolite profiling by mass spectrometry is widely applied at the whole-cell level, it is not routinely possible to measure the concentrations of small molecules in mammalian organelles. We describe a method for the rapid and specific isolation of mitochondria and use it in tandem with a database of predicted mitochondrial metabolites ("MITObolome") to measure the matrix concentrations of more than 100 metabolites across various states of respiratory chain (RC) function. Disruption of the RC reveals extensive compartmentalization of mitochondrial metabolism and signatures unique to the inhibition of each RC complex. Pyruvate enables the proliferation of RC-deficient cells but has surprisingly limited effects on matrix contents. Interestingly, despite failing to restore matrix NADH/NAD balance, pyruvate does increase aspartate, likely through the exchange of matrix glutamate for cytosolic aspartate. We demonstrate the value of mitochondrial metabolite profiling and describe a strategy applicable to other organelles. PMID:27565352

  13. MYC and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morrish, Fionnuala; Hockenbery, David

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, face two imperatives concerning biogenesis. The first is the requirement for dividing cells to replicate their mitochondrial content by growth of existing mitochondria. The second is the dynamic regulation of mitochondrial content in response to organismal and cellular cues (e.g., exercise, caloric restriction, energy status, temperature). MYC provides the clearest example of a programmed expansion of mitochondrial content linked to the cell cycle. As an oncogene, MYC also presents intriguing questions about the role of its mitochondrial targets in cancer-related phenotypes, such as the Warburg effect and MYC-dependent apoptosis. PMID:24789872

  14. Characterization of the Effect of the Mitochondrial Protein Hint2 on Intracellular Ca2+ dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Collado-Hilly, Mauricette; Martin, Juliette; Prigent, Sylvie; Dufour, Jean-François; Combettes, Laurent; Dupont, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Hint2, one of the five members of the superfamily of the histidine triad AMP-lysine hydrolase proteins, is expressed in mitochondria of various cell types. In human adrenocarcinoma cells, Hint2 modulates Ca2+ handling by mitochondria. As Hint2 is highly expressed in hepatocytes, we investigated if this protein affects Ca2+ dynamics in this cell type. We found that in hepatocytes isolated from Hint2−/− mice, the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 1 μM noradrenaline was 150% higher than in the wild-type. Using spectrophotometry, we analyzed the rates of Ca2+ pumping in suspensions of mitochondria prepared from hepatocytes of either wild-type or Hint2−/− mice; we found that Hint2 accelerates Ca2+ pumping into mitochondria. We then resorted to computational modeling to elucidate the possible molecular target of Hint2 that could explain both observations. On the basis of a detailed model for mitochondrial metabolism proposed in another study, we identified the respiratory chain as the most probable target of Hint2. We then used the model to predict that the absence of Hint2 leads to a premature opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to repetitive additions of Ca2+ in suspensions of mitochondria. This prediction was then confirmed experimentally. PMID:24010670

  15. MitoGenesisDB: an expression data mining tool to explore spatio-temporal dynamics of mitochondrial biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Orgeur, Mickael; Jacq, Claude; Lelandais, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria constitute complex and flexible cellular entities, which play crucial roles in normal and pathological cell conditions. The database MitoGenesisDB focuses on the dynamic of mitochondrial protein formation through global mRNA analyses. Three main parameters confer a global view of mitochondrial biogenesis: (i) time-course of mRNA production in highly synchronized yeast cell cultures, (ii) microarray analyses of mRNA localization that define translation sites and (iii) mRNA transcription rate and stability which characterize genes that are more dependent on post-transcriptional regulation processes. MitoGenesisDB integrates and establishes cross-comparisons between these data. Several model organisms can be analyzed via orthologous relationships between interspecies genes. More generally this database supports the ‘post-transcriptional operon’ model, which postulates that eukaryotes co-regulate related mRNAs based on their functional organization in ribonucleoprotein complexes. MitoGenesisDB allows identifying such groups of post-trancriptionally regulated genes and is thus a useful tool to analyze the complex relationships between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation processes. The case of respiratory chain assembly factors illustrates this point. The MitoGenesisDB interface is available at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/mitgene/. PMID:20833631

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  17. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  18. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  19. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  20. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  1. Male-killing Wolbachia and mitochondrial DNA: selective sweeps, hybrid introgression and parasite population dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Jiggins, Francis M

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are widely used as neutral genetic markers in insects. However, patterns of mtDNA variability are confounded by the spread of maternally transmitted parasites, which are genetically linked to the mitochondria. We have investigated these effects in the butterflies Acraea encedon (which is host to two strains of male-killing Wolbachia bacteria) and A. encedana (which is host to one strain). Within a population, the mitochondria are in linkage disequilibrium with the different male-killers. Furthermore, there has been a recent selective sweep of the mtDNA, which has led to the loss of mitochondrial variation within populations and erased any geographical structure. We also found that one of the male-killers, together with the associated mtDNA, has introgressed from A. encedana into A. encedon within the last 16,000 years. Interestingly, because butterflies are female heterogametic, this will presumably have also led to the introgression of genes on the W sex chromosome. Finally, in A. encedon the mitochondria in uninfected females are unaltered by the spread of the male-killer and have diverse, geographically structured mtDNA. This means we can reject the hypothesis that the male-killer is at a stable equilibrium maintained by imperfect transmission of the bacterium. Instead, some other form of balancing selection may be maintaining uninfected females in the population and preventing the species from going extinct due to a shortage of males. PMID:12750316

  2. Dynamics of the Mitochondrial Reticulum in Living Cells - A Patterned Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Digital Video Microscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margineantu, Daciana; Capaldi, Roderick A.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2000-03-01

    We report detailed studies of the dynamics of the mitochondrial reticulum in live quiescent cells using two independent experimental techniques: patterned fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (PFCS) and digital video fluorescence microscopy (DVFM). The systems studied consist of osteosarcoma cells stained with Mitotracker Orange and JC-1. In principle, DVFM and PFCS yield identical information about the system, albeit by different analyses. When both methods are used to study the same system it is possible to directly compare measurements of preaveraged statistical dynamical quantities with their microscopic counterparts. This approach allows the underlying mechanism of the observed rates to be determined. Our results indicate that the dynamics of the reticulum structure is composed of two independent contributions, each important on very different time and length scales. During short time intervals ( ~ 1 sec), local regions of the reticulum primarily undergo constrained thermally activated motion. During long time intervals ( ~ 60 sec), we observe local regions of the reticulum to undergo long-range "jump" motion that is associated with the action of cytoskeletal filaments. The frequency of the jumps depend on the physiological state of the cells, however the average jump distance ( ~ 0.6 mm) is unaffected by metabolic activity.

  3. Unraveling the complexity of mitochondrial complex I assembly: A dynamic process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Nijtmans, Leo

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian complex I is composed of 44 different subunits and its assembly requires at least 13 specific assembly factors. Proper function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme is of crucial importance for cell survival due to its major participation in energy production and cell signaling. Complex I assembly depends on the coordination of several crucial processes that need to be tightly interconnected and orchestrated by a number of assembly factors. The understanding of complex I assembly evolved from simple sequential concept to the more sophisticated modular assembly model describing a convoluted process. According to this model, the different modules assemble independently and associate afterwards with each other to form the final enzyme. In this review, we aim to unravel the complexity of complex I assembly and provide the latest insights in this fundamental and fascinating process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:27040506

  4. The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasi.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Hannes; Köppler, Kirsten; Daxböck-Horvath, Sabine; Rasool, Bilal; Krumböck, Susanne; Schwarz, Dietmar; Hoffmeister, Thomas S; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Telschow, Arndt; Stauffer, Christian; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Riegler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in Germany. Across most of Europe, populations consisted of either 100% singly (wCer1) infected individuals with haplotype HT1, or 100% doubly (wCer1&2) infected individuals with haplotype HT2, differentiated only by a single nucleotide polymorphism. In central Germany, singly infected populations were surrounded by transitional populations, consisting of both singly and doubly infected individuals, sandwiched between populations fixed for wCer1&2. Populations with fixed infection status showed perfect association of infection and mitochondria, suggesting a recent CI-driven selective sweep of wCer2 linked with HT2. Spatial analysis revealed a range expansion for wCer2 and a large transition zone in which wCer2 splashes appeared to coalesce into doubly infected populations. Unexpectedly, the transition zone contained a large proportion (22%) of wCer1&2 individuals with HT1, suggesting frequent intraspecific horizontal transmission. However, this horizontal transmission did not break the strict association between infection types and haplotypes in populations outside the transition zone, suggesting that this horizontally acquired Wolbachia infection may be transient. Our study provides new insights into the rarely studied Wolbachia invasion dynamics in field populations. PMID:26846713

  5. HIV alters neuronal mitochondrial fission/fusion in the brain during HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel Adam; Serger, Elisabeth; Campos, Sofia; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Kim, Changyoun; Smith, Kendall; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Murphy, Anne N.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50% of HIV patients, and therapies to combat HAND progression are urgently needed. HIV proteins are released from infected cells and cause neuronal damage, possibly through mitochondrial abnormalities. Altered mitochondrial fission and fusion is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that mitochondrial fission/fusion may be dysregulated in neurons during HAND. We have identified decreased mitochondrial fission protein (dynamin 1-like; DNM1L) in frontal cortex tissues of HAND donors, along with enlarged and elongated mitochondria localized to the soma of damaged neurons. Similar pathology was observed in the brains of GFAP-gp120 tg mice. In vitro, recombinant gp120 decreased total and active DNM1L levels, reduced the level of Mitotracker staining, and increased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in primary neurons. DNM1L knockdown enhanced the effects of gp120 as measured by reduced Mitotracker signal in the treated cells. Interestingly, overexpression of DNM1L increased the level of Mitotracker staining in primary rat neurons and reduced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the GFAP-gp120-tg mice. These data suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis dynamics are shifted towards mitochondrial fusion in brains of HAND patients and this may be due to gp120-induced reduction in DNM1L activity. Promoting mitochondrial fission during HIV infection of the CNS may restore mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:26611103

  6. Mitochondrial Bcl-2 family dynamics define therapy response and resistance in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kelly C; Gross, Michelle; Peirce, Susan; Luyindula, Dema; Liu, Xueyuan; Vu, Annette; Sliozberg, Michael; Guo, Rong; Zhao, Huaqing; Reynolds, C Patrick; Hogarty, Michael D

    2012-05-15

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor in which transient therapeutic responses are typically followed by recurrence with lethal chemoresistant disease. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic responses in diverse neuroblastomas using an unbiased mitochondrial functional assay. We defined the apoptotic set point of neuroblastomas using responses to distinct BH3 death domains providing a BH3 response profile and directly confirmed survival dependencies. We found that viable neuroblastoma cells and primary tumors are primed for death with tonic sequestration of Bim, a direct activator of apoptosis, by either Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, providing a survival dependency that predicts the activity of Bcl-2 antagonists. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor ABT-737 showed single-agent activity against only Bim:Bcl-2 primed tumor xenografts. Durable complete regressions were achieved in combination with noncurative chemotherapy even for highest risk molecular subtypes with MYCN amplification and activating ALK mutations. Furthermore, the use of unique isogenic cell lines from patients at diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that therapy resistance was not mediated by upregulation of Bcl-2 homologues or loss of Bim priming, but by repressed Bak/Bax activation. Together, our findings provide a classification system that identifies tumors with clinical responses to Bcl-2 antagonists, defines Mcl-1 as the principal mediator of Bcl-2 antagonist resistance at diagnosis, and isolates the therapy resistant phenotype to the mitochondria. PMID:22589275

  7. Mitochondrial Bcl-2 family dynamics define therapy response and resistance in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Gross, Michelle; Peirce, Susan; Luyindula, Dema; Liu, Xueyuan; Vu, Annette; Sliozberg, Michael; Guo, Rong; Zhao, Huaqing; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Hogarty, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor in which transient therapeutic responses are typically followed by recurrence with lethal chemoresistant disease. In this study, we characterized the apoptotic responses in diverse neuroblastomas using an unbiased mitochondrial functional assay. We defined the apoptotic set-point of neuroblastomas using responses to distinct BH3 death domains providing a BH3 response profile, and directly confirmed survival dependencies. We found that viable neuroblastoma cells and primary tumors are primed for death with tonic sequestration of Bim, a direct activator of apoptosis, by either Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, providing a survival dependency that predicts the activity of Bcl-2 antagonists. The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor ABT-737 showed single agent activity against only Bim:Bcl-2 primed tumor xenografts. Durable complete regressions were achieved in combination with non-curative chemotherapy even for highest-risk molecular subtypes with MYCN amplification and activating ALK mutations. Furthermore, the use of unique isogenic cell lines from patients at diagnosis and at the time of relapse showed that therapy resistance was not mediated by upregulation of Bcl-2 homologues or loss of Bim priming, but by repressed Bak/Bax activation. Together, our findings provide a classification system that identifies tumors with clinical responses to Bcl-2 antagonists, defines Mcl-1 as the principal mediator of Bcl-2 antagonist resistance at diagnosis, and isolates the therapy resistant phenotype to the mitochondria. PMID:22589275

  8. Mitochondrial Therapeutics for Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Raquel S.; Lee, Pamela; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria represent approximately one-third of the mass of the heart and play a critical role in maintaining cellular function—however, they are also a potent source of free radicals and pro-apoptotic factors. As such, maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis is essential to cell survival. As the dominant source of ATP, continuous quality control is mandatory to ensure their ongoing optimal function. Mitochondrial quality control is accomplished by the dynamic interplay of fusion, fission, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis. This review examines these processes in the heart and considers their role in the context of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Interventions that modulate mitochondrial turnover, including pharmacologic agents, exercise, and caloric restriction are discussed as a means to improve mitochondrial quality control, ameliorate cardiovascular dysfunction, and enhance longevity. PMID:21718247

  9. Molecular basis of the dynamic structure of the TIM23 complex in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Rakhi; Jaremko, Łukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2014-10-01

    The presequence translocase TIM23 is a highly dynamic complex in which its subunits can adopt multiple conformations and undergo association-dissociation to facilitate import of proteins into mitochondria. Despite the importance of protein-protein interactions in TIM23, little is known about the molecular details of these processes. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we characterized the dynamic interaction network of the intermembrane space domains of Tim23, Tim21, Tim50, and Tom22 at single-residue level. We show that Tim23(IMS) contains multiple sites to efficiently interact with the intermembrane space domain of Tim21 and to bind to Tim21, Tim50, and Tom22. In addition, we reveal the atomic details of the dynamic Tim23(IMS)-Tim21(IMS) complex. The combined data support a central role of the intermembrane space domain of Tim23 in the formation and regulation of the presequence translocase. PMID:25263020

  10. S-Nitrosylation of Critical Protein Thiols Mediates Protein Misfolding and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Excessive nitrosative and oxidative stress is thought to trigger cellular signaling pathways leading to neurodegenerative conditions. Such redox dysregulation can result from many cellular events, including hyperactivation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cellular aging. Recently, we and our colleagues have shown that excessive generation of free radicals and related molecules, in particular nitric oxide species (NO), can trigger pathological production of misfolded proteins, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (comprised of mitochondrial fission and fusion events), and apoptotic pathways in neuronal cells. Emerging evidence suggests that excessive NO production can contribute to these pathological processes, specifically by S-nitrosylation of specific target proteins. Here, we highlight examples of S-nitrosylated proteins that regulate misfolded protein accumulation and mitochondrial dynamics. For instance, in models of Parkinson's disease, these S-nitrosylation targets include parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase and neuroprotective molecule, and protein-disulfide isomerase, a chaperone enzyme for nascent protein folding. S-Nitrosylation of protein-disulfide isomerase may also be associated with mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Additionally, in models of Alzheimer's disease, excessive NO generation leads to the formation of S-nitrosylated dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1), which contributes to abnormal mitochondrial fragmentation and resultant synaptic damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1479–1492. PMID:20812868

  11. Mitochondrial Turnover in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial quality control is increasingly recognized as an essential element in maintaining optimally functioning tissues. Mitochondrial quality control depends upon a balance between biogenesis and autophagic destruction. Mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission) allows for the redistribution of mitochondrial components. We speculate that this permits sorting of highly functional components into one end of a mitochondrion, while damaged components are segregated at the other end, to be jettisoned by asymmetric fission followed by selective mitophagy. Ischemic preconditioning requires autophagy/mitophagy, resulting in selective elimination of damaged mitochondria, leaving behind a population of robust mitochondria with a higher threshold for opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In this review we will consider the factors that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and destruction, the machinery involved in both processes, and the biomedical consequences associated with altered mitochondrial turnover. PMID:21147177

  12. The clinical maze of mitochondrial neurology

    PubMed Central

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Schon, Eric A.; Carelli, Valerio; Hirano, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases involve the respiratory chain, which is under the dual control of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The complexity of mitochondrial genetics provides one explanation for the clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial diseases, but our understanding of disease pathogenesis remains limited. Classification of Mendelian mitochondrial encephalomyopathies has been laborious, but whole-exome sequencing studies have revealed unexpected molecular aetiologies for both typical and atypical mitochondrial disease phenotypes. Mendelian mitochondrial defects can affect five components of mitochondrial biology: subunits of respiratory chain complexes (direct hits); mitochondrial assembly proteins; mtDNA translation; phospholipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane; or mitochondrial dynamics. A sixth category—defects of mtDNA maintenance—combines features of Mendelian and mitochondrial genetics. Genetic defects in mitochondrial dynamics are especially important in neurology as they cause optic atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Therapy is inadequate and mostly palliative, but promising new avenues are being identified. Here, we review current knowledge on the genetics and pathogenesis of the six categories of mitochondrial disorders outlined above, focusing on their salient clinical manifestations and highlighting novel clinical entities. An outline of diagnostic clues for the various forms of mitochondrial disease, as well as potential therapeutic strategies, is also discussed. PMID:23835535

  13. Parkinson disease-associated mutant VPS35 causes mitochondrial dysfunction by recycling DLP1 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Hisashi; Hoppel, Charles; Whone, Alan L.; Caldwell, Maeve A.; Cullen, Peter J.; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a critical step during the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD) and increasing evidence suggests abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and quality control as important underlying mechanisms. The VPS35 gene, encoding a key component of the retromer complex, is the third autosomal-dominant gene associated with PD. However, how VPS35 mutations may lead to neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that PD-associated VPS35 mutations caused mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death in cultured neurons in vitro, in mouse substantia nigra neurons in vivo, and in human fibroblasts from PD patient bearing the D620N mutation. VPS35-induced mitochondrial deficits and neuronal dysfunction could be prevented by inhibition of mitochondrial fission. VPS35 mutation caused increased interactions with DLP1 which enhanced mitochondrial DLP1 complex turnover via mitochondria-derived vesicles-dependent trafficking to lysosomes for degradation. Importantly, oxidative stress increased the VPS35–DLP1 interaction which was also increased in the brains of sporadic PD cases. These results revealed a novel cellular mechanism for the involvement of VPS35 in mitochondrial fission, dysregulation of which is likely involved in the pathogenesis of familial, and possibly sporadic, PD. PMID:26618722

  14. The Use of Neuroimaging in the Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Seth D.; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Ishak, Gisele; Gropman, Andrea L.; Saneto, Russell P.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA impacting mitochondrial function result in disease manifestations ranging from early death to abnormalities in all major organ systems and to symptoms that can be largely confined to muscle fatigue. The definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder can be difficult to establish. When the constellation…

  15. Mitochondrial Contagion Induced by Parkin Deficiency in Drosophila Hearts and Its Containment by Suppressing Mitofusin

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Poonam; Song, Moshi; Chen, Yun; Burelle, Yan; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Dysfunctional Parkin-mediated mitophagic culling of senescent or damaged mitochondria is a major pathological process underlying Parkinson disease and a potential genetic mechanism of cardiomyopathy. Despite epidemiological associations between Parkinson disease and heart failure, the role of Parkin and mitophagic quality control in maintaining normal cardiac homeostasis is poorly understood. Objective We used germline mutants and cardiac-specific RNA interference to interrogate Parkin regulation of cardiomyocyte mitochondria and examine functional crosstalk between mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila heart tubes. Methods and Results Transcriptional profiling of Parkin knockout mouse hearts revealed compensatory upregulation of multiple related E3 ubiquitin ligases. Because Drosophila lack most of these redundant genes, we examined heart tubes of parkin knockout flies and observed accumulation of enlarged hollow donut mitochondria with dilated cardiomyopathy, which could be rescued by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin expression. Identical abnormalities were induced by cardiomyocyte-specific Parkin suppression using 2 different inhibitory RNAs. Parkin-deficient cardiomyocyte mitochondria exhibited dysmorphology, depolarization, and reactive oxygen species generation without calcium cycling abnormalities, pointing to a primary mitochondrial defect. Suppressing cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fusion in Parkin-deficient fly heart tubes completely prevented the cardiomyopathy and corrected mitochondrial dysfunction without normalizing mitochondrial dysmorphology, demonstrating a central role for mitochondrial fusion in the cardiomyopathy provoked by impaired mitophagy. Conclusions Parkin deficiency and resulting mitophagic disruption produces cardiomyopathy in part by contamination of the cardiomyocyte mitochondrial pool through fusion between improperly retained dysfunctional/senescent and normal mitochondria. Limiting mitochondrial contagion by

  16. Mitochondrial quality, dynamics and functional capacity in Parkinson’s disease cybrid cell lines selected for Lewy body expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lewy bodies (LB) are a neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. The role their formation plays in disease pathogenesis is not well understood, in part because studies of LB have been limited to examination of post-mortem tissue. LB formation may be detrimental to neuronal survival or merely an adaptive response to other ongoing pathological processes. In a human cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) neural cell model that expresses mitochondrial DNA from PD patients, we observed spontaneous formation of intracellular protein aggregates (“cybrid LB” or CLB) that replicate morphological and biochemical properties of native, cortical LB. We studied mitochondrial morphology, bioenergetics and biogenesis signaling by creating stable sub-clones of three PD cybrid cell lines derived from cells expressing CLB. Results Cloning based on CLB expression had a differential effect on mitochondrial morphology, movement and oxygen utilization in each of three sub-cloned lines, but no long-term change in CLB expression. In one line (PD63CLB), mitochondrial function declined compared to the original PD cybrid line (PD63Orig) due to low levels of mtDNA in nucleoids. In another cell line (PD61Orig), the reverse was true, and cellular and mitochondrial function improved after sub-cloning for CLB expression (PD61CLB). In the third cell line (PD67Orig), there was no change in function after selection for CLB expression (PD67CLB). Conclusions Expression of mitochondrial DNA derived from PD patients in cybrid cell lines induced the spontaneous formation of CLB. The creation of three sub-cloned cybrid lines from cells expressing CLB resulted in differential phenotypic changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. These changes were driven by the expression of patient derived mitochondrial DNA in nucleoids, rather than by the presence of CLB. Our studies suggest that mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in cellular and mitochondrial

  17. Comparison of mitochondrial genomes provides insights into intron dynamics and evolution in the caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Guozhen; Liu, Xingzhong; Wang, Chengshu; Xu, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Intra-specific comparison of mitochondrial genomes can help elucidate the evolution of a species, however it has not been performed for hypocrealean fungi that form diverse symbiotic associations with other organisms. In this study, comparative analyses of three completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes of a hypocrealean fungus, Cordyceps militaris, the type species of Cordyceps genus, revealed that the introns were the main contributors to mitochondrial genome size variations among strains. Mitochondrial genes in C. militaris have been invaded by group I introns in at least eight positions. PCR assays of various C. militaris isolates showed abundant variations of intron presence/absence among strains at seven of the eight intronic loci. Although the ancestral intron pattern was inferred to contain all eight introns, loss and/or gain events occurred for seven of the eight introns. These introns invaded the C. militaris mitochondrial genome probably by horizontal transfer from other fungi, and intron insertions into intronless genes in C. militaris were accompanied by co-conversions of upstream exon sequences especially for those introns targeting protein-coding genes. We also detected phylogenetic congruence between the intron and exon trees at each individual locus, consistent with the ancestral mitochondria of C. militaris as having all eight introns. This study helps to explain the evolution of C. militaris mitochondrial genomes and will facilitate population genetic studies of this medicinally important fungus. PMID:25896956

  18. SLC25A46 is required for mitochondrial lipid homeostasis and cristae maintenance and is responsible for Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janer, Alexandre; Prudent, Julien; Paupe, Vincent; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Majewski, Jacek; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Des Rosiers, Christine; Forest, Anik; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Mitchell, Grant; McBride, Heidi M; Shoubridge, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria form a dynamic network that responds to physiological signals and metabolic stresses by altering the balance between fusion and fission. Mitochondrial fusion is orchestrated by conserved GTPases MFN1/2 and OPA1, a process coordinated in yeast by Ugo1, a mitochondrial metabolite carrier family protein. We uncovered a homozygous missense mutation in SLC25A46, the mammalian orthologue of Ugo1, in a subject with Leigh syndrome. SLC25A46 is an integral outer membrane protein that interacts with MFN2, OPA1, and the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex. The subject mutation destabilizes the protein, leading to mitochondrial hyperfusion, alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology, impaired cellular respiration, and premature cellular senescence. The MICOS complex is disrupted in subject fibroblasts, resulting in strikingly abnormal mitochondrial architecture, with markedly shortened cristae. SLC25A46 also interacts with the ER membrane protein complex EMC, and phospholipid composition is altered in subject mitochondria. These results show that SLC25A46 plays a role in a mitochondrial/ER pathway that facilitates lipid transfer, and link altered mitochondrial dynamics to early-onset neurodegenerative disease and cell fate decisions. PMID:27390132

  19. Mitochondrial flashes: new insights into mitochondrial ROS signalling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory mitochondria undergo stochastic, intermittent bursts of superoxide production accompanied by transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reversible opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. These discrete events were named 'superoxide flashes' for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal involved, and 'mitochondrial flashes' (mitoflashes) for the entirety of the multifaceted and intertwined mitochondrial processes. In contrast to the flashless basal ROS production of 'homeostatic ROS' for redox regulation, bursting ROS production during mitoflashes may provide 'signalling ROS' at the organelle level, fulfilling distinctly different cell functions. Mounting evidence indicates that mitoflash frequency is richly regulated over a broad range, and represents a novel, universal, and 'digital' readout of mitochondrial functional status and of the mitochondrial stress response. An emerging view is that mitoflashes participate in vital processes including metabolism, cell differentiation, the stress response and ageing. These recent advances shed new light on the role of mitochondrial functional dynamics in health and disease. PMID:25038239

  20. Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:19703392

  1. Integrated analysis of the involvement of nitric oxide synthesis in mitochondrial proliferation, mitochondrial deficiency and apoptosis in skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Gabriela Silva; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Kiyomoto, Beatriz Hitomi; Gamba, Juliana; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Schmidt, Beny; Tengan, Célia Harumi

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling messenger involved in different mitochondrial processes but only few studies explored the participation of NO in mitochondrial abnormalities found in patients with genetic mitochondrial deficiencies. In this study we verified whether NO synthase (NOS) activity was altered in different types of mitochondrial abnormalities and whether changes in mitochondrial function and NOS activity could be associated with the induction of apoptosis. We performed a quantitative and integrated analysis of NOS activity in individual muscle fibres of patients with mitochondrial diseases, considering mitochondrial function (cytochrome-c-oxidase activity), mitochondrial content, mitochondrial DNA mutation and presence of apoptotic nuclei. Our results indicated that sarcolemmal NOS activity was increased in muscle fibres with mitochondrial proliferation, supporting the relevance of neuronal NOS in the mitochondrial biogenesis process. Sarcoplasmic NOS activity was reduced in cytochrome-c-oxidase deficient fibres, probably as a consequence of the involvement of NO in the regulation of the respiratory chain. Alterations in NOS activity or mitochondrial abnormalities were not predisposing factors to apoptotic nuclei. Taken together, our results show that NO can be considered a potential molecular target for strategies to increase mitochondrial content and indicate that this approach may not be associated with increased apoptotic events. PMID:26856437

  2. Mitochondrial DNA with a large-scale deletion causes two distinct mitochondrial disease phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Katada, Shun; Mito, Takayuki; Ogasawara, Emi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakada, Kazuto

    2013-09-01

    Studies in patients have suggested that the clinical phenotypes of some mitochondrial diseases might transit from one disease to another (e.g., Pearson syndrome [PS] to Kearns-Sayre syndrome) in single individuals carrying mitochondrial (mt) DNA with a common deletion (ΔmtDNA), but there is no direct experimental evidence for this. To determine whether ΔmtDNA has the pathologic potential to induce multiple mitochondrial disease phenotypes, we used trans-mitochondrial mice with a heteroplasmic state of wild-type mtDNA and ΔmtDNA (mito-miceΔ). Late-stage embryos carrying ≥50% ΔmtDNA showed abnormal hematopoiesis and iron metabolism in livers that were partly similar to PS (PS-like phenotypes), although they did not express sideroblastic anemia that is a typical symptom of PS. More than half of the neonates with PS-like phenotypes died by 1 month after birth, whereas the rest showed a decrease of ΔmtDNA load in the affected tissues, peripheral blood and liver, and they recovered from PS-like phenotypes. The proportion of ΔmtDNA in various tissues of the surviving mito-miceΔ increased with time, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome-like phenotypes were expressed when the proportion of mtDNA in various tissues reached >70-80%. Our model mouse study clearly showed that a single ΔmtDNA was responsible for at least two distinct disease phenotypes at different ages and suggested that the level and dynamics of mtDNA load in affected tissues would be important for the onset and transition of mitochondrial disease phenotypes in mice. PMID:23853091

  3. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20–40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  4. Mitochondrial vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-05-26

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  5. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  6. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  7. Maternal diabetes causes abnormal dynamic changes of endoplasmic reticulum during mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse effects of maternal diabetes on oocyte maturation and embryo development have been reported. Methods In this study, we used time-lapse live cell imaging confocal microscopy to investigate the dynamic changes of ER and the effects of diabetes on the ER’s structural dynamics during oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. Results We report that the ER first became remodeled into a dense ring around the developing MI spindle, and then surrounded the spindle during migration to the cortex. ER reorganization during mouse early embryo development was characterized by striking localization around the pronuclei in the equatorial section, in addition to larger areas of fluorescence deeper within the cytoplasm. In contrast, in diabetic mice, the ER displayed a significantly higher percentage of homogeneous distribution patterns throughout the entire ooplasm during oocyte maturation and early embryo development. In addition, a higher frequency of large ER aggregations was detected in GV oocytes and two cell embryos from diabetic mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the diabetic condition adversely affects the ER distribution pattern during mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo development. PMID:23597066

  8. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Yeast Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional mRNA Oscillatory Modules

    PubMed Central

    Lelandais, Gaëlle; Saint-Georges, Yann; Geneix, Colette; Al-Shikhley, Liza; Dujardin, Geneviève; Jacq, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Examples of metabolic rhythms have recently emerged from studies of budding yeast. High density microarray analyses have produced a remarkably detailed picture of cycling gene expression that could be clustered according to metabolic functions. We developed a model-based approach for the decomposition of expression to analyze these data and to identify functional modules which, expressed sequentially and periodically, contribute to the complex and intricate mitochondrial architecture. This approach revealed that mitochondrial spatio-temporal modules are expressed during periodic spikes and specific cellular localizations, which cover the entire oscillatory period. For instance, assembly factors (32 genes) and translation regulators (47 genes) are expressed earlier than the components of the amino-acid synthesis pathways (31 genes). In addition, we could correlate the expression modules identified with particular post-transcriptional properties. Thus, mRNAs of modules expressed “early” are mostly translated in the vicinity of mitochondria under the control of the Puf3p mRNA-binding protein. This last spatio-temporal module concerns mostly mRNAs coding for basic elements of mitochondrial construction: assembly and regulatory factors. Prediction that unknown genes from this module code for important elements of mitochondrial biogenesis is supported by experimental evidence. More generally, these observations underscore the importance of post-transcriptional processes in mitochondrial biogenesis, highlighting close connections between nuclear transcription and cytoplasmic site-specific translation. PMID:19521515

  9. Mitochondrial Morphology in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are the cellular energy-producing organelles and are at the crossroad of determining cell life and death. As such, the function of mitochondria has been intensely studied in metabolic disorders, including diabetes and associated maladies commonly grouped under all-inclusive pathological condition of metabolic syndrome. More recently, the altered metabolic profiles and function of mitochondria in these ailments have been correlated with their aberrant morphologies. This review describes an overview of mitochondrial fission and fusion machineries, and discusses implications of mitochondrial morphology and function in these metabolic maladies. Recent Advances: Mitochondria undergo frequent morphological changes, altering the mitochondrial network organization in response to environmental cues, termed mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission and fusion mediate morphological plasticity of mitochondria and are controlled by membrane-remodeling mechanochemical enzymes and accessory proteins. Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in diabetes establishment and progression as well as associated ailments, including, but not limited to, metabolism–secretion coupling in the pancreas, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Critical Issues: While mitochondrial dynamics are intimately associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics, their cause-and-effect correlation remains undefined in metabolic diseases. Future Directions: The involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in metabolic diseases is in its relatively early stages. Elucidating the role of mitochondrial dynamics in pathological metabolic conditions will aid in defining the intricate form–function correlation of mitochondria in metabolic pathologies and should provide not only important clues to metabolic disease progression, but also new therapeutic targets. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 415–430. PMID:22793999

  10. Abnormal UP/DOWN Membrane Potential Dynamics Coupled with the Neocortical Slow Oscillation in Dentate Granule Cells during the Latent Phase of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy123

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, David W.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Marti, Geoffrey; Robbe, David; Crépel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, a major entry point to the hippocampus, gates (or filters) incoming information from the cortex. During sleep or anesthesia, the slow-wave oscillation (SWO) orchestrates hippocampus–neocortex communication, which is important for memory formation. The dentate gate is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) early during epileptogenesis, which favors the propagation of pathological activities. Yet, whether the gating of physiological SWO by dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered in TLE has remained unexplored. We combined intracellular recordings of membrane potential (Vm) of DGCs and local field potential recordings of the SWO in parietal cortex in anesthetized rats early during epileptogenesis [post-status epilepticus (SE) rats]. As expected, in control rats, the Vm of DGCs weakly and rarely oscillated in the SWO frequency range. In contrast, in post-SE rats, the Vm of DGCs displayed strong and long-lasting SWO. In these cells, clear UP and DOWN states, in phase with the neocortical SWO, led to a bimodal Vm distribution. In post-SE rats, the firing of DGCs was increased and more temporally modulated by the neocortical SWO. We conclude that UP/DOWN state dynamics dominate the Vm of DGCs and firing early during epileptogenesis. This abnormally strong neocortical influence on the dynamics of DGCs may profoundly modify the hippocampus–neocortex dialogue during sleep and associated cognitive functions. PMID:27257629

  11. A highly abnormal massive star mass function in the Orion Nebula cluster and the dynamical decay of trapezium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2006-11-01

    The Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) appears to be unusual on two grounds: the observed constellation of the OB stars of the entire ONC and its Trapezium at its centre implies a time-scale problem given the age of the Trapezium, and an initial mass function (IMF) problem for the whole OB star population in the ONC. Given the estimated crossing time of the Trapezium, it ought to have totally dynamically decayed by now. Furthermore, by combining the lower limit of the ONC mass with a standard IMF it emerges that the ONC should have formed at least about 40 stars heavier than 5 Msolar while only 10 are observed. Using the N-body experiments we (i) confirm the expected instability of the Trapezium and (ii) show that beginning with a compact OB-star configuration of about 40 stars both the number of observed OB stars after 1 Myr within 1 pc radius and a compact trapezium configuration can be reproduced. These two empirical constraints thus support our estimate of 40 initial OB stars in the cluster. Interestingly, a more-evolved version of the ONC resembles the Upper Scorpius OB association. The N-body experiments are performed with the new C-code CATENA by integrating the equations of motion using the chain-multiple-regularization method. In addition, we present a new numerical formulation of the IMF.

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Michelle L.; Chourasia, Aparajita H.; Macleod, Kay F.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability, and other established aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the significance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis, and spatial dynamics of mitochondria and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knock on effects for cell proliferation and growth. We define major forms of mitochondrial dysfunction and address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24350057

  13. Mutant Huntingtin and Elusive Defects in Oxidative Metabolism and Mitochondrial Calcium Handling.

    PubMed

    Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2016-07-01

    Elongation of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in huntingtin protein (Htt) is linked to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. The mutation in Htt correlates with neuronal dysfunction in the striatum and cerebral cortex and eventually leads to neuronal cell death. The exact mechanisms of the injurious effect of mutant Htt (mHtt) on neurons are not completely understood but might include aberrant gene transcription, defective autophagy, abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis, anomalous mitochondrial dynamics, and trafficking. In addition, deficiency in oxidative metabolism and defects in mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling are considered essential contributing factors to neuronal dysfunction in HD and, consequently, in HD pathogenesis. Since the discovery of the mutation in Htt, the questions whether mHtt affects oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and, if it does, what mechanisms could be involved were in focus of numerous investigations. However, despite significant research efforts, the detrimental effect of mHtt and the mechanisms by which mHtt might impair oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling remain elusive. In this paper, I will briefly review studies aimed at clarifying the consequences of mHtt interaction with mitochondria and discuss experimental results supporting or arguing against the mHtt effects on oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. PMID:25941077

  14. Mitochondrial fission is an acute and adaptive response in injured motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Tamada, Hiromi; Kato, Yukina; Yasuda, Katsura; Ishihara, Naotada; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Successful recovery from neuronal damage requires a huge energy supply, which is provided by mitochondria. However, the physiological relevance of mitochondrial dynamics in damaged neurons in vivo is poorly understood. To address this issue, we established unique bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (BAC Tg) mice, which develop and function normally, but in which neuronal injury induces labelling of mitochondria with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression of cre recombinase. GFP-labelled mitochondria in BAC Tg mice appear shorter in regenerating motor axons soon after nerve injury compared with mitochondria in non-injured axons, suggesting the importance of increased mitochondrial fission during the early phase of nerve regeneration. Crossing the BAC Tg mice with mice carrying a floxed dynamin-related protein 1 gene (Drp1), which is necessary for mitochondrial fission, ablates mitochondrial fission specifically in injured neurons. Injury-induced Drp1-deficient motor neurons show elongated or abnormally gigantic mitochondria, which have impaired membrane potential and axonal transport velocity during the early phase after injury, and eventually promote neuronal death. Our in vivo data suggest that acute and prominent mitochondrial fission during the early stage after nerve injury is an adaptive response and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial and neuronal integrity to prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:27319806

  15. The Role of Mitochondrial Functional Proteins in ROS Production in Ischemic Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) have become the leading cause of death around the world, killing more than 7 million people annually. In IHD, the blockage of coronary vessels will cause irreversible cell injury and even death. As the “powerhouse” and “apoptosis center” in cardiomyocytes, mitochondria play critical roles in IHD. Ischemia insult can reduce myocardial ATP content, resulting in energy stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, mitochondrial abnormality has been identified as a hallmark of multiple cardiovascular disorders. To date, many studies have suggested that these mitochondrial proteins, such as electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, uncoupling proteins (UCPs), mitochondrial dynamic proteins, translocases of outer membrane (Tom) complex, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), can directly or indirectly influence mitochondria-originated ROS production, consequently determining the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial impairment. Here, the focus of this review is to summarize the present understanding of the relationship between some mitochondrial functional proteins and ROS production in IHD. PMID:27119006

  16. Mitochondrial fission is an acute and adaptive response in injured motor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kiryu-Seo, Sumiko; Tamada, Hiromi; Kato, Yukina; Yasuda, Katsura; Ishihara, Naotada; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Successful recovery from neuronal damage requires a huge energy supply, which is provided by mitochondria. However, the physiological relevance of mitochondrial dynamics in damaged neurons in vivo is poorly understood. To address this issue, we established unique bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (BAC Tg) mice, which develop and function normally, but in which neuronal injury induces labelling of mitochondria with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression of cre recombinase. GFP-labelled mitochondria in BAC Tg mice appear shorter in regenerating motor axons soon after nerve injury compared with mitochondria in non-injured axons, suggesting the importance of increased mitochondrial fission during the early phase of nerve regeneration. Crossing the BAC Tg mice with mice carrying a floxed dynamin-related protein 1 gene (Drp1), which is necessary for mitochondrial fission, ablates mitochondrial fission specifically in injured neurons. Injury-induced Drp1-deficient motor neurons show elongated or abnormally gigantic mitochondria, which have impaired membrane potential and axonal transport velocity during the early phase after injury, and eventually promote neuronal death. Our in vivo data suggest that acute and prominent mitochondrial fission during the early stage after nerve injury is an adaptive response and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial and neuronal integrity to prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:27319806

  17. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and markers of dynamics in hepatocytes from aged, calorie restricted mice fed with different dietary fats

    PubMed Central

    Khraiwesh, Husam; López-Domínguez, José A.; del Río, Lucía Fernández; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J.; Burón, María I.; Villalba, José M.; González-Reyes, José A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed changes in hepatocyte mitochondrial mass and ultrastructure as well as in mitochondrial markers of fission/fusion and biogenesis in mice subjected to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 18 months versus ad libitum-fed controls. Animals subjected to CR were separated into three groups with different dietary fats: soybean oil (also in controls),fish oil and lard. Therefore, the effect of the dietary fat under CR was studied as well. Our results show that CR induced changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte. Also, mean number of mitochondrial cristae and lengths were significantly higher in all CR groups compared with controls. Finally, CR had no remarkable effects on the expression levels of fission and fusion protein markers. However, considerable differences in many of these parameters were found when comparing the CR groups, supporting the idea that dietary fat plays a relevant role in the modulation of CR effects in aged mice. PMID:24704714

  18. The Biarzo case in northern Italy: is the temporal dynamic of swine mitochondrial DNA lineages in Europe related to domestication?

    PubMed Central

    Vai, Stefania; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; Romandini, Matteo; Benazzo, Andrea; Visentini, Paola; Modolo, Marta; Bertolini, Marco; MacQueen, Peggy; Austin, Jeremy; Cooper, Alan; Caramelli, David; Lari, Martina; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-based reconstructions of the history of pig domestication in Europe are based on two major pillars: 1) the temporal changes of mitochondrial DNA lineages are related to domestication; 2) Near Eastern haplotypes which appeared and then disappeared in some sites across Europe are genetic markers of the first Near Eastern domestic pigs. We typed a small but informative fragment of the mitochondrial DNA in 23 Sus scrofa samples from a site in north eastern Italy (Biarzo shelter) which provides a continuous record across a ≈6,000 year time frame from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. We additionally carried out several radiocarbon dating. We found that a rapid mitochondrial DNA turnover occurred during the Mesolithic, suggesting that substantial changes in the composition of pig mitochondrial lineages can occur naturally across few millennia independently of domestication processes. Moreover, so-called Near Eastern haplotypes were present here at least two millennia before the arrival of Neolithic package in the same area. Consequently, we recommend a re-evaluation of the previous idea that Neolithic farmers introduced pigs domesticated in the Near East, and that Mesolithic communities acquired domestic pigs via cultural exchanges, to include the possibility of a more parsimonious hypothesis of local domestication in Europe. PMID:26549464

  19. Lipid metabolism in mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial membranes have a unique lipid composition necessary for proper shape and function of the organelle. Mitochondrial lipid metabolism involves biosynthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol, the latter is a precursor of the late endosomal lipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. It also includes mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis necessary for the formation of the lipid cofactor lipoic acid. Furthermore the synthesis of coenzyme Q takes place in mitochondria as well as essential parts of the steroid and vitamin D metabolism. Lipid transport and remodelling, which are necessary for tailoring and maintaining specific membrane properties, are just partially unravelled. Mitochondrial lipids are involved in organelle maintenance, fission and fusion, mitophagy and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis. Mutations in TAZ, SERAC1 and AGK affect mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism and cause Barth syndrome, MEGDEL and Sengers syndrome, respectively. In these disorders an abnormal mitochondrial energy metabolism was found, which seems to be due to disturbed protein-lipid interactions, affecting especially enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation. Since a growing number of enzymes and transport processes are recognised as parts of the mitochondrial lipid metabolism, a further increase of lipid-related disorders can be expected. PMID:25082432

  20. Modulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1

    SciTech Connect

    Kieper, Nicole; Holmstroem, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Wolburg, Hartwig; Ziviani, Elena; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Kahle, Philipp J.; Krueger, Rejko

    2010-04-15

    Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    of human diseases arising from defects in mitochondrial ion and ROS homeostasis, energy production and morphology [1]. Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a very good example of this important mitochondrial component on neurodegenerative diseases. Anuradha Yadav, Swati Agrawal, Shashi Kant Tiwari, and Rajnish K. Chaturvedi (CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research / Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, India) [6] remark in their review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD with special focus on the role of oxidative stress and bioenergetic deficits. These alterations may have their origin on pathogenic gene mutations in important genes such as DJ-1, -syn, parkin, PINK1 or LRRK2. These mutations, in turn, may cause defects in mitochondrial dynamics (key events like fission/fusion, biogenesis, trafficking in retrograde and anterograde directions, and mitophagy). This work reviews different strategies to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics in order to ameliorate the neurodegenerative process, with an emphasis on clinical trials reports that indicate their potential. Among them creatine, Coenzyme Q10 and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants/peptides are reported to have the most remarkable effects in clinical trials. They highlight a dual effect of PGC-1α expression on PD prognosis. Whereas a modest expression of this transcriptional co-activator results in positive effects, a moderate to substantial overexpession may have deleterious consequences. As strategies to induce PGC-1α activation, these authors remark the possibility to activate Sirt1 with resveratrol, to use PPAR agonists such as pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, fenofibrate and bezafibrate. Other strategies include the triggering of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway by triterpenoids (derivatives of oleanolic acid) or by Bacopa monniera, the enhancement of ATP production by carnitine and -lipoic acid. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are the prime source of neurodegenerative diseases and

  2. Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Mock

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria contain the respiratory chain enzyme complexes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation and produce the main part of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Although several proteins related with signalling, assembling, transporting, and enzymatic function can be impaired in mitochondrial diseases, most frequently the activity of the respiratory chain protein complexes is primarily or secondarily affected, leading to impaired oxygen utilization and reduced energy production. Mitochondrial diseases usually show a chronic, slowly progressive course and present with multiorgan involvement with varying onset between birth and late adulthood. Neuromuscular system is frequently affected in mitochondrial diseases. Although there is actually no specific therapy and cure for mitochondrial diseases, the understanding of the pathophysiology may further facilitate the diagnostic approach and open perspectives to future in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:24649452

  3. Mitochondrial cytopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Most of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear DNA (nDNA) whereas a very small fraction is encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes can result in mitochondrial dysfunction which leads to a wide range of cellular perturbations including aberrant calcium homeostasis, excessive reactive oxygen species production, dysregulated apoptosis, and insufficient energy generation to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy demand. Impaired mitochondrial function in various tissues and organs results in the multi-organ manifestations of mitochondrial diseases including epilepsy, intellectual disability, skeletal and cardiac myopathies, hepatopathies, endocrinopathies, and nephropathies. Defects in nDNA genes can be inherited in an autosomal or X-linked manners, whereas, mtDNA is maternally inherited. Mitochondrial diseases can result from mutations of nDNA genes encoding subunits of the electron transport chain complexes or their assembly factors, proteins associated with the mitochondrial import or networking, mitochondrial translation factors, or proteins involved in mtDNA maintenance. MtDNA defects can be either point mutations or rearrangements. The diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders can be challenging in many cases and is based on clinical recognition, biochemical screening, histopathological studies, functional studies, and molecular genetic testing. Currently, there are no satisfactory therapies available for mitochondrial disorders that significantly alter the course of the disease. Therapeutic options include symptomatic treatment, cofactor supplementation, and exercise. PMID:26996063

  4. Fus1/Tusc2 Is a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Calcium Handling, Ca2+-Coupled Mitochondrial Processes, and Ca2+-Dependent NFAT and NF-κB Pathways in CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Uzhachenko, Roman; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Shanker, Anil; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Fus1 has been established as mitochondrial tumor suppressor, immunomodulator, and antioxidant protein, but molecular mechanism of these activities remained to be identified. Based on putative calcium-binding and myristoyl-binding domains that we identified in Fus1, we explored our hypothesis that Fus1 regulates mitochondrial calcium handling and calcium-coupled processes. Results: Fus1 loss resulted in reduced rate of mitochondrial calcium uptake in calcium-loaded epithelial cells, splenocytes, and activated CD4+ T cells. The reduced rate of mitochondrial calcium uptake in Fus1-deficient cells correlated with cytosolic calcium increase and dysregulation of calcium-coupled mitochondrial parameters, such as reactive oxygen species production, ΔμH+, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and GSH content. Inhibition of calcium efflux via mitochondria, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger significantly improved the mitochondrial calcium uptake in Fus1−/− cells. Ex vivo analysis of activated CD4+ T cells showed Fus1-dependent changes in calcium-regulated processes, such as surface expression of CD4 and PD1/PD-L1, proliferation, and Th polarization. Fus1−/− T cells showed increased basal expression of calcium-dependent NF-κB and NFAT targets but were unable to fully activate these pathways after stimulation. Innovation: Our results establish Fus1 as one of the few identified regulators of mitochondrial calcium handling. Our data support the idea that alterations in mitochondrial calcium dynamics could lead to the disruption of metabolic coupling in mitochondria that, in turn, may result in multiple cellular and systemic abnormalities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Fus1 achieves its protective role in inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer via the regulation of mitochondrial calcium and calcium-coupled parameters. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1533–1547. PMID:24328503

  5. Pharmacological approaches to restore mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Andreux, Pénélope A.; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Auwerx, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only a hallmark of rare inherited mitochondrial disorders, but is also implicated in age-related diseases, including those that affect the metabolic and nervous system, such as type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Numerous pathways maintain and/or restore proper mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. New and powerful phenotypic assays in cell-based models, as well as multicellular organisms, have been developed to explore these different aspects of mitochondrial function. Modulating mitochondrial function has therefore emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases, which has spurred active drug discovery efforts in this area. PMID:23666487

  6. Visible Light-Controlled Nitric Oxide Release from Hindered Nitrobenzene Derivatives for Specific Modulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kai; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Ieda, Naoya; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2016-05-20

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiological signaling molecule, whose biological production is precisely regulated at the subcellular level. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel mitochondria-targeted NO releasers, Rol-DNB-mor and Rol-DNB-pyr, that are photocontrollable not only in the UV wavelength range but also in the biologically favorable visible wavelength range (530-590 nm). These caged NO compounds consist of a hindered nitrobenzene as the NO-releasing moiety and a rhodamine chromophore. Their NO-release properties were characterized by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method and fluorometric analysis using NO probes, and their mitochondrial localization in live cells was confirmed by costaining. Furthermore, we demonstrated visible light control of mitochondrial fragmentation via activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) by means of precisely controlled NO delivery into mitochondria of cultured HEK293 cells, utilizing Rol-DNB-pyr. PMID:26878937

  7. Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics and the Muscle Transcriptome in ICU Patients Suffering from Sepsis Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Katarina; Tjäder, Inga; Keller, Pernille; Petrovic, Natasa; Ahlman, Bo; Schéele, Camilla; Wernerman, Jan; Timmons, James A.; Rooyackers, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Background Septic patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) often develop multiple organ failure including persistent skeletal muscle dysfunction which results in the patient's protracted recovery process. We have demonstrated that muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities are impaired in septic ICU patients impairing cellular energy balance, which will interfere with muscle function and metabolism. Here we use detailed phenotyping and genomics to elucidate mechanisms leading to these impairments and the molecular consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilising biopsy material from seventeen patients and ten age-matched controls we demonstrate that neither mitochondrial in vivo protein synthesis nor expression of mitochondrial genes are compromised. Indeed, there was partial activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway involving NRF2α/GABP and its target genes TFAM, TFB1M and TFB2M yet clearly this failed to maintain mitochondrial function. We therefore utilised transcript profiling and pathway analysis of ICU patient skeletal muscle to generate insight into the molecular defects driving loss of muscle function and metabolic homeostasis. Gene ontology analysis of Affymetrix analysis demonstrated substantial loss of muscle specific genes, a global oxidative stress response related to most probably cytokine signalling, altered insulin related signalling and a substantial overlap between patients and muscle wasting/inflammatory animal models. MicroRNA 21 processing appeared defective suggesting that post-transcriptional protein synthesis regulation is altered by disruption of tissue microRNA expression. Finally, we were able to demonstrate that the phenotype of skeletal muscle in ICU patients is not merely one of inactivity, it appears to be an actively remodelling tissue, influenced by several mediators, all of which may be open to manipulation with the aim to improve clinical outcome. Conclusions/Significance This first combined protein and

  8. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  10. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    MedlinePlus

    ... line and are therefore called the electron transport chain, and complex V actually churns out ATP, so ... coQ10 , is a component of the electron transport chain, which uses oxygen to manufacture ATP. Some mitochondrial ...

  11. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are small structures that produce energy in ...

  12. Mitochondrial Myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with ragged-red fibers, and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes. The symptoms of ... riboflavin, coenzyme Q, and carnitine (a specialized amino acid) may provide subjective improvement in fatigue and energy ...

  13. Redox regulation of mitochondrial fission, protein misfolding, synaptic damage, and neuronal cell death: potential implications for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Normal mitochondrial dynamics consist of fission and fusion events giving rise to new mitochondria, a process termed mitochondrial biogenesis. However, several neurodegenerative disorders manifest aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in morphological abnormalities often associated with deficits in mitochondrial mobility and cell bioenergetics. Rarely, dysfunctional mitochondrial occur in a familial pattern due to genetic mutations, but much more commonly patients manifest sporadic forms of mitochondrial disability presumably related to a complex set of interactions of multiple genes (or their products) with environmental factors (G × E). Recent studies have shown that generation of excessive nitric oxide (NO), in part due to generation of oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein or overactivity of the NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptor, can augment mitochondrial fission, leading to frank fragmentation of the mitochondria. S-Nitrosylation, a covalent redox reaction of NO with specific protein thiol groups, represents one mechanism contributing to NO-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, bioenergetic failure, synaptic damage, and eventually neuronal apoptosis. Here, we summarize our evidence in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and animal models showing that NO contributes to mitochondrial fragmentation via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a protein involved in mitochondrial fission. These findings may provide a new target for drug development in AD. Additionally, we review emerging evidence that redox reactions triggered by excessive levels of NO can contribute to protein misfolding, the hallmark of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and Parkinson’s disease. For example, S-nitrosylation of parkin disrupts its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and thereby affects Lewy body formation and neuronal cell death. PMID:20177970

  14. Mitochondrial genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation. Areas of agreement The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases. Areas of controversy The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated. Growing points Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease. PMID:23704099

  15. The Parkinson Disease Mitochondrial Hypothesis: Where Are We at?

    PubMed

    Franco-Iborra, Sandra; Vila, Miquel; Perier, Celine

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder whose pathogenesis is still under intense investigation. Substantial evidence from postmortem human brain tissue, genetic- and toxin-induced animal and cellular models indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review discusses our current understanding of Parkinson's disease-related mitochondrial dysfunction, including bioenergetic defects, mitochondrial DNA alterations, altered mitochondrial dynamics, activation of mitochondrial-dependent programmed cell death, and perturbations in mitochondrial tethering to the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether a primary or secondary event, mitochondrial dysfunction holds promise as a potential therapeutic target to halt the progression of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25761946

  16. Mutant SOD1G93A Triggers Mitochondrial Fragmentation in Spinal Cord Motor Neurons: Neuroprotection by SIRT3 and PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjun; Song, Yuting; Kincaid, Brad; Bossy, Blaise; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) gene cause an inherited form of ALS with upper and lower motor neuron loss. The mechanism underlying mutant SOD1-mediated motor neuron degeneration remains unclear. While defects in mitochondrial dynamics contribute to neurodegeneration, including ALS, previous reports remain conflicted. Here, we report an improved technique to isolate, transfect, and culture rat spinal cord motor neurons. Using this improved system, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1G93A triggers a significant decrease in mitochondrial length and an accumulation of round fragmented mitochondria. The increase of fragmented mitochondria coincides with an arrest in both anterograde and retrograde axonal transport and increased cell death. In addition, mutant SOD1G93A induces a reduction in neurite length and branching that is accompanied with an abnormal accumulation of round mitochondria in growth cones. Furthermore, restoration of the mitochondrial fission and fusion balance by dominant-negative dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) expression rescues the mutant SOD1G93A-induced defects in mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, and cell viability. Interestingly, both SIRT3 and PGC-1α protect against mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal cell death by mutant SOD1G93A. This data suggests that impairment in mitochondrial dynamics participates in ALS and restoring this defect might provide protection against mutant SOD1G93A-induced neuronal injury. PMID:22819776

  17. Sleep Disorders Associated with Primary Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Ryan J.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Primary mitochondrial diseases are caused by heritable or spontaneous mutations in nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Such pathological mutations are relatively common in humans and may lead to neurological and neuromuscular complication that could compromise normal sleep behavior. To gain insight into the potential impact of primary mitochondrial disease and sleep pathology, we reviewed the relevant English language literature in which abnormal sleep was reported in association with a mitochondrial disease. Design: We examined publications reported in Web of Science and PubMed from February 1976 through January 2014, and identified 54 patients with a proven or suspected primary mitochondrial disorder who were evaluated for sleep disturbances. Measurements and Results: Both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA mutations were associated with abnormal sleep patterns. Most subjects who underwent polysomnography had central sleep apnea, and only 5 patients had obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four patients showed decreased ventilatory drive in response to hypoxia and/or hypercapnia that was not considered due to weakness of the intrinsic muscles of respiration. Conclusions: Sleep pathology may be an underreported complication of primary mitochondrial diseases. The probable underlying mechanism is cellular energy failure causing both central neurological and peripheral neuromuscular degenerative changes that commonly present as central sleep apnea and poor ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Increased recognition of the genetics and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases by sleep researchers and clinicians is important in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with sleep disturbances. Prospective population-based studies are required to determine the true prevalence of mitochondrial energy failure in subjects with sleep disorders, and conversely, of individuals with primary mitochondrial diseases and sleep pathology. Citation: Ramezani RJ

  18. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  19. Historical Perspective on Mitochondrial Medicine

    PubMed Central

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Garone, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we trace the origins and follow the development of mitochondrial medicine from the pre-molecular era (1962-1988) based on clinical clues, muscle morphology, and biochemistry into the molecular era that started in 1988 and is still advancing at a brisk pace. We have tried to stress conceptual advances, such as endosymbiosis, uniparental inheritance, intergenomic signaling and its defects, and mitochondrial dynamics. We hope that this historical review also provides an update on mitochondrial medicine, although we fully realize that the speed of progress in this area makes any such endeavor akin to writing on water. PMID:20818724

  20. Novel targets for mitochondrial medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wang; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Tian, Rong

    2016-02-17

    Mitochondria-classically viewed as the powerhouses of the cell-have taken center stage in disease pathogenesis and resolution. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which originates from primary defects within the organelle or is induced by environmental stresses, plays a critical role in human disease. Despite their central role in human health and disease, there are no approved drugs that directly target mitochondria. We present possible new druggable targets in mitochondrial biology, including protein modification, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) transport, and dynamics, as we move into a new era of mitochondrial medicine. PMID:26888432

  1. Infantile mitochondrial disorder associated with subclinical hypothyroidism is caused by a rare mitochondrial DNA 8691A>G mutation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaosheng; Liu, Songyan; Wu, Xuemei; Hao, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinbo

    2015-07-01

    Mitochondrial diseases, ~15% of cases, are because of mitochondrial DNA mutations. This study reported a case of an 11-month-old male infant with mitochondrial disease characteristics and subclinical hypothyroidism (a high thyrotropin level). Laboratory tests were all normal and the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV were normal. However, thyroid tests showed abnormal results, and complex V showed a deficiency activity of 52.8% of the low limit of healthy individuals (normal activity is >60.7%). The patient experienced convulsions, and the 24-h ambulatory electroencephalography results showed abnormalities, but the electromyography results were normal. Axial brain MRI showed abnormal dysplasia over the white matter myelination in the bilateral horn of the lateral ventricle. Furthermore, DNA sequencing data showed a novel mutation at 8691A>G of the mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene. This case adds to the growing literature of mitochondrial disorders caused by mitochondrial ATPase 6 mutations. PMID:26053701

  2. Proteasome Impairment Induces Recovery of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and an Alternative Pathway of Mitochondrial Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shirozu, Ryohei; Yashiroda, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are vital and highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse and divide to maintain mitochondrial quality. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs cellular integrity and is known to be associated with various human diseases. However, the mechanism by which the quality of mitochondria is maintained remains largely unexplored. Here we show that impaired proteasome function recovers the growth of yeast cells lacking Fzo1, a pivotal protein for mitochondrial fusion. Decreased proteasome activity increased the mitochondrial oxidoreductase protein Mia40 and the ratio of the short isoform of mitochondrial intermembrane protein Mgm1 (s-Mgm1) to the long isoform (l-Mgm1). The increase in Mia40 restored mitochondrial membrane potential, while the increase in the s-Mgm1/l-Mgm1 ratio promoted mitochondrial fusion in an Fzo1-independent manner. Our findings demonstrate a new pathway for mitochondrial quality control that is induced by proteasome impairment. PMID:26552703

  3. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  4. Mitochondrial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Viewed through the lens of the genome it contains, the mitochondrion is of unquestioned bacterial ancestry, originating from within the bacterial phylum α-Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria). Accordingly, the endosymbiont hypothesis—the idea that the mitochondrion evolved from a bacterial progenitor via symbiosis within an essentially eukaryotic host cell—has assumed the status of a theory. Yet mitochondrial genome evolution has taken radically different pathways in diverse eukaryotic lineages, and the organelle itself is increasingly viewed as a genetic and functional mosaic, with the bulk of the mitochondrial proteome having an evolutionary origin outside Alphaproteobacteria. New data continue to reshape our views regarding mitochondrial evolution, particularly raising the question of whether the mitochondrion originated after the eukaryotic cell arose, as assumed in the classical endosymbiont hypothesis, or whether this organelle had its beginning at the same time as the cell containing it. PMID:22952398

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Valentin-Vega, Yasmine A; Maclean, Kirsteen H; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Milasta, Sandra; Steeves, Meredith; Dorsey, Frank C; Cleveland, John L; Green, Douglas R; Kastan, Michael B

    2012-02-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in DNA damage responses, and its loss leads to development of T-cell malignancies. Here, we show that ATM loss also leads to intrinsic mitochondrial abnormalities in thymocytes, including elevated reactive oxygen species, increased aberrant mitochondria, high cellular respiratory capacity, and decreased mitophagy. A fraction of ATM protein is localized in mitochondria, and it is rapidly activated by mitochondrial dysfunction. Unexpectedly, allelic loss of the autophagy regulator Beclin-1 significantly delayed tumor development in ATM-null mice. This effect was not associated with rescue of DNA damage signaling but rather with a significant reversal of the mitochondrial abnormalities. These data support a model in which ATM plays direct roles in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and associated increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species contribute to the cancer-prone phenotype observed in organisms lacking ATM. Thus, ataxia-telangiectasia should be considered, at least in part, as a mitochondrial disease. PMID:22144182

  6. Attenuation of Aβ toxicity by promotion of mitochondrial fusion in neuroblastoma cells by liquiritigenin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Doo Sin; Shin, Dong Woon; Park, So Jung; Bae, Ji-Eun; Kim, Joon Bum; Park, Na Yeon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su; Shin, Jung-Won; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics control mitochondrial morphology and function, and aberrations in these are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. To identify novel regulators of mitochondrial dynamics, we screened a phytochemical library and identified liquiritigenin as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fusion. Treatment with liquiritigenin induced an elongated mitochondrial morphology in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, liquiritigenin rescued mitochondrial fragmentation induced by knockout of mitochondrial fusion mediators such as Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa1. Furthermore, we found that treatment with liquiritigenin notably inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity induced by Aβ in SK-N-MC cells. PMID:27515055

  7. Maximal oxidative capacity during exercise is associated with skeletal muscle fuel selection and dynamic changes in mitochondrial protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Overmyer, Katherine A.; Evans, Charles R.; Qi, Nathan R.; Minogue, Catherine E.; Carson, Joshua J.; Chermside-Scabbo, Christopher J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Pagliarini, David J.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burant, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maximal exercise-associated oxidative capacity is strongly correlated with health and longevity in humans. Rats selectively bred for high running capacity (HCR) have improved metabolic health and are longer-lived than their low capacity counterparts (LCR). Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling, we show that HCR efficiently oxidize fatty acids (FA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), sparing glycogen and reducing accumulation of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines. HCR mitochondria have reduced acetylation of mitochondrial proteins within oxidative pathways at rest, and there is rapid protein deacetylation with exercise, which is greater in HCR than LCR. Fluxomic analysis of valine degradation with exercise demonstrates a functional role of differential protein acetylation in HCR and LCR. Our data suggest efficient FA and BCAA utilization contribute to high intrinsic exercise capacity and the health and longevity benefits associated with enhanced fitness. PMID:25738461

  8. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:27463140

  9. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  10. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  12. Nuclear HMGA1 nonhistone chromatin proteins directly influence mitochondrial transcription, maintenance, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, Gregory A.; Maloney, Scott C.; Reeves, Raymond . E-mail: reevesr@mail.wsu.edu

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins translocate from the nucleus to mitochondria and bind to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the D-loop control region [G.A. Dement, N.R. Treff, N.S. Magnuson, V. Franceschi, R. Reeves, Dynamic mitochondrial localization of nuclear transcription factor HMGA1, Exp. Cell Res. 307 (2005) 388-401.] [11]. To elucidate possible physiological roles for such binding, we employed methods to analyze mtDNA transcription, mitochondrial maintenance, and other organelle functions in transgenic human MCF-7 cells (HA7C) induced to over-express an HA-tagged HMGA1 protein and control (parental) MCF-7 cells. Quantitative real-time (RT) PCR analyses demonstrated that mtDNA levels were reduced approximately 2-fold in HMGA1 over-expressing HA7C cells and flow cytometric analyses further revealed that mitochondrial mass was significantly reduced in these cells. Cellular ATP levels were also reduced in HA7C cells and survival studies showed an increased sensitivity to killing by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glycolysis-specific inhibitor. Flow cytometric analyses revealed additional mitochondrial abnormalities in HA7C cells that are consistent with a cancerous phenotype: namely, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Additional RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that gene transcripts from both the heavy (ND2, COXI, ATP6) and light (ND6) strands of mtDNA were up-regulated approximately 3-fold in HA7C cells. Together, these mitochondrial changes are consistent with many previous reports and reveal several possible mechanisms by which HMGA1 over-expression, a common feature of naturally occurring cancers, may affect tumor progression.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial-Associated ER Membranes (MAM) during RNA Virus Infection Reveals Dynamic Changes in Protein and Organelle Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Stacy M.; Wilkins, Courtney; Badil, Samantha; Iskarpatyoti, Jason; Gale, Michael

    2015-01-01

    RIG-I pathway signaling of innate immunity against RNA virus infection is organized between the ER and mitochondria on a subdomain of the ER called the mitochondrial-associated ER membrane (MAM). The RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS transmits downstream signaling of antiviral immunity, with signaling complexes assembling on the MAM in association with mitochondria and peroxisomes. To identify components that regulate MAVS signalosome assembly on the MAM, we characterized the proteome of MAM, ER, and cytosol from cells infected with either chronic (hepatitis C) or acute (Sendai) RNA virus infections, as well as mock-infected cells. Comparative analysis of protein trafficking dynamics during both chronic and acute viral infection reveals differential protein profiles in the MAM during RIG-I pathway activation. We identified proteins and biochemical pathways recruited into and out of the MAM in both chronic and acute RNA viral infections, representing proteins that drive immunity and/or regulate viral replication. In addition, by using this comparative proteomics approach, we identified 3 new MAVS-interacting proteins, RAB1B, VTN, and LONP1, and defined LONP1 as a positive regulator of the RIG-I pathway. Our proteomic analysis also reveals a dynamic cross-talk between subcellular compartments during both acute and chronic RNA virus infection, and demonstrates the importance of the MAM as a central platform that coordinates innate immune signaling to initiate immunity against RNA virus infection. PMID:25734423

  14. Chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in pancreatic islets impair insulin secretion due to dysregulated calcium dynamics, glucose responsiveness and mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the progression towards diabetes, glucolipotoxicity is one of the main causes of pancreatic beta cell pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on cellular responses in pancreatic islets, including glucose and fat metabolism, Calcium mobilization, insulin secretion and insulin content. Results Exposure of islets to chronic glucolipotoxic conditions decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Reduced protein levels of Glut2/slc2a2, and decreased glucokinase and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA levels indicated a significant lowering in glucose sensing. Concomitantly, both fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation increased significantly while fatty acid oxidation decreased. This general suppression in glucose metabolism correlated well with a decrease in mitochondrial number and activity, reduction in cellular ATP content and dampening of the TCA cycle. Further, we also observed a decrease in IP3 levels and lower Calcium mobilization in response to glucose. Importantly, chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in vitro decreased insulin gene expression, insulin content, insulin granule docking (to the plasma membrane) and insulin secretion. Conclusions Our results present an integrated view of the effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on known and novel signaling events, in vitro, that results in reduced glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion. PMID:23815372

  15. Dynamic regulation of PGC-1α localization and turnover implicates mitochondrial adaptation in calorie restriction and the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Barger, Jamie L; Edwards, Michael G; Braun, Kristina H; O’Connor, Clare E; Prolla, Tomas A; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that longevity and stress resistance are connected, but the mechanism is unclear. We report that mitochondria are regulated in response to oxidative stress and calorie restriction through a shared mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). We demonstrate that PGC-1α subcellular distribution is regulated, and its transcriptional activity is promoted through SIRT1-dependent nuclear accumulation. In addition, the duration of PGC-1α activity is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β), which targets PGC-1α for intranuclear proteasomal degradation. This mechanism of regulation permits the rapidity and persistence of PGC-1α activation to be independently controlled. We provide evidence that this pathway of PGC-1α regulation occurs in vivo in mice, both in the oxidative stress response and with calorie restriction. Our data show how mitochondrial function may be adapted in response to external stimuli, and support the concept that such adaptation is critically involved in cellular survival and in lifespan extension by calorie restriction. PMID:18031569

  16. Redox modulation by S-nitrosylation contributes to protein misfolding, mitochondrial dynamics, and neuronal synaptic damage in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T; Lipton, S A

    2011-01-01

    The pathological processes of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases engender synaptic and neuronal cell damage. While mild oxidative and nitrosative (nitric oxide (NO)-related) stress mediates normal neuronal signaling, excessive accumulation of these free radicals is linked to neuronal cell injury or death. In neurons, N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation and subsequent Ca2+ influx can induce the generation of NO via neuronal NO synthase. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that S-nitrosylation, representing covalent reaction of an NO group with a critical protein thiol, mediates the vast majority of NO signaling. Analogous to phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications, S-nitrosylation can regulate the biological activity of many proteins. Here, we discuss recent studies that implicate neuropathogenic roles of S-nitrosylation in protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic injury, and eventual neuronal loss. Among a growing number of S-nitrosylated proteins that contribute to disease pathogenesis, in this review we focus on S-nitrosylated protein-disulfide isomerase (forming SNO-PDI) and dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1). Furthermore, we describe drugs, such as memantine and newer derivatives of this compound that can prevent both hyperactivation of extrasynaptic NMDARs as well as downstream pathways that lead to nitrosative stress, synaptic damage, and neuronal loss. PMID:21597461

  17. Redox modulation by S-nitrosylation contributes to protein misfolding, mitochondrial dynamics, and neuronal synaptic damage in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Lipton, S A

    2011-09-01

    The pathological processes of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases engender synaptic and neuronal cell damage. While mild oxidative and nitrosative (nitric oxide (NO)-related) stress mediates normal neuronal signaling, excessive accumulation of these free radicals is linked to neuronal cell injury or death. In neurons, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation and subsequent Ca(2+) influx can induce the generation of NO via neuronal NO synthase. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that S-nitrosylation, representing covalent reaction of an NO group with a critical protein thiol, mediates the vast majority of NO signaling. Analogous to phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications, S-nitrosylation can regulate the biological activity of many proteins. Here, we discuss recent studies that implicate neuropathogenic roles of S-nitrosylation in protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic injury, and eventual neuronal loss. Among a growing number of S-nitrosylated proteins that contribute to disease pathogenesis, in this review we focus on S-nitrosylated protein-disulfide isomerase (forming SNO-PDI) and dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1). Furthermore, we describe drugs, such as memantine and newer derivatives of this compound that can prevent both hyperactivation of extrasynaptic NMDARs as well as downstream pathways that lead to nitrosative stress, synaptic damage, and neuronal loss. PMID:21597461

  18. Mitochondrial Disorders of DNA Polymerase γ Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linsheng; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Wolff, Daynna J.

    2011-01-01

    Context Primary mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the most common causes of inherited disorders predominantly involving the neuromuscular system. Advances in the molecular study of mitochondrial DNA have changed our vision and our approach to primary mitochondrial disorders. Many of the mitochondrial disorders are caused by mutations in nuclear genes and are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Among the autosomal inherited mitochondrial disorders, those related to DNA polymerase γ dysfunction are the most common and the best studied. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and being familiar with the recent advances in laboratory diagnosis of this group of mitochondrial disorders are essential for pathologists to interpret abnormal histopathology and laboratory results and to suggest further studies for a definitive diagnosis. Objectives To help pathologists better understand the common clinical syndromes originating from mutations in DNA polymerase γ and its associated proteins and use the stepwise approach of clinical, laboratory, and pathologic diagnosis of these syndromes. Data Sources Review of pertinent published literature and relevant Internet databases. Conclusions Mitochondrial disorders are now better recognized with the development of molecular tests for clinical diagnosis. A cooperative effort among primary physicians, diagnostic pathologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists with expertise in mitochondrial disorders is required to reach a definitive diagnosis. PMID:21732785

  19. The Neuro-Ophthalmology of Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, J. Alexander; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Because of the predilection of mitochondrial disorders to involve the optic nerves, extraocular muscles, retina, and even the retrochiasmal visual pathways, the ophthalmologist is often the first physician to be consulted. Disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can result from abnormalities in either the mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial proteins. Inheritance of these mutations will follow patterns specific to their somatic or mitochondrial genetics. Genotype-phenotype correlations are inconstant, and considerable overlap may occur among these syndromes. The diagnostic approach to the patient with suspected mitochondrial disease entails a detailed personal and family history, careful ophthalmic, neurologic, and systemic examination, directed investigations, and attention to potentially life-threatening sequelae. Although curative treatments for mitochondrial disorders are currently lacking, exciting research advances are being made, particularly in the area of gene therapy. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, with its window of opportunity for timely intervention and its accessibility to directed therapy, offers a unique model to study future therapeutic interventions. Most patients and their relatives benefit from informed genetic counseling. PMID:20471050

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction: a neglected component of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, René G; Sperl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Johann W; Kofler, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Aberrant mitochondrial structure and function influence tissue homeostasis and thereby contribute to multiple human disorders and ageing. Ten per cent of patients with primary mitochondrial disorders present skin manifestations that can be categorized into hair abnormalities, rashes, pigmentation abnormalities and acrocyanosis. Less attention has been paid to the fact that several disorders of the skin are linked to alterations of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This review article summarizes the contribution of mitochondrial pathology to both common and rare skin diseases. We explore the intriguing observation that a wide array of skin disorders presents with primary or secondary mitochondrial pathology and that a variety of molecular defects can cause dysfunctional mitochondria. Among them are mutations in mitochondrial- and nuclear DNA-encoded subunits and assembly factors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes; mutations in intermediate filament proteins involved in linking, moving and shaping of mitochondria; and disorders of mitochondrial DNA metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and heme synthesis. Thus, we assume that mitochondrial involvement is the rule rather than the exception in skin diseases. We conclude the article by discussing how improving mitochondrial function can be beneficial for aged skin and can be used as an adjunct therapy for certain skin disorders. Consideration of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skin creates a new perspective for both dermatologists and experts in metabolic disease. PMID:24980550

  1. Mitochondrial Cristae: Where Beauty Meets Functionality.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Sara; Enriquez, Jose A; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial cristae are dynamic bioenergetic compartments whose shape changes under different physiological conditions. Recent discoveries have unveiled the relation between cristae shape and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function, suggesting that membrane morphology modulates the organization and function of the OXPHOS system, with a direct impact on cellular metabolism. As a corollary, cristae-shaping proteins have emerged as potential modulators of mitochondrial bioenergetics, a concept confirmed by genetic experiments in mouse models of respiratory chain deficiency. Here, we review our knowledge of mitochondrial ultrastructural organization and how it impacts mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:26857402

  2. DNM1L-related mitochondrial fission defect presenting as refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Jason R; Smith, Amanda M; McBride, Skye; Naas, Turaya; Holcik, Martin; Antoun, Ghadi; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Michaud, Jean; Sell, Erick; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Tetreault, Martine; Majewski, Jacek; Baird, Stephen; Boycott, Kym M; Dyment, David A; MacKenzie, Alex; Lines, Matthew A

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion are dynamic processes vital to mitochondrial quality control and the maintenance of cellular respiration. In dividing mitochondria, membrane scission is accomplished by a dynamin-related GTPase, DNM1L, that oligomerizes at the site of fission and constricts in a GTP-dependent manner. There is only a single previous report of DNM1L-related clinical disease: a female neonate with encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission (EMPF; OMIM #614388), a lethal disorder characterized by cerebral dysgenesis, seizures, lactic acidosis, elevated very long chain fatty acids, and abnormally elongated mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we describe a second individual, diagnosed via whole-exome sequencing, who presented with developmental delay, refractory epilepsy, prolonged survival, and no evidence of mitochondrial or peroxisomal dysfunction on standard screening investigations in blood and urine. EEG was nonspecific, showing background slowing with frequent epileptiform activity at the frontal and central head regions. Electron microscopy of skeletal muscle showed subtle, nonspecific abnormalities of cristal organization, and confocal microscopy of patient fibroblasts showed striking hyperfusion of the mitochondrial network. A panel of further bioenergetic studies in patient fibroblasts showed no significant differences versus controls. The proband's de novo DNM1L variant, NM_012062.4:c.1085G>A; NP_036192.2:p.(Gly362Asp), falls within the middle (oligomerization) domain of DNM1L, implying a likely dominant-negative mechanism. This disorder, which presents nonspecifically and affords few diagnostic clues, can be diagnosed by means of DNM1L sequencing and/or confocal microscopy. PMID:26604000

  3. [Peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders].

    PubMed

    Funalot, B

    2009-12-01

    Involvement of peripheral nerves is frequent in mitochondrial disorders but with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PN) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. Genetically-determined PN due to mutations of mitofusin 2, a GTPase involved in the fusion of external mitochondrial membranes, were identified during the last few years. Characteristic ultrastructural lesions (abnormalities of axonal mitochondria) are observed on longitudinal sections of nerve biopsies in patients with PN due to mitofusin 2 mutations. PMID:19942242

  4. Extraocular mitochondrial myopathies and their differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Schoser, Benedikt G H; Pongratz, Dieter

    2006-06-01

    The diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy depends upon a constellation of findings, family history, type of muscle involvement, specific laboratory abnormalities, and the results of histological, pathobiochemical and genetic analysis. In the present paper, the authors describe the diagnostic approach to mitochondrial myopathies manifesting as extraocular muscle disease. The most common ocular manifestation of mitochondrial myopathy is progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). To exclude myasthenia gravis, ocular myositis, thyroid associated orbitopathy, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles in patients with an early onset or long-lasting very slowly progressive ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia, almost without any diplopia, and normal to mildly elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and MRI of the orbits should be performed. A PEO phenotype forces one to look comprehensively for other multisystemic mitochondrial features (e.g., exercise induced weakness, encephalopathy, polyneuropathy, diabetes, heart disease). Thereafter, and presently even in familiar PEO, a diagnostic muscle biopsy should be taken. Histological and ultrastructural hallmarks are mitochondrial proliferations and structural abnormalities, lipid storage, ragged-red fibers, or cytochrome-C negative myofibers. In addition, Southern blotting may reveal the common deletion, or molecular analysis may verify specific mutations of distinct mitochondrial or nuclear genes. PMID:16760117

  5. Mitochondrial Fusion Is Essential for Steroid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Mariana; Soria, Gastón; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Podestá, Ernesto J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics (a balance in fusion/fission events and changes in mitochondria subcellular distribution) to key biological process has been reported, the contribution of changes in mitochondrial fusion to achieve efficient steroid production has never been explored. The mitochondria are central during steroid synthesis and different enzymes are localized between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum to produce the final steroid hormone, thus suggesting that mitochondrial fusion might be relevant for this process. In the present study, we showed that the hormonal stimulation triggers mitochondrial fusion into tubular-shaped structures and we demonstrated that mitochondrial fusion does not only correlate-with but also is an essential step of steroid production, being both events depend on PKA activity. We also demonstrated that the hormone-stimulated relocalization of ERK1/2 in the mitochondrion, a critical step during steroidogenesis, depends on mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, we showed that the SHP2 phosphatase, which is required for full steroidogenesis, simultaneously modulates mitochondrial fusion and ERK1/2 localization in the mitochondrion. Strikingly, we found that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, a central protein for mitochondrial fusion, is upregulated immediately after hormone stimulation. Moreover, Mfn2 knockdown is sufficient to impair steroid biosynthesis. Together, our findings unveil an essential role for mitochondrial fusion during steroidogenesis. These discoveries highlight the importance of organelles’ reorganization in specialized cells, prompting the exploration of the impact that organelle dynamics has on biological processes that include, but are not limited to, steroid synthesis. PMID:23029265

  6. ESCI Award 2006. Mitochondrial function and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Stark, R; Roden, M

    2007-04-01

    Mitochondria are fundamental for oxidative energy production and impairment of their functionality can lead to reduced ATP synthesis and contribute to initiation of apoptosis. Endocrine tissues critically rely on oxidative phosphorylation so that mitochondrial abnormalities may either be causes or consequences of diminished hormone production or action. Abnormalities typical for diseases caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome or mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome are also seen in certain endocrine diseases. Lack or excess of thyroid hormones, major ubiquitous regulators of mitochondrial content and activity, cause muscular abnormalities and multisystem disorders. Mitochondria are a further prerequisite for steroidogenesis as well as insulin secretion and action. Recent studies showed that reduced mitochondrial ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle is a feature of certain hereditary and acquired forms of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Finally, ageing is not only accompanied by various degrees of hormonal deficiency and insulin resistance but is also associated with a progressive decline of mitochondrial number and function. Future research is needed to examine whether mitochondrial abnormalities are the cause or consequence of ageing and frequent metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to address mitochondria as a target for novel therapeutic regimes. PMID:17373958

  7. [Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease].

    PubMed

    Benureau, A; Meyer, P; Maillet, O; Leboucq, N; Legras, S; Jeziorski, E; Fournier-Favre, S; Jeandel, C; Gaignard, P; Slama, A; Rivier, F; Roubertie, A; Carneiro, M

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal-recessive syndrome, resulting from mutations in the TYMP gene, located at 22q13. The mutation induces a thymidine phosphorylase (TP) deficit, which leads to a nucleotide pool imbalance and to instability of the mitochondrial DNA. The clinical picture regroups gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy. The prognosis is unfavorable. We present the case of a 14-year-old Caucasian female whose symptoms started in early childhood. The diagnosis was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed given the atypical features of mental anorexia, which revealed white matter abnormalities. She presented chronic vomiting, postprandial abdominal pain, and problems gaining weight accompanied by cachexia. This diagnosis led to establishing proper care, in particular an enteral and parenteral nutrition program. There is no known specific effective treatment, but numerous studies are in progress. In this article, after reviewing the existing studies, we discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. We argue for the necessity of performing a cerebral MRI given the atypical features of a patient with suspected mental anorexia (or when the clinical pattern of a patient with mental anorexia seems atypical), so that MNGIE can be ruled out. PMID:25282463

  8. Exercise Increases Mitochondrial PGC-1α Content and Promotes Nuclear-Mitochondrial Cross-talk to Coordinate Mitochondrial Biogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Adeel; Little, Jonathan P.; Stokl, Andrew J.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Endurance exercise is known to induce metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle via activation of the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). PGC-1α regulates mitochondrial biogenesis via regulating transcription of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Recently, PGC-1α has been shown to reside in mitochondria; however, the physiological consequences of mitochondrial PGC-1α remain unknown. We sought to delineate if an acute bout of endurance exercise can mediate an increase in mitochondrial PGC-1α content where it may co-activate mitochondrial transcription factor A to promote mtDNA transcription. C57Bl/6J mice (n = 12/group; ♀ = ♂) were randomly assigned to sedentary (SED), forced-endurance (END) exercise (15 m/min for 90 min), or forced endurance +3 h of recovery (END+3h) group. The END group was sacrificed immediately after exercise, whereas the SED and END+3h groups were euthanized 3 h after acute exercise. Acute exercise coordinately increased the mRNA expression of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcripts. Nuclear and mitochondrial abundance of PGC-1α in END and END+3h groups was significantly higher versus SED mice. In mitochondria, PGC-1α is in a complex with mitochondrial transcription factor A at mtDNA D-loop, and this interaction was positively modulated by exercise, similar to the increased binding of PGC-1α at the NRF-1 promoter. We conclude that in response to acute altered energy demands, PGC-1α re-localizes into nuclear and mitochondrial compartments where it functions as a transcriptional co-activator for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transcription factors. These results suggest that PGC-1α may dynamically facilitate nuclear-mitochondrial DNA cross-talk to promote net mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:21245132

  9. A combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant effectively diminishes the dendritic loss, tau-hyperphosphorylation, amyloids-β accumulation and brain mitochondrial dynamic disruption in rats with chronic iron-overload.

    PubMed

    Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Wongjaikam, Suwakon; Krintratun, Warunsorn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-09-22

    Iron-overload can cause cognitive impairment due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Although deferiprone (DFP) has been shown to exert neuroprotection, the head-to-head comparison among iron chelators used clinically on brain iron-overload has not been investigated. Moreover, since antioxidant has been shown to be beneficial in iron-overload condition, its combined effect with iron chelator has not been tested. Therefore, the hypothesis is that all chelators provide neuroprotection under iron-overload condition, and that a combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant has greater efficacy than monotherapy. Male Wistar rats (n=42) were assigned to receive a normal diet (ND) or a high-iron diet (HFe) for 4months. At the 2nd month, HFe-fed rats were treated with a vehicle, deferoxamine (DFO), DFP, deferasirox (DFX), n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or a combination of DFP with NAC, while ND-fed rats received vehicle. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and brains were removed to determine brain iron level and deposition, brain mitochondrial function, BBB protein expression, brain mitochondrial dynamic, brain apoptosis, tau-hyperphosphorylation, amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and dendritic spine density. The results showed that iron-overload induced BBB breakdown, brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain mitochondrial dynamics, tau-hyperphosphorylation, Aβ accumulation and dendritic spine reduction. All treatments, except DFX, attenuated these impairments. Moreover, combined therapy provided a greater efficacy than monotherapy. These findings suggested that iron-overload induced brain iron toxicity and a combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant provided a greatest efficacy for neuroprotection than monotherapy. PMID:27403880

  10. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregivers! Want to help? Enroll now in the Mitochondrial Disease Community Registry to advance the development of treatments and cures. HOME What is Mitochondrial Disease Types of Mitochondrial Disease Possible Symptoms Getting a ...

  11. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  12. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  14. [Diagnosis and therapy of mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Pál, Endre

    2012-07-30

    Mitochondrial diseases are a significant part of neuromuscular diseases. Majority of them is multisystemic disorder. The diagnosis can be established in more and more cases. Beyond the routine neurological examination imaging methods (MRI and MR-spectroscopy) and electrophysiology (EMG, ENG, EEG, evoked potential tests) might be helpful in setting the diagnosis. Raised blood lactate level supports the diagnosis. Muscle biopsy demonstrates mitochondrial abnormalities in the majority of cases. The positivity of genetic tests is low, because the amount of mitochondrial DNA alterations is different in tissues. Therefore other tissue than blood (mainly muscle) is necessary for genetic tests. The other reason is that the respiratory chain is under double -mitochondrial and nuclear - genetic control, and testing the nuclear genes are available only in selected laboratories. The treatment is limited, mainly symptomatic. PMID:23074842

  15. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Shi, Zhun; Zhang, Lingzhi; Zhou, Zehua; Zheng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Guiying; Bu, Guojun; Fraser, Paul E; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Yun-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is regulated by fusion and fission machinery. Impaired mitochondria dynamics cause various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Appoptosin (encoded by SLC25A38) is a mitochondrial carrier protein that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Appoptosin overexpression causes overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas appoptosin downregulation abolishes β-amyloid-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuronal death during Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we found that overexpression of appoptosin resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in a manner independent of its carrier function, ROS production or caspase activation. Although appoptosin did not affect levels of mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion (MFN1 and MFN2), inner-membrane fusion (OPA1) and fission [DRP1 (also known as DNM1L) and FIS1] proteins, appoptosin interacted with MFN1 and MFN2, as well as with the mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCH5) but not OPA1, FIS1 or DRP1. Appoptosin overexpression impaired the interaction between MFN1 and MFN2, and mitochondrial fusion. By contrast, co-expression of MFN1, MITOL and a dominant-negative form of DRP1, DRP1(K38A), partially rescued appoptosin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis, whereas co-expression of FIS1 aggravated appoptosin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results demonstrate that appoptosin can interact with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology. PMID:26813789

  16. The Use of Cytochrome C Oxidase Enzyme Activity and Immunohistochemistry in Defining Mitochondrial Injury in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna K; Rosen, Seymour

    2016-09-01

    The renal biopsy is a dynamic way of looking at renal disease, and tubular elements are an important part of this analysis. The mitochondria in 20 renal biopsies were examined by immunohistochemical (electron transport chain enzyme: cytochrome C oxidase IV [COX IV]) and enzyme histochemical methods (COX), both by light and electron microscopy. The distal convoluted tubules and thick ascending limbs showed the greatest intensity in the COX immunostains and enzyme activity in controls. The degree of mitochondrial COX protein and enzyme activity diminished as the tubules became atrophic. With proximal hypertrophic changes, there was great variation in both COX activity and protein expression. In contrast, in three cases of systemic lupus erythematosus, biopsied for high-grade proteinuria, the activity was consistently upregulated, whereas protein expression remained normal. These unexpected findings of heterogeneous upregulation in hypertrophy and the dyssynchrony of protein expression and activity may indicate mitochondrial dysregulation. Functional electron microscopy showed COX activity delineated by the intense mitochondrial staining in normal or hypertrophic proximal tubules. With atrophic changes, residual small mitochondria with diminished activity could be seen. With mitochondrial size abnormalities (enlargement and irregularity, adefovir toxicity), activity persisted. In the renal biopsy, mitochondrial analysis is feasible utilizing immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical techniques. PMID:27578326

  17. Inherited mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Though inherited mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are most well known for their syndromic forms, for which widely known acronyms (MELAS, MERRF, NARP, LHON etc.) have been coined, the vast majority of inherited MIDs presents in a non-syndromic form. Since MIDs are most frequently multisystem disorders already at onset or during the disease course, a MID should be suspected if there is a combination of neurological and non-neurological abnormalities. Neurological abnormalities occurring as a part of a MID include stroke-like episodes, epilepsy, migraine-like headache, movement disorders, cerebellar ataxia, visual impairment, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, dementia, psychosis, hypopituitarism, aneurysms, or peripheral nervous system disease, such as myopathy, neuropathy, or neuronopathy. Non-neurological manifestations concern the ears, the endocrine organs, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys, the bone marrow, and the skin. Whenever there is an unexplained combination of neurological and non-neurological disease in a patient or kindred, a MID should be suspected and appropriate diagnostic measures initiated. Genetic testing should be guided by the phenotype, the biopsy findings, and the biochemical results. PMID:22399423

  18. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Mitochondrial maintenance failure in aging and role of sexual dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression changes during aging are partly conserved across species, and suggest that oxidative stress, inflammation and proteotoxicity result from mitochondrial malfunction and abnormal mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Mitochondrial maintenance failure may result from trade-offs between mitochondrial turnover versus growth and reproduction, sexual antagonistic pleiotropy and genetic conflicts resulting from uni-parental mitochondrial transmission, as well as mitochondrial and nuclear mutations and loss of epigenetic regulation. Aging phenotypes and interventions are often sex-specific, indicating that both male and female sexual differentiation promote mitochondrial failure and aging. Studies in mammals and invertebrates implicate autophagy, apoptosis, AKT, PARP, p53 and FOXO in mediating sex-specific differences in stress resistance and aging. The data support a model where the genes Sxl in Drosophila, sdc-2 in C. elegans, and Xist in mammals regulate mitochondrial maintenance across generations and in aging. Several interventions that increase life span cause a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), and UPRmt is also observed during normal aging, indicating hormesis. The UPRmt may increase life span by stimulating mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, and/or by inhibiting the production of hormones and toxic metabolites. The data suggest that metazoan life span interventions may act through a common hormesis mechanism involving liver UPRmt, mitochondrial maintenance and sexual differentiation. PMID:25447815

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MITOCHONDRIAL BIOENERGETICS

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-01-01

    The major function of mitochondria is production and supply of cellular energy. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing frequent shape changes via fission and fusion. Many studies have elucidated the molecular components mediating fission and fusion and their regulatory mechanisms, and mitochondrial shape change is now recognized as an essential cellular process that is closely associated with functional states of mitochondria. This review updates the recent advancements in fission and fusion mechanisms, and discusses the bi-directional relationship between mitochondrial morphology and energetic states in physio-pathological settings. PMID:25553448

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Ashu

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a large group of disabling disorders of the nervous system, characterized by the relative selective death of neuronal subtypes. In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence of impaired mitochondrial function as a causative factor in these diseases. More recently, evidence has emerged for impaired mitochondrial dynamics (shape, size, fission-fusion, distribution, movement etc.) in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we provide a concise overview of the major findings in recent years highlighting the importance of healthy mitochondria for a healthy neuron. PMID:22700435

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Evidence, pathophysiology and translational implications.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Rezin, Gislaine T; Carvalho, Andre F; Streck, Emilio L; Berk, Michael; Quevedo, João

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness characterized by severe and biphasic changes in mood. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been hypothesized to underpin the neurobiology of BD, including the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction. A confluence of evidence points to an underlying dysfunction of mitochondria, including decreases in mitochondrial respiration, high-energy phosphates and pH; changes in mitochondrial morphology; increases in mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms; and downregulation of nuclear mRNA molecules and proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in neuronal cell survival or death as regulators of both energy metabolism and cell survival and death pathways. Thus, in this review, we discuss the genetic and physiological components of mitochondria and the evidence for mitochondrial abnormalities in BD. The final part of this review discusses mitochondria as a potential target of therapeutic interventions in BD. PMID:27377693

  3. Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control: The Mechanisms Guarding Mitochondrial Health

    PubMed Central

    Bohovych, Iryna; Chan, Sherine S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are complex dynamic organelles pivotal for cellular physiology and human health. Failure to maintain mitochondrial health leads to numerous maladies that include late-onset neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, a decline in mitochondrial health is prevalent with aging. A set of evolutionary conserved mechanisms known as mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is involved in recognition and correction of the mitochondrial proteome. Recent Advances: Here, we review current knowledge and latest developments in MQC. We particularly focus on the proteolytic aspect of MQC and its impact on health and aging. Critical Issues: While our knowledge about MQC is steadily growing, critical gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of how MQC modules sense damage and preserve mitochondrial welfare, particularly in higher organisms. Future Directions: Delineating how coordinated action of the MQC modules orchestrates physiological responses on both organellar and cellular levels will further elucidate the current picture of MQC's role and function in health, cellular stress, and degenerative diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 977–994. PMID:25546710

  4. Loss of PLA2G6 leads to elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Bartolome, Fernando; Angelova, Plamena R.; Li, Li; Pope, Simon; Cochemé, Helena M.; Khan, Shabana; Asghari, Shabnam; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Partridge, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The PLA2G6 gene encodes a group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta enzyme that selectively hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids. Mutations in PLA2G6 have been associated with disorders such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type II and Karak syndrome. More recently, PLA2G6 was identified as the causative gene in a subgroup of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread Lewy body pathology and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, supporting a link between PLA2G6 mutations and parkinsonian disorders. Here we show that knockout of the Drosophila homologue of the PLA2G6 gene, iPLA2-VIA, results in reduced survival, locomotor deficits and organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of iPLA2-VIA function leads to a number of mitochondrial abnormalities, including mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, reduced ATP synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA is strongly associated with increased lipid peroxidation levels. We confirmed our findings using cultured fibroblasts taken from two patients with mutations in the PLA2G6 gene. Similar abnormalities were seen including elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane defects, as well as raised levels of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Finally, we demonstrated that deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit lipid peroxidation, were able to partially rescue the locomotor abnormalities seen in aged flies lacking iPLA2-VIA gene function, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential in fibroblasts from patients with PLA2G6 mutations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that loss of normal PLA2G6 gene activity leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent mitochondrial membrane

  5. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  6. Mitochondrial translocation contact sites: separation of dynamic and stabilizing elements in formation of a TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex.

    PubMed

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Rehling, Peter; Guiard, Bernard; Frazier, Ann E; Schulze-Specking, Agnes; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Voos, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Chris

    2003-10-15

    Preproteins with N-terminal presequences are imported into mitochondria at translocation contact sites that include the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23 complex). Little is known about the functional cooperation of these translocases. We have characterized translocation contact sites by a productive TOM-TIM-preprotein supercomplex to address the role of three translocase subunits that expose domains to the intermembrane space (IMS). The IMS domain of the receptor Tom22 is required for stabilization of the translocation contact site supercomplex. Surprisingly, the N-terminal segment of the channel Tim23, which tethers the TIM23 complex to the outer membrane, is dispensable for both protein import and generation of the TOM-TIM supercomplex. Tim50, with its large IMS domain, is crucial for generation but not for stabilization of the supercomplex. Thus, Tim50 functions as a dynamic factor and the IMS domain of Tom22 represents a stabilizing element in formation of a productive translocation contact site supercomplex. PMID:14532110

  7. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  9. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction in liver failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lane, Maria; Boczonadi, Veronika; Bachtari, Sahar; Gomez-Duran, Aurora; Langer, Thorsten; Griffiths, Alexandra; Kleinle, Stephanie; Dineiger, Christine; Abicht, Angela; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; Horvath, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Liver failure is a heterogeneous condition which may be fatal and the primary cause is frequently unknown. We investigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We studied 45 patients who had liver transplantation due to a variety of clinical presentations. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunodetection of respiratory chain complexes I-V, biochemical activity of respiratory chain complexes II and IV and quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number were investigated in liver tissue collected from the explanted liver during transplantation. Abnormal mitochondrial function was frequently present in this cohort: ten of 40 patients (25 %) had a defect of one or more respiratory chain enzyme complexes on blue native gels, 20 patients (44 %) had low activity of complex II and/or IV and ten (22 %) had a reduced mtDNA copy number. Combined respiratory chain deficiency and reduced numbers of mitochondria were detected in all three patients with acute liver failure. Low complex IV activity in biliary atresia and complex II defects in cirrhosis were common findings. All six patients diagnosed with liver tumours showed variable alterations in mitochondrial function, probably due to the heterogeneity of the presenting tumour. In conclusion, mitochondrial dysfunction is common in severe liver failure in non-mitochondrial conditions. Therefore, in contrast to the common practice detection of respiratory chain abnormalities in liver should not restrict the inclusion of patients for liver transplantation. Furthermore, improving mitochondrial function may be targeted as part of a complex therapy approach in different forms of liver diseases. PMID:27053192

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  12. Mitochondrial redox status as a target for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Walters, James W; Amos, Deborah; Ray, Kristeena; Santanam, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria are major players in cellular energetics, oxidative stress and programmed cell death. Mitochondrial dynamics regulate and integrate these functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species generation is modulated by the fusion-fission pathway as well as key proteins such as sirtuins that act as metabolic sensors of cellular energetics. Mitochondrial redox status has thus become a good target for therapy against cardiovascular diseases. Recently, there is an influx of studies garnered towards assessing the beneficial effects of mitochondrial targeted antioxidants, drugs modulating the fusion-fission proteins, sirtuins, and other mitochondrial processes as potential cardio-protecting agents. PMID:26894468

  13. Mitochondrial Quality Control as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Hagir B; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2016-01-01

    In addition to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria perform other functions such as heme biosynthesis and oxygen sensing and mediate calcium homeostasis, cell growth, and cell death. They participate in cell communication and regulation of inflammation and are important considerations in aging, drug toxicity, and pathogenesis. The cell's capacity to maintain its mitochondria involves intramitochondrial processes, such as heme and protein turnover, and those involving entire organelles, such as fusion, fission, selective mitochondrial macroautophagy (mitophagy), and mitochondrial biogenesis. The integration of these processes exemplifies mitochondrial quality control (QC), which is also important in cellular disorders ranging from primary mitochondrial genetic diseases to those that involve mitochondria secondarily, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic syndromes. Consequently, mitochondrial biology represents a potentially useful, but relatively unexploited area of therapeutic innovation. In patients with genetic OXPHOS disorders, the largest group of inborn errors of metabolism, effective therapies, apart from symptomatic and nutritional measures, are largely lacking. Moreover, the genetic and biochemical heterogeneity of these states is remarkably similar to those of certain acquired diseases characterized by metabolic and oxidative stress and displaying wide variability. This biologic variability reflects cell-specific and repair processes that complicate rational pharmacological approaches to both primary and secondary mitochondrial disorders. However, emerging concepts of mitochondrial turnover and dynamics along with new mitochondrial disease models are providing opportunities to develop and evaluate mitochondrial QC-based therapies. The goals of such therapies extend beyond amelioration of energy insufficiency and tissue loss and entail cell repair, cell replacement, and the prevention of fibrosis. This review

  14. Synchronized mitochondrial and cytosolic translation programs.

    PubMed

    Couvillion, Mary T; Soto, Iliana C; Shipkovenska, Gergana; Churchman, L Stirling

    2016-05-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is a vital process for energy generation, and is carried out by complexes within the mitochondria. OXPHOS complexes pose a unique challenge for cells because their subunits are encoded on both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes. Genomic approaches designed to study nuclear/cytosolic and bacterial gene expression have not been broadly applied to mitochondria, so the co-regulation of OXPHOS genes remains largely unexplored. Here we monitor mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mitochondrial biogenesis, when OXPHOS complexes are synthesized. We show that nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS transcript levels do not increase concordantly. Instead, mitochondrial and cytosolic translation are rapidly, dynamically and synchronously regulated. Furthermore, cytosolic translation processes control mitochondrial translation unidirectionally. Thus, the nuclear genome coordinates mitochondrial and cytosolic translation to orchestrate the timely synthesis of OXPHOS complexes, representing an unappreciated regulatory layer shaping the mitochondrial proteome. Our whole-cell genomic profiling approach establishes a foundation for studies of global gene regulation in mitochondria. PMID:27225121

  15. Ultrastructure of mitochondrial nucleoid and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Prachař, Jarmil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial nucleoids (hereafter nucleoids) contain genetic information, mitochondrial DNA, prerequisite for mitochondrial functioning, particularly information required for mitochondrial electron transport. To understand nucleoid functioning, it is imperative to know its ultrastructure and dynamics in the context of the actual mitochondrial state. In this study, we document the internal structure, different positions of nucleoids inside the mitochondrial tube and their different morphology. The nucleoid cores appear in section as circular or slightly oval objects ranging from 50 to 100 nm in diameter. They are mainly located in the matrix between cristae inside the mitochondrial tube but they are also frequently found close to the inner mitochondrial surface. In tightly packed form, their interior exhibits sophisticated nucleoprotein regularity. The core surroundings form an electron-lucent thick layer which is probably partitioned into separate chambers. We suggest that the morphology of nucleoids mirrors the mode of energy production, glycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation. The new high resolution transmission electron microscopy method enabled us to obtain morphological characteristics on yet unpublished level. PMID:27174900

  16. Thymidine phosphorylase deficiency causes MNGIE: an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirano, M; Martí, R; Spinazzola, A; Nishino, I; Nishigaki, Y

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The disease is characterized clinically by impaired eye movements, gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, and leukoencephalopathy. Molecular genetic studies of MNGIE patients' tissues have revealed multiple deletions, depletion, and site-specific point mutations of mitochondrial DNA. TP is a cytosolic enzyme required for nucleoside homeostasis. In MNGIE, TP activity is severely reduced and consequently levels of thymidine and deoxyuridine in plasma are dramatically elevated. We have hypothesized that the increased levels of intracellular thymidine and deoxyuridine cause imbalances of mitochondrial nucleotide pools that, in turn, lead to the mtDNA abnormalities. MNGIE was the first molecularly characterized genetic disorder caused by abnormal mitochondrial nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. Future studies are likely to reveal further insight into this expanding group of diseases. PMID:15571233

  17. Hyperglycemia decreases mitochondrial function: The regulatory role of mitochondrial biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmeira, Carlos M. Rolo, Anabela P.; Berthiaume, Jessica; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-12-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in 'glucose toxicity' in diabetes. However, little is known about the action of glucose on the expression of transcription factors in hepatocytes, especially those involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Since mitochondrial functional capacity is dynamically regulated, we hypothesized that stressful conditions of hyperglycemia induce adaptations in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism, including inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Cell viability, mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and oxidized proteins were determined in HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of either 5.5 mM (control) or 30 mM glucose (high glucose) for 48 h, 96 h and 7 days. Additionally, mtDNA abundance, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcripts were evaluated by real time PCR. High glucose induced a progressive increase in ROS generation and accumulation of oxidized proteins, with no changes in cell viability. Increased expression of PAI-1 was observed as early as 96 h of exposure to high glucose. After 7 days in hyperglycemia, HepG2 cells exhibited inhibited uncoupled respiration and decreased MitoTracker Red fluorescence associated with a 25% decrease in mtDNA and 16% decrease in TFAM transcripts. These results indicate that glucose may regulate mtDNA copy number by modulating the transcriptional activity of TFAM in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. The decrease of mtDNA content and inhibition of mitochondrial function may be pathogenic hallmarks in the altered metabolic status associated with diabetes.

  18. Mitochondrial Biology and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arun, Siddharth; Liu, Lei; Donmez, Gizem

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are extremely active organelles that perform a variety of roles in the cell including energy production, regulation of calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, and population maintenance through fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of oxidative stress and mutations can contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD), and Huntington's diseases (HD). Abnormalities of Complex I function in the electron transport chain have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases, inhibiting ATP production and generating reactive oxygen species that can cause major damage to mitochondria. Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA can contribute to neurodegenerative disease, although the pathogenesis of these conditions tends to focus on nuclear mutations. In PD, nuclear genome mutations in the PINK1 and parkin genes have been implicated in neurodegeneration [1], while mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 have been implicated in a variety of clinical symptoms of AD [5]. Mutant htt protein is known to cause HD [2]. Much progress has been made to determine some causes of these neurodegenerative diseases, though permanent treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:26903445

  19. Mitochondrial Biology and Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Siddharth; Liu, Lei; Donmez, Gizem

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are extremely active organelles that perform a variety of roles in the cell including energy production, regulation of calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, and population maintenance through fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of oxidative stress and mutations can contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s (PD), Alzheimer’s (AD), and Huntington’s diseases (HD). Abnormalities of Complex I function in the electron transport chain have been implicated in some neurodegenerative diseases, inhibiting ATP production and generating reactive oxygen species that can cause major damage to mitochondria Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA can contribute to neurodegenerative disease, although the pathogenesis of these conditions tends to focus on nuclear mutations. In PD, nuclear genome mutations in the PINK1 and parkin genes have been implicated in neurodegeneration [1], while mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 have been implicated in a variety of clinical symptoms of AD [5]. Mutant htt protein is known to cause HD [2]. Much progress has been made to determine some causes of these neurodegenerative diseases, though permanent treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we discuss the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:26903445

  20. Modulating mitochondrial quality in disease transmission: towards enabling mitochondrial DNA disease carriers to have healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Diot, Alan; Dombi, Eszter; Lodge, Tiffany; Liao, Chunyan; Morten, Karl; Carver, Janet; Wells, Dagan; Child, Tim; Johnston, Iain G.; Williams, Suzannah; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    One in 400 people has a maternally inherited mutation in mtDNA potentially causing incurable disease. In so-called heteroplasmic disease, mutant and normal mtDNA co-exist in the cells of carrier women. Disease severity depends on the proportion of inherited abnormal mtDNA molecules. Families who have had a child die of severe, maternally inherited mtDNA disease need reliable information on the risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. However, prenatal diagnosis and even estimates of risk are fraught with uncertainty because of the complex and stochastic dynamics of heteroplasmy. These complications include an mtDNA bottleneck, whereby hard-to-predict fluctuations in the proportions of mutant and normal mtDNA may arise between generations. In ‘mitochondrial replacement therapy’ (MRT), damaged mitochondria are replaced with healthy ones in early human development, using nuclear transfer. We are developing non-invasive alternatives, notably activating autophagy, a cellular quality control mechanism, in which damaged cellular components are engulfed by autophagosomes. This approach could be used in combination with MRT or with the regular management, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Mathematical theory, supported by recent experiments, suggests that this strategy may be fruitful in controlling heteroplasmy. Using mice that are transgenic for fluorescent LC3 (the hallmark of autophagy) we quantified autophagosomes in cleavage stage embryos. We confirmed that the autophagosome count peaks in four-cell embryos and this correlates with a drop in the mtDNA content of the whole embryo. This suggests removal by mitophagy (mitochondria-specific autophagy). We suggest that modulating heteroplasmy by activating mitophagy may be a useful complement to mitochondrial replacement therapy. PMID:27528757

  1. Modulating mitochondrial quality in disease transmission: towards enabling mitochondrial DNA disease carriers to have healthy children.

    PubMed

    Diot, Alan; Dombi, Eszter; Lodge, Tiffany; Liao, Chunyan; Morten, Karl; Carver, Janet; Wells, Dagan; Child, Tim; Johnston, Iain G; Williams, Suzannah; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-08-15

    One in 400 people has a maternally inherited mutation in mtDNA potentially causing incurable disease. In so-called heteroplasmic disease, mutant and normal mtDNA co-exist in the cells of carrier women. Disease severity depends on the proportion of inherited abnormal mtDNA molecules. Families who have had a child die of severe, maternally inherited mtDNA disease need reliable information on the risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. However, prenatal diagnosis and even estimates of risk are fraught with uncertainty because of the complex and stochastic dynamics of heteroplasmy. These complications include an mtDNA bottleneck, whereby hard-to-predict fluctuations in the proportions of mutant and normal mtDNA may arise between generations. In 'mitochondrial replacement therapy' (MRT), damaged mitochondria are replaced with healthy ones in early human development, using nuclear transfer. We are developing non-invasive alternatives, notably activating autophagy, a cellular quality control mechanism, in which damaged cellular components are engulfed by autophagosomes. This approach could be used in combination with MRT or with the regular management, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Mathematical theory, supported by recent experiments, suggests that this strategy may be fruitful in controlling heteroplasmy. Using mice that are transgenic for fluorescent LC3 (the hallmark of autophagy) we quantified autophagosomes in cleavage stage embryos. We confirmed that the autophagosome count peaks in four-cell embryos and this correlates with a drop in the mtDNA content of the whole embryo. This suggests removal by mitophagy (mitochondria-specific autophagy). We suggest that modulating heteroplasmy by activating mitophagy may be a useful complement to mitochondrial replacement therapy. PMID:27528757

  2. The role of alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and PGC-1α over-expression in fast muscle atrophy following hindlimb unloading

    PubMed Central

    Cannavino, Jessica; Brocca, Lorenza; Sandri, Marco; Grassi, Bruno; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms triggering disuse muscle atrophy remain of debate. It is becoming evident that mitochondrial dysfunction may regulate pathways controlling muscle mass. We have recently shown that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in disuse atrophy of soleus, a slow, oxidative muscle. Here we tested the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy could be due to mitochondrial dysfunction in fast muscles too, notwithstanding their much lower mitochondrial content. Gastrocnemius displayed atrophy following both 3 and 7 days of unloading. SOD1 and catalase up-regulation, no H2O2 accumulation and no increase of protein carbonylation suggest the antioxidant defence system efficiently reacted to redox imbalance in the early phases of disuse. A defective mitochondrial fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1 down-regulation) occurred together with an impairment of OXPHOS capacity. Furthermore, at 3 days of unloading higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation was found, suggesting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway activation. To test the role of mitochondrial alterations we used Tg-mice overexpressing PGC-1α because of the known effect of PGC-1α on stimulation of Mfn2 expression. PGC-α overexpression was sufficient to prevent (i) the decrease of pro-fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1), (ii) activation of the AMPK pathway, (iii) the inducible expression of MuRF1 and atrogin1 and of authopagic factors, and (iv) any muscle mass loss in response to disuse. As the effects of increased PGC-1α activity were sustained throughout disuse, compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat and prevent muscle atrophy also in fast muscles. PMID:25565653

  3. Novel mitochondrial extensions provide evidence for a link between microtubule-directed movement and mitochondrial fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bowes, Timothy; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2008-11-07

    Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in a large number of cellular processes. Previously, we reported that treatment of mammalian cells with the cysteine-alkylators, N-ethylmaleimide and ethacrynic acid, induced rapid mitochondrial fusion forming a large reticulum approximately 30 min after treatment. Here, we further investigated this phenomenon using a number of techniques including live-cell confocal microscopy. In live cells, drug-induced fusion coincided with a cessation of fast mitochondrial movement which was dependent on microtubules. During this loss of movement, thin mitochondrial tubules extending from mitochondria were also observed, which we refer to as 'mitochondrial extensions'. The formation of these mitochondrial extensions, which were not observed in untreated cells, depended on microtubules and was abolished by pretreatment with nocodazole. In this study, we provide evidence that these extensions result from of a block in mitochondrial fission combined with continued application of motile force by microtubule-dependent motor complexes. Our observations strongly suggest the existence of a link between microtubule-based mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrial fission.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction and resuscitation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Albert J; Levy, Richard J; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2010-07-01

    Sepsis is among the most common causes of death in patients in intensive care units in North America and Europe. In the United States, it accounts for upwards of 250,000 deaths each year. Investigations into the pathobiology of sepsis have most recently focused on common cellular and subcellular processes. One possibility would be a defect in the production of energy, which translates to an abnormality in the production of adenosine triphosphate and therefore in the function of mitochondria. This article presents a clear role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sepsis. What is less clear is the teleology underlying this response. Prolonged mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired biogenesis clearly are detrimental. However, early inhibition of mitochondrial function may be adaptive. PMID:20643307

  5. Mitochondrial disease and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shamima

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are relatively common inborn errors of energy metabolism, with a combined prevalence of one in 5000. These disorders typically affect tissues with high energy requirements, and cerebral involvement occurs frequently in childhood, often manifesting in seizures. Mitochondrial diseases are genetically heterogeneous; to date, mutations have been reported in all 37 mitochondrially encoded genes and more than 80 nuclear genes. The major genetic causes of mitochondrial epilepsy are mitochondrial DNA mutations (including those typically associated with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes [MELAS] and myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres [MERRF] syndromes); mutations in POLG (classically associated with Alpers syndrome but also presenting as the mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome [MIRAS], spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy [SCAE], and myoclonus, epilepsy, myopathy, sensory ataxia [MEMSA] syndromes in older individuals) and other disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance; complex I deficiency; disorders of coenzyme Q(10) biosynthesis; and disorders of mitochondrial translation such as RARS2 mutations. It is not clear why some genetic defects, but not others, are particularly associated with seizures. Epilepsy may be the presenting feature of mitochondrial disease but is often part of a multisystem clinical presentation. Mitochondrial epilepsy may be very difficult to manage, and is often a poor prognostic feature. At present there are no curative treatments for mitochondrial disease. Individuals with mitochondrial epilepsy are frequently prescribed multiple anticonvulsants, and the role of vitamins and other nutritional supplements and the ketogenic diet remain unproven. PMID:22283595

  6. Development of pharmacological strategies for mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kanabus, M; Heales, S J; Rahman, S

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an unusually genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of disorders, which are extremely challenging to treat. Currently, apart from supportive therapy, there are no effective treatments for the vast majority of mitochondrial diseases. Huge scientific effort, however, is being put into understanding the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial disease pathology and developing potential treatments. To date, a variety of treatments have been evaluated by randomized clinical trials, but unfortunately, none of these has delivered breakthrough results. Increased understanding of mitochondrial pathways and the development of many animal models, some of which are accurate phenocopies of human diseases, are facilitating the discovery and evaluation of novel prospective treatments. Targeting reactive oxygen species has been a treatment of interest for many years; however, only in recent years has it been possible to direct antioxidant delivery specifically into the mitochondria. Increasing mitochondrial biogenesis, whether by pharmacological approaches, dietary manipulation or exercise therapy, is also currently an active area of research. Modulating mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy and the mitochondrial membrane lipid milieu have also emerged as possible treatment strategies. Recent technological advances in gene therapy, including allotopic and transkingdom gene expression and mitochondrially targeted transcription activator-like nucleases, have led to promising results in cell and animal models of mitochondrial diseases, but most of these techniques are still far from clinical application. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24116962

  7. Exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction: a myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2016-08-01

    Beneficial effects of physical activity on mitochondrial health are well substantiated in the scientific literature, with regular exercise improving mitochondrial quality and quantity in normal healthy population, and in cardiometabolic and neurodegenerative disorders and aging. However, several recent studies questioned this paradigm, suggesting that extremely heavy or exhaustive exercise fosters mitochondrial disturbances that could permanently damage its function in health and disease. Exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (EIMD) might be a key proxy for negative outcomes of exhaustive exercise, being a pathophysiological substrate of heart abnormalities, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or muscle degeneration. Here, we overview possible factors that mediate negative effects of exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial function and structure, and put forward alternative solutions for the management of EIMD. PMID:27389587

  8. Mitochondrial traffic jams in Alzheimer's disease - pinpointing the roadblocks.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sónia C; Perry, George; Moreira, Paula I

    2016-10-01

    The vigorous axonal transport of mitochondria, which serves to distribute these organelles in a dynamic and non-uniform fashion, is crucial to fulfill neuronal energetic requirements allowing the maintenance of neurons structure and function. Particularly, axonal transport of mitochondria and their spatial distribution among the synapses are directly correlated with synaptic activity and integrity. Despite the basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains enigmatic, axonal pathology and synaptic dysfunction occur prior the occurrence of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and tau aggregation, the two classical hallmarks of this devastating neurodegenerative disease. Importantly, the early stages of AD are marked by defects on axonal transport of mitochondria as denoted by the abnormal accumulation of mitochondria within large swellings along dystrophic and degenerating neuritis. Within this scenario, this review is devoted to identify the molecular "roadblocks" underlying the abnormal axonal transport of mitochondria and consequent synaptic "starvation" and neuronal degeneration in AD. Understanding the molecular nature of defective mitochondrial transport may provide a new avenue to counteract AD pathology. PMID:27460705

  9. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  10. The use of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Seth D; Shaw, Dennis W W; Ishak, Gisele; Gropman, Andrea L; Saneto, Russell P

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA impacting mitochondrial function result in disease manifestations ranging from early death to abnormalities in all major organ systems and to symptoms that can be largely confined to muscle fatigue. The definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder can be difficult to establish. When the constellation of symptoms is suggestive of mitochondrial disease, neuroimaging features may be diagnostic and suggestive, can help direct further workup, and can help to further characterize the underlying brain abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging changes may be nonspecific, such as atrophy (both general and involving specific structures, such as cerebellum), more suggestive of particular disorders such as focal and often bilateral lesions confined to deep brain nuclei, or clearly characteristic of a given disorder such as stroke-like lesions that do not respect vascular boundaries in mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS). White matter hyperintensities with or without associated gray matter involvement may also be observed. Across patients and discrete disease subtypes (e.g., MELAS, Leigh syndrome, etc.), patterns of these features are helpful for diagnosis. However, it is also true that marked variability in expression occurs in all mitochondrial disease subtypes, illustrative of the complexity of the disease process. The present review summarizes the role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis and characterization of patients with suspected mitochondrial disease. PMID:20818727

  11. Primary Mitochondrial Disease and Secondary Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Importance of Distinction for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Niyazov, Dmitriy M; Kahler, Stephan G; Frye, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial disease refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in defective cellular energy production due to abnormal oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos). Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is diagnosed clinically and ideally, but not always, confirmed by a known or indisputably pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutation. The PMD genes either encode oxphos proteins directly or they affect oxphos function by impacting production of the complex machinery needed to run the oxphos process. However, many disorders have the 'mitochondrial' phenotype without an identifiable mtDNA or nDNA mutation or they have a variant of unknown clinical significance. Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction (SMD) can be caused by genes encoding neither function nor production of the oxphos proteins and accompanies many hereditary non-mitochondrial diseases. SMD may also be due to nongenetic causes such as environmental factors. In our practice, we see many patients with clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction based on phenotype, biomarkers, imaging, muscle biopsy, or negative/equivocal mtDNA or nDNA test results. In these cases, it is often tempting to assign a patient's phenotype to 'mitochondrial disease', but SMD is often challenging to distinguish from PMD. Fortunately, rapid advances in molecular testing, made possible by next generation sequencing, have been effective at least in some cases in establishing accurate diagnoses to distinguish between PMD and SMD. This is important, since their treatments and prognoses can be quite different. However, even in the absence of the ability to distinguish between PMD and SMD, treating SMD with standard treatments for PMD can be effective. We review the latest findings regarding mitochondrial disease/dysfunction and give representative examples in which differentiation between PMD and SMD has been crucial for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27587988

  12. Infantile Encephalopathy and Defective Mitochondrial DNA Translation in Patients with Mutations of Mitochondrial Elongation Factors EFG1 and EFTu

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Lucia; Tiranti, Valeria; Marsano, René Massimiliano; Malfatti, Edoardo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Donnini, Claudia; Mereghetti, Paolo; De Gioia, Luca; Burlina, Alberto; Castellan, Claudio; Comi, Giacomo P.; Savasta, Salvatore; Ferrero, Iliana; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein translation is a complex process performed within mitochondria by an apparatus composed of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA–encoded proteins. Although the latter by far outnumber the former, the vast majority of mitochondrial translation defects in humans have been associated with mutations in RNA-encoding mtDNA genes, whereas mutations in protein-encoding nuclear genes have been identified in a handful of cases. Genetic investigation involving patients with defective mitochondrial translation led us to the discovery of novel mutations in the mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EFG1) in one affected baby and, for the first time, in the mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EFTu) in another one. Both patients were affected by severe lactic acidosis and rapidly progressive, fatal encephalopathy. The EFG1-mutant patient had early-onset Leigh syndrome, whereas the EFTu-mutant patient had severe infantile macrocystic leukodystrophy with micropolygyria. Structural modeling enabled us to make predictions about the effects of the mutations at the molecular level. Yeast and mammalian cell systems proved the pathogenic role of the mutant alleles by functional complementation in vivo. Nuclear-gene abnormalities causing mitochondrial translation defects represent a new, potentially broad field of mitochondrial medicine. Investigation of these defects is important to expand the molecular characterization of mitochondrial disorders and also may contribute to the elucidation of the complex control mechanisms, which regulate this fundamental pathway of mtDNA homeostasis. PMID:17160893

  13. Mitochondrial RNA granules: Compartmentalizing mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Alexis A; Boehm, Erik; Maundrell, Kinsey; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-14

    In mitochondria, DNA replication, gene expression, and RNA degradation machineries coexist within a common nondelimited space, raising the question of how functional compartmentalization of gene expression is achieved. Here, we discuss the recently characterized "mitochondrial RNA granules," mitochondrial subdomains with an emerging role in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:26953349

  14. Mitochondrial impact of human immunodeficiency virus and antiretrovirals on infected pediatric patients with or without lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Morén, Constanza; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Rovira, Núria; Corrales, Ester; Garrabou, Glòria; Hernández, Sandra; Nicolás, Mireia; Tobías, Ester; Cardellach, Francesc; Miró, Oscar; Fortuny, Clàudia

    2011-11-01

    We determined the mitochondrial status of a group of HIV-infected children, some with body fat abnormalities (BFA). We included 24 controls, 16 HIV-infected untreated, 26 HIV-infected treated, 6 BFA-untreated, and 21 BFA-treated patients. Genetic, translational, and functional mitochondrial values were measured. As compared with controls, mitochondrial DNA depletion and a reduction in functionality were found in BFA groups. PMID:21697766

  15. Modeling of Mitochondrial Donut Formation.

    PubMed

    Long, Qi; Zhao, Danyun; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Liang; Zhou, Yanshuang; Qi, Juntao; Wang, Xin; Liu, Xingguo

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic cell organelles. Continual cycles of fusion and fission play an important role in mitochondrial metabolism and cellular signaling. Previously, a novel mitochondrial morphology, the donut, was reported in cells after hypoxia-reoxygenation or osmotic pressure changes. However, the mechanism of donut formation remained elusive. Here, we obtained the distribution of donut diameters (D = 2R) and found that 95% are >0.8 μm. We also performed highly precise measurements of the mitochondrial tubule diameters using superresolution and electron microscopy. Then, we set up a model by calculating the mitochondrial bending energy and osmotic potential during donut formation. It shows that the bending energy is increased as the radius of curvature, R, gets smaller in the process of donut formation, especially for radii <0.4 μm, creating a barrier to donut formation. The calculations also show that osmotic potential energy release can balance the rising bending energy through volume expansion. Finally, we revealed the donut formation process in a Gibbs free-energy-dependent model combining calculations and measurements. PMID:26331247

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Alterations and Reduced Mitochondrial Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Sadie L.; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA increases with aging. This damage has the potential to affect mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription which could alter the abundance or functionality of mitochondrial proteins. This review describes mitochondrial DNA alterations and changes in mitochondrial function that occur with aging. Age-related alterations in mitochondrial DNA as a possible contributor to the reduction in mitochondrial function are discussed. PMID:20307565

  17. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Saotome, Masao; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Funaki, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ{sub m}) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin

  18. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  19. Functional recovery of human cells harbouring the mitochondrial DNA mutation MERRF A8344G via peptide-mediated mitochondrial delivery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Chih; Liu, Ko-Hung; Li, Yu-Chi; Kou, Shou-Jen; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chuang, Chieh-Sen; Hsieh, Mingli; Liu, Chin-San

    2013-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of mitochondrial therapy using the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1 to transfer mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between cells and rescue a cybrid cell model of the mitochondrial disease myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibres (MERRF) syndrome. Pep-1-conjugated wild-type mitochondria isolated from parent cybrid cells incorporating a mitochondria-specific tag were used as donors for mitochondrial delivery into MERRF cybrid cells (MitoB2) and mtDNA-depleted Rho-zero cells (Mitoρ°). Forty-eight hours later, translocation of Pep-1-labelled mitochondria into the mitochondrial regions of MitoB2 and Mitoρ° host cells was observed (delivery efficiencies of 77.48 and 82.96%, respectively). These internalized mitochondria were maintained for at least 15 days in both cell types and were accompanied by mitochondrial function recovery and cell survival by preventing mitochondria-dependent cell death. Mitochondrial homeostasis analyses showed that peptide-mediated mitochondrial delivery (PMD) also increased mitochondrial biogenesis in both cell types, but through distinct regulatory pathways involving mitochondrial dynamics. Dramatic decreases in mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and dynamin-related protein 1/fission 1 were observed in MitoB2 cells, while Mitoρ° cells showed a significant increase in optic atrophy 1 and MFN2. These findings suggest that PMD can be used as a potential therapeutic intervention for mitochondrial disorders. PMID:23006856

  20. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  2. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  3. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 3 and Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Perico, Luca; Morigi, Marina; Benigni, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose functions are tightly regulated at multiple levels to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), which belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, is a key regulator of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP production, and fatty acid β-oxidation, and it exerts an antioxidant activity. Changes in SIRT3 expression are critical in the pathophysiology of several diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, and aging. In experimental acute kidney injury (AKI), impairment of renal function and development of tubular injury are associated with SIRT3 reduction and mitochondrial dysfunction in proximal tubuli. SIRT3-deficient mice are more susceptible to AKI and die. Pharmacological manipulations able to increase SIRT3 preserve mitochondrial integrity, markedly limit renal injury, and accelerate functional recovery. This review highlights all the selective rescue mechanisms that point to the key role of SIRT3 as a new therapeutic target for curing renal diseases. PMID:27362524

  4. Ionizing radiation accelerates Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission, which involves delayed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in normal human fibroblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kobashigawa, Shinko; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report first time that ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial dynamic changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced mitochondrial fission was caused by Drp1 localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that radiation causes delayed ROS from mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of Drp1 rescued mitochondrial dysfunction after radiation exposure. -- Abstract: Ionizing radiation is known to increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction. Although it has been as a basis of radiation-induced genetic instability, the mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. Here we studied the dynamics of mitochondrial structure in normal human fibroblast like cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Delayed mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-} production was peaked 3 days after irradiation, which was coupled with accelerated mitochondrial fission. We found that radiation exposure accumulated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria. Knocking down of Drp1 expression prevented radiation induced acceleration of mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, knockdown of Drp1 significantly suppressed delayed production of mitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}-}. Since the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was induced by radiation was prevented in cells knocking down of Drp1 expression, indicating that the excessive mitochondrial fission was involved in delayed mitochondrial dysfunction after irradiation.

  5. [Mitochondrial disease and mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Chang-Huang

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondria is an intracellular double membrane-bound structure and it can provide energy for intracellular metabolism. The metabolism includes Krebs cycle, beta-oxidation and lipid synthesis. The density of mitochondria is different in various tissues dependent upon the demands of oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial diseases can occur by defects either in mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding for 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 mRNAs that are translated in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial genetic diseases are most resulted from defects in the mtDNA which may be point mutations, deletions, or mitochondrial DNA depletion. These patterns of inheritance in mitochondrial diseases include sporadic, maternally inherited, or of Mendelian inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA depletion is caused by defects in the nuclear genes that are responsible for maintenance of integrity of mtDNA or deoxyribonucelotide pools and mtDNA biogenesis. The mtDNA depletion syndrome (MDS) includes the following categories: progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), predominant myopathy, mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), sensory-ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) and hepato-encephalopathy. The most common tissues or organs involved in MDS and related disorders include the brain, liver and muscles. These involved genes are divided into two groups including 1) DNA polymerase gamma (POLG, POLG2) and Twinkle genes whose products function directly at the mtDNA replication fork, and 2) adenine nucleotide translocator 1, thymidine phosphorylase, thymidine kinase 2, deoxyguanosine kinase, ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase ligase, MPV17 whose products supply the mitochondria with deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate pools needed for mtDNA replication, and possible mutation in the RRM2B gene. The development has provided new information about the importance of the biosynthetic pathway of the nucleotides for mtDNA replication

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. OPA1 and mitochondrial solute carriers in bioenergetic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is required to maintain cristae structure and for ATP synthase assembly. Our recent work demonstrates that OPA1 dynamically regulates these processes by sensing changes in nutrient availability through mitochondrial solute carriers and adjusting the metabolic output of mitochondria accordingly. This is a critical survival process as its inhibition leads to cell death. PMID:27308447

  8. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Pathology in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Hayley; Sillivan, Stephanie; Konradi, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are severe psychiatric illnesses with a combined prevalence of 4%. A disturbance of energy metabolism is frequently observed in these disorders. Several pieces of evidence point to an underlying dysfunction of mitochondria: i) decreased mitochondrial respiration; (ii) changes in mitochondrial morphology; iii) increases in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms and in levels of mtDNA mutations; iv) downregulation of nuclear mRNA molecules and proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration; v) decreased high-energy phosphates and decreased pH in the brain; and vi) psychotic and affective symptoms, and cognitive decline in mitochondrial disorders. Furthermore, transgenic mice with mutated mitochondrial DNA polymerase show mood disorder-like phenotypes. In this review, we will discuss the genetic and physiological components of mitochondria and the evidence for mitochondrial abnormalities in BPD and SZ. We will furthermore describe the role of mitochondria during brain development and the effect of current drugs for mental illness on mitochondrial function. Understanding the role of mitochondria, both developmentally as well as in the ailing brain, is of critical importance to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. PMID:20833242

  10. Mitochondrial Approaches to Protect Against Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.; Bienengraeber, Martin; Stowe, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart disease), alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury. PMID:21559063

  11. Mitochondrial protein turnover: methods to measure turnover rates on a large scale

    PubMed Central

    Chan, X’avia CY; Black, Caitlin M; Lin, Amanda J; Ping, Peipei; Lau, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins carry out diverse cellular functions including ATP synthesis, ion homeostasis, cell death signaling, and fatty acid metabolism and biogenesis. Compromised mitochondrial quality control is implicated in various human disorders including cardiac diseases. Recently it has emerged that mitochondrial protein turnover can serve as an informative cellular parameter to characterize mitochondrial quality and uncover disease mechanisms. The turnover rate of a mitochondrial protein reflects its homeostasis and dynamics under the quality control systems acting on mitochondria at a particular cell state. This review article summarizes some recent advances and outstanding challenges for measuring the turnover rates of mitochondrial proteins in health and disease. PMID:25451168

  12. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  14. Deficiency in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp21) gene increases ischemic brain damage and impairs mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Mehta, Suresh L.; Lu, Baisong; Andy Li, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in mediating ischemic brain damage. Immp2l is an inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase that processes mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c1 (Cyc1). Homozygous mutation of Immp2l (Immp2lTg(Tyr)979Ove or Immp2l−/−) elevates mitochondrial membrane potential, increases superoxide (•O2−) production in the brain and impairs fertility. The objectives of this study are to explore the effects of heterozygous mutation of lmmp2l (Immp2l+/−) on ischemic outcome and to determine the influence of Immp2l deficiency on brain mitochondria after stroke. Male Immp2l+/− and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 1-h focal cerebral ischemia. Their brains were harvested after 5 and 24-h of reperfusion. The results showed that infarct volume and DNA oxidative damage significantly increased in the Immp2l+/− mice. There were no obvious cerebral vasculature abnormalities between the two types of mice viewed by Indian ink perfusion. The increased damage in Immp2l+/− mice was associated with early increase in •O2− production. Mitochondrial respiratory rate, total mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities were decreased at 5-h of recirculation in Immp2l+/− mice compared to WT mice. Our results suggest that lmmp2l deficiency increases ischemic brain damage by enhancing •O2− production and damaging mitochondrial functional performance. PMID:21824519

  15. Mitochondrial phospholipids: role in mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Edgard M; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria are essential components of eukaryotic cells and are involved in a diverse set of cellular processes that include ATP production, cellular signalling, apoptosis and cell growth. These organelles are thought to have originated from a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotic cells in an effort to provide a bioenergetic jump and thus, the greater complexity observed in eukaryotes (Lane and Martin 2010). Mitochondrial processes are required not only for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, but also allow cell to cell and tissue to tissue communication (Nunnari and Suomalainen 2012). Mitochondrial phospholipids are important components of this system. Phospholipids make up the characteristic outer and inner membranes that give mitochondria their shape. In addition, these membranes house sterols, sphingolipids and a wide variety of proteins. It is the phospholipids that also give rise to other characteristic mitochondrial structures such as cristae (formed from the invaginations of the inner mitochondrial membrane), the matrix (area within cristae) and the intermembrane space (IMS) which separates the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Phospholipids are the building blocks that make up these structures. However, the phospholipid composition of the OMM and IMM is unique in each membrane. Mitochondria are able to synthesize some of the phospholipids it requires, but the majority of cellular lipid biosynthesis takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in conjunction with the Golgi apparatus (Fagone and Jackowski 2009). In this review, we will focus on the role that mitochondrial phospholipids play in specific cellular functions and discuss their biosynthesis, metabolism and transport as well as the differences between the OMM and IMM phospholipid composition. Finally, we will focus on the human diseases that result from disturbances to mitochondrial phospholipids and the current research being performed to help

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular calcium dysregulation in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects the aging population. A progressive loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain leads to muscle paralysis and death. As in other common neurodegenerative diseases, aging-related mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly being considered among the pathogenic factors. Mitochondria are critical for cell survival: they provide energy to the cell, buffer intracellular calcium, and regulate apoptotic cell death. Whether mitochondrial abnormalities are a trigger or a consequence of the neurodegenerative process and the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to disease are not clear yet. Calcium homeostasis is a major function of mitochondria in neurons, and there is ample evidence that intracellular calcium is dysregulated in ALS. The impact of mitochondrial dysfunction on intracellular calcium homeostasis and its role in motor neuron demise are intriguing issues that warrants in depth discussion. Clearly, unraveling the causal relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction, calcium dysregulation, and neuronal death is critical for the understanding of ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we will outline the current knowledge of various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS, with a special emphasis on the role of these abnormalities on intracellular calcium handling. PMID:20493207

  17. Impaired Lung Mitochondrial Respiration Following Perinatal Nicotine Exposure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Daniel T; Liu, Jie; Sakurai, Reiko; Rossiter, Harry B; Rehan, Virender K

    2016-04-01

    Perinatal smoke/nicotine exposure predisposes to chronic lung disease and morbidity. Mitochondrial abnormalities may contribute as the PPARγ pathway is involved in structural and functional airway deficits after perinatal nicotine exposure. We hypothesized perinatal nicotine exposure results in lung mitochondrial dysfunction that can be rescued by rosiglitazone (RGZ; PPARγ receptor agonist). Sprague-Dawley dams received placebo (CON), nicotine (NIC, 1 mg kg(-1)), or NIC + RGZ (3 mg kg(-1)) daily from embryonic day 6 to postnatal day 21. Parenchymal lung (~10 mg) was taken from adult male offspring for mitochondrial assessment in situ. ADP-stimulated O2 consumption was less in NIC and NIC + RGZ compared to CON (F[2,14] = 17.8; 4.5 ± 0.8 and 4.1 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 2.5 pmol s mg(-1); p < 0.05). The respiratory control ratio for ADP, an index of mitochondrial coupling, was reduced in NIC and remediated in NIC + RGZ (F[2,14] = 3.8; p < 0.05). Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and abnormal coupling were evident after perinatal nicotine exposure. RGZ improved mitochondrial function through tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26899624

  18. [Characteristics of molecular genetics and research progress on mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Si, Yanmei; Zhao, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial diseases is a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal structure and dysfunction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Abnormalities of mtDNA include point mutations, deletions, and rearrangements and depletion of mtDNA. These may affect the ability of mitochondria to generate energy in cells of various tissues and organs. As many factors are involved in the regulation of mtDNA mutations, most mitochondrial diseases may manifest great genetic heterogeneity and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. On the other hand, for the low prevalence of single disease, these disorders may be easily missed or with delayed diagnosis. This review focuses on the pathological mutations and benign variations of mtDNA, and research progress on such disorders. PMID:27577231

  19. Mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cardiac manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Noh, Yeonhee; Xu, Zhelong; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, have their own DNA (mtDNA). They regulate the transport of metabolites and ions, which determine cell physiology, survival, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including impaired oxidative phosphorylation, preferentially affects heart function via imbalance of energy supply and demand. Recently, mitochondrial mutations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction were suggested as a causal factor of cardiac manifestations. Oxidative stress largely influences mtDNA stability due to oxidative modifications of mtDNA. Furthermore, the continuous replicative state of mtDNA and presence of minimal nucleoid structure render mitochondria vulnerable to oxidative damage and subsequent mutations, which impair mitochondrial functions. However, the occurrence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in the same mitochondrion or cell and presence of nuclear DNA-encoded mtDNA repair systems raise questions regarding whether oxidative stress-mediated mtDNA mutations are the major driving force in accumulation of mtDNA mutations. Here, we address the possible causes of mitochondrial DNA mutations and their involvement in cardiac manifestations. Current strategies for treatment related to mitochondrial mutations and/or dysfunction in cardiac manifestations are briefly discussed. PMID:27100514

  20. Kif5 regulates mitochondrial movement, morphology, function and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Iworima, Diepiriye G; Pasqualotto, Bryce A; Rintoul, Gordon L

    2016-04-01

    Due to the unique architecture of neurons, trafficking of mitochondria throughout processes to regions of high energetic demand is critical to sustain neuronal health. It has been suggested that compromised mitochondrial trafficking may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the consequences of disrupted kif5c-mediated mitochondrial trafficking on mitochondrial form and function in primary rat cortical neurons. Morphological changes in mitochondria appeared to be due to remodelling, a phenomenon distinct from mitochondrial fission, which resulted in punctate-shaped mitochondria. We also demonstrated that neurons displaying punctate mitochondria exhibited relatively decreased ROS and increased cellular ATP levels using ROS-sensitive GFP and ATP FRET probes, respectively. Somewhat unexpectedly, neurons overexpressing the dominant negative form of kif5c exhibited enhanced survival following excitotoxicity, suggesting that the impairment of mitochondrial trafficking conferred some form of neuroprotection. However, when neurons were exposed to H2O2, disruption of kif5c exacerbated cell death indicating that the effect on cell viability was dependent on the mode of toxicity. Our results suggest a novel role of kif5c. In addition to mediating mitochondrial transport, kif5c plays a role in the mechanism of regulating mitochondrial morphology. Our results also suggest that kif5c mediated mitochondrial dynamics may play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function and in turn cellular health. Moreover, our studies demonstrate an interesting interplay between the regulation of mitochondrial motility and morphology. PMID:26767417

  1. Retro-translocation of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bragoszewski, Piotr; Wasilewski, Michal; Sakowska, Paulina; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Böttinger, Lena; Qiu, Jian; Wiedemann, Nils; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The content of mitochondrial proteome is maintained through two highly dynamic processes, the influx of newly synthesized proteins from the cytosol and the protein degradation. Mitochondrial proteins are targeted to the intermembrane space by the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly pathway that couples their import and oxidative folding. The folding trap was proposed to be a driving mechanism for the mitochondrial accumulation of these proteins. Whether the reverse movement of unfolded proteins to the cytosol occurs across the intact outer membrane is unknown. We found that reduced, conformationally destabilized proteins are released from mitochondria in a size-limited manner. We identified the general import pore protein Tom40 as an escape gate. We propose that the mitochondrial proteome is not only regulated by the import and degradation of proteins but also by their retro-translocation to the external cytosolic location. Thus, protein release is a mechanism that contributes to the mitochondrial proteome surveillance. PMID:26056291

  2. Tissue-specific modulation of mitochondrial DNA segregation by a defect in mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Riikka; Marttinen, Paula; Stewart, James B; Neil Dear, T; Battersby, Brendan J

    2016-02-15

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that divide and fuse by remodeling an outer and inner membrane in response to developmental, physiological and stress stimuli. These events are coordinated by conserved dynamin-related GTPases. The dynamics of mitochondrial morphology require coordination with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to ensure faithful genome transmission, however, this process remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial division is linked to the segregation of mtDNA but how it affects cases of mtDNA heteroplasmy, where two or more mtDNA variants/mutations co-exist in a cell, is unknown. Segregation of heteroplasmic human pathogenic mtDNA mutations is a critical factor in the onset and severity of human mitochondrial diseases. Here, we investigated the coupling of mitochondrial morphology to the transmission and segregation of mtDNA in mammals by taking advantage of two genetically modified mouse models: one with a dominant-negative mutation in the dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 or Dnm1l) that impairs mitochondrial fission and the other, heteroplasmic mice segregating two neutral mtDNA haplotypes (BALB and NZB). We show a tissue-specific response to mtDNA segregation from a defect in mitochondrial fission. Only mtDNA segregation in the hematopoietic compartment is modulated from impaired Dnm1l function. In contrast, no effect was observed in other tissues arising from the three germ layers during development and in mtDNA transmission through the female germline. Our data suggest a robust organization of a heteroplasmic mtDNA segregating unit across mammalian cell types that can overcome impaired mitochondrial division to ensure faithful transmission of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:26681804

  3. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  4. Decreased mitochondrial tRNALys steady-state levels and aminoacylation are associated with the pathogenic G8313A mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Bacman, Sandra R; Atencio, David P; Moraes, Carlos T

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial tRNA genes cause a number of multisystemic disorders. A G-to-A transition at position 8313 (G8313A) transition in the mitochondrial tRNALys gene has been associated with a childhood syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal-system involvement and encephaloneuropathy. We have used transmitochondrial cybrid clones harbouring patient-derived mitochondrial DNA with the G8313A mutation for the study of the molecular pathogenesis. Our results showed that mutant mitochondrial cybrids respired poorly, and had severely defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and respiratory-chain-enzyme activity. Mutant cybrids also showed a marked decrease in tRNALys steady-state levels and aminoacylation, suggesting that these molecular abnormalities may underlie the pathogenesis of the mitochondrial G8313A mutation. PMID:12737626

  5. Integrity of the yeast mitochondrial genome, but not its distribution and inheritance, relies on mitochondrial fission and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Christof; Noriega, Thomas R.; Okreglak, Voytek; Fung, Jennifer C.; Walter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for mitochondrial and cellular function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mtDNA is organized in nucleoprotein structures termed nucleoids, which are distributed throughout the mitochondrial network and are faithfully inherited during the cell cycle. How the cell distributes and inherits mtDNA is incompletely understood although an involvement of mitochondrial fission and fusion has been suggested. We developed a LacO-LacI system to noninvasively image mtDNA dynamics in living cells. Using this system, we found that nucleoids are nonrandomly spaced within the mitochondrial network and observed the spatiotemporal events involved in mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, cells deficient in mitochondrial fusion and fission distributed and inherited mtDNA normally, pointing to alternative pathways involved in these processes. We identified such a mechanism, where we observed fission-independent, but F-actin–dependent, tip generation that was linked to the positioning of mtDNA to the newly generated tip. Although mitochondrial fusion and fission were dispensable for mtDNA distribution and inheritance, we show through a combination of genetics and next-generation sequencing that their absence leads to an accumulation of mitochondrial genomes harboring deleterious structural variations that cluster at the origins of mtDNA replication, thus revealing crucial roles for mitochondrial fusion and fission in maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25730886

  6. Altered Mitochondrial Respiration and Other Features of Mitochondrial Function in Parkin-Mutant Fibroblasts from Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Chrisna; van der Westhuizen, Francois; van Dyk, Hayley; van der Merwe, Lize; van der Merwe, Celia; Loos, Ben; Carr, Jonathan; Kinnear, Craig; Bardien, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in respiratory chain function, mitophagy, and mitochondrial dynamics. Human cellular models with parkin null mutations are particularly valuable for investigating the mitochondrial functions of parkin. However, published results reporting on patient-derived parkin-mutant fibroblasts have been inconsistent. This study aimed to functionally compare parkin-mutant fibroblasts from PD patients with wild-type control fibroblasts using a variety of assays to gain a better understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. To this end, dermal fibroblasts were obtained from three PD patients with homozygous whole exon deletions in parkin and three unaffected controls. Assays of mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial network integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell growth were performed as informative markers of mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, it was found that mitochondrial respiratory rates were markedly higher in the parkin-mutant fibroblasts compared to control fibroblasts (p = 0.0093), while exhibiting more fragmented mitochondrial networks (p = 0.0304). Moreover, cell growth of the parkin-mutant fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of controls (p = 0.0001). These unanticipated findings are suggestive of a compensatory mechanism to preserve mitochondrial function and quality control in the absence of parkin in fibroblasts, which warrants further investigation. PMID:27034887

  7. Mitochondrial transmission during mating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by mitochondrial fusion and fission and the intramitochondrial segregation of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Nunnari, J; Marshall, W F; Straight, A; Murray, A; Sedat, J W; Walter, P

    1997-01-01

    To gain insight into the process of mitochondrial transmission in yeast, we directly labeled mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and observed their fate after the fusion of two cells. To this end, mitochondrial proteins in haploid cells of opposite mating type were labeled with different fluorescent dyes and observed by fluorescence microscopy after mating of the cells. Parental mitochondrial protein markers rapidly redistributed and colocalized throughout zygotes, indicating that during mating, parental mitochondria fuse and their protein contents intermix, consistent with results previously obtained with a single parentally derived protein marker. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of mitochondria in living cells with wide-field fluorescence microscopy indicated that mitochondria form a single dynamic network, whose continuity is maintained by a balanced frequency of fission and fusion events. Thus, the complete mixing of mitochondrial proteins can be explained by the formation of one continuous mitochondrial compartment after mating. In marked contrast to the mixing of parental mitochondrial proteins after fusion, mtDNA (labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromodeoxyuridine) remained distinctly localized to one half of the zygotic cell. This observation provides a direct explanation for the genetically observed nonrandom patterns of mtDNA transmission. We propose that anchoring of mtDNA within the organelle is linked to an active segregation mechanism that ensures accurate inheritance of mtDNA along with the organelle. Images PMID:9243504

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Gal, Jozsef; Kwinter, David M.; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Haining

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains to be better understood. Based on the studies from ALS patients and transgenic animal models, it is believed that ALS is likely to be a multifactorial and multisystem disease. Many mechanisms have been postulated to be involved in the pathology of ALS, such as oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, defective axonal transport, glia cell pathology and aberrant RNA metabolism. Mitochondria, which play crucial roles in excitotoxicity, apoptosis and cell survival, have shown to be an early target in ALS pathogenesis and contribute to the disease progression. Morphological and functional defects in mitochondria were found in both human patients and ALS mice overexpressing mutant SOD1. Mutant SOD1 was found to be preferentially associated with mitochondria and subsequently impair mitochondrial function. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of mitochondria along microtubules and mitochondrial dynamics may also be disrupted in ALS. These results also illustrate the critical importance of maintaining proper mitochondrial function in axons and neuromuscular junctions, supporting the emerging “dying-back” axonopathy model of ALS. In this review, we will discuss how mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the ALS variants of SOD1 and the mechanisms by which mitochondrial damage contributes to the disease etiology. PMID:19715760

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2010-09-01

    Sepsis and multiple organ failure remain leading causes of death in intensive care patients. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these syndromes include a likely prominent role for mitochondria. Patient studies have shown that the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the eventual outcome. Associated mechanisms include damage to mitochondria or inhibition of the electron transport chain enzymes by nitric oxide and other reactive oxygen species (the effects of which are amplified by co-existing tissue hypoxia), hormonal influences that decrease mitochondrial activity, and downregulation of mitochondrial protein expression. Notably, despite these findings, there is minimal cell death seen in most affected organs, and these organs generally regain reasonably normal function should the patient survive. It is thus plausible that multiple organ failure following sepsis may actually represent an adaptive state whereby the organs temporarily 'shut down' their normal metabolic functions in order to protect themselves from an overwhelming and prolonged insult. A decrease in energy supply due to mitochondrial inhibition or injury may trigger this hibernation/estivation-like state. Likewise, organ recovery may depend on restoration of normal mitochondrial respiration. Data from animal studies show histological recovery of mitochondria after a septic insult that precedes clinical improvement. Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis could offer a new therapeutic approach for patients in multi-organ failure. This review will cover basic aspects of mitochondrial function, mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis, and approaches to prevent, mitigate or speed recovery from mitochondrial injury. PMID:20509844

  10. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  11. Mitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signaling.

    PubMed

    Bagkos, Georgios; Koufopoulos, Kostas; Piperi, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence shows that mitochondria regulate nuclear transcriptional activity both in normal and cell stress conditions, known as retrograde signaling. Under normal mitochondrial function, retrograde signaling is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, normal cell phenotype and metabolic profile. In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to abnormal (oncogenic) cell phenotype and altered bio-energetic profile (nucleus reprogramming). Despite intense research efforts, a concrete mechanism through which mitochondria determine the group of genes expressed by the nucleus is still missing. The present paper proposes a novel hypothesis regarding retrograde signaling. More specifically, it reveals the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the accompanied strong electromagnetic field (EF) as key regulatory factors of nuclear activity. Mitochondrial emitted EFs extend in long distance and affect the function of nuclear membrane receptors. Depending on their frequencies, EFs can directly activate or deactivate different groups of nuclear receptors and so determine nuclear gene expression. One of the key features of the above hypothesis is that nuclear membrane receptors, besides their own endogenous or chemical ligands (hormones, lipids, etc.), can also be activated by electromagnetic signals. Moreover, normal MMP values (about -140 mV) are associated with the production of high ATP quantities and small levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the hyperpolarization observed in all cancer cell types leads to a dramatic fall in ATP production and an analogous increase in ROS. The diminished ATP and increased ROS production negatively affect the function of all cellular systems including nucleus. Restoration of mitochondrial function, which is characterized by the fluctuation of MMP and EF values within a certain (normal) range, is proposed as a necessary condition for normal nuclear function and cancer therapy. PMID:26474928

  12. Modulation of the matrix redox signaling by mitochondrial Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Wiederkehr, Andreas; De Marchi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria sense, shape and integrate signals, and thus function as central players in cellular signal transduction. Ca2+ waves and redox reactions are two such intracellular signals modulated by mitochondria. Mitochondrial Ca2+ transport is of utmost physio-pathological relevance with a strong impact on metabolism and cell fate. Despite its importance, the molecular nature of the proteins involved in mitochondrial Ca2+ transport has been revealed only recently. Mitochondrial Ca2+ promotes energy metabolism through the activation of matrix dehydrogenases and down-stream stimulation of the respiratory chain. These changes also alter the mitochondrial NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio, but at the same time will increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Reducing equivalents and ROS are having opposite effects on the mitochondrial redox state, which are hard to dissect. With the recent development of genetically encoded mitochondrial-targeted redox-sensitive sensors, real-time monitoring of matrix thiol redox dynamics has become possible. The discoveries of the molecular nature of mitochondrial transporters of Ca2+ combined with the utilization of the novel redox sensors is shedding light on the complex relation between mitochondrial Ca2+ and redox signals and their impact on cell function. In this review, we describe mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, focusing on a number of newly identified proteins involved in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release. We further discuss our recent findings, revealing how mitochondrial Ca2+ influences the matrix redox state. As a result, mitochondrial Ca2+ is able to modulate the many mitochondrial redox-regulated processes linked to normal physiology and disease. PMID:26629314

  13. Modulation of the matrix redox signaling by mitochondrial Ca(2.).

    PubMed

    Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Wiederkehr, Andreas; De Marchi, Umberto

    2015-11-26

    Mitochondria sense, shape and integrate signals, and thus function as central players in cellular signal transduction. Ca(2+) waves and redox reactions are two such intracellular signals modulated by mitochondria. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport is of utmost physio-pathological relevance with a strong impact on metabolism and cell fate. Despite its importance, the molecular nature of the proteins involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport has been revealed only recently. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) promotes energy metabolism through the activation of matrix dehydrogenases and down-stream stimulation of the respiratory chain. These changes also alter the mitochondrial NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio, but at the same time will increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Reducing equivalents and ROS are having opposite effects on the mitochondrial redox state, which are hard to dissect. With the recent development of genetically encoded mitochondrial-targeted redox-sensitive sensors, real-time monitoring of matrix thiol redox dynamics has become possible. The discoveries of the molecular nature of mitochondrial transporters of Ca(2+) combined with the utilization of the novel redox sensors is shedding light on the complex relation between mitochondrial Ca(2+) and redox signals and their impact on cell function. In this review, we describe mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling, focusing on a number of newly identified proteins involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and release. We further discuss our recent findings, revealing how mitochondrial Ca(2+) influences the matrix redox state. As a result, mitochondrial Ca(2+) is able to modulate the many mitochondrial redox-regulated processes linked to normal physiology and disease. PMID:26629314

  14. Mitophagy plays a central role in mitochondrial ageing.

    PubMed

    Diot, Alan; Morten, Karl; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying ageing have been discussed for decades, and advances in molecular and cell biology of the last three decades have accelerated research in this area. Over this period, it has become clear that mitochondrial function, which plays a major role in many cellular pathways from ATP production to nuclear gene expression and epigenetics alterations, declines with age. The emerging concepts suggest novel mechanisms, involving mtDNA quality, mitochondrial dynamics or mitochondrial quality control. In this review, we discuss the impact of mitochondria in the ageing process, the role of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production, in nuclear gene expression, the accumulation of mtDNA damage and the importance of mitochondrial dynamics and recycling. Declining mitophagy (mitochondrial quality control) may be an important component of human ageing. PMID:27352213

  15. Kinetics and specificity of paternal mitochondrial elimination in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianwan; Liang, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Miao, Long; Kang, Byung-Ho; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, mitochondria are inherited maternally. The autophagy process is critical for paternal mitochondrial elimination (PME) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how paternal mitochondria, but not maternal mitochondria, are selectively targeted for degradation is poorly understood. Here we report that mitochondrial dynamics have a profound effect on PME. A defect in fission of paternal mitochondria delays PME, whereas a defect in fusion of paternal mitochondria accelerates PME. Surprisingly, a defect in maternal mitochondrial fusion delays PME, which is reversed by a fission defect in maternal mitochondria or by increasing maternal mitochondrial membrane potential using oligomycin. Electron microscopy and tomography analyses reveal that a proportion of maternal mitochondria are compromised when they fail to fuse normally, leading to their competition for the autophagy machinery with damaged paternal mitochondria and delayed PME. Our study indicates that mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in regulating both the kinetics and the specificity of PME. PMID:27581092

  16. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of the mS952 intron: a novel mitochondrial group II intron encoding a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene.

    PubMed

    Mullineux, Sahra-Taylor; Willows, Karla; Hausner, Georg

    2011-06-01

    Examination of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (rns) gene of five species of the fungal genus Leptographium revealed that the gene has been invaded at least once at position 952 by a group II intron encoding a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene. Phylogenetic analyses of the intron and homing endonuclease sequences indicated that each element in Leptographium species forms a single clade and is closely related to the group II intron/homing endonuclease gene composite element previously reported at position 952 of the mitochondrial rns gene of Cordyceps species and of Cryphonectria parasitica. The results of an intron survey of the mt rns gene of Leptographium species superimposed onto the phylogenetic analysis of the host organisms suggest that the composite element was transmitted vertically in Leptographium lundbergii. However, its stochastic distribution among strains of L. wingfieldii, L. terebrantis, and L. truncatum suggests that it has been horizontally transmitted by lateral gene transfer among these species, although the random presence of the intron may reflect multiple random loss events. A model is proposed describing the initial invasion of the group II intron in the rns gene of L. lundbergii by a LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene and subsequent evolution of this gene to recognize a novel DNA target site, which may now promote the mobility of the intron and homing endonuclease gene as a composite element. PMID:21479820

  18. Elucidation of cryptic diversity in a widespread nearctic treefrog reveals episodes of mitochondrial gene capture as frogs diversified across a dynamic landscape.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; de Oca, Adrian Nieto-Montes; Jaeger, Jef R; Riddle, Brett R

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the evolutionary history of the wide-ranging Nearctic treefrog Hyla arenicolor through the integration of extensive range-wide sampling, phylogenetic analyses of multilocus genetic data, and divergence dating. Previous phylogeographic studies of this frog documented a potential signature of introgressive hybridization from an ecologically and morphologically divergent sister species. Based on our Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA, we inferred strong phylogeographic structure in H. arenicolor as indicated by seven well-supported clades, five of which correspond to well-defined biogeographic regions. Clades from the Balsas Basin and southwestern Central Mexican Plateau in Mexico, and the Grand Canyon of Arizona, group with the morphologically, behaviorally, and ecologically divergent mountain treefrogs in the H. eximia group, rendering H. arenicolor as paraphyletic. The phylogenetic position of at least two of these three H. arenicolor clades within the H. eximia group, however, is most likely the result of several episodes of introgressive hybridization and subsequent mitochondrial gene capture separated in time and space, as supported by evidence from the nuclear genes. Hyla arenicolor from the Balsas Basin appear to be deeply divergent from other H. arenicolor and represent a distinctly different species. Results suggests that introgressive hybridization events, both ancient and contemporary, coupled with late Neogene vicariance and Pleistocene climate-driven range shifts, have all played a role in the historical diversification of H. arenicolor. PMID:20394664

  19. Disorders of phospholipid metabolism: an emerging class of mitochondrial disease due to defects in nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ya-Wen; Claypool, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes co-exist within each cell. While the mitochondrial genome encodes for a limited number of proteins, transfer RNAs, and ribosomal RNAs, the vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome. Of the multitude of mitochondrial disorders known to date, only a fifth are maternally inherited. The recent characterization of the mitochondrial proteome therefore serves as an important step toward delineating the nosology of a large spectrum of phenotypically heterogeneous diseases. Following the identification of the first nuclear gene defect to underlie a mitochondrial disorder, a plenitude of genetic variants that provoke mitochondrial pathophysiology have been molecularly elucidated and classified into six categories that impact: (1) oxidative phosphorylation (subunits and assembly factors); (2) mitochondrial DNA maintenance and expression; (3) mitochondrial protein import and assembly; (4) mitochondrial quality control (chaperones and proteases); (5) iron–sulfur cluster homeostasis; and (6) mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion). Here, we propose that an additional class of genetic variant be included in the classification schema to acknowledge the role of genetic defects in phospholipid biosynthesis, remodeling, and metabolism in mitochondrial pathophysiology. This seventh class includes a small but notable group of nuclear-encoded proteins whose dysfunction impacts normal mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism. The resulting human disorders present with a diverse array of pathologic consequences that reflect the variety of functions that phospholipids have in mitochondria and highlight the important role of proper membrane homeostasis in mitochondrial biology. PMID:25691889

  20. Disorders of phospholipid metabolism: an emerging class of mitochondrial disease due to defects in nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Wen; Claypool, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes co-exist within each cell. While the mitochondrial genome encodes for a limited number of proteins, transfer RNAs, and ribosomal RNAs, the vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome. Of the multitude of mitochondrial disorders known to date, only a fifth are maternally inherited. The recent characterization of the mitochondrial proteome therefore serves as an important step toward delineating the nosology of a large spectrum of phenotypically heterogeneous diseases. Following the identification of the first nuclear gene defect to underlie a mitochondrial disorder, a plenitude of genetic variants that provoke mitochondrial pathophysiology have been molecularly elucidated and classified into six categories that impact: (1) oxidative phosphorylation (subunits and assembly factors); (2) mitochondrial DNA maintenance and expression; (3) mitochondrial protein import and assembly; (4) mitochondrial quality control (chaperones and proteases); (5) iron-sulfur cluster homeostasis; and (6) mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion). Here, we propose that an additional class of genetic variant be included in the classification schema to acknowledge the role of genetic defects in phospholipid biosynthesis, remodeling, and metabolism in mitochondrial pathophysiology. This seventh class includes a small but notable group of nuclear-encoded proteins whose dysfunction impacts normal mitochondrial phospholipid metabolism. The resulting human disorders present with a diverse array of pathologic consequences that reflect the variety of functions that phospholipids have in mitochondria and highlight the important role of proper membrane homeostasis in mitochondrial biology. PMID:25691889

  1. Digestive smooth muscle mitochondrial myopathy in patients with mitochondrial-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).

    PubMed

    Blondon, Hugues; Polivka, Marc; Joly, Francisca; Flourie, Bernard; Mikol, Jacqueline; Messing, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    We report 3 new cases of Mitochondrial-Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) (or Pseudo-Obstruction-Leukoencephalopathy-Intestinal-Pseudoobstruction Syndrome [POLIP]), a rare disease that associates chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) and neurological symptoms. A review of the 72 reported cases together with these 3 cases revealed that this condition was associated with (a) a specific cluster of neurological symptoms including leukoencephalopathy (96%), polyneuropathy (96%), ophthalmoplegia (91%) and hearing loss (55%); (b) a CIPO syndrome with the presence of small bowel diverticulae (53%); and (c) mitochondrial cytopathy in 36 of the 37 tested patients (2 of our 3 cases), and thymidine phosphorylase gene mutations in all the 37 tested patients (2 of our cases). The etiology of POLIP/MNGIE syndrome appears therefore to be due to a mitochondrial cytopathy secondary to thymidine phosphorylase gene mutation(s). In 3 cases, including 2 of our 3 patients, mitochondrial abnormalities were evidenced at the ultrastructural level in digestive smooth muscle demonstrating that the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal involvement was directly related to mitochondrial alterations in digestive smooth muscle cells. PMID:16294144

  2. Mutations in FBXL4, Encoding a Mitochondrial Protein, Cause Early-Onset Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Xiaowu; Ghezzi, Daniele; Johnson, Mark A.; Biagosch, Caroline A.; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; Haack, Tobias B.; Reyes, Aurelio; Tsukikawa, Mai; Sheldon, Claire A.; Srinivasan, Satish; Gorza, Matteo; Kremer, Laura S.; Wieland, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Polyak, Erzsebet; Place, Emily; Consugar, Mark; Ostrovsky, Julian; Vidoni, Sara; Robinson, Alan J.; Wong, Lee-Jun; Sondheimer, Neal; Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jishi, Emtethal; Raab, Christopher P.; Bean, Charles; Furlan, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Lamperti, Costanza; Mayr, Johannes A.; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Huemer, Martina; Pierce, Eric A.; Meitinger, Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Sperl, Wolfgang; Prokisch, Holger; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Falk, Marni J.; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping studies, independently performed in subjects with defective combined mitochondrial OXPHOS-enzyme deficiencies, identified a total of nine disease-segregating FBXL4 mutations in seven unrelated mitochondrial disease families, composed of six singletons and three siblings. All subjects manifested early-onset lactic acidemia, hypotonia, and developmental delay caused by severe encephalomyopathy consistently associated with progressive cerebral atrophy and variable involvement of the white matter, deep gray nuclei, and brainstem structures. A wide range of other multisystem features were variably seen, including dysmorphism, skeletal abnormalities, poor growth, gastrointestinal dysmotility, renal tubular acidosis, seizures, and episodic metabolic failure. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency was present in muscle or fibroblasts of all tested individuals, together with markedly reduced oxygen consumption rate and hyperfragmentation of the mitochondrial network in cultured cells. In muscle and fibroblasts from several subjects, substantially decreased mtDNA content was observed. FBXL4 is a member of the F-box family of proteins, some of which are involved in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and/or G protein receptor coupling. We also demonstrate that FBXL4 is targeted to mitochondria and localizes in the intermembrane space, where it participates in an approximately 400 kDa protein complex. These data strongly support a role for FBXL4 in controlling bioenergetic homeostasis and mtDNA maintenance. FBXL4 mutations are a recurrent cause of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy onset in early infancy. PMID:23993194

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction in neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Katsetos, Christos D; Koutzaki, Sirma; Melvin, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    This review deciphers aspects of mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction among nosologically, pathologically, and genetically diverse diseases of the skeletal muscle, lower motor neuron, and peripheral nerve, which fall outside the traditional realm of mt cytopathies. Special emphasis is given to well-characterized mt abnormalities in collagen VI myopathies (Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy), megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (calpainopathy), centronuclear myopathies, core myopathies, inflammatory myopathies, spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, and drug-induced peripheral neuropathies. Among inflammatory myopathies, mt abnormalities are more prominent in inclusion body myositis and a subset of polymyositis with mt pathology, both of which are refractory to corticosteroid treatment. Awareness is raised about instances of phenotypic mimicry between cases harboring primary mtDNA depletion, in the context of mtDNA depletion syndrome, and established neuromuscular disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy. A substantial body of experimental work, derived from animal models, attests to a major role of mitochondria (mt) in the early process of muscle degeneration. Common mechanisms of mt-related cell injury include dysregulation of the mt permeability transition pore opening and defective autophagy. The therapeutic use of mt permeability transition pore modifiers holds promise in various neuromuscular disorders, including muscular dystrophies. PMID:24331362

  4. Cytoplasmic irradiation results in mitochondrial dysfunction and DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy M.; Zhou, Hongning; Wang, Chunxin; Walker, Winsome F.; Hei, Tom K.

    2014-01-01

    Direct DNA damage is often considered the primary cause of cancer in patients exposed to ionizing radiation or environmental carcinogens. While mitochondria are known to play an important role in radiation-induced cellular response, the mechanisms by which cytoplasmic stimuli modulate mitochondrial dynamics and functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by α particle damage to the mitochondria in human small airway epithelial cells, using a precision microbeam irradiator with a beam width of one micron. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation using this device resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation and a reduction of cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, when compared with nonirradiated controls, suggesting a reduction in respiratory chain function. Additionally, mitochondrial fragmentation or fission was associated with increased expression of the dynamin-like protein DRP1, which promotes mitochondrial fission. DRP1 inhibition by the drug mdivi-1 prevented radiation-induced mitochondrial fission, but respiratory chain function in mitochondria inhibited by radiation persisted for 12 hr. Irradiated cells also showed an increase in mitochondria-derived superoxide that could be quenched by dimethyl sulfoxide. Taken together, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the extranuclear, non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:24080278

  5. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming. PMID:25028397

  6. Mitochondrial syndromes with leukoencephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2012-02-01

    White matter involvement has recently been recognized as a common feature in patients with multisystem mitochondrial disorders that may be caused by molecular defects in either the mitochondrial genome or the nuclear genes. It was first realized in classical mitochondrial syndromes associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), Leigh's disease, and Kearns-Sayre's syndrome. Deficiencies in respiratory chain complexes I, II, IV, and V often cause Leigh's disease; most of them are due to nuclear defects that may lead to severe early-onset leukoencephalopathies. Defects in a group of nuclear genes involved in the maintenance of mtDNA integrity may also affect the white matter; for example, mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) caused by thymidine phosphorylase deficiency, Navajo neurohepatopathy (NNH) due to MPV17 mutations, and Alpers syndrome due to defects in DNA polymerase gamma (POLG). More recently, leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL) has been reported to be caused by autosomal recessive mutations in a mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, DARS2 gene. A patient with leukoencephalopathy and neurologic complications in addition to a multisystem involvement warrants a complete evaluation for mitochondrial disorders. A definite diagnosis may be achieved by molecular analysis of candidate genes based on the biochemical, clinical, and imaging results. PMID:22422207

  7. Myoclonus in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; Angelini, Corrado; Bertini, Enrico; Catteruccia, Michela; Pegoraro, Elena; Carelli, Valerio; Valentino, Maria L; Comi, Giacomo P; Minetti, Carlo; Bruno, Claudio; Moggio, Maurizio; Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; Mongini, Tiziana; Vercelli, Liliana; Primiano, Guido; Servidei, Serenella; Tonin, Paola; Scarpelli, Mauro; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia; Moroni, Isabella; Uziel, Graziella; Santorelli, Filippo M; Nesti, Claudia; Filosto, Massimiliano; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Myoclonus is a possible manifestation of mitochondrial disorders, and its presence is considered, in association with epilepsy and the ragged red fibers, pivotal for the syndromic diagnosis of MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers). However, its prevalence in mitochondrial diseases is not known. The aims of this study are the evaluation of the prevalence of myoclonus in a big cohort of mitochondrial patients and the clinical characterization of these subjects. Based on the database of the "Nation-wide Italian Collaborative Network of Mitochondrial Diseases," we reviewed the clinical and molecular data of mitochondrial patients with myoclonus among their clinical features. Myoclonus is a rather uncommon clinical feature of mitochondrial diseases (3.6% of 1,086 patients registered in our database). It is not strictly linked to a specific genotype or phenotype, and only 1 of 3 patients with MERRF harbors the 8344A>G mutation (frequently labeled as "the MERRF mutation"). Finally, myoclonus is not inextricably linked to epilepsy in MERRF patients, but more to cerebellar ataxia. In a myoclonic patient, evidences of mitochondrial dysfunction must be investigated, even though myoclonus is not a common sign of mitochondriopathy. Clinical, histological, and biochemical data may predict the finding of a mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutation. Finally, this study reinforces the notion that myoclonus is not inextricably linked to epilepsy in MERRF patients, and therefore the term "myoclonic epilepsy" seems inadequate and potentially misleading. PMID:24510442

  8. Twin Mitochondrial Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Yosr; Martinez, Selena; Gong, Henry; Dumas, Kevin; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2013-09-01

    When applying genome-wide sequencing technologies to disease investigation, it is increasingly important to resolve sequence variation in regions of the genome that may have homologous sequences. The human mitochondrial genome challenges interpretation given the potential for heteroplasmy, somatic variation, and homologous nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts). Identical twins share the same mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from early life, but whether the mitochondrial sequence remains similar is unclear. We compared an adult monozygotic twin pair using high throughput-sequencing and evaluated variants with primer extension and mitochondrial pre-enrichment. Thirty-seven variants were shared between the twin individuals, and the variants were verified on the original genomic DNA. These studies support highly identical genetic sequence in this case. Certain low-level variant calls were of high quality and homology to the mitochondrial DNA, and they were further evaluated. When we assessed calls in pre-enriched mitochondrial DNA templates, we found that these may represent numts, which can be differentiated from mtDNA variation. We conclude that twin identity extends to mitochondrial DNA, and it is critical to differentiate between numts and mtDNA in genome sequencing, particularly since significant heteroplasmy could influence genome interpretation. Further studies on mtDNA and numts will aid in understanding how variation occurs and persists. PMID:24040623

  9. The human mitochondrial transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Tim R.; Neph, Shane; Dinger, Marcel E.; Crawford, Joanna; Smith, Martin A.; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J.; Haugen, Eric; Bracken, Cameron P.; Rackham, Oliver; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Mattick, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human mitochondrial genome comprises a distinct genetic system transcribed as precursor polycistronic transcripts that are subsequently cleaved to generate individual mRNAs, tRNAs and rRNAs. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the human mitochondrial transcriptome across multiple cell lines and tissues. Using directional deep sequencing and parallel analysis of RNA ends, we demonstrate wide variation in mitochondrial transcript abundance and precisely resolve transcript processing and maturation events. We identify previously undescribed transcripts, including small RNAs, and observe the enrichment of several nuclear RNAs in mitochondria. Using high-throughput in vivo DNaseI footprinting, we establish the global profile of DNA-binding protein occupancy across the mitochondrial genome at single nucleotide resolution, revealing regulatory features at mitochondrial transcription initiation sites and functional insights into disease-associated variants. This integrated analysis of the mitochondrial transcriptome reveals unexpected complexity in the regulation, expression, and processing of mitochondrial RNA, and provides a resource for future studies of mitochondrial function (accessed at mitochondria.matticklab.com). PMID:21854988

  10. Cutaneous Respirometry as Novel Technique to Monitor Mitochondrial Function: A Feasibility Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Stolker, Robert Jan; Mik, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption (mitoVO2) in skin. This study describes the first use of a clinical prototype in skin of humans. Methods The clinical prototype was tested in 30 healthy volunteers. A self-adhesive patch containing 2 mg 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was applied on the skin of the anterior chest wall (sternal) for induction of mitochondrial protoporphyrin IX and was protected from light for 5 h. MitoPO2 was measured by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX. MitoVO2 was determined by dynamic mitoPO2 measurements on the primed skin, while locally blocking oxygen supply by applying local pressure with the measurement probe. MitoPO2 was recorded before and during a 60-s period of compression of the microcirculation, at an interval of 1 Hz. Oxygen consumption (i.e. the local oxygen disappearance rate) was calculated from the decay of the mitoPO2 slope. Results Oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence measurements were successfully performed in the skin of 27 volunteers. The average value (± SD) of mitoPO2 was 44 ± 17 mmHg and mean mitoVO2 values were 5.8 ± 2.3 and 6.1 ± 1.6 mmHg s-1 at a skin temperature of 34°C and 40°C, respectively. No major discomfort during measurement and no long-term dermatological abnormalities were reported in a survey performed 1 month after measurements. Conclusion These results show that the clinical prototype allows measurement of mitochondrial oxygenation and oxygen consumption in humans. The development of this clinically applicable device offers opportunities for further evaluation of the technique in humans and the start of first clinical studies. PMID:27455073

  11. Mutation in the Novel Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein CHCHD10 in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E.; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D.; Siddique, Teepu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or the nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of a previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established C22orf16 (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double missense mutation (R15S; G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria. PMID:25193783

  12. Analysis of Mitochondrial haemoglobin in Parkinson's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Liddell, Susan; Emes, Richard; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early feature of neurodegeneration. We have shown there are mitochondrial haemoglobin changes with age and neurodegeneration. We hypothesised that altered physiological processes are associated with recruitment and localisation of haemoglobin to these organelles. To confirm a dynamic localisation of haemoglobin we exposed Drosophila melanogaster to cyclical hypoxia with recovery. With a single cycle of hypoxia and recovery we found a relative accumulation of haemoglobin in the mitochondria compared with the cytosol. An additional cycle of hypoxia and recovery led to a significant increase of mitochondrial haemoglobin (p<0.05). We quantified ratios of human mitochondrial haemoglobin in 30 Parkinson's and matched control human post-mortem brains. Relative mitochondrial/cytosolic quantities of haemoglobin were obtained for the cortical region, substantia nigra and cerebellum. In age matched post-mortem brain mitochondrial haemoglobin ratios change, decreasing with disease duration in female cerebellum samples (n=7). The change is less discernible in male cerebellum (n=18). In cerebellar mitochondria, haemoglobin localisation in males with long disease duration shifts from the intermembrane space to the outer membrane of the organelle. These new data illustrate dynamic localisation of mitochondrial haemoglobin within the cell. Mitochondrial haemoglobin should be considered in the context of gender differences characterised in Parkinson's disease. It has been postulated that cerebellar circuitry may be activated to play a protective role in individuals with Parkinson's. The changing localisation of intracellular haemoglobin in response to hypoxia presents a novel pathway to delineate the role of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease. PMID:27181046

  13. Titration of mitochondrial fusion rescues Mff-deficient cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiuchen; Ren, Shuxun; Clish, Clary; Jain, Mohit; Mootha, Vamsi; McCaffery, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial fusion or fission are associated with many pathologies, raising the hope that pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial dynamics may have therapeutic benefit. This approach assumes that organ physiology can be restored by rebalancing mitochondrial dynamics, but this concept remains to be validated. We addressed this issue by analyzing mice deficient in Mff, a protein important for mitochondrial fission. Mff mutant mice die at 13 wk as a result of severe dilated cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure. Mutant tissue showed reduced mitochondrial density and respiratory chain activity along with increased mitophagy. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of the mitochondrial fusion gene Mfn1 completely rescued heart dysfunction, life span, and respiratory chain function. Our results show for the first time that retuning the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission can restore tissue integrity and mitochondrial physiology at the whole-organ level. Examination of liver, testis, and cerebellum suggest, however, that the precise balance point of fusion and fission is cell type specific. PMID:26598616

  14. Negative regulation of mitochondrial transcription by mitochondrial topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Sobek, Stefan; Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Pommier, Yves; Bornholz, Beatrice; Kalfalah, Faiza; Zhang, Hongliang; Wiesner, Rudolf J.; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Hillebrand, Frank; Schaal, Heiner; Mielke, Christian; Christensen, Morten O.; Boege, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial topoisomerase I is a genetically distinct mitochondria-dedicated enzyme with a crucial but so far unknown role in the homeostasis of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Here, we present data suggesting a negative regulatory function in mitochondrial transcription or transcript stability. Deficiency or depletion of mitochondrial topoisomerase I increased mitochondrial transcripts, whereas overexpression lowered mitochondrial transcripts, depleted respiratory complexes I, III and IV, decreased cell respiration and raised superoxide levels. Acute depletion of mitochondrial topoisomerase I triggered neither a nuclear mito-biogenic stress response nor compensatory topoisomerase IIβ upregulation, suggesting the concomitant increase in mitochondrial transcripts was due to release of a local inhibitory effect. Mitochondrial topoisomerase I was co-immunoprecipitated with mitochondrial RNA polymerase. It selectively accumulated and rapidly exchanged at a subset of nucleoids distinguished by the presence of newly synthesized RNA and/or mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The inactive Y559F-mutant behaved similarly without affecting mitochondrial transcripts. In conclusion, mitochondrial topoisomerase I dampens mitochondrial transcription and thereby alters respiratory capacity. The mechanism involves selective association of the active enzyme with transcriptionally active nucleoids and a direct interaction with mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The inhibitory role of topoisomerase I in mitochondrial transcription is strikingly different from the stimulatory role of topoisomerase I in nuclear transcription. PMID:23982517

  15. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  16. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  17. Mitochondrial effectors of cellular senescence: beyond the free radical theory of aging

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dorian V; Wiley, Christopher D; Velarde, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a process that results from a variety of stresses, leading to a state of irreversible growth arrest. Senescent cells accumulate during aging and have been implicated in promoting a variety of age-related diseases. Mitochondrial stress is an effective inducer of cellular senescence, but the mechanisms by which mitochondria regulate permanent cell growth arrest are largely unexplored. Here, we review some of the mitochondrial signaling pathways that participate in establishing cellular senescence. We discuss the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion), the electron transport chain (ETC), bioenergetic balance, redox state, metabolic signature, and calcium homeostasis in controlling cellular growth arrest. We emphasize that multiple mitochondrial signaling pathways, besides mitochondrial ROS, can induce cellular senescence. Together, these pathways provide a broader perspective for studying the contribution of mitochondrial stress to aging, linking mitochondrial dysfunction and aging through the process of cellular senescence. PMID:25399755

  18. Mitochondrial effectors of cellular senescence: beyond the free radical theory of aging.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Dorian V; Wiley, Christopher D; Velarde, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a process that results from a variety of stresses, leading to a state of irreversible growth arrest. Senescent cells accumulate during aging and have been implicated in promoting a variety of age-related diseases. Mitochondrial stress is an effective inducer of cellular senescence, but the mechanisms by which mitochondria regulate permanent cell growth arrest are largely unexplored. Here, we review some of the mitochondrial signaling pathways that participate in establishing cellular senescence. We discuss the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion), the electron transport chain (ETC), bioenergetic balance, redox state, metabolic signature, and calcium homeostasis in controlling cellular growth arrest. We emphasize that multiple mitochondrial signaling pathways, besides mitochondrial ROS, can induce cellular senescence. Together, these pathways provide a broader perspective for studying the contribution of mitochondrial stress to aging, linking mitochondrial dysfunction and aging through the process of cellular senescence. PMID:25399755

  19. The mitochondrial inner membrane GTPase, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), restores mitochondrial morphology and promotes neuronal survival following excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Asl, Arezu; Pilon-Larose, Karine; Xu, William; MacLaurin, Jason G; Park, David S; McBride, Heidi M; Slack, Ruth S

    2011-02-11

    Mitochondrial dynamics have been extensively studied in the context of classical cell death models involving Bax-mediated cytochrome c release. Excitotoxic neuronal loss is a non-classical death signaling pathway that occurs following overactivation of glutamate receptors independent of Bax activation. Presently, the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of excitotoxicity remains largely unknown. Here, we report that NMDA-induced excitotoxicity results in defects in mitochondrial morphology as evident by the presence of excessive fragmented mitochondria, cessation of mitochondrial fusion, and cristae dilation. Up-regulation of the mitochondrial inner membrane GTPase, Opa1, is able to restore mitochondrial morphology and protect neurons against excitotoxic injury. Opa1 functions downstream of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain. Inhibition of calpain activity by calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, significantly rescued mitochondrial defects and maintained neuronal survival. Opa1 was required for calpastatin-mediated neuroprotection because the enhanced survival found following NMDA-induced toxicity was significantly reduced upon loss of Opa1. Our results define a mechanism whereby breakdown of the mitochondrial network mediated through loss of Opa1 function contributes to neuronal death following excitotoxic neuronal injury. These studies suggest Opa1 as a potential therapeutic target to promote neuronal survival following acute brain damage and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21041314

  20. Altered Cytoskeleton as a Mitochondrial Decay Signature in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Srinivas R; He, Weilue; Sylvester, O'Donnell; Neksumi, Musa; Um, Ji-Yeon; Dluya, Thagriki; Bernstein, Paul S; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria mediate energy metabolism, apoptosis, and aging, while mitochondrial disruption leads to age-related diseases that include age-related macular degeneration. Descriptions of mitochondrial morphology have been non-systematic and qualitative, due to lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial dynamics. The current study analyzed mitochondrial size, shape, and position quantitatively in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) using a systematic computational model to suggest mitochondrial trafficking under oxidative environment. Our previous proteomic study suggested that prohibitin is a mitochondrial decay biomarker in the RPE. The current study examined the prohibitin interactome map using immunoprecipitation data to determine the indirect signaling on cytoskeletal changes and transcriptional regulation by prohibitin. Immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that there is a positive correlation between mitochondrial changes and altered filaments as well as prohibitin interactions with kinesin and unknown proteins in the RPE. Specific cytoskeletal and nuclear protein-binding mechanisms may exist to regulate prohibitin-mediated reactions as key elements, including vimentin and p53, to control apoptosis in mitochondria and the nucleus. Prohibitin may regulate mitochondrial trafficking through unknown proteins that include 110 kDa protein with myosin head domain and 88 kDa protein with cadherin repeat domain. Altered cytoskeleton may represent a mitochondrial decay signature in the RPE. The current study suggests that mitochondrial dynamics and cytoskeletal changes are critical for controlling mitochondrial distribution and function. Further, imbalance of retrograde versus anterograde mitochondrial trafficking may initiate the pathogenic reaction in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27029380

  1. Biosynthesis and Roles of Phospholipids in Mitochondrial Fusion, Division and Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Tamura, Yasushi; Roy, Madhuparna; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria move, fuse and divide in cells. The dynamic behavior of mitochondria is central to the control of their structure and function. Three conserved mitochondrial dynamin-related GTPases (i.e., mitofusin, Opa1 and Drp1 in mammals and Fzo1, Mgm1 and Dnm1 in yeast) mediate mitochondrial fusion and division. In addition to dynamins, recent studies demonstrated that phospholipids in mitochondria also play key roles in mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with dynamin GTPases and by directly changing the biophysical properties of the mitochondrial membranes. Changes in phospholipid composition also promote mitophagy, which is a selective mitochondrial degradation process that is mechanistically coupled to mitochondrial division. In this review, we will discuss the biogenesis and function of mitochondrial phospholipids. PMID:24866973

  2. Simultaneous impairment of mitochondrial fission and fusion reduces mitophagy and shortens replicative lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Dominik; Müller, Matthias; Reichert, Andreas S.; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Aging of biological systems is accompanied by degeneration of mitochondrial functions. Different pathways are active to counteract the processes which lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics, the fission and fusion of mitochondria, is one of these quality control pathways. Mitophagy, the controlled degradation of mitochondria, is another one. Here we show that these pathways are linked. A double deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which two essential components of the fission and fusion machinery, Dnm1 and Mgm1, are simultaneously ablated, contain wild-type like filamentous mitochondria, but are characterized by impaired respiration, an increased sensitivity to different stressors, increased mitochondrial protein carbonylation, and a decrease in mitophagy and replicative lifespan. These data show that a balanced mitochondrial dynamics and not a filamentous mitochondrial morphotype per se is the key for a long lifespan and demonstrate a cross-talk between two different mitochondrial quality control pathways. PMID:25601284

  3. Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avula, Sreenivas; Parikh, Sumit; Demarest, Scott; Kurz, Jonathan; Gropman, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement While numerous treatments for mitochondrial disorders have been suggested, relatively few have undergone controlled clinical trials. Treatment of these disorders is challenging, as only symptomatic therapy is available. In this review we will focus on newer drugs and treatment trials in mitochondrial diseases, with a special focus on medications to avoid in treating epilepsy and ICU patient with mitochondrial disease, which has not been included in such a review. Readers are also referred to the opinion statement in A Modern Approach to the Treatment of Mitochondrial Disease published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2009. Many of the supplements used for treatment were reviewed in the previous abstract, and dosing guidelines were provided. The focus of this review is on items not previously covered in depth, and our discussion includes more recently studied compounds as well as any relevant updates on older compounds. We review a variety of vitamins and xenobiotics, including dichloroacetate (DCA), arginine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, EPI-743, and exercise training. Treatment of epilepsy, which is a common feature in many mitochondrial phenotypes, warrants special consideration due to the added toxicity of certain medications, and we provide a discussion of these unique treatment challenges. Interesting, however, with only a few exceptions, the treatment strategies for epilepsy in mitochondrial cytopathies are the same as for epilepsy without mitochondrial dysfunction. We also discuss intensive care management, building upon similar reviews, adding new dimensions, and demonstrating the complexity of overall care of these patients. PMID:24700433

  4. Microangiopathy in the cerebellum of patients with mitochondrial DNA disease

    PubMed Central

    Lax, Nichola Z.; Pienaar, Ilse S.; Reeve, Amy K.; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Jaros, Evelyn; Taylor, Robert W.; Kalaria, Raj N.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathological findings in mitochondrial DNA disease vary and are often dependent on the type of mitochondrial DNA defect. Many reports document neuronal cell loss, demyelination, gliosis and necrotic lesions in post-mortem material. However, previous studies highlight vascular abnormalities in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA defects, particularly in those with the m.3243A>G mutation in whom stroke-like events are part of the mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome. We investigated microangiopathic changes in the cerebellum of 16 genetically and clinically well-defined patients. Respiratory chain deficiency, high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA and increased mitochondrial mass were present within the smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells comprising the vessel wall in patients. These changes were not limited to those harbouring the m.3243A>G mutation frequently associated with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, but were documented in patients harbouring m.8344A>G and autosomal recessive polymerase (DNA directed), gamma (POLG) mutations. In 8 of the 16 patients, multiple ischaemic-like lesions occurred in the cerebellar cortex suggestive of vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction. Indeed, changes in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium distribution and cell size are indicative of vascular cell loss. We found evidence of blood–brain barrier breakdown characterized by plasma protein extravasation following fibrinogen and IgG immunohistochemistry. Reduced immunofluorescence was also observed using markers for endothelial tight junctions providing further evidence in support of blood–brain barrier breakdown. Understanding the structural and functional changes occurring in central nervous system microvessels in patients harbouring mitochondrial DNA defects will provide an important insight into mechanisms of neurodegeneration in mitochondrial DNA disease. Since therapeutic

  5. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  8. Mitochondrial diseases and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bindoff, Laurence A; Engelsen, Bernt A

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is the final common pathway for energy production. Defects affecting this pathway can give rise to disease that presents at any age and affects any tissue. However, irrespective of genetic defect, epilepsy is common and there is a significant risk of status epilepticus. This review summarizes our current understanding of the epilepsy that occurs in mitochondrial disease, focusing on three of the most common disorders: mitochondrial myopathy encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF), and polymerase gamma (POLG) related disease. In addition, we review the pathogenesis and possible treatment of these disorders. PMID:22946726

  9. Mitochondrial Regulation of Cell Cycle and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Antico Arciuch, Valeria Gabriela; Elguero, María Eugenia; Poderoso, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eukaryotic mitochondria resulted from symbiotic incorporation of α-proteobacteria into ancient archaea species. During evolution, mitochondria lost most of the prokaryotic bacterial genes and only conserved a small fraction including those encoding 13 proteins of the respiratory chain. In this process, many functions were transferred to the host cells, but mitochondria gained a central role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the modulation of metabolism; accordingly, defective organelles contribute to cell transformation and cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Most cell and transcriptional effects of mitochondria depend on the modulation of respiratory rate and on the production of hydrogen peroxide released into the cytosol. The mitochondrial oxidative rate has to remain depressed for cell proliferation; even in the presence of O2, energy is preferentially obtained from increased glycolysis (Warburg effect). In response to stress signals, traffic of pro- and antiapoptotic mitochondrial proteins in the intermembrane space (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, Bcl-2-associated death promoter, Bcl-2 associated X-protein and cytochrome c) is modulated by the redox condition determined by mitochondrial O2 utilization and mitochondrial nitric oxide metabolism. In this article, we highlight the traffic of the different canonical signaling pathways to mitochondria and the contributions of organelles to redox regulation of kinases. Finally, we analyze the dynamics of the mitochondrial population in cell cycle and apoptosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1150–1180. PMID:21967640

  10. Microtubules Are Essential for Mitochondrial Dynamics–Fission, Fusion, and Motility–in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Laken C.; Berbusse, Gregory W.; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is dependent upon mitochondrial structure which is in turn dependent upon mitochondrial dynamics, including fission, fusion, and motility. Here we examined the relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and the cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum. Using time-lapse analysis, we quantified mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility in the presence of cytoskeleton disrupting pharmaceuticals and the absence of the potential mitochondria-cytoskeleton linker protein, CluA. Our results indicate that microtubules are essential for mitochondrial movement, as well as fission and fusion; actin plays a less significant role, perhaps selecting the mitochondria for transport. We also suggest that CluA is not a linker protein but plays an unidentified role in mitochondrial fission and fusion. The significance of our work is to gain further insight into the role the cytoskeleton plays in mitochondrial dynamics and function. By better understanding these processes we can better appreciate the underlying mitochondrial contributions to many neurological disorders characterized by altered mitochondrial dynamics, structure, and/or function. PMID:27047941

  11. Mitochondrial trafficking in neurons and the role of the Miro family of GTPase proteins.

    PubMed

    Birsa, Nicol; Norkett, Rosalind; Higgs, Nathalie; Lopez-Domenech, Guillermo; Kittler, Josef T

    2013-12-01

    Correct mitochondrial dynamics are essential to neuronal function. These dynamics include mitochondrial trafficking and quality-control systems that maintain a precisely distributed and healthy mitochondrial network, so that local energy demands or Ca2+-buffering requirements within the intricate architecture of the neuron can be met. Mitochondria make use of molecular machinery that couples these organelles to microtubule-based transport via kinesin and dynein motors, facilitating the required long-range movements. These motors in turn are associated with a variety of adaptor proteins allowing additional regulation of the complex dynamics demonstrated by these organelles. Over recent years, a number of new motor and adaptor proteins have been added to a growing list of components implicated in mitochondrial trafficking and distribution. Yet, there are major questions that remain to be addressed about the regulation of mitochondrial transport complexes. One of the core components of this machinery, the mitochondrial Rho GTPases Miro1 (mitochondrial Rho 1) and Miro2 have received special attention due to their Ca2+-sensing and GTPase abilities, marking Miro an exceptional candidate for co-ordinating mitochondrial dynamics and intracellular signalling pathways. In the present paper, we discuss the wealth of literature regarding Miro-mediated mitochondrial transport in neurons and recently highlighted involvement of Miro proteins in mitochondrial turnover, emerging as a key process affected in neurodegeneration. PMID:24256248

  12. Schwann cell mitochondrial metabolism supports long-term axonal survival and peripheral nerve function

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Golden, Judith P.; Baloh, Robert H.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathies. While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. Here we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. These mice (Tfam-SCKOs) were produced through the tissue-specific deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam), which is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and maintenance. Tfam-SCKOs were viable but, as they aged, they developed a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by nerve conduction abnormalities as well as extensive muscle denervation. Morphological examination of Tfam-SCKO nerves revealed early preferential loss of small unmyelinated fibers followed by prominent demyelination and degeneration of larger-caliber axons. Tfam-SCKOs displayed sensory and motor deficits consistent with this pathology. Remarkably, the severe mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain abnormalities in Tfam-SCKO mice did not affect SC proliferation or survival. Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. PMID:21752989

  13. Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Marcovina, Santica M; Sirtori, Cesare; Peracino, Andrea; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Borum, Peggy; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ardehali, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in human physiological processes, and therefore, their dysfunction can lead to a constellation of metabolic and nonmetabolic abnormalities such as a defect in mitochondrial gene expression, imbalance in fuel and energy homeostasis, impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, enhancement of insulin resistance, and abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, vascular disease, and chronic heart failure. The increased knowledge on mitochondria and their role in cellular metabolism is providing new evidence that these disorders may benefit from mitochondrial-targeted therapies. We review the current knowledge of the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to chronic diseases, the outcomes of experimental studies on mitochondrial-targeted therapies, and explore the potential of metabolic modulators in the treatment of selected chronic conditions. As an example of such modulators, we evaluate the efficacy of the administration of L-carnitine and its analogues acetyl and propionyl L-carnitine in several chronic diseases. L-carnitine is intrinsically involved in mitochondrial metabolism and function as it plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism. In addition to the transportation of free fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane, L-carnitine modulates their oxidation rate and is involved in the regulation of vital cellular functions such as apoptosis. Thus, L-carnitine and its derivatives show promise in the treatment of chronic conditions and diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction but further translational studies are needed to fully explore their potential. PMID:23138103

  14. Mito-Morphosis: Mitochondrial Fusion, Fission, and Cristae Remodeling as Key Mediators of Cellular Function.

    PubMed

    Pernas, Lena; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Permanent residency in the eukaryotic cell pressured the prokaryotic mitochondrial ancestor to strategize for intracellular living. Mitochondria are able to autonomously integrate and respond to cellular cues and demands by remodeling their morphology. These processes define mitochondrial dynamics and inextricably link the fate of the mitochondrion and that of the host eukaryote, as exemplified by the human diseases that result from mutations in mitochondrial dynamics proteins. In this review, we delineate the architecture of mitochondria and define the mechanisms by which they modify their shape. Key players in these mechanisms are discussed, along with their role in manipulating mitochondrial morphology during cellular action and development. Throughout, we highlight the evolutionary context in which mitochondrial dynamics emerged and consider unanswered questions whose dissection might lead to mitochondrial morphology-based therapies. PMID:26667075

  15. Loss of the mitochondrial protein-only ribonuclease P complex causes aberrant tRNA processing and lethality in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Mirkovic, Elena; Koutmos, Markos; Cox, Rachel T

    2016-07-27

    Proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA are translated using mitochondrially encoded tRNAs and rRNAs. As with nuclear encoded tRNAs, mitochondrial tRNAs must be processed to become fully functional. The mitochondrial form of ribonuclease P (mt:RNase P) is responsible for 5'-end maturation and is comprised of three proteins; mitochondrial RNase P protein (MRPP) 1 and 2 together with proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP). However, its mechanism and impact on development is not yet known. Using homology searches, we have identified the three proteins composing Drosophila mt:RNase P: Mulder (PRORP), Scully (MRPP2) and Roswell (MRPP1). Here, we show that each protein is essential and localizes with mitochondria. Furthermore, reducing levels of each causes mitochondrial deficits, which appear to be due at least in part to defective mitochondrial tRNA processing. Overexpressing two members of the complex, Mulder and Roswell, is also lethal, and in the case of Mulder, causes abnormal mitochondrial morphology. These data are the first evidence that defective mt:RNase P causes mitochondrial dysfunction, lethality and aberrant mitochondrial tRNA processing in vivo, underscoring its physiological importance. This in vivo mt:RNase P model will advance our understanding of how loss of mitochondrial tRNA processing causes tissue failure, an important aspect of human mitochondrial disease. PMID:27131785

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  17. Alteration of nucleotide metabolism: a new mechanism for mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Martí, Ramon; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Vilá, Maya R; Hirano, Michio

    2003-07-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). TP deficiency alters the metabolism of the nucleosides thymidine and deoxyuridine, which, in turn, produces abnormalities of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) including depletion, deletions, and point mutations. MNGIE is the best characterized of the expanding number of mitochondrial disorders caused by alterations in the metabolism of nucleosides/nucleotides. Because mitochondria contain their own machinery for nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism and have physically separate nucleotide pools, it is not surprising that disorders of these pathways cause human diseases. Other diseases in this group include mtDNA depletion syndromes caused by mutations on the nuclear genes encoding the mitochondrial thymidine kinase and deoxyguanosine kinase; autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple deletions of mtDNA due to mutations in the genes encoding the muscle-isoform of mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator; and mitochondrial DNA depletion due to toxicities of nucleoside analogues. Mutations in the deoxynucleotide carrier, a transporter of deoxynucleoside diphosphates, have been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly. However, alterations of mtDNA have not yet been established in this disorder. Future studies are likely to reveal additional diseases and provide further insight into this new subject. PMID:12940507

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric morbidity: current evidence and therapeutic prospects

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Lilach; Agam, Galila

    2015-01-01

    Cumulating evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders leaves little to no doubt regarding the involvement of this pathology in mood disorders. However, mitochondrial abnormalities are also observed in a wide range of disorders spanning from cancer and diabetes to various neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, autism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The apparent lack of specificity questions the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, in general, and in mood disorders, in particular. Is mitochondrial dysfunction a general phenomenon, simplistically rendering brain cells to be more vulnerable to a variety of disease-specific perturbations? Or is it an epiphenomenon induced by various disease-specific factors? Or possibly, the severity and the anatomical region of the dysfunction are the ones responsible for the distinct features of the disorders. Whichever of the aforementioned ones, if any, is correct, “mitochondrial dysfunction” became more of a cliché than a therapeutic target. In this review, we summarize current studies supporting the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in different psychiatric disorders. We address the question of specificity and causality of the different findings and provide an alternative explanation for some of the aforementioned questions. PMID:26442764

  19. Deficient Autophagy Results in Mitochondrial Dysfunction and FSGS.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takahisa; Gomez, Ivan G; Ren, Shuyu; Hudkins, Kelly; Roach, Allie; Alpers, Charles E; Shankland, Stuart J; D'Agati, Vivette D; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2015-05-01

    FSGS is a heterogeneous fibrosing disease of the kidney, the cause of which remains poorly understood. In most cases, there is no effective treatment to halt or retard progression to renal failure. Increasing evidence points to mitochondrial dysfunction and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of CKD. Autophagy, a major intracellular lysosomal degradation system, performs homeostatic functions linked to metabolism and organelle turnover. We prevented normal autophagic pathways in nephrons of mice by mutating critical autophagy genes ATG5 or ATG7 during nephrogenesis. Mutant mice developed mild podocyte and tubular dysfunction within 2 months, profound glomerular and tubular changes bearing close similarity to human disease by 4 months, and organ failure by 6 months. Ultrastructurally, podocytes and tubular cells showed vacuolization, abnormal mitochondria, and evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress, features that precede the appearance of histologic or clinical disease. Similar changes were observed in human idiopathic FSGS kidney biopsy specimens. Biochemical analysis of podocytes and tubules of 2-month-old mutant mice revealed elevated production of reactive oxygen species, activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, phosphorylation of p38, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, cultured proximal tubule cells isolated from mutant mice showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation that was suppressed by a mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. We conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress due to impaired autophagic organelle turnover in podocytes and tubular epithelium are sufficient to cause many of the manifestations of FSGS in mice. PMID:25406339

  20. Deficient Autophagy Results in Mitochondrial Dysfunction and FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takahisa; Gomez, Ivan G.; Ren, Shuyu; Hudkins, Kelly; Roach, Allie; Alpers, Charles E.; Shankland, Stuart J.; D’Agati, Vivette D.

    2015-01-01

    FSGS is a heterogeneous fibrosing disease of the kidney, the cause of which remains poorly understood. In most cases, there is no effective treatment to halt or retard progression to renal failure. Increasing evidence points to mitochondrial dysfunction and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of CKD. Autophagy, a major intracellular lysosomal degradation system, performs homeostatic functions linked to metabolism and organelle turnover. We prevented normal autophagic pathways in nephrons of mice by mutating critical autophagy genes ATG5 or ATG7 during nephrogenesis. Mutant mice developed mild podocyte and tubular dysfunction within 2 months, profound glomerular and tubular changes bearing close similarity to human disease by 4 months, and organ failure by 6 months. Ultrastructurally, podocytes and tubular cells showed vacuolization, abnormal mitochondria, and evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress, features that precede the appearance of histologic or clinical disease. Similar changes were observed in human idiopathic FSGS kidney biopsy specimens. Biochemical analysis of podocytes and tubules of 2-month-old mutant mice revealed elevated production of reactive oxygen species, activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, phosphorylation of p38, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, cultured proximal tubule cells isolated from mutant mice showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation that was suppressed by a mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. We conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress due to impaired autophagic organelle turnover in podocytes and tubular epithelium are sufficient to cause many of the manifestations of FSGS in mice. PMID:25406339

  1. Inherited mitochondrial neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2011-05-15

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) occasionally manifest as polyneuropathy either as the dominant feature or as one of many other manifestations (inherited mitochondrial neuropathy). MIDs in which polyneuropathy is the dominant feature, include NARP syndrome due to the transition m.8993T>, CMT2A due to MFN2 mutations, CMT2K and CMT4A due to GDAP1 mutations, and axonal/demyelinating neuropathy with external ophthalmoplegia due to POLG1 mutations. MIDs in which polyneuropathy is an inconstant feature among others is the MELAS syndrome, MERRF syndrome, LHON, Mendelian PEO, KSS, Leigh syndrome, MNGIE, SANDO; MIRAS, MEMSA, AHS, MDS (hepato-cerebral form), IOSCA, and ADOA syndrome. In the majority of the cases polyneuropathy presents in a multiplex neuropathy distribution. Nerve conduction studies may reveal either axonal or demyelinated or mixed types of neuropathies. If a hereditary neuropathy is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, the management of these patients is at variance from non-mitochondrial hereditary neuropathies. Patients with mitochondrial hereditary neuropathy need to be carefully investigated for clinical or subclinical involvement of other organs or systems. Supportive treatment with co-factors, antioxidants, alternative energy sources, or lactate lowering agents can be tried. Involvement of other organs may require specific treatment. Mitochondrial neuropathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies. PMID:21402391

  2. The control of brain mitochondrial energization by cytosolic calcium: the mitochondrial gas pedal.

    PubMed

    Gellerich, Frank Norbert; Gizatullina, Zemfira; Gainutdinov, Timur; Muth, Katharina; Seppet, Enn; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This review focuses on problems of the intracellular regulation of mitochondrial function in the brain via the (i) supply of mitochondria with ADP by means of ADP shuttles and channels and (ii) the Ca(2+) control of mitochondrial substrate supply. The permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for adenine nucleotides is low. Therefore rate dependent concentration gradients exist between the mitochondrial intermembrane space and the cytosol. The existence of dynamic ADP gradients is an important precondition for the functioning of ADP shuttles, for example CrP-shuttle. Cr at mM concentrations instead of ADP diffuses from the cytosol through the porin pores into the intermembrane space. The CrP-shuttle isoenzymes work in different directions which requires different metabolite concentrations mainly caused by dynamic ADP compartmentation. The ADP shuttle mechanisms alone cannot explain the load dependent changes in mitochondrial energization, and a complete model of mitochondrial regulation have to account the Ca(2+) -dependent substrate supply too. According to the old paradigmatic view, Ca(2+) (cyt) taken up by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activates dehydrogenases within the matrix. However, recently it was found that Ca(2+) (cyt) at low nM concentrations exclusively activates the state 3 respiration via aralar, the mitochondrial glutamate/aspartate carrier. At higher Ca(2+) (cyt) (> 500 nM), brain mitochondria take up Ca(2+) for activation of substrate oxidation rates. Since brain mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation is only slightly influenced by Ca(2+) (cyt) , it was proposed that the cytosolic formation of pyruvate from its precursors is tightly controlled by the Ca(2+) dependent malate/aspartate shuttle. At low (50-100 nM) Ca(2+) (cyt) the pyruvate formation is suppressed, providing a substrate limitation control in neurons. This so called "gas pedal" mechanism explains why the energy metabolism of neurons in the nucleus suprachiasmaticus could be down

  3. Human mitochondrial transcription factor A is required for the segregation of mitochondrial DNA in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sumitani, Megumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2011-01-15

    The segregation and transmission of the mitochondrial genome in humans are complicated processes but are particularly important for understanding the inheritance and clinical abnormalities of mitochondrial disorders. However, the molecular mechanism of the segregation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for the segregation of mtDNA in cultured cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of TFAM in HeLa cells resulted in the enlarged mtDNA, as indicated by the assembly of fluorescent signals stained with PicoGreen. Fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed the enlarged mtDNA and further showed the existence of increased numbers of mitochondria lacking mtDNA signals in TFAM knockdown cells. By complementation analysis, the C-terminal tail of TFAM, which enhances its affinity with DNA, was found to be required for the appropriate distribution of mtDNA. Furthermore, we found that TFAM knockdown induced asymmetric segregation of mtDNA between dividing daughter cells. These results suggest an essential role for human TFAM in symmetric segregation of mtDNA. PMID:20955698

  4. Mitochondrial Ryanodine Receptors and Other Mitochondrial Ca2+ Permeable Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Shin-Young; Beutner, Gisela; Dirksen, Robert T.; Kinnally, Kathleen W.; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ channels that underlie mitochondrial Ca2+ transport first reported decades ago have now just recently been precisely characterized electrophysiologically. Numerous data indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via these channels regulates multiple intracellular processes by shaping cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ transients, as well as altering the cellular metabolic and redox state. On the other hand, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload also initiates a cascade of events that leads to cell death. Thus, characterization of mitochondrial Ca2+ channels is central to a comprehensive understanding of cell signaling. Here, we discuss recent progresses in the biophysical and electrophysiological characterization of several distinct mitochondrial Ca2+ channels. PMID:20096690

  5. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  6. Defective mitochondrial fission augments NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangjun; Won, Ji-Hee; Hwang, Inhwa; Hong, Sujeong; Lee, Heung Kyu; Yu, Je-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that deregulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory or metabolic disorders, the underlying mechanism by which NLRP3 inflammasome signaling is initiated or potentiated remains poorly understood. Much attention is being paid to mitochondria as a regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but little is known about the role of mitochondrial dynamics for the inflammasome pathway. Here, we present evidence that aberrant mitochondrial elongation caused by the knockdown of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) lead to a marked increase in NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1-beta secretion in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Conversely, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, a chemical inducer of mitochondrial fission, clearly attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Augmented activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by mitochondrial elongation is not resulted from the increased mitochondrial damages of Drp1-knockdown cells. Notably, enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in Drp1-knockdown macrophages is implicated in the potentiation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, possibly via mediating mitochondrial localization of NLRP3 to facilitate the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Taken together, our results provide a molecular insight into the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in potentiating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to aberrant inflammation. PMID:26489382